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PCS-985G

Generator Relay
Instruction Manual

NR Electric Co., Ltd.


Preface

Preface

Introduction
This guide and the relevant operating or service manual documentation for the equipment provide
full information on safe handling, commissioning and testing of this equipment.

Documentation for equipment ordered from NR is dispatched separately from manufactured goods
and may not be received at the same time. Therefore, this guide is provided to ensure that printed
information normally present on equipment is fully understood by the recipient.

Before carrying out any work on the equipment, the user should be familiar with the contents of
this manual, and read relevant chapter carefully.

This chapter describes the safety precautions recommended when using the equipment. Before
installing and using the equipment, this chapter must be thoroughly read and understood.

Health and Safety


The information in this chapter of the equipment documentation is intended to ensure that
equipment is properly installed and handled in order to maintain it in a safe condition.

When electrical equipment is in operation, dangerous voltages will be present in certain parts of
the equipment. Failure to observe warning notices, incorrect use, or improper use may endanger
personnel and equipment and cause personal injury or physical damage.

Before working in the terminal strip area, the equipment must be isolated.

Proper and safe operation of the equipment depends on appropriate shipping and handling,
proper storage, installation and commissioning, and on careful operation, maintenance and
servicing. For this reason, only qualified personnel may work on or operate the equipment.

Qualified personnel are individuals who:

Are familiar with the installation, commissioning, and operation of the equipment and of the
system to which it is being connected;

Are able to safely perform switching operations in accordance with accepted safety
engineering practices and are authorized to energize and de-energize equipment and to
isolate, ground, and label it;

Are trained in the care and use of safety apparatus in accordance with safety engineering
practices;

Are trained in emergency procedures (first aid).

Instructions and Warnings


The following indicators and standard definitions are used:

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Preface

DANGER!

It means that death, severe personal injury, or considerable equipment damage will occur if safety
precautions are disregarded.

WARNING!

It means that death, severe personal, or considerable equipment damage could occur if safety
precautions are disregarded.

CAUTION!

It means that light personal injury or equipment damage may occur if safety precautions are
disregarded. This particularly applies to damage to the device and to resulting damage of the
protected equipment.

WARNING!

The firmware may be upgraded to add new features or enhance/modify existing features, please
make sure that the version of this manual is compatible with the product in your hand.

WARNING!

During operation of electrical equipment, certain parts of these devices are under high voltage.
Severe personal injury or significant equipment damage could result from improper behavior.

Only qualified personnel should work on this equipment or in the vicinity of this equipment. These
personnel must be familiar with all warnings and service procedures described in this manual, as
well as safety regulations.

In particular, the general facility and safety regulations for work with high-voltage equipment must
be observed. Noncompliance may result in death, injury, or significant equipment damage.

DANGER!

Never allow the current transformer (CT) secondary circuit connected to this equipment to be
opened while the primary system is live. Opening the CT circuit will produce a dangerously high
voltage.

WARNING!

Exposed terminals

Do not touch the exposed terminals of this equipment while the power is on, as the high voltage
generated is dangerous.

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Preface

Residual voltage

Hazardous voltage can be present in the DC circuit just after switching off the DC power supply. It
takes a few seconds for the voltage to discharge.

CAUTION!

Earth

The earthing terminal of the equipment must be securely earthed.

Operating environment

The equipment must only be used within the range of ambient environment detailed in the
specification and in an environment free of abnormal vibration.

Ratings

Before applying AC voltage and current or the DC power supply to the equipment, check that they
conform to the equipment ratings.

Printed circuit board

Do not attach and remove printed circuit boards when DC power to the equipment is on, as this
may cause the equipment to malfunction.

External circuit

When connecting the output contacts of the equipment to an external circuit, carefully check the
supply voltage used in order to prevent the connected circuit from overheating.

Connection cable

Carefully handle the connection cable without applying excessive force.

