37 views

Uploaded by Editor IJTSRD

In symmetric key algorithm in linear block cipher to encrypt and decrypt the messages using matrix and inverse matrix. In this proposed technique generate lower and upper triangular matrices from the square matrix using decomposition. In encryption process, the key is a lower triangular matrix and decryption process, the key is upper triangular matrix under modulation of the prime number. We illustrate the proposed technique with help of examples.
P.Sundarayya | M.G.Vara Prasad "Symmetric Key Generation Algorithm in Linear Block Cipher Over LU Decomposition Method " Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-1 | Issue-4 , June 2017, URL: http://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd90.pdf
http://www.ijtsrd.com/computer-science/computer-security/90/symmetric-key-generation-algorithm-in--linear-block-cipher-over-lu-decomposition-method--/psundarayya-

- Attitude Towards Tobacco Consumption Among Residents of Dhankuta Municipality of Nepal
- Review on Design of Control Systems for Tethered UUVs Using PID Controllers
- Comparative Analysis of G.M Tube Characteristics Using (Ba-133) Gamma Source and (Sr-90) Beta Test Source
- Female Aesthetic in Anita Desai’s Where Shall We Go This Summer
- Web – Based Intelligent Inventory Management System
- E-Commerce Merits and Demerits
- Data Mining Based on Hashing Technique
- Bacteriological and Physio Chemical Quality Assessment of Drinking Water
- Analysis of Phytochemicals Minerals and in Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Gongronema Latifolium Leaves
- a Novel GA-SVM Model for Vehicles and Pedestrial Classification in Videos
- Constraints to Accessing Micro Credit and Loan Scheme of Bank of Agriculture Among Farmers in Enugu State
- Poverty and Its Alleviation Lessions Fo Nigeria
- a Phenomenological Study to Explore the Mother Experiences on Pregnancy Childbirth and Postnatal Period Among High Risk Mothers at RGGW&CH
- CSE4003 Cyber-Security ETH 1 AC41(1)
- Developing a Constructivist Model for Effective Physics Learning
- Assessment of Water Quality in the Vicinity of Anandapuram Visakhapatnam
- Protective Effect of Alysicarpus Monilifer L Against CCl4 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats
- Parametric Study of Multistoried R.C.C. Flat Slab Structure Under Seismic Effect Having Different Plan Aspect Ratio and Slenderness Ratio
- Data Mining for Supermarket Sale Analysis Using Association Rule
- Toxicity and Disruptive Impacts of Novaluron, A Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, On Development and Metamorphosis of the Olive Leaf Moth Palpita Unionalis

You are on page 1of 7

www.ijtsrd.com

LU Decomposition Method

P.Sundarayya M.G.Vara Prasad

Department of Mathematics, Department of Mathematics,

GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, NSRIT, Visakhapatnam,

Andhra Pradesh, India Andhra Pradesh, India

described to as conventional encryption or single key

In symmetric key algorithm in linear block cipher to encryption. Conventional encryption can be divided

encrypt and decrypt the messages using matrix and into two categories.

inverse matrix. In this proposed technique generate

lower and upper triangular matrices from square Classical techniques

Modern techniques

matrix using decomposition. In encryption process,

the key is lower triangular matrix and decryption

process, the key is upper triangular matrix under The hallmark of Symmetric key encryption is that the

modulation of prime number. We illustrate the cipher or key to the algorithm is shared. Linear block

proposed technique with help of examples. Cipher is one of the basic components of classical

ciphers. A Liner block cipher is a method of

Keywords: liner block cipher, symmetric matrix key,

encryption by which units of plaintext are substituted

encryption, and decryption, lower and upper

with cipher text according to a regular system; the

triangular decomposition

units maybe pairs

1. INTRODUCTION of letters, triplets of letters, poly of letters and

mixtures of the above. The receiver deciphers the text

Cryptography is the science of making messages in by performing an inverse function [2]. Hill cipher is a

secret code and having lived art. Cipher is block cipher that has several advantages such as

mathematical function which is used in encryption disguising

and decryption process. Cryptography systems can be

divided into two cryptosystems. letter frequencies of the plaintext, its simplicity

because of using matrix multiplication for enciphering

Symmetric and deciphering, its high speed, and high throughput

Asymmetric. [4].In this proposed work, Instead of matrix and

Symmetric key cryptography is classical cryptography inverse matrix, idea of generate the symmetric key

is divided into four parts. generation can be decomposed matrix into lower and

The encryption algorithm upper triangular matrices. In encryption process using

lower triangular matrix and decryption process the

The encryption key

cipher text convert into plain text using upper

The decryption algorithm

triangular matrix under modulation of prime number.

