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LONDON: NOVELLO AND COMPANY, LIMITED.


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NOVELLO'S
MUSIC PRIMERS AND EDUCATIONAL SERIES.

n
FIVE -PART HARMONY
BY

n
FRANCIS EDWARD GLADSTONE,
MUS. DOC., CANTAB.

LONDON: NOVELLO AND COMPANY, LIMITED.


NEW YORK: THE H. W. GRAY CO., SOLE AGENTS FOR THE U.S.A.

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I

V1ADE IN ENGLAND.

f^^jL 4.
PREFACE.

THIS little book is intended for those who, having already gained

a competent knowledge of four-part harmony, desire to write


wit*h confidence in five parts.
Five-part writing is compulsory for the degree of Bachelor of
Music at the principal Universities ; yet even the best text-books
furnish candidates with little help in respect of five-part writing.
The plan of this work is arranged in such a manner that
anyone who is already well instructed in harmony may advance
without the aid of a teacher.
In each Chapter a problem is proposed, and its solution is

given in the Appendix (p. 28 et seq.).


The conscientious student will first deal with the problem,

shutting his eyes to the solution until he has worked the thing
out for himself.
He will then find it profitable to compare his result with that
of the author.
This book does not claim to be exhaustive, but it contains a
more complete discussion of the subject than the author has met
with elsewhere.
CONTENTS.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS. TAGE

Different aspects of part-writing


view ; crossing of parts The
The
division of voices ....
contrapuntal view; the chordal
i

CHAPTER I.

Common Chords, the Chord of the Dominant Seventh, and their


Inversions -
4

CHAPTER II.

The Added Sixth A general rule for the doubling of notes when a
discord is written C

CHAPTER III.

The treatment
....
of the Chord of the Ninth, the Leading Seventh, and
the Diminished Seventh upon the Leading Note 8

CHAPTER IV.
The Chord of the Diminished Seventh further considered i.e., upon
certain degrees of the scale other than the Leading Note . n
CHAPTER V.
The Diatonic Chord of the Sixth upon the Subdominant ; also the
" "
Neapolitan Sixth 13

CHAPTER VI.
Chords of the Augmented Sixth 17

CHAPTER VII.
Suspensions and Retardations . . 19

CHAPTER VIII.
Auxiliary Notes 21

CHAPTER
Some remarks upon
IX.
the Harmonization of Melodies .... 24

CONCLUSION.
Faults to be avoided 26

APPENDIX.
Working of the Exercises 28
FIVE-PART HARMONY.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
BEFORE beginning the practice of five-part writing it is desirable
tocome to some decision in regard to the rules which control it.
An experienced composer may allow himself many licences
which it is inexpedient that the student should imitate in his

exercises.
The harmonization of a given Bass, or of a given Melody, is
not composition and such work offers no opportunity for
;

special effects.
Again, a distinction should be made between an exercise in
Counterpoint and an exercise in modern Harmony. The latter
will be viewed from a very different standpoint to that of the
former.
Two examples in strict Counterpoint will make this idea
clear:

Ex. i.

-04 .
FIVE-PART HAKMONY.

Ex. 2.

5z
(fcfc

CF.

ft
m

In studies of this kind it is not only lawful, but also desirable


to cross the parts freely.

Example i the two Trebles were not allowed temporarily


If in
to change places, monotony would almost inevitably ensue.
PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 3

In Example 2 a similar indulgence is claimed for the two


Tenors, with the result that each part has its share in the melodic
freedom which is so needful in this style of writing.
But in writing chords, particularly modern discords, it is
found that one part or another is generally of paramount
importance. For instance, in harmonizing a melody, presuming
a good bass has been obtained, the inner parts will commonly
be subservient, and a certain amount of monotony may be
expected and tolerated. Moreover, experience proves that the
student of five-part harmony usually resorts to the crossing of
parts not with any idea of obtaining a melodious flow of the
voices, but in order to escape from a difficulty.
In practical composition an artist will of course cross parts
whenever it may suit his purpose to do so, whether he is