Copyright

Version: R1.00 NR ELECTRIC CO., LTD.

69 Suyuan Avenue. Jiangning, Nanjing 211102, China

P/N: EN_YJBH2641.0086.0001 Tel: +86-25-87178185, Fax: +86-25-87178208

Website: www.nrelect.com, www.nari-relays.com

Copyright NR 2013. All rights reserved Email: nr_techsupport@nari-relays.com

We reserve all rights to this document and to the information contained herein. Improper use in particular reproduction and dissemination
to third parties is strictly forbidden except where expressly authorized.

The information in this manual is carefully checked periodically, and necessary corrections will be included in future editions. If
nevertheless any errors are detected, suggestions for correction or improvement are greatly appreciated.

We reserve the rights to make technical improvements without notice.

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Preface

Documentation Structure

The manual provides a functional and technical description of this relay and a comprehensive set
of instructions for the relays use and application.

All contents provided by this manual are summarized as below:

1 Introduction
Briefly introduce the application, functions and features about this relay.

2 Technical Data
Introduce the technical data about this relay, such as electrical specifications, mechanical
specifications, ambient temperature and humidity range, communication port parameters, type
tests, setting ranges and accuracy limits and the certifications that our products have passed.

3 Operation Theory
Introduce a comprehensive and detailed functional description of all protective elements.

4 Supervision
Introduce the automatic self-supervision function of this relay.

5 Management
Introduce the displayed measurement and recording in the relay.

6 Hardware
Introduce the main function carried out by each plug-in module of this relay and providing the
definition of pins of each plug-in module.

7 Settings
List all the settings and some notes about the setting application.

8 Human Machine Interface


Introduce the hardware of the human machine interface (HMI) module and a detailed guide for the
user how to use this relay through HMI. It also lists all the information which can be view through
HMI, such as settings, measurements, all kinds of reports etc.

9 Communication
Introduce the communication port and protocol which this relay can support, IEC60970-5-103,
IEC61850 and DNP3.0 protocols are introduced in details.

10 Installation
Introduce the recommendations on unpacking, handling, inspection and storage of this relay. A
guide to the mechanical and electrical installation of this relay is also provided, incorporating
earthing recommendations. A typical wiring connection to this relay is indicated.

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11 Commissioning
Introduce how to commission this relay, comprising checks on the calibration and functionality of
this relay.

12 Maintenance
A general maintenance policy for this relay is outlined.

13 Decommissioning and Disposal


A general decommissioning and disposal policy for this relay is outlined.

14 Manual Version History


List the instruction manual version and the modification history records.

Typographic and Graphical Conventions

Deviations may be permitted in drawings and tables when the type of designator can be obviously
derived from the illustration.

The following symbols are used in drawings:

&
AND gate

OR gate

Comparator

BI Binary signal via opto-coupler

SET I> Input signal from comparator with setting

EN Input signal of logic setting for function enabling

SIG Input of binary signal except those signals via opto-coupler

OTH Input of other signal

XXX Output signal

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Timer
t
Timer (optional definite-time or inverse-time characteristic)
t

10ms 0ms
Timer [delay pickup (10ms), delay dropoff (0ms), non-settable]

[t1] 0ms
Timer (t1: delay pickup, settable)

0ms [t2]
Timer (t2: delay dropoff, settable)

[t1] [t2]
Timer (t1: delay pickup, t2: delay dropoff, settable)

IDMT Timer (inverse-time characteristic)


*

Instrument current transformer


*

Instrument voltage transformer

Symbol Corresponding Relationship

Basic Example
A, B, C L1, L2, L3 Ia, Ib, Ic, I0 IL1, IL2, IL3, IN
AN, BN, CN L1N, L2N, L3N Ua, Ub, Uc VL1, VL2, VL3
ABC L123 Uab, Ubc, Uca VL12, VL23, VL31
U (voltage) V U0, U1, U2 VN, V1, V2