The decryption key

In this proposed technique overcome of known plain

Symmetric cryptosystems use the secret keyto encrypt

text attack when the order of the key matrix known.

and decrypt message, and asymmetric cryptosystems

use the public key to encrypt a message and the

68

IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017

Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470

www.ijtsrd.com

that an opponent able to obtain mplaintext/cipher text

character pairs has a high probability of completely

2. The Hill cipher breaking the system, i.e., he/she can obtain the matrix

The Hill cipher algorithm takes m successive plaintext K by solving the linear system of equations.

letters and substitutes m cipher text letters for them.

The substitution is determined by m where m is a

positive integer, the idea is to take m linear 3. Cryptanalysis of known plain-text attack when

combinationsof the m alphabetic characters in one m is known of Hillcipher

plaintext elementand produce m alphabetic characters

in onecipher text element. Then, an mmmatrix K is Despite Hill cipher being difficult to break with a

used asa key of the system such that K is invertible cipher text-only attack, it succumbs to a known

modulo n (Peterson, 2000; Lerma, 2005) andg.c.d((det plaintext attack assuming that the opponent has

K)mod n, n)=1. Let kijbe the entryof K. For the determined the value of the m being used. Let mbe

plaintext block R=(x1, x2,..,xm) (thenumerical distinct plaintext-cipher text pairs, say, xj=(x1j, x2j,

equivalents of m letters) and a key matrix K,the ,xmj) and yj=(y1j, y2j, , ymj), 1jm, such that

corresponding cipher text block S=(y1, y2, , ym) yj=ek(xj),Define two m m matrices R=(xij) and

S=(yij).Whenever K is invertible in the encryption

Encryption: The cipher text is obtained from the equation S=RK, the opponent can compute the

plaintext by means of a linear transformation. unknown key of ciphering as K=R1S and thereby

break the cipher (Barr, 2002). If R is not invertible,

then it will be necessary to try other sets of m

plaintext-cipher text pairs. When m is unknown,

assuming that m is not too large, the opponent could

S= (mod n)

simply try m=2, 3, , until the key is found. If the

guessed value of m was incorrect, the obtained key

matrix would be not agree with further plaintext-

cipher text pairs (Stinson,2002).[1]

Decryption: The reverse process, deciphering, is

computed by

4. The Proposed Technique

R= ( mod n) The proposed technique takes m successive plaintext

letters and substitutes m cipher text letters for them.

The substitution is determined by m where m is a

There might be some complications with the positive integer, the idea is to take m linear

procedure outlined above due to the fact that not all combinationsof the m alphabetic characters in one

the matrices K have an inverse K1 over Zn. In fact, plaintext elementand produce m constant matrix

those matrices K with determinant 0, or with a B. In this proposed technique has generation of key

determinant that has common factors with the matrices using LU Decomposition method, i.e A=LU

modulus n, will be singular over Zn, and therefore and g.c.d((det A)mod q, q)=1 . Now constant matrix

they will not be eligible as key matrices in the Hill B=AP = . In encryption process LC=B

cipher scheme (Overbeyet al., 2005)[1]. Furthermore, C=L B and decryption process UP=C P=U-1B

-1

due to its linear nature, the basic Hill cipher succumbs where P is plain text and C is cipher text.

to known-plaintext attacks. Indeed, it is easy to show

69

IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017

Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470

www.ijtsrd.com

4.1. Generating lower and upper triangle matrices 1 0 0

using LU decomposition method WhereL= 1 0 and

Theorem: Every m-square matrix A can be expressed 1

as product of two triangular matrices, one lower 0

triangular and another upper triangular thus A=LU, U=

where q is prime number and A 0 0

1 0

= becomes = 0

1

0 0

0 0

Multiplying the matrices L and U and equating

0 0 corresponding elements from both sides

= , =

= =

0 0

0 = + =

Where L= and

Example 4.1.1

0

U= 4 1

0 0 ConsiderA=

2 3

4 1

A= can be decomposed into L and

2 3

To simplify calculations we may choose 4 2 1 0

U.A=LU = 0

( , ,.. )= 6 3 1

(1,1, . . ,1) ( )