writing contrapuntally or otherwise. Let it be repeated, how-


ever, that harmony exercises are different from composition.
They are (like exercises in counterpoint) only a means to
an end.
In writing harmony exercises the student is concerned with
the proper movements of every note contained in any given
chord. A little experience will teach him that, with careful
_distribution of the voices, it is not impossible, even in Jive
parts, to obey the rules which he is accustomed to follow when
writing /owr-part harmony.
One precaution is, however, necessary. The Bass and the
Melody must be kept sufficiently far apart to allow room for
the remaining three parts to move with ease.
It' will have been observed that in Examples i and 2 the
voices were differently divided. The former example is written
for two Trebles and the latter for two Tenors. One or the other
of these methods will usually produce a better balance of tone
than would result were the Altos or Basses divided.
Before proceeding to consider Five-part writing in detail, it
only remains to be said that all the examples hereinafter given
are written as if for voices and not for instruments.
FIVE-PART HARMONY.

CHAPTER I.

COMMON CHORDS AND THE CHORD OF THE DOMINANT


SEVENTH.
"
1. THAT
wliich is as a " Common Chord
known contains
only three sounds. therefore obvious that, when writing
It is
consonant harmony in five parts, either two notes of the chord
must be doubled or one note must be trebled. Both plans may be
adopted. The choice will depend upon circumstances.
2. Any note of a common chord (or of its inversions) may be
doubled with the single exception of the Leading Note :

Ex. 3 .

12 34 56 78 9 10 11 42 13 14 15

3. A careful examination of the foregoing example will yield


the following results :

(a) The Root and the third are doubled in chords i, g,


and 10.
(b) The Root and the fifth are doubled in chords 3,* 6,
and 13.
The third and the fifth are doubled in chord 7.*
(c)
The Root is trebled in chords 2, 4, 5,* 8, II, 14, and 15.
(d)
(e) The third is trebled in chord 12.

4. The arrangement of the parts referred to in Section 3 (e)


will be frequently necessary in dealing with the common chord
the Sixth degree of the Scale ; in fact, this will
standing upon
always be the case if this chord is immediately preceded or
followed either by the Dominant common chord or by the chord
of the Dominant Seventh.

*
The intervals contained in the inverted chords are here spoken of in
relation to the Root, not to the Bass.
COMMON CHORDS AND THE CHORD OF THE DOMINANT SEVENTH. 5

5. In writing dominant seventh harmony in five parts the


Root should invariably be doubled, e.g. :
Ex. 4.

6. If the fifth were doubled instead of the Root, the harmonic


balance would not be so good. Moreover, in the case of a
perfect cadence, the final chord would be seriously weakened,

Ex. 5.

7. It is not wholly inadmissible to write consecutive fifths by


contrary motion, thus:
Ex. 6.

o 4
6 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

EXERCISE I.

Add two Tenors, Alto, and Treble to the following Figured


Bass :

^ T
ft):y 3
4.
i

1
i

* [-
gp
THE ADDED SIXTH. 7

12. In dealing with Five-part discords generally, the rule will


be to double that note which is free (a) either to remain
jstationary, or (b) to move in more directions than one and (c) if
;

more than one unfettered note can be discovered, to choose that


which will give most strength to the harmony.
" Added Sixth "
13. Now, regard to the
in (i.e.,
the 5 on the

Subdominant), there seems little doubt that the sixth above


the Bass has more liberty in its movements than any other note
of the chord. This is not the place to discuss conflicting theories
as to the origin of the chord. But, whatever theory finds favour,
practice will prove that the Sixtli should be doubled in preference
to any other note, eg. :

EXERCISE II.

. Add Tenor, Alto, and two Trebles to the following unfigured


"
Bass, introducing the chord of. the "Added Sixth at each point
marked with an asterisk :

A Major. B Minor. Minor. A Major.


-+-*=*= g r * _-
^EJ^I-T-
FIVE-PART HARMONY.

CHAPTER III.

THE CHORD OF THE NINTH, THE LEADING SEVENTH, AND


THE DIMINISHED SEVENTH UPON THE LEADING NOTE.

14. THE Chord of the Ninth, in its complete form, is one of the
simplest harmonies with which the student has to deal when
writing in five parts. It contains five distinct sounds, and the
voices have therefore five distinct progressions, e.g. :

Ex. 9.