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1 Introduction

1 Introduction

Table of Contents
1 Introduction..................................................................................... 1-a
1.1 Application....................................................................................................... 1-1
1.2 Function ........................................................................................................... 1-1
1.3 Features ........................................................................................................... 1-3
1.4 Order Information............................................................................................ 1-7

List of Tables
Table 1.2-1 Function configuration of generator ..................................................................... 1-1

Table 1.2-2 Function configuration of excitation transformer/exciter ................................... 1-2

Table 1.2-3 Mechanical function configuration ........................................................................ 1-2

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1 Introduction

1.1 Application
PCS-985G can be applied for large-scale turbo-dynamo, gas-turbine generator and nuclear power
generator with different connection modes.

PCS-985G provides complete electric quantity protection of a generator and an exciter or


excitation transformer. It also supports ECT/EVT and meets the requirements of power plant
automation.

For a large-scale generator, two sets of PCS-985G can be used and then main protection,
abnormal operation condition protection and backup protection can be duplicated. Control circuit
and mechanical protection are installed on a separate panel. Two sets of PCS-985G use different
CT groups and main and backup protection in one PCS-985G share one CT group. The outputs
correspond to various trip coils.

1.2 Function
PCS-985G takes fully into account maximum configuration of large-scale generator, and suits the
generator with capacity of 100MW or above.

1.2.1 Protection Function

PCS-985G can select to configure the following protection functions, and means that it is an
abnormality alarm function.

Table 1.2-1 Function configuration of generator

No. Function Stage Delay ANSI


1 Differential protection 87G
2 DPFC differential protection 87G
3 Transverse differential protection 2 87G
4 Longitudinal residual overvoltage protection for inter-turn fault 1 1 59N/60
5 DPFC directional protection for inter-turn fault 1 1 67
Calculated longitudinal residual overvoltage protection for inter-turn
6 1 1
fault
7 Voltage controlled overcurrent protection 2 1 50
8 Phase-to-phase impedance protection 2 1 21G
9 Fundamental residual voltage protection for stator earth fault 2 1 64S
10 Third harmonic overvoltage ratio protection for stator earth fault 1 1 64S
11 Third harmonic overvoltage differential protection for stator earth fault 1 1 64S
12 stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection 2 1 64R
13 Rotor one-point earth-fault protection 2 1 64R1
14 Rotor two-point earth-fault protection 1 1 64R2
15 Definite-time stator overload protection 2 1 50S
16 Inverse-time stator overload protection 51S
17 Definite-time negative-sequence overload protection 2 1 50Q
18 Inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection 51Q

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19 Loss-of-excitation protection 3 1 40
20 Out-of-step protection 2 1 78
21 Overvoltage protection 2 1 59
22 Undervoltage protection 1 1
23 Definite-time over-excitation protection 2 1 24
24 Inverse-time over-excitation protection 24
25 Reverse-power protection 2 1 32R
26 Low-power protection 1 1 37G
27 Sequential tripping reverse-power protection 1 1 32R
28 Underfrequency protection 3 1 81U
29 Overfrequency protection 2 1 81O
30 Startup/shutdown protection of differential current 1 1
31 Startup/shutdown protection of residual voltage 1 1
32 Low-frequency overcurrent protection 1 1 50
33 Inadvertent energization protection 1 1 50/27
34 Breaker failure protection 1 2 50BF
35 Voltage balance function 60
36 VT circuit supervision VTS
37 CT circuit supervision CTS

Note!

Rotor earth-fault protection can select voltage switchover principle or external voltage
injection principle.

Table 1.2-2 Function configuration of excitation transformer/exciter

No. Function Stage Delay ANSI


1 Differential protection 87ET
2 Overcurrent protection 2 1 50
3 Definite-time overload protection 1 1 50
4 Inverse-time overload protection 51

Table 1.2-3 Mechanical function configuration

No. Function Stage Delay ANSI


1 Mechanical protection 1 1 1
2 Mechanical protection 2 1 1
3 Mechanical protection 3 1 1
4 Mechanical protection 4 1 1
5 Mechanical protection 5 1 1
6 Mechanical protection 6 1 1
7 Mechanical protection 7 1 1
8 Mechanical protection 8 1 1

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1 Introduction

Note!