4 1

= + , = 4, =

2 3

1, =2 =

=

+ =3 =

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 1 0 4 1 4 1

0 0 L= = 1 mod 29, U= = 0

1 15 1 0 17

mod 29, Therefore L, U

70

IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017

Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470

www.ijtsrd.com

=

1 0 0

=

1 0 0

1 0 0

(

Multiplying the matrices L and U and equating

corresponding elements from both sides mod q)

4.3. Encryption

u11=all, u12=a12, u13=a13. Let C be a block of cipher text and B is constant

l21u11=a21 l21= matrix then encryption can be defined as AC=B and

LC=B C=L-1B

l31u11=a31l31=

l21u21+u22=a22u22=a22-( )

l21u13+u23=a23u23= ( ) C= be a block of cipher

( )

l31u13+l32u22=a32 l32= text

( )

l31u13+l33u23=a33u33= -

( )

1 0 0

( )

( ) 1 0

1

4.2. Calculation of constant matrix

=

Let P is block of given plain text. In that block P

assigns labels fromtable -1according to given plain

text. Let be constant matrix and A is generator key

matrix then B=AP mod q, where q is prime number.

=

1 0

A= is matrix of order m, 0

1 0

1

P= and

4.3.1. Encryption algorithm

B=

Step1: Calculate B=AC (mod q)

71

IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017

Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470

www.ijtsrd.com

Step2: Select Key L as square matrix order m from 4 1

A= can be decomposed into L and

A=LU. 2 3

4 1 1 0 4 1

U.A=LU =

Step3: Calculate C=L-1B 2 3 15 1 0 17

4 1 6 14 11

Let P be a block of plain text and C be a block of B= (mod 29)

2 3 14 6 4

cipher text thenUP=C P=U-1C

9 4 19

B= (mod 29)

25 17 5

0

Let C= be a block of cipher text.

0 0

1 0

Encryption key L=

15 1

=

LC=B C=L-1B mod 29

=

1 0 9 4 19

0 C= ( mod 29)

15 1 25 17 5

0 0

9 4 19

C= =

4.4.1. Decryption algorithm 14 15 10

A=LU.

This gives Cipher text C=JOEPTK

-1

Step2: Calculate P= U C

Decryption:

Step3: Calculate P= P (mod q)

4 1

Decryption key U=

5. Example of proposed technique 0 17

UP=C P=U-1C mod 29

Consider the plain text P=GOOGLE, is

4 1 9 4 19

block of plain text. P= (mod 29)

0 17 14 15 10

In the 29-letter alphabet in which A-Z have numerical 6 14 11

equivalent 1-26,?=27,space=28 P=

14 6 4

6 14 11 Which gives Plain text =GOOGLE

P= is block of plain text

14 6 4

TakingFrom Example4.1.1

72

IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017

Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470

www.ijtsrd.com

6. Cryptanalysis of proposed technique Conclusion

The block cipher can be difficult to break with a In the proposed work the symmetric key matrix of

cipher text only attack. In this section, we discuss classical Hill cipher is to make changes in order to

Cryptanalysis of known plain-text attack. We make greatest security of communication text. In this

assumed that K is key matrix is an element of paper symmetric key generation is more secure due to

the decomposition of the matrix into lower and upper

triangle matrices to encrypt and decrypt the messages

.The Proposed Cryptosystem to get better the plaintext

6.1.Algorithm for known plain-text attack when m

attack and also to get better cipher text attack, since

is known

the lower triangle matrix is using for encryption

Step1: Let P= (P1,P2,,Pn) be a block of plain text. process and upper triangle matrix is using for

decryption process over residue modulo prime

Where Pi= Let C= (C1,C2,,Cn) be a number

References

block of cipher text. Where

[1] Douglas R. Stinson,Cryptography Theory and

Ci= and select randomly pairs of plaintext and practice ,third edition (2006)by chapman & Hall/CRC

Taylor &Francis Group.

corresponding cipher text are

[2] Koblitz, N. A Course in Number Theory and

(Pi,Ci)for i=1,2,3.n.