(a)

15. That which is called by some theorists the " hrst


"
inversion of the chord of the ninth, has been named (perhaps
more reasonably) by others the " Leading Seventh " when it is
(i) formed out of the Major scale,
and (2) the " Diminished
Seventh upon the Leading Note," when its constituent parts are
obtained from the Minor Scale.
16. Inversion, in its strict musical sense, means taking
something from below and placing it above. But the roots of
the chords now under consideration are omitted in the (so-called)
inversions. It will therefore be found convenient (without
disputing the derivation of these harmonies) to speak of the
inversions of the Leading and Diminished Sevenths.

17. The Leading Seventh requires special care in its treatment,


for two reasons : is not customary to write it in any form
jit (a)
which places the Seventh below the Leading Note (b) In ;

approaching or in quitting the chord, there is a danger of writing


consecutive fifths.

18. The last inversion is not in general use, but the other two
are very effective when skilfully handled.
THE CHORD OF THE NINTH, ETC. 9

g. In every available form of the chord the Fifth above the


Root the Third above the Leading Note) is the proper note
(i.e.,
to double and, in resolving the chord, one of these doubled
;

sounds should move up one degree while the other leaps upwards
a fourth, e.g.

Ex. 10.

20. The Diminished Seventh upon the Leading Note is not


subject to so many restrictions as the Leading Seventh for ;
it is

freely employed every possible position and inversion. Con-


in
secutive Fifths, however, must still 'be avoided in spite of the
fact that one fifth is diminished.

It is true that, when Tonic harmony precedes or follows the


chord of the Dominant Seventh, musicians by general consent
allow such fifths as the following :

Ex. ii.

But, fortunately, such progressions as these

Ex. 12.

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have' not yet found universal acceptance.


TO FIVE-PART HARMONY.

21. The treatment of this chord in five parts is similar to that


of the Leading Seventh. The Fifth above the Root (i.e.,
the Third above the Leading Note) is the proper note to
double, e.g. :

Ex. 13.

22. effect of the Leading Seventh is more


Although the
satisfactory when
the Ninth above the Root is in the highest
part, the chord is occasionally written with either the Seventh or
the Fifth (from the Root) placed above the Ninth, e.g. :
Ex. 14.

f L
THE CHORD OF THE DIMINISHED SEVENTH. ii

EXERCISE III.

Add Tenor,
Alto, and two Treble parts to the following Figured
Bass taking care to avoid Consecutive Fifths not only in dealing
;

with the chord of the Leading Seventh, but also in approaching


and quitting the Diminished Seventh :

,.. n ?
^ j-i
FIVE-PART HARMONY.

25. Students of the Day Theory will probably admit that the
most valuable part of that system is the doctrine that all
Fundamental Discords are derived from one or another of three
Roots viz., the Dominant, the Supertonic, and the Tonic.
26. For practical purposes it is not necessary to accept all the
conclusions arrived at by exponents of t'he late Dr. Day's views ;

but at all events some assistance may be derived from his


teachings in regard to the chords under consideration.
27. The Diminished Seventh on the Leading Note has been
derived from the Dominant as a Root. In like manner the chord
upon the Augmented Fourth (Example i6a) may be derived from
the Supertonic, and that upon the Major Third (Example 166)
from the Tonic. Consistency will be attained if the Fifth to the
Root is doubled in each case, e.g. :

Ex. 17.

A- 4

This rule will also apply to the Inversions.

28. Sometimes, however, it is not convenient to double the


Fifth to the Root, and if the exigencies of part-writing necessi-
tate a doubling of the Seventh to the Root (in writing that
harmony which is derived from the Supertonic) no bad effect will
follow.
This Seventh the key-note, and for that reason it will
is itself
bear reinforcement.But neither the Dominant Seventh nor the
Minor Seventh above the Tonic should ever be doubled :

Ex. 18.

0*=^ i=fe
THE DIATONIC CHORD OF THE SIXTH, ETC. 13

EXERCISE IV.
Add Tenor, Alto, and two Trebles to the following Figured
Bass :

h-
1J6
6 77 t|6
6 [J4 b6
4 t}4 tl* bs be
3 *2 2

<??
FIVE-PART HARMONY.