The name of mechanical protection 1~8 can be modified.

1.2.2 Configuration Explanation

1.2.2.1 Differential Protection

1. For generator with the capacity of 300MW or above, panel A and B are both equipped with
generator differential protection.

2. For generator differential protection, there are two kinds of percentage differential protection:
variable slope percentage differential protection and DPFC percentage differential protection.

1.2.2.2 Backup Protection

1. Panel A and B are equipped with complete set of backup protection of generator and
excitation transformer/exciter. Different CTs are used for them.

2. As to rotor earth-fault protection, two sets of such protection cannot work simultaneously
otherwise influence between them will appear. Only one set of rotor earth-fault protection can
be enabled during operation. If other set will be put into operation sometimes, this set shall be
quitted firstly.

1.2.2.3 Current Transformer

1. Panels A and B adopt different CT.

2. Main protection and backup protection share one group of CT.

3. Generator reverse power protection can share one group of generator terminal CT with
generator differential protection, or adopt independent measurement CT.

1.2.2.4 Voltage Transformer

1. Panel A and B shall adopt different VT or its different windings if possible.

2. For generator inter-turn protection, in order to prevent undesired operation due to VT circuit
failure at HV side used dedicatedly for this protection, one set of protection shall adopt two
groups of VT. However, if it is considered to adopt only independent VT windings, too much
VT will be installed at generator terminal and it is not reasonable. So it is recommended to
equip three windings of VT there, namely VT1, VT2 and VT3. Panel A adopts voltage from
VT1 and VT3 while panel B VT2 and VT3. During normal operation, panel A adopts VT1 and
panel B adopts VT2 while VT3 is backup to both of them. If circuit of VT1 or VT2 fails, VT3 will
be switched on automatically by software.

3. For residual voltage, there are two windings adopted by two sets of protection equipments
simultaneously in general.

1.3 Features
High-performance general-purpose hardware and real-time calculations

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Hardware structure of 32-bit microprocessorsdual DSP is adopted. A number of processors


operate in parallel. 32-bit microprocessors provide functions of HMI, communication, and printing,
etc. The two DSPs provide protection operations and output logic. High performance hardware
ensures real-time calculation for all relays in each sampling interval of this relay. This relay adopts
32-bit high performance CPUs and DSPs, internal high-speed bus, and intelligent I/O. Both
hardware and software adopt modular design, which can be flexibly configured. Features include
versatility, easy expansion, and easy maintenance.

Independent fault detector elements

The output mode of fault detector AND protection operation eliminates the possibility of
malfunction and misjudgment caused by hardware fault of the device.

Strong EM compatibility

Integral panel and fully enclosed chassis are adopted. Strong electricity and weak electricity are
strictly separated. Traditional rear board wiring mode is not used. At the same time, measures
against interference are taken in software design, greatly improving the immunity to disturbances.
EM radiation to outside satisfies relevant standards.

Modular programs

Modular programs allow flexible protection configuration and easy functional adjustment.

Variable slope percentage differential protection

Variable slope percentage characteristic is adopted for differential protection. Pickup slope and
maximum slope should be reasonably set, so that high sensitivity can be gained during internal
fault and transient unbalance current can be avoided during external fault. In order to prevent
undesired operation of differential protection due to CT saturation, measures to discriminate CT
saturation are provided for phase current at each side.

DPFC percentage differential protection

DPFC percentage differential protection reflects only deviation components of differential current
and restraint current and is not effected by load current. It can detect light fault within generator.
Besides, it is insensitive to CT saturation since its restraint coefficient is set comparatively high.