Cryptography, 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag,

Step2: The known plaintext cipher text pairs 1994.

gives us a system of equations of the form

[3]A. Menezes, P. van Oorschot, and S. Vanstone,

[Ci- Cj]=K[Pi- Pj] for 1 ijm , we Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press,

get general equation C=KP 1996

Step 3: Determine K=P-1C mod q

[4]G.R. Blakley, Twenty years of cryptography in the

6.2. Example for cryptanalysis of proposed open literature, Security and Privacy 1999

technique when m=2 is known Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium, 9-12 May1999

[5]J. Overbey, W. Traves, J. Wojdylo, On the key

6 14 11

P1= , P2= ,P3= , cipher text space of the Hill cipher. Cryptologia, 29(1), 2005, 59-

14 6 4

9 4 19 72

blocksC1= , C2= ,C3=

6 15 10

then( ) = K( ) [6]Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, fifth

edition. T. Apostol .Undergraduate Texts in

5 15 8 3

=K K= Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995

9 5 8 2

5 15 8 3 4 1

= (mod 29) [7]Higher engineering mathematics khanna publishers

9 5 8 2 0 17

by Dr. B.S. Grewal 40th edition

73

IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017

Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470

www.ijtsrd.com

[8]P.B. Bhattachary SK Jain S.R. Nagpaul First

course in Linear Algebra 1983

[9] W. H.; Flannery, B. P.; Teukolsky, S. A.; and

Vetterling, W. T. "LU Decomposition and Its

Applications." 2.3 in Numerical Recipes in

FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp.

34-42, 1992.

"Triangular factorization and inversion by fast matrix

multiplication", Mathematics of Computation, 28

(125): 231236

Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford (2001), Introduction

to Algorithms, MIT Press and McGraw-Hill,

Necessary And Sufficient Conditions For Existence of

the LU Factorization of an Arbitrary Matrix,

Flannery, BP (2007), "Section 2.3", Numerical

Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed.),

New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-

521-88068-8.

Research and Applications Vol. 6, Issue 2, February

2016

74

IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017

Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com

- Attitude Towards Tobacco Consumption Among Residents of Dhankuta Municipality of NepalUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Review on Design of Control Systems for Tethered UUVs Using PID ControllersUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Comparative Analysis of G.M Tube Characteristics Using (Ba-133) Gamma Source and (Sr-90) Beta Test SourceUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Female Aesthetic in Anita Desai’s Where Shall We Go This SummerUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Web – Based Intelligent Inventory Management SystemUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- E-Commerce Merits and DemeritsUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Data Mining Based on Hashing TechniqueUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Bacteriological and Physio Chemical Quality Assessment of Drinking WaterUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Analysis of Phytochemicals Minerals and in Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Gongronema Latifolium LeavesUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Constraints to Accessing Micro Credit and Loan Scheme of Bank of Agriculture Among Farmers in Enugu StateUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Poverty and Its Alleviation Lessions Fo NigeriaUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Developing a Constructivist Model for Effective Physics LearningUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- a Novel GA-SVM Model for Vehicles and Pedestrial Classification in VideosUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- CSE4003 Cyber-Security ETH 1 AC41(1)Uploaded bygovind
- Assessment of Water Quality in the Vicinity of Anandapuram VisakhapatnamUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Data Mining for Supermarket Sale Analysis Using Association RuleUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- a Phenomenological Study to Explore the Mother Experiences on Pregnancy Childbirth and Postnatal Period Among High Risk Mothers at RGGW&CHUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Protective Effect of Alysicarpus Monilifer L Against CCl4 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino RatsUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Toxicity and Disruptive Impacts of Novaluron, A Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, On Development and Metamorphosis of the Olive Leaf Moth Palpita UnionalisUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Parametric Study of Multistoried R.C.C. Flat Slab Structure Under Seismic Effect Having Different Plan Aspect Ratio and Slenderness RatioUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Experimental Research to Optimize Process Parameters in Machining of Non Conducting Material With Hybrid Non Conventional MachiningUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Emerging Next Generation Solar Cells Route to High Efficiency and Low CostUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Investigating Marketing of Children’s Food Stuff and Methods of Advertising in IranUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Experimental Research Work to Optimize Process Parameters Into Electro Chemical Abrasive Flow Machining Using Taguchi MethodologyUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Extraction of Iron (III) With Tributylphosphine Oxide From Hydrochloric & Sulphuric Acid SolutionsUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Digital Education and Smart Country South KoreaUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Enhancement of Cloud Resources Security Using Verification CodeUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Semantic Web - A Study on Web Service Composition ApproachesUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Assignment 2- Part 2- CryptographyUploaded byPJ1988
- HandycipherUploaded byCasandra Edwards