31. It is generally admitted that dissonance is more strongly


feltbetween the Bass and another part than between two of the
upper voices.
Nevertheless, since no amount of inversion changes dissonance
into consonance, it will not do to ignore any discord entirely at
all events, if the aim is perfection in part-writing.

32. Let the student compare the following :

Ex. 19.

Mi *
w 4 4 A
T r
It will be at once apparent that 6 is preferable.
33. When this
harmony written in Five parts the best effect
is
will be obtained by doubling both the Bass and the Sixth, e.g. :

m
Ex. 20.

kS-

(6)
P
R
j

34. If the dreams of those who long for "Just Intonation"


could be realised, it would be discovered that the perfectly tuned
major scale gives only five triads in absolute consonance. The
triad on the Supertonic would be distinctly out of tune, b'oth the
Third and the Fifth being flat.
Whether this fact has any practical bearing upon the mental
impressions which are received when listening to harmonies
derived from the scale of equal temperament is a question open
to debate.

However, it is safe to say that excellent results will be obtained


by treating the firstinversions of Supertonic triads in Major keys in
the manner just now proposed for Minor keys (Section 33).
THE DIATONIC CHORD OF THE SIXTH, ETC. If

The Chord known as the Neapolitan Sixth, when it is used


35.
in Minor keys, differs from the Diatonic chord by one semitone
only. It is commonly regarded as the first inversion of a Major
common chord upon the chromatically lowered Supertonic.
36. If Exercise IV. is again referred to, the appearance of this
harmony with its root in the Bass will be observed in the second
Bar and it may be further noticed that it was there found
;

convenient to double the Third above the Root, and also the
Root itself.* The" same two sounds may be doubled in writing
the Neapolitan Sixth but there seems to be no serious objection
;

to the doubling of the Fifth to the Root in difficult circumstances


i6 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

38. Several remarks may be made in regard to the foregoing


illustrations. shall be commented upon in turn.
Each
(a) The interval
in the tenor part of bar i is not easy to
sing. It is not unmelodious, however, for the following
note within that interval.
lies

(b) The somewhat difficult vocal interval of a Diminished


Third appears in the alto but this progression is not
;

uncommon. The Chromatic Sixth is most frequently


placed at the top of the harmony. It is otherwise here,
and there is nothing to be said against this arrangement
of the parts.
(c) The chord which follows the Neapolitan Sixth is that
which is named by Dr. Day the first inversion of the
Supertonic Seventh.
(d) The Bass and Tenor proceed in a manner which is
certainly not of unquestionable beauty, and the following
arrangement of the parts may be recommended
instead :

Ex. 23.

3:

It is true that there is an appearance here of False Relation ;

but the effect is not objectionable. Examples are plentiful by the


great masters. For instance, in the Gloria in excelsis of
Schubert's beautiful Mass in B flat there are to be found two
similar progressions. Both are employed to give supplicatory
expression to the words Miserere nobis.

EXERCISE V.
Add Tenor, Alto, and two Treble parts
to the following
unfigured Bass, twice introducing (and properly resolving) the
Diatonic Chord of the Sixth upon the Subdominant. Find also
an opportunity for the introduction of the Neapolitan Sixth :
CHORDS OP THE AUGMENTED SIXTH.

CHAPTER VI.

CHORDS Of THE AUGMENTED SIXTH.

39. THE three varieties of the harmony now to be examined


are not all of equal value in Five-part work.
Inasmuch as the " Italian Sixth," when written in four parts,
has already one note doubled, and because neither the Bass nor
the Augmented Sixth can be doubled with good effect,... the fifth_
part will be better employed in strengthening the harmony by
the addition of another sound.
"
In this Chapter, therefore, only the " French and " German "
Sixths will be considered.