Detect CT Saturation by asynchronous method

According to relation between DPFC restraint current and DPFC differential current of differential
protection, external or internal fault can be discriminated correctly. For external fault, waveform
discrimination of phase current and differential current is adopted. Undesired operation will not
occur if CT correct transfer time from primary to secondary side is not less than 5ms. As to internal
fault, the device will operate quickly.

High-sensitive transverse differential protection

By adopting frequency tracking, digital filter and Fourier transformation, the filtration ratio of third
harmonic component can reach more than 100. These entire countermeasure guarantees the
reliability of the protection in all occasions as mentioned as below:

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The transverse differential protection can get reliable restraint effect because the faulty phase
current increases greatly while transverse differential current increases less in external fault
situation.

The protection has very high operation sensitivity because transverse differential current
increases comparatively large whereas phase current change not too observably in slightly
inter-turn fault situation.

The high-setting stage of transverse differential protection will operate quickly and reliably when
severe inter-turn fault occurs in stator winding.

In case of phase-to-phase fault of stator winding, not only transverse differential current but also
phase current increase greatly, therefore just low percentage restraint by phase current
guarantees the reliable operation of transverse differential protection against the fault.

As for unbalanced transverse differential current increasing during normal operation condition,
transverse differential protection uses float threshold to avoid undesired operation.

Percentage restraint inter-turn protection

By adopting frequency tracking, digital filter and Fourier transformation, the filtration ratio of third
harmonic component can reach more than 100. Calculated longitudinal residual overvoltage
protection is adopted in PCS-985G, which is the new criteria of generator inter-turn protection and
does not need the special VT for the protection.

Stator earth-fault protection

By adopting frequency tracking, digital filter and Fourier transformation, the filtration ratio of third
harmonic component can reach more than 100.

The sensitive stage of fundamental residual voltage protection operates and issues trip command
only if the dual criterias of residual voltages of generator terminal and neutral point are met at the
same time.

The ratio settings of third harmonic of generator terminal to that of neutral point used in third
harmonic ratio criteria will automatically suit to the change of ratio fore-and-aft incorporating in
power network third harmonic voltage of the plant unit. This automation adjustment function
ensures the correctness of signals generated and issued by the third harmonic voltage criteria
even during incorporation or isolation course of generator.

The ratio and phase-angle difference of third harmonic voltage of generator terminal to that of
neutral point keeps almost stable when the generator is in normal operation condition; also it is a
slow developing course. Through real time adjustment of coefficient of amplitude value and phase,
PCS-985 makes differential voltage between generator terminal and neutral point as zero in
normal operation condition. When stator earth fault occurs, the criteria tend to operate reliably and
sensitively.

Stator earth-fault protection with external voltage injection principle

The protection adopts digital technology to calculate earth fault resistance accurately.

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1 Introduction

Settings configured two stage are provided. One stage operates to alarm, and the other stage
operates to trip.

The residual current protection is free from impact of 20Hz power, which provides mainly
protection for comparatively severe stator earth fault.

The protection is adaptive for various operation conditions, such as stillness, no-load, shutdown,
startup and connected to power grid.

Sampling-switch type rotor earth-fault protection

DC current is input by high-performance isolated amplifier. Via switching two different electronic
switches, PCS-985 solves four different ground-loop equations to compute rotor winding voltage,
rotor ground resistance and earthing position on real time and display these information on LCD.

Rotor earth-fault with external voltage injection principle

Injecting a low-frequency square wave between positive terminal and negative terminal of rotor
windings or between one terminal of rotor windings and axis, the device acquires leakage current
of rotor, and calculates insulation resistance between rotor windings and ground in real-time. The
injected square wave voltage is generated by the device. The protection reflects the insulation
reduction between rotor windings and axis.

The calculation to rotor earth resistance is unrelated to fault location, and no dead zone.

The calculation accuracy of rotor earth resistance is high and is not affected by the capacitance
between rotor windings and ground.

The calculation to rotor earth resistance is unrelated to excitation voltage. It can still supervise
insulation situation of rotor windings when no excitation voltage is supplied.

It can be adaptive to various lead-out modes of rotor windings, and both single-end injection and
double-ends injection can be selected. The fault location can be measured if selecting
double-ends injection.

Loss-of-excitation protection

Loss-of-excitation protection adopts optimizing protection scheme in which stator impedance


criteria, reactive power criteria, rotor voltage criteria and busbar voltage criteria, could be
optionally combined to meet various demands of different generator units.

Out-of-step protection

Out-of-step protection adopts three-impedance element (gains from positive-sequence current


and positive sequence voltage of generator) to distinguish out-of-step from steady oscillation.
More than that, the protection can accurately locate the position of oscillation center and record
oscillation slid numbers of external and internal oscillation respectively in real-time.

VT circuit failure supervision

Two groups of VT inputs are equipped at generator terminal. If one group fails, the device will
issue alarm and switch over to the healthy one automatically. It doesnt need to block protection

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1 Introduction

element relevant to voltage. Based on percentage restraint characteristic, it can discriminate that
neutral point of VT circuit fails.

CT circuit failure supervision

Reliable blocking function when CT circuit failure can prevent the device from undesired operation
due to CT circuit failure or AC sampled circuit failure.

Powerful communication function

Flexible communication mode is provided. 2 independent Ethernet interfaces and 2 independent


RS-485 communication interfaces are provided. Power industry communication standard
IEC60870-5-103, Modbus protocol and new generation substation communication standard
IEC61850 are supported.

Complete event recording function

64 faults and operation sequence, 64 fault waveforms, results of 256 self-supervision reports, and
1024 binary signal change reports can be recorded.

Auxiliary PC software

PC software allows easy application of this device.

1.4 Order Information


CT secondary rated value: 1A or 5A

DC power supply for device: 110/125V, 220/250V

DC power supply for binary input: 110/125V, 220V

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2 Technical Data

2 Technical Data

Table of Contents
2 Technical Data................................................................................. 2-a
2.1 Electrical Specifications ................................................................................. 2-1
2.1.1 AC Current Input .................................................................................................................. 2-1

2.1.2 AC Voltage Input .................................................................................................................. 2-1

2.1.3 Power Supply....................................................................................................................... 2-1

2.1.4 Binary Input .......................................................................................................................... 2-1

2.1.5 Binary Output ....................................................................................................................... 2-2

2.2 Mechanical Specifications ............................................................................. 2-2


2.3 Ambient Temperature and Humidity Range .................................................. 2-2
2.4 Communication Port ....................................................................................... 2-3
2.4.1 EIA-485 Port ........................................................................................................................ 2-3

2.4.2 Ethernet Port........................................................................................................................ 2-3

2.4.3 Optical Fibre Port ................................................................................................................. 2-3

2.4.4 Print Port .............................................................................................................................. 2-4

2.4.5 Clock Synchronization Port ................................................................................................. 2-4

2.5 Type Tests ........................................................................................................ 2-4


2.5.1 Environmental Tests ............................................................................................................ 2-4

2.5.2 Mechanical Tests ................................................................................................................. 2-4

2.5.3 Electrical Tests ..................................................................................................................... 2-5

2.5.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility ............................................................................................. 2-5

2.6 Certifications ................................................................................................... 2-6


2.7 Protective Functions....................................................................................... 2-6
2.7.1 Generator/ Excitor Differential Protection ............................................................................ 2-6

2.7.2 Excitation Transformer Differential Protection ..................................................................... 2-7

2.7.3 Generator Transverse Differential Protection ...................................................................... 2-7

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2 Technical Data

2.7.4 Generator Longitudinal Residual Overvoltage Protection ................................................... 2-7

2.7.5 Generator Stator Earth-fault Protection ............................................................................... 2-7

2.7.6 Stator Earth-fault Protection with External Inject Principle .................................................. 2-8

2.7.7 Generator Rotor Earth-fault Protection ............................................................................... 2-8

2.7.8 Generator Stator Overload Protection ................................................................................. 2-8

2.7.9 Generator Negative-sequence Overload Protection ........................................................... 2-8

2.7.10 Excitation Windings Overload Protection .......................................................................... 2-9

2.7.11 Generator Loss-of-excitation Protection ............................................................................ 2-9

2.7.12 Generator Out-of-step Protection ...................................................................................... 2-9

2.7.13 Generator Voltage Abnormality Protection ........................................................................ 2-9

2.7.14 Generator Over-excitation Protection .............................................................................. 2-10

2.7.15 Generator Power Protection ............................................................................................ 2-10

2.7.16 Generator Frequency Protection ..................................................................................... 2-10

2.7.17 Generator Inadvertent Energization Protection ............................................................... 2-10

2.7.18 Generator Startup/shutdown Protection ...........................................................................2-11

2.7.19 Low-impedance Protection ...............................................................................................2-11

2.7.20 Voltage Controlled Overcurrent Protection.......................................................................2-11

2.7.21 Mechanical Protection ......................................................................................................2-11

2.7.22 Breaker Failure Protection at Generator Terminal............................................................2-11

2.8 Metering Scope and Accuracy ..................................................................... 2-12


2.9 Management Functions ................................................................................ 2-12
2.9.1 Clock Performance ............................................................................................................ 2-12

2.9.2 Fault and Disturbance Recording ...................................................................................... 2-12

2.9.3 Binary Input Signal............................................................................................................. 2-12

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2 Technical Data

2.1 Electrical Specifications


2.1.1 AC Current Input
Standard IEC 60255-27:2005
Phase rotation ABC
Nominal frequency (fn) 505Hz, 605Hz
Rated Current (In) 1A 5A
Linear to 0.05In~40In
Thermal withstand
-continuously 4In
-for 10s 30In
-for 1s 100In
-for half a cycle 250In
Burden < 0.15VA/phase @In < 0.25VA/phase @In
Accuracy 0.5%In

2.1.2 AC Voltage Input


Standard IEC 60255-6, IEC60288
Phase rotation ABC
Nominal frequency (fn) 505Hz, 605Hz
Rated Voltage (Un) 50~120V 100~220Vbroken-delta voltage
Linear to 1~170V 2V~233V
Thermal withstand
-continuously 200V 220V
-10s 260V 380V
-1s 300V 420V
Burden at rated < 0.20VA/phase @Un < 0.80VA/phase @Un
Accuracy 0.5%Un

2.1.3 Power Supply


Standard IEC 60255-11:2008
Rated Voltage 110Vdc/125Vdc, 220Vdc/250Vdc
Operating Range 80%~120% of rated voltage
Permissible AC ripple voltage 15% of the nominal auxiliary voltage
Burden
Quiescent condition <25W
Operating condition <30W

2.1.4 Binary Input


Rated Voltage 24V 48V 110V 125V 220V 250V
Rated current drain 1.2mA 2.4mA 1.1mA 1.25mA 2.2mA 2.5mA
Pickup voltage 55%~70% of rated voltage

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2 Technical Data

Dropoff voltage <55% of rated voltage


Maximum permissible voltage 120% of rated voltage
Withstand voltage
2000Vac, 2800Vdc
-continuously
Response time for logic input <1ms

2.1.5 Binary Output


Contact Type Trip output Signal output
Output mode Potential free contact
5A@380Vac 8A@380Vac
Continuous carry
5A@250Vdc 8A@250Vdc
Pickup time <8ms (typical 3ms) <10ms
Dropoff time <5ms <8ms
0.65A@48Vdc 1.20A@48Vdc
Breaking capacity