EE 322

PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
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INSTRUCTED BY: Mr.

NAME INDEX NO FIELD DATE OF PER DATE OF SUB

: Jayawardene C.D.R.J. : 050187v : EE : 29/05/2007 : 12/06/2007

DISCUSSION Advantages using compressed air in controlled system
1. Clean and Dry Since air is used as the medium there will no wastage to produce. Therefore it is said to be clean and dry. Therefore for the industries such as food, leather, textiles and packing the pneumatic systems would be necessary. 2. Lightweight Comparing with electrical machines Pneumatic devices are usually much lighter. This makes a big difference when handling and installing. Fully adjustable Force, torque and speeds can be fully adjusted without difficulty by using throttles. 4. Simulating capability Before install a pneumatic system, by using pneumatic simulating software, it can be simulated. By that we can adjust the system as we want Storage capable Since there is a storage tank in a pneumatic system, the compressor only needs to work when the pressure drops below a fixed value. And because there is always a cushion of pressure, a work cycle can be completed even if the power system fails. 6. Availability Since Air is always available in the atmosphere, it can be collected and released whenever you want. Transportability Compressed air could be transported to long distances in pipelines. That enables the installation of central generation stations. Those can supply points of consumption via ring mains with a constant high working pressure.

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Simple and understandable The design and operation of pneumatic equipment is very simple. And the system can be easily understood comparing with other systems. Pneumatic components are easy to install and can be re-used later without difficulty. As example Straight-line movements can be executed without extra mechanical parts such as levers, cams, eccentric disks, screw spindles. Safeness Pneumatic systems runs under great temperature fluctuations and the temperatures are extreme.Pneumatic devices have long working life hence they can be used for a long time without any loss. Economical and rational Pneumatics is 40 - 50 times more economical than muscle power. This is a major point, particularly in mechanizations and automation. Pneumatic components are cheaper than the equivalent hydraulic components. Overload-proof Comparing with electrical systems, the output of a pneumatic network can be overloaded without risk of danger. If the pressure drops too much, the work can not be done, but there will be no damage to the network or its working elements.

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Very fast work medium Compressed air can achieve flow speeds of over 20 m/s. Hydraulic applications only manage 5m/s. The pneumatic cylinders reach linear piston speeds of 15 m/s. Maximum control speeds in signal processing lie between 30m/s and 70 m/s at operating pressures of between 6 and 8bar.

Disadvantages

1. Because air is compressible it is difficult to control speed and the position of Air compressed actuators compared with electrical and hydraulic actuators. 2. Maintainability -the system should be maintained under proper schedule. 3. Comparing with electrical wires in a electrical system pneumatic system takes much space.

Applications
Manufacturing industries Compressed air is probably one of the most versatile operations within the manufacturing environment such as tire manufacturing. It transcends industries, operations and applications. Compressed air is used to power tools, move conveyers, transport products and make process applications possible. In these industries there are pneumatic circuits installed and generally there are several types of components in a pneumatic system which can be categorized as follows…  CompressorsReciprocating, rotary screw, and centrifugal compressors are the most common types of compressors used.  Motors or enginesA motor or engine must provide enough power to start the compressor.  Receiver tanksA receiver tank is a storage tank or accumulator for a compressed system air

 After-coolers and air dryersAn after-cooler is a heat exchanger immediately downstream from the compressor. It reduces the temperature of the compressed air and also condenses out some of the moisture from the compressed air.  FiltersRemove particulate from the system and remove condensed water and oil from the system.

 Piping distribution system Transport the air from the supply side of the system to the downstream equipment and provides limited storage capacity and controls velocity to and from various process parts of the system. The following picture shows the installed pneumatic circuit in a tire factory.

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