40. When the French Sixth is resolved upon Dominant


harmony, experiments will prove that no interval is under so
little restraint as the Fourth above the Bass. This note may
remain stationary in two voices while the harmony changes, or
it may remain in one
part and leap in another, e.g. :
Ex. 24.

m
r 7
m
41. When the same harmony is followed by the second inversion
of the Tonic common chord, the Fourth is still the best note to
double, although the effect of the doubled Third (i.e., the key-note)
is not bad, e.g. :
18 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

42. This chord occasionally resolves upon the harmony of the


Dominant Seventh, when again the Fourth should be doubled,
: Ex. 26.
e.g.
__*J *

-G>- -G>-

43. Whenever the German Sixth is written in Five parts, it

will be found desirable to double the key-note. Here are some


illustrations :

Ex. 27.

EXERCISE VI.
Add Tenor, Alto, and two Treble parts to the following Figured
Bass :

^=f
6-667ZB3
66667
a>4 5 4 J
6
5

6
<
44
o
6 b6
><
6 46
<
6
/i
64
^SQ
6 6 7

2 3
SUSPENSIONS. X9

CHAPTER VII.

SUSPENSIONS.

44. FIVE-PART harmony affords great scope for the employment


of Suspensions.
The simple kinds, 9-8 and 4-3, are easy to treat, e.g. :

Ex. 28.

/tv *>~
20 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

47 An
excellent effect is sometimes obtained by the introduc-
tion of a new elementof dissonance before the resolution of the
suspension takes place, e.g. :
Ex. 30.

48. Modern composers frequently employ double or triple


suspensions without syncopation ; and in this case the discords
need not be in the same position as the harmony which prepared

Ex.3i. tf-tf' ^
them. Such progressions as the following are not uncommon
1

.v. *
3=4
1

57
:

I
?
.

-J-
t__>d_
r^
EXERCISE VII.
Add Tenor, Alto, and two Trebles to the following Figured
Bass:

9 8 6 7
J fo^- ^
7 6 5 4 4 3

9 8 6 9 8 t>7 6 4 3
7 6 76 4
5

-7H-
1
6 tf
98 6 7 98
4 7
6 5 5
4 3 4 3
*
Observe that although this chord is approached as Tonic harmony, it is

quitted as the Neapolitan Sixth in G minor. (See Example 226.)


AUXILIARY NOTES. 21

CHAPTER VIII.

AUXILIARY NOTES.

49. IT seems unnecessary to comment upon the use of passing


notes of the ancient kind. Those who read this book are
probably students of Counterpoint, and everyone will know how
conspicuous a place passing notes occupy in the Second and
Third species of that Art.
But it is important that some attention should be given to the
manner which other unessential sounds may enter into Five-
in
part harmony.
50. The student who is satisfied with none but the purest
part-writing will not deliberately write such combinations as the
following :

E
^
r
If proper precautions are taken in approaching a harmony into
which an auxiliary note about to enter, it will generally be
is
found possible (as in the case of suspensions) to avoid sounding
the grace note together with the note in the place of which it
appears. Example 32 might be improved thus :

Ex.

51. Those harmonies which many English theorists call


chords of the eleventh and thirteenth, are to some minds suffi-

ciently explained as either suspensions or auxiliary notes.


22 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

The following illustrations should be examined :

Ex. 34.
AUXILIARY NOTES. 23

53. Auxiliary notes such as these play an important part in


modern music, and the study of their possibilities is very
instructive. Distinguished composers have occasionally written
such extreme dissonances as these:

Ex. 36.

m^
^*=^ m
If complicated discords of this kind are reserved for special
purposes, they may have their value as, for instance, in Samuel
Sebastian Wesley's impressive Anthem " Man that is born,"
where thrilling expression is given to the words " bitter pains "
by the simultaneous sounding of C natural and C sharp.
54. Another poignant discord is to be found in Bach's
" Chromatic
Fantasia," where a series of chromatic harmonies
contains the following remarkable combination of sounds :

Ex. 37 .

Attempts have been made to explain the harmony marked


with an asterisk as the last inversion of the " Dominant Minor
Thirteenth," but many minds will be satisfied with the explana-
tion that it is a Double Suspension combined with a retardation.
24 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

EXERCISE VIII.

Harmonize the following melody in Five parts, introducing


passing notes and auxiliary notes. Observe the sequence
beginning in the eighth Bar :

CHAPTER IX.

SOME REMARKS UPON THE HARMONIZATION OF MELODIEb.

55. IN the addition of harmonies to a given Melody much


Tiust be left to the judgment and taste of the individual student.
Nevertheless the rate of speed at which the music is to be
performed should be taken into consideration and it is probably
;

safe to enunciate the following general rules :

(a) A slow tempo makes it possible to introduce any number


of chords, up to six or eight in a single bar.
(b) A quick tempo places a limit upon the number of
harmonies to be employed ; for this reason if the

changes of harmony are too rapid, the ear has not time
to grasp one before another is hurled against it.

56. When an express train rushes through a station at full


speed, the passengers cannot easily read the name of the place
on account of the very transient impression received by the eye.
In a similar way, an appreciable moment is necessary before
the ear can receive and convey to the brain the full effect of any
given chord.
HARMONIZATION OF MELODIES. 25

57. It will be a useful exercise to practise upon the same


melody twice :

(a) At a moderately lively speed.


(b) At a slow rate of movement.

Compound duple time will furnish a good illustration for, ;

although in theory each bar contains only two beats, in practice


we often count six at least, when the speed is not excessive.

EXERCISES IXa. and IXb.

Harmonize the following melody twice :

(a) Marking it A llegretto, and maintaining the flow of the


parts by the aid of passing notes, &c., rather than by
many chords.
(b) Marking it Larghetto, and using any number of chords
in a bar not exceeding six.

it < fr-r
26 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

CONCLUSION.

58. IT may be well to warn the student against some of


the more common pitfalls which lie in his path when he writes
Five-part harmony.
The gravererrors of part-writing (such as consecutive Fifths
and Octaves) of course, be shunned but there are various
will, ;

objectionable courses into which the inexperienced writer may


easily be led.
Few mistakes are more common than the following :

Ex. 38.

(a) (b)

^ __^2^^
:^_.L*__a

59. It is obvious that it would be impossible to write in five-


parts if all Hidden Octaves and Fifths were forbidden. But the
instances just quoted belong to a special class. In both cases
one of the parts concerned is proceeding to the resolution of a
Discord. Under these circumstances Hidden Octaves are not
merely questionable, but distinctly bad.
60. Again, if the position of a chord is too cramped, it may
sometimes happen that two voices will move in the same direction
to a unison, e.g. :

Ex. 39.

--

This is, perhaps, a venial fault ;


but it is at least ungraceful and
is easily improved.
CONCLUSION.

61. But another curious mistake is by no means rare :

The ascent of the Seventh above the Dominant is, of course,


always permitted when the chord of the Dominant Seventh,
written in its second inversion, is immediately followed by the
first inversion of the Tonic common chord. But the justification
for this course is to be found in the fact that there is an
escape
from the necessity of doubling the Bass in a chord of the Sixth
(see Example lib).
Now in the following example the progression of the Tenor
removes the excuse for the upward step of the first Treble, and
the result is unsatisfactory. If the note B is to be doubled it
should be doubled in that part which has just sung the Seventh
the Seventh to the Dominant Root
i.e., :

.Q.

62. Once more, certain chords will tempt the unwary student
to write Consecutive Fourths with the Bass, e.g. :

Ex. 41.

Such progressions should be avoided unless the Second Fourth


is augmented (see Exercise II., Bar 5).*
Examples 2.50, and i$d supply the remedies for these defects.
These are a few of the faults against which those who desire
to excel in Five-part writing must continually be on their guard.
The student should give constant attention to the manner of
distributing his harmonies. He will soon discover that the
selection of a 'good position is the key to the removal of his
difficulties.

*
Appendix, p. 29.
FIVE-PART HARMONY.

APPENDIX.
EXERCISE 7. (p. 6.)

p
APPENDIX. 29

EXERCISE II. (p. 7.)

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EXERCISE III. (p. n.)

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EXERCISE IV. (p. 13.)
32 FIVE-PART HARMONY.

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APPENDIX. 33

EXERCISE V. (p. 16.)

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EXERCISE VI. (p. 18.)

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APPENDIX. 35

EXERCISE VII. (p. 20.)

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FIVE-PART HARMONY.

EXERCISE IXa. (p. 25.)


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EXERCISE IXb. (p. 25.)

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