- Web Based Event Management System EMSUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Existence of Extremal Solutions of Second Order Initial Value ProblemsUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Design Selection of CT and PT' Effective for Transmission LinesUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Digital Citizenship in Education Visioning Safety and Responsibilities in Digital WorldUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Object and Reasons of Domestic Violence ActUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Age Invariant Face RecognitionUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Applied SPSS for Business and MarketingUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Telecom Industry with Customer Loyalty of MongoliaUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Analysis on Optimization Selection of Nursing Service Delivery Mode in Long Term Nursing Insurance SystemUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Design, Optimization and Analysis of a Radial Active Magnetic Bearing for Vibration ControlUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- A Review Paper on Experimental Study on Stabilization of Soil Subgrade by Adding Stone DustUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Interpreting Video Assistant Referee and Goal Line Technology Communication The Pitch Based Referees PerspectivesUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Application of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Process Parameters in Drilling OperationUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Control and Operation of a DC Grid Based Wind Power Generation System in Micro GridUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Internet of Things IoT Security PerspectiveUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Development of Gastroretentive Floating Tablets Quetiapine FumarateUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- A Novel Approach on Thalidomide and their Analogues with their Therapeutic uses and Clinical ApplicationUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- A Study on Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector AODV ProtocolUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Solar and Electric Powered Hybrid VehicleUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- The Review of Energy Efficient NetworkUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Compatibility Design of Non Salient Pole Synchronous GeneratorUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Competitive Landscape of Insulin Market in IndiaUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Building a Quality Management System in Higher EducationUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- A Survey Paper on Identity Theft in the InternetUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- CFD Simulation of Air Conditioning System of the ClassroomUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Driving Factors and Developing of the Implementation of E Business in SMEsUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Cashless Policy and Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in NigeriaUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Task Environment and Organisational Responsiveness in Nigerian BanksUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Land and Flying RobotUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Investors' Attitude towards Investment Decisions in Equity MarketUploaded byEditor IJTSRD

- Docu31419 VPLEX Security Configuration GuideUploaded byHưng Nguyễn Văn
- Encapsulated Visual Cryptography Strategies for Data SharingUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Access Management Secure Access Saml Server Instance Configuring NsmUploaded byJyotirmoy Sundi
- Josefsson Simon Master ThesisUploaded byAnonymous jpeHV73mLz
- module 6 discussion 2 continuous monitoringUploaded byapi-360051483
- DNA Computing and Its Application to Information Security FieldUploaded byNiran Jana
- rfc3711Uploaded byPavan Bangad
- finalsol-f05Uploaded bysparkyboy1
- Breaking the Gsm a5-1 Cryptography Algorithm WithUploaded byspudd
- Digital Image Steganalysis for Computer Forensic InvestigationUploaded byCS & IT
- Linkable ring signatureUploaded bymahan9
- Default AccountUploaded byrajakumarrockz
- dionyziz-CVUploaded bydionyziz
- Managing VPN Remote AccessUploaded byapi-3702004
- Cyber crime, web jacking, email frauds,cyber terrorism, use of encryption by terroristsUploaded byoureducation.in
- c08-Crypto-DigitalSignature13.pptUploaded byRahul Rahul
- Openssl NewsUploaded byg625648
- CISSP - Certified Security ProfessionalUploaded bydaniel.beravi@home.se
- Chap Versus PapUploaded bybisworupm
- HSM_I&O_Manual_1270A513-3.pdfUploaded byJoseph Muzite
- CS_2Uploaded byTarun Agarwal
- VTU Network Security(10ec832) Unit-5 Notes.Uploaded byjayanthdwijesh h p
- CompTIA.Security+.ActualTests.SY0-401.v2015-08-03.by.Dumps.937q.pdfUploaded byRudren Eswaran Krishnan
- Be a Web Logic GuideUploaded byPablo Gallego
- Intersystem Cache Database Security AdminUploaded byyoursprabhu01
- Mini AES.pptxUploaded byandini85
- BLOWFISH(Bruce Schneier)Uploaded byKiran Mayee
- US Federal Trade Commission: panel biosUploaded byftc
- m. Tech Embedded_systems SyllabusUploaded byprathyusha43
- Openswan Installation and Configuration TutorialUploaded bysaulparada