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USE OF SERIES AND SHUNT CAPACITORS

IN TRANSMISSION LINES

Instructed By: Mr.Jayendra R.G.

Name : Liyanagama S. K.
Index No : 050249N
Field : EE
Date of Per : 29.05.2007
Date of Sub : 12.06.2007
Calculations:
Series Capacitive Reactance
Per Unit Compensation of the Line =
Inductive Reactance

Series Capacitive Reactance = 1/ jωC


Inductive Reactance = jωL

1 ( jωC ) 1 ( j 2πfC )
Per Unit Compensation of the Line = =
jωL j 2πfL

Sample Calculation

C = 12 µF
L = 0.15 H
f = 50 Hz
1
Series Capacitive Reactance = = − j 265.26 Ω
j × 2π × 50 × 12 × 10 −6

Inductive Reactance = j × 2π × 50 × 0.15 = j 47.12 Ω


265.26
Per Unit Compensation of the Line = = 5.63
47.12

Capacitance ( µF Series Capacitive Per Unit Compensation


Power Received (W)
) Reactance(Ω) of the Line
6 -j530.52 11.26 7

12 -j265.26 5.63 19

18 -j176.84 3.72 30

24 -j132.63 2.81 41
30 -j106.1 2.25 39
Power received Vs series capacitive reactance

45
40
35
30
Power(W)

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 200 400 600
series capacitive reactance

power received Vs per unit compensation

45
40
35
30
power(W)

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 5 10 15
Per unit compensation
power received Vs shunt capacitance

45
40
35
Power received(W)

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 20 40
Shunt Capacitance
Discussion:

Effect of Power Factor on the Power Systems


The ratio between the real power and the apearent power is defined as the power
factor of an AC electric power system. The real power is the capacity of the circuit for
performing work in a particular time. The apearent power is the product of the voltage and the
current in the circuit. Also the low power facter causes for the loss of the system and it will
increase the cost for energy.
Energy losses in transmission lines increase with increasing current. Where a load
has a power factor lower than 1, more current is required to deliver the same amount of useful
energy. Power companies therefore require that industrial and commercial customers maintain
the power factors of their respective loads within specified limits or be subject to additional
charges.
Electric utilities must maintain a high Power Factor on their distribution system for
efficiency. They will typically bill customers for a low Power Factor or they may bill on kVA
demand, which Power Factor will affect. Most utilities that bill a Power Factor penalty require a
user to maintain a 95% Power Factor to avoid penalty.

Usefulness of Shunt Capacitors in Improving the Power Factor of the Load


Inductive components of a power system draw a leading reactive power from the
supply. It lags by 90 degrees to the active power. As well as the capacitive component of the
power system leads by 90 degrees to the active power. The directions of the above two
components are in opposite to each other.
When the current lags the voltage because of having a lot of electric induction
motors, it will cause for a lagging reactive power. To reduce this effect, we should consume
either leading reactive power at the receiving end or supply lagging reactive power from the
system. The leading reactive power can be achieved by adding shunt capacitors to the receiving
end. Some industrial sites, this would consist of a capacitor bank in the form of several parallel
capacitors at the power input to the device.
Effect of series and shunt capacitance

Shunt Connection:
This method is the most common method to connect the capacitors to power factor
correction. The voltage rating of the capacitor is same as the system voltage.

Series Connection:
This method is not a common method to connect capacitors as well as it has some
disadvantages. In a short circuit condition the capacitor should be able to withstand the high
current. Also since there is an inductive part in the circuit, it may have occurred resonance
condition for some capacitance values. This cause for a very low impedance and a high current
will go through the circuit.

Other Methods Available to Improve the Power Factor

Synchronous Motor
An unloaded synchronous motor can be used to improve the power factor. It is started and
connect to the electrical network. It operates at full leading power factor and puts apearent power
onto the network as required to support a system’s voltage or to maintain the system power factor
at a specified level. The condenser’s installation and operation are identical to large electric
motors. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be adjusted;
it behaves like an electrically variable capacitor.

Filters

If there are harmonics in the waveform caused by switched mode power supplies, the
capacitors are not connected directly to the supply lines. The simplest way to control the
harmonic current is to use a filter. It is possible to design a filter that passes current only at line
frequency (e.g. 50 or 60 Hz). This filter removes the harmonic current, which means that the
non-linear device now looks like a linear load. At this point the power factor can be brought to
near unity, using capacitors or inductors as required. This filter requires large-value high-current
inductors, however, which are bulky and expensive.