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Instructed by: Mr. Name Index No Field Date of per. Date of sub. : Wickramasingha V.S.C : 050500D : EE : 22/5/2007 : 05/6/2007
DISCUSSION: In pneumatic systems compressed air is used to various activities. Pneumatic systems are widely used in modern industrial sector for controlling purposes. Other than that in majority of applications compressed air is used for following functions, 1. To determine status of processors(Sensors) 2. Information processing(Processors) 3. Switching of actuators by means of final control elements. 4. carrying out works(actuators) Nowadays pneumatic systems are widely use in automation with the technological advance of the quality and diversity of pneumatic systems. Any of various tools and instruments that generate and use compressed air. Examples include rock drills, pavement breakers, riveters, forging presses, paint sprayers, blast cleaners, and atomizers. Compressed-air power is flexible, economical, and safe. In general, pneumatic systems have relatively few moving parts, contributing to high reliability and low maintenance costs.
Advantages using compressed air in controlled system
.The answer lies in the unusual combination of advantages pneumatic systems offer. Why are pneumatic systems so popular in such a wide range of work functions? We know that Electronic systems certainly have a much faster response to control signals. Also Mechanical systems can be more economical and Hydraulic systems can be more powerful
1. Safe to use Pneumatic elements are very safe against to fire, explosion and electrical hazards. Even in areas where there is a risk of fire, explosion and extreme weather conditions, pneumatic elements can be used without large and expensive safety apparatus. In damp-rooms or outdoors too, there is no danger with pneumatic equipment. Compressed air can withstand great temperature fluctuations and the temperatures are extreme. It can be used in hazardous situations where explosions or fires may occur. Pneumatic devices and lines that are uptight are no risk to the safety and serviceability of the system. Pneumatic systems and components in general wear very little. Therefore have a long working life and a low failure rate. 2. High reliability Pneumatic systems are highly reliable because they have few moving parts unlike mechanical systems.
3. Light weight The working fluid if very light in weight so supply hoses are not heavy. Also Pneumatic devices are usually much lighter than comparable equipment and machinery with electrical power units. This makes a big difference with manual and percussion tools. 4. Overload-proof Compressed air equipment and pneumatic working parts can be loaded until they stop without being damaged. Because air is compressible, the equipment is less likely to be damaged by shock. The air in pneumatics absorbs excessive force. This is why they are considered to be overload-proof. In contrast to electrical systems, the output of a pneumatic network can be overloaded without risk of danger. If the pressure drops too much, the work can not be done, but there will be no damage to the network or its working elements.
5. Easily stored Purpose-built tanks can be sued to store compressed air easily. Normally there is a tank in a pneumatic system that is used to store the compressed air. So if there is a storage tank in a pneumatic system, the compressor only needs to work when the pressure drops below a predetermined value. And because there is always a cushion of pressure, a work cycle can be completed even if the power system fails. 6. Easily transported Air is already freely available in the atmosphere. Outlet air is sent to the out to the system, but there is no need for return lines. Other controlling systems such as hydraulic or electrical systems need a return line. Compressed air can be transported to long distances in pipelines. That enables the installation of central generation stations. Those can supply points of consumption via ring mains with a constant high working pressure. The energy stored in compressed air can be widely distributed in this way. If it is needed compressed air could be stored in sealed tanks or bottles. So those sealed bottles or tanks could be transported to places where there are not compressed air pipelines. 7. Clean Because the working fluid is just air, there is usually no need for a return line for the working fluid and leaks of the working fluid tend not to be messy. There are no soils of left drops or particles in compressed air systems which are defective. This gives great advantages in the industries where the cleanliness is required perfectly. Some of those industries are food, leather,
textiles and packing. 8. Economical Pneumatics is 40 - 50 times more economical than muscle power. This is a major point, particularly in mechanizations and automation. Because air systems operate at relatively low pressure, the components can be made of relatively inexpensive material. Pneumatic components are cheaper than the equivalent hydraulic components. There is no need for regular medium changes, as with hydraulic equipment, for instance. This reduces costs and the servicing requirement, and increases operating times.
Simple and easy to use The design and operation of pneumatic equipment is very simple. Therefore it is robust
and not susceptible to malfunctioning. Pneumatic components can be easily installed and can be reused later without difficulty. Installation times are less because of the simple design. Straight-line movements can be executed without extra mechanical parts such as levers, cams, eccentric disks, screw spindles and the like. 10. Fast work medium Pneumatic power is faster, as air is lighter to move and produces less friction. The very high flow speeds allow rapid completion of work cycles. This provides short cut-in times and fast conversion of energy into work. Compressed air can achieve flow speeds of over 20 m/s. With pressures of less than 1bar it is even possible to obtain signal speeds of 200 to 300 m/s.
Disadvantages using compressed air in controlled system
The main disadvantage of pneumatic actuators compared with electrical and hydraulic actuators is that the motive fluid (air) is compressible and hence accurate speed control and position control is difficult and often requires ancillary systems. As we are limited to a typical air supply pressure of 8 bar, it is normally used to move lighter loads, unless very large actuators are used (Force = pressure x area).
Industrial use of Pneumatic circuit
Pneumatics is employed in a variety of settings. In dentistry applications, pneumatic drills are lighter, faster, and simpler than an electric drill of the same power rating. Pneumatic transfer systems are employed in many industries to move powders and devices. Pneumatic tubes can carry objects over distances. Pneumatic devices are also used where electric motors cannot be used for safety reasons. Pneumatic logic is a reliable and functional control method for industrial processes. In recent years, these systems have largely been replaced by electrical control systems, due to the smaller size and lower cost of electrical components. Pneumatic devices are still used in processes where compressed air is the only energy source available or upgrade cost, safety, and other considerations outweigh the advantage of modern digital control. Examples of pneumatic tools: Pneumatic drill (jackhammer) used by road workers Pneumatic switches Pneumatic actuators Air compressors Vacuum pumps Barostat systems used in Neurogastroenterology and for researching electricity Cable Jetting - a way to install cables in ducts Air brakes on buses, trains, and trucks Cable jetting is a technique to install cables in ducts. It is commonly used to install cables with optical fibers in underground polyethylene ducts and is an alternative to pulling. Cable jetting is the process of blowing a cable through a duct while simultaneously pushing the cable into the duct. Compressed air is injected at the duct inlet and flows through the duct and along the cable at high speed. A barostat is a pneumatic pump used in Neurogastroenterology research. An air brake operates similar to the piston in an internal combustion engine would inside its cylinder. Long before the current world of sophisticated mechatronic solution for machine automation emerged, many industrial OEMs embraced pneumatic solutions. Even nowadays on these precise high-speed machines, many pneumatic components are incorporated into the design – creating a hybrid solution. For automating machines with fixed or limited variability in output or product pneumatic components often dominate. Large segments of manufacturing operations today have a huge installed base of pneumatically operated equipment.
The introduction of servo-pneumatic systems has meant new applications for pneumatics that was reserved strictly for electric servos driving optimized mechanisms. One application is controlling press rolls on a lumber mill machine.
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