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with the satellite by radiating the heat into space. The radiator surface has a solar

absorptivity of 0.5 and an emissivity of 0.95. What is the surface temperature when the

required dissipation is 1500 W/m2 for the following two conditions:

(a) The radiator is facing the sun, and the solar irradiation is 1353 W/m2.

(b) The radiator is shielded from the sun, and the solar irradiation is

negligible.

8 W m

Origin 1 := 5.67 10 m :=

2 4 6

m K 10

For part (a), the total energy that must be dissipated is 1500 W/m 2 + 1353 W/m 2 . An energy

balance then becomes on a per unit area basis

4

Ts = Isun + Qdis

:= 0.50 := 0.95

4

W W

1353 + 1500

2 2

m m

Ts := Ts = 448.346 K

4

W

1500

2

m

Ts := Ts = 408.504 K

2. A contractor must select a roof covering material from the two diffuse ( = )

roof coatings whose spectral characteristics are presented in Figure P6.2.

(a) Which of the materials would result in a lower roof temperature?

(b) Which is preferred for summer use?

(c) Which is preferred for winter use?

(d) Sketch a spectral distribution that would be ideal for summer.

(e) Sketch a spectral distribution that would be ideal for winter.

1

0.9

SPECTRAL EMISSIVIT Y

0.8

0.7 Coating A

0.6

i,0

0.5

i,1 0.4

0.3 Coating B

0.2

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

i , 0 , i , 1

WAVELENGTH (microns)

8 W m

:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1

2 4 6

m K 10

4

8 m 4

C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K

2

m

20 e n 6

2

F( ) :=

C2

15 3

+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of

4 n 3 2 n T

n = 1 n n

From an energy balance on the surface of the roof

4

4 s Gs

Ts = s Gs or Ts =

C2 C2

s.A := 0.8 s.B := 0.6 F + 0.2 1 F s.B = 0.596

4 m 5800 K 4 m 5800 K

C2 C2

A := 0.8 B := 0.6 F + 0.2 1 F B = 0.208

4 m 400 K 4 m 400 K

s.A s.B

ratioA := ratioA = 1 ratioB := ratioB = 2.868

A B

Thus, coating A would result in a lower temperature since ratioA < ratioB.

(b) Which is preferred for summer use?

In the summer, the roof needs to be as cool as possible. So coating A is desired since its

ratio is smaller than that of coating B.

(c) Which is preferred for winter use?

In the winter, the roof needs to be as warm as possible. So coating B is desired since its

ratio is larger than that of coating A.

(d) Sketch a spectral distrubtion that would be ideal for summer.

(e) Sketch a spectral distrubiton that would be ideal for winter.

T T i := 0 .. 5

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0 1.5 3.8 4.2 10 15

:= :=

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0 2 3.8 4.2 11 15 j := 0 .. 1

1

SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY

0.9

0.8

Summer

0.7

i , 00.6

0.5

i , 10.4 Winter

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

i, 0, i, 1

WAVELENGTH (microns)

3. Two special coatings are available for use on an absorber plate for a flat-plate

solar collector. Each coating is diffuse ( = ) and is characterized by the spectral

distributions illustrated in Figure P6.3.

(a) If the irradiation incident on the plate is G = 1000 W/m2, what is the

radiant energy absorbed per m2 for each surface?

(b) Which coating would you select for the absorber plate? Explain.

1

0.9

SPECTRAL EMISSIVI TY

0.8

0.7

Coating B

i , 0 0.6

0.5

i , 1 0.4

0.3

0.2 Coating A

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

i , 0 , i , 1

WAVELENGTH (microns)

8 W m

:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1

2 4 6

m K 10

4

8 m 4

C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K

2

m

20 e n 6

2

F( ) :=

C2

15 3

+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of

4 n 3 2 n T

n = 1 n n

W

G := 1000

2

m

C2 C2

s.B := 0.05 F + 0.85 1 F s.B = 0.058

4 m 5800 K 4 m 5800 K

C2 C2

s.A := 0.85 F + 0.05 1 F s.A = 0.842

4 m 5800 K 4 m 5800 K

W W

Gabs.A := s.A G Gabs.A = 842.293 Gabs.B := s.B G Gabs.B = 57.707

2 2

m m

Thus, A is the better surface for the absorber plate of a solar collector.

If the surface of the absorber is maintained at 330 K.

Tsur := 350 K

C2 C2

s.B := 0.05 F + 0.85 1 F s.B = 0.846

4 m 330 K 4 m 330 K

C2 C2

s.A := 0.85 F + 0.05 1 F s.A = 0.054

4 m 330 K 4 m 330 K

4 W

qradB := s.B Tsur qradB = 719.897

2

m

4 W

qradA := s.A Tsur qradA = 45.872

2

m

W

qnetB := Gabs.B qradB qnetB = 662.189 Surface B loses energy ,

2

m so surface A is the better

choice for an absorber

W

qnetA := Gabs.A qradA qnetA = 796.42 surface.

2

m

4. The spectral absorptivity, , and the spectral reflectivity, , for a spectrally-selective

diffuse surface are as shown in Figure P6.4.

1

0.9

SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY 0.8

0.7

i 0.6

0.5

0.4

i

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1.38

i

WAVELENGTH (microns)

(b) If solar irradiation with G = 750 W/m2 and the spectral distribution of a

blackbody at 5800 K is incident on the surface, determine the fractions of

the irradiation that are transmitted, reflected, and absorbed by the surface.

(c) If the temperature of the surface is 350 K, determine the emissivity, .

(d) Determine the net heat flux by radiation at the surface of the material.

For a diffuse surface

1 = + + = 1

1

0.9

SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY

0.8

i 0.7

0.6

i 0.5

0.4

i 0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

i

WAVELENGTH (microns)

8 W m

:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1

2 4 6

m K 10

4

8 m 4

C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K

2

m

20 e n 6

2

F( ) := C2

15 3

+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of

4 n 3 2 n T

n = 1 n n

W

G := 750

2

m

C2 C2

:= 0.20 F + 0.80 1 F = 0.286

1.38 m 5800 K 1.38 m 5800 K

C2 C2

:= 0.10 F + 0.0 1 F = 0.086

1.38 m 5800 K 1.38 m 5800 K

C2 C2

:= 0.70 F + 0.20 1 F = 0.628

1.38 m 5800 K 1.38 m 5800 K

+ +=1

W

Gabsorbed := G Gabsorbed = 214.638

2

m

W

Gtran := G Gtran = 471.135

2

m

W W

Gref := G Gref = 64.227 Gabsorbed + Gtran + Gref = 750

2 2

m m

C2 C2

:= 0.20 F + 0.80 1 F = 0.8 Ts := 350 K

1.38 m 350 K 1.38 m 350 K

4 W

E := Ts E = 680.683

2

m

W

net := Gref + E net = 744.911

2

m

5. An opaque solar collector surface is 3 m by 1 m and is maintained at 425 K.

The surface is exposed to solar irradiation with G = 800 W/m2. The surface is diffuse

and its spectral absorptivity is

= 0 0 < < 0.5 m

= 0.8 0.5 m < < 1.0 m

= 0.5 1.0 m < < 2.0 m

= 0.3 > 2.0 m

Determine the absorbed radiation, the emissive power, and the net radiation heat

transfer from the surface.

8 W m

:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1

2 4 6

m K 10

4

8 m 4

C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K

2

m

20 e n 6

2

F( ) := C2

15 3

+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of

4 n 3 2 n T

n = 1 n n

W

G := 750

2

m

C2 C2 C2

:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...

0.5 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 0.5 m 5800 K

C2 C2 C2

+ 0.50 F F + 0.30 1 F

2.00 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 2.0 m 5800 K

= 0.504

Gref := ( 1 ) G

W W

Gabsorbed := G Gabsorbed = 377.764 Gref = 372.236

2 2

m m

C2 C2 C2

:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...

0.5 m 425 K 1.00 m 425 K 0.5 m 425 K

C2 C2 C2

+ 0.50 F F + 0.30 1 F

2.00 m 425 K 1.00 m 425 K 2.0 m 425 K

= 0.3

4 W

Ts := 425 K E := Ts E = 554.973

2

m

W 3

net := Gref + E net = 927.208 netheat := 3 m 1 m net netheat = 2.782 10 W

2

m

6. An opaque surface, 2 m by 2 m, is maintained at 400 K and is exposed to solar

irradiation with G = 1200 W/m2. The surface is diffuse and its spectral absorptivity is

= 0.8 0.5 m < < 1.0 m

= 0.0 1.0 m < < 2.0 m

= 0.9 > 2.0 m

Determine the absorbed radiation, the emissive power, and the net radiation heat

transfer.

8 W m

:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1

2 4 6

m K 10

4

8 m 4

C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K

2

m

20 e n 6

2

F( ) :=

C2

15 3

+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of

4 n 3 2 n T

n = 1 n n

W

G := 1200

2

m

C2 C2 C2

:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...

0.5 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 0.5 m 5800 K

C2 C2 C2

+ 0.0 F F + 0.90 1 F

2.00 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 2.0 m 5800 K

= 0.43

Gref := ( 1 ) G

W W

Gabsorbed := G Gabsorbed = 515.403 Gref = 684.597

2 2

m m

C2 C2 C2

:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...

0.5 m 400 K 1.00 m 400 K 0.5 m 400 K

C2 C2 C2

+ 0.0 F F + 0.90 1 F

2.00 m 400 K 1.00 m 400 K 2.0 m 400 K

= 0.9

4 3 W

Ts := 400 K E := Ts E = 1.306 10

2

m

3 W 3

net := Gref + E net = 1.991 10 netheat := 2 m 2 m net netheat = 7.964 10 W

2

m

7. Develop a figure showing the sunpath lines for the latitude of your hometown. On a

separate figure show the sunpath line for 21 June and indicate the ACTUAL TIME (not

the solar time) on the 21 June sunpath line. How many hours from sunrise to sunset?

The town used in this exercise is Brooksville, MS. Google provides the latitude and longitude

as 33.21 degrees and 88.56 degrees, rerspectively.

n := 1 .. 365 The days of the year.

Declination Angle

The declination angle is the angle between the sun's

n := 23.45 sin360

( n + 284 )

rays and the zenith (overhead) direction at solar noon on

365 180 the equator. The declination is dependent on the Earth's

position in its orbit around the sun.

Declination for specific days

20.138

11.226

D = 0.404

11.579

20.138

23.45

Input the latitude (in degrees):

L := 33.21 Latitude of Brooksville, MS

Establish range variables for days and hours. Degrees to radian conversion:

i := 0 .. 6 Days of interest

dr :=

180

hss := 0 .. 180 hsp := hss Hours

hss

.

Calculation of sunpath angles following Kreith and Kreider.

( )

sinhss , i := sin( L dr) sin Di dr + cos( L dr) cos Di dr cos hsp( ) ( hss

dr ) Altitude angle

hss , 6

(

hss , i := asin sinhss , i ) ang

hss

:=

dr

Altitude angle in degrees

sinas (

:= cos Di dr )

(

sin hsp

hss

dr ) Azimuth angle

hss , i (

cos hss , i )

Test for azimuth angle > 90 degrees.

Since the principal values of the arcsin are defined for -90 degrees < angle < 90 degrees, logic is

needed for any azimuth angle greater than 90 degrees.

1 tan( Di dr)

hlimit := acos

i dr tan( L dr)

T

hlimit = ( 131.5 124.067 107.65 90.617 71.761 55.933 48.5 )

as

hss , i

:= asin sinas ( hss , i ) if hsp

hss

> hlimit

i

(

asin sinas )

hss , i

otherwise

hss , i as

hss , i

Change all angles from radians to degrees hss , i := as :=

dr hss , i dr

i i

For ease of plotting redefine hss,i and ashss,i as Yi and X i, respectively.Y := X := as

i i

90

80

70

Y0

Y1 60

ALTITUDE ANGLE

Y2

50

Y3

Y4 40

Y5

30

Y6

20

10

0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6

AZIMUTH ANGLE

SUNPATH LINES FOR GIVEN LATITUDE

Establish the lines of constant solar time (hour angle) on the sunpath. Each solar hour

corresponds to 15 degrees of hour angle. Thus, 1 PM solar time is 15 degress from solar noon.

solar1 := 15 , i azi1 := as solar2 := 30 , i azi2 := as

i i 15 , i i i 30 , i

i i 45 , i i i 60 , i

i i 75 , i i i 90 , i

i i 105 , i i i 120 , i

i i 135 , i i i 150 , i

i i 165 , i i i 180 , i

90

Y0

Y1 80

Y2

Y3 70

Y4

Y5

60

Y6

ALTITUDE ANGLE

solar1i

50

solar2i

solar3i

40

solar4i

solar5i

30

solar6i

solar7i

20

solar8i

solar9i

10

0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6 , azi1i , azi2i , azi3i , azi4i , azi5i , azi6i , azi7i , azi8i , azi9i

AZIMUTH ANGLE

All of the information and plots generated thusfar in this worksheet have been expressed in

terms of the hour angle (15 degrees per hour) and referenced to solar noon (zero azimuth

angle). For any location and any day of the year a simple procedure is needed to relate solar

time to "real" time. This is done by using the equation of time with a correction of E (in

minutes). Thus,

Standard Longitudes for the US time zones are: 75 degrees for Eastern

90 degress for Central

105 degrees for Mountain

120 degrees for Pacific

Equation of Time

n := 1 .. 365

360 ( n 81)

B := (in radians)

n 364 180

E := 9.87 sin 2 B

n ( n ) 7.53 cos(Bn) 1.5 sin(Bn)

20

CORRECTION E IN MINUTES

15

10

5

En

0

10

15

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390

n

JULIAN DATE

THE EQUATION OF TIME

In this figure, the abscissa is the Julian date (the number of the day of the year with 1 Jan as

1) and the correction E is in minutes.

The Julian date for 21 June is 171. From the equation of time

E = 1.5

172

DST = solar time + 1 hr - 4(standard longitude - local longitude) min - E min

DST (21 June) = solar time + 1 hr - 4(90 - 88.56) min -(-1.5 min)

Thus, on 21 June, Central Daylight Savings Time is 55.74 min or 0.929 hr ahead of solar

time. For example solar noon would occur at 12:55.74 pm.

90

12:55.74 pm

80

1:55.74 pm 11:55.74 am

Y6

70

solar1i

60

ALTITUDE ANGLE

solar3i

solar4i50

3:55.74 pm 9:55.74 am

solar5i

solar6i40

4:55.74 pm 8:55.74 am

solar7i

30

solar8i

5:55.74 pm 7:55.74 am

solar9i

20

6:55.74 pm 6:55.74 am

10

0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

X6 , azi1i , azi2i , azi3i , azi4i , azi5i , azi6i , azi7i , azi8i , azi9i

AZIMUTH ANGLE

8. Develop a figure showing the sunpath line for the latitude of your hometown on the

day of your birth. Indicate the ACTUAL TIME (not the solar time) on the sunpath line.

How many hours from sunrise to sunset?

The town used in this exercise is Brooksville, MS. Google provides the latitude and longitude

as 33.21 degrees and 88.56 degrees, rerspectively. 25 March (Julian date is 84) is the day

used.

The generation of the sunpath line for a given day as a function of latitude.

The declination angle is the angle between the sun's

Declination Angle

rays and the zenith (overhead) direction at solar noon on

n := 23.45 sin360

( n + 284 ) the equator. The declination is dependent on the Earth's

365 180 position in its orbit around the sun.

Declination for specific day (use Julian date). For March 25, the Julian date is 84.

D := 84 D = 1.21 25 March Declination angle in degrees for use in sunpath generation.

L := 33.21 Location of Brooksville, MS

Establish range variables for days and hours. Degrees to radian conversion:

hss := 0 .. 180 hsp := hss Hours dr :=

hss 180

.

Calculation of sunpath angles following Goswami et al.

sin1hss := sin( L dr) sin( D dr) + cos( L dr) cos( D dr) cos hsp ( hss

dr ) Altitude angle

1 hss

(

1 hss := asin sin1hss ) ang

hss

:=

dr

Altitude angle in degrees

(

sin hsp

hss

dr )

hss (

cos 1 hss ) Azimuth angle

Since the principal values of the arcsin are defined for -90 degrees < angle < 90 degrees, logic is

needed for any azimuth angle greater than 90 degrees.

hlimit :=

tan( L dr) dr

0 otherwise

hlimit = 88.15 Hour angle at 90-degree azimuth for given day.

as1

hss

:= (

asin sin1as )

hss

if hsp

hss

> hlimit

(

asin sin1as )

hss

otherwise

1 hss as1

hss

Change all angles from radians to degrees 1 hss := as1 :=

dr hss dr

Plot the sunpath taking advantage of the symmetry of the morning and afternoon segments.

90

80

70

60

1hss

50

1hss40

30

20

10

0

180 150 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180

as1hss , ( as1) hss

Establish the lines of constant solar time (hour angle) on the sunpath. Each solar hour

corresponds to 15 degrees of hour angle. Thus, 1 PM solar time is 15 degress from solar noon.

1 1 15 2 2 30

3 3 45 4 4 60

5 5 75 6 6 90

7 7 105 8 8 120

9 9 135 10 10 150

11 11 165 12 12 180

0 0 0

All of the information and plots generated thusfar in this worksheet have been expressed in

terms of the hour angle (15 degrees per hour) and referenced to solar noon (zero azimuth

angle). For any location and any day of the year a simple procedure is needed to relate solar

time to "real" time. This is done by using the equation of time with a correction of E (in

minutes). Thus,

Standard Longitudes for the US time zones are: 75 degrees for Eastern

90 degress for Central

105 degrees for Mountain

120 degrees for Pacific

Equation of Time

n := 1 .. 365

360 ( n 81)

B := (in radians)

n 364 180

E := 9.87 sin 2 B

n ( n ) 7.53 cos(Bn) 1.5 sin(Bn)

20

CORRECTION E IN MINUTES

15

10

5

En

0

10

15

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390

n

JULIAN DATE

THE EQUATION OF TIME

In this figure, the abscissa is the Julian date (the number of the day of the year with 1 Jan as

1) and the correction E is in minutes.

E = 6.577

The Julian date for 25 March is 84. From the equation of time 84

Daylight savings time starts the second sunday in March; thus 25 March will be in DST.

DST (21 June) = solar time + 1 hr - 4(90 - 88.56) min -(-6.577 min)

Thus, on 25 March, Central Daylight Savings Time is 60.90 min or 1.015 hr ahead of solar

time. For example solar noon would occur at 1:0.90 pm.

90

80

70

60

1:0.90 pm

1hss

12:0.90 am 2:0.90 pm

solar 50

11:0.90 am 3:0.90 pm

1hss

40

solar

10:0.90 am 4:0.90 pm

30

9:0.90 am 5:0.90 pm

20

8:0.90 am 6:0.90 pm

10

0 7:0.90 am 7:090 pm

180 150 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180

as1hss , azi , as1hss , azi

9. Develop a figure showing the sunpath lines for the latitude of Washington,

DC. Washington Reagan-National AP is located at 38 51' N, 77 2' W.

The generation of the sunpath chart as a function of latitude.

n := 1 .. 365 The days of the year.

Declination Angle

The declination angle is the angle between the sun's

n := 23.45 sin360

( n + 284 )

rays and the zenith (overhead) direction at solar noon on

365 180 the equator. The declination is dependent on the Earth's

position in its orbit around the sun.

Declination for specific days

20.138

11.226

D = 0.404

11.579

20.138

23.45

Input the latitude (in degrees):

L := 38.85 Latitude of Washington Reagan-National Airport

Establish range variables for days and hours. Degrees to radian conversion:

i := 0 .. 6 Days of interest

dr :=

180

hss := 0 .. 180 hsp := hss Hours

hss

.

Calculation of sunpath angles following Kreith and Kreider.

( )

sinhss , i := sin( L dr) sin Di dr + cos( L dr) cos Di dr cos hsp ( ) ( hss

dr ) Altitude angle

hss , 6

(

hss , i := asin sinhss , i ) ang

hss

:=

dr

Altitude angle in degrees

sinas (

:= cos Di dr )

(

sin hsp

hss

dr ) Azimuth angle

hss , i (

cos hss , i )

Test for azimuth angle > 90 degrees.

Since the principal values of the arcsin are defined for -90 degrees < angle < 90 degrees, logic is

needed for any azimuth angle greater than 90 degrees.

1 tan( Di dr)

hlimit := acos

i dr tan( L dr)

T

hlimit = ( 122.584 117.082 104.266 90.501 75.263 62.918 57.416 )

as

hss , i

:= asin sinas ( hss , i ) if hsp

hss

> hlimit

i

(

asin sinas )

hss , i

otherwise

hss , i as

hss , i

Change all angles from radians to degrees hss , i := as :=

dr hss , i dr

i i

For ease of plotting redefine hss,i and ashss,i as Yi and X i, respectively.Y := X := as

i i

90

80

70

Y0

Y1 60

ALTITUDE ANGLE

Y2

50

Y3

Y4 40

Y5

30

Y6

20

10

0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6

AZIMUTH ANGLE

SUNPATH LINES FOR GIVEN LATITUDE

Establish the lines of constant solar time (hour angle) on the sunpath. Each solar hour

corresponds to 15 degrees of hour angle. Thus, 1 PM solar time is 15 degress from solar noon.

solar1 := 15 , i azi1 := as solar2 := 30 , i azi2 := as

i i 15 , i i i 30 , i

i i 45 , i i i 60 , i

i i 75 , i i i 90 , i

i i 105 , i i i 120 , i

i i 135 , i i i 150 , i

i i 165 , i i i 180 , i

90

Y0

Y1 80

Y2

Y3 70

Y4

Y5

60

Y6

ALTITUDE ANGLE

solar1i

50

solar2i

solar3i

40

solar4i

solar5i

30

solar6i

solar7i

20

solar8i

solar9i

10

0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6 , azi1i , azi2i , azi3i , azi4i , azi5i , azi6i , azi7i , azi8i , azi9i

AZIMUTH ANGLE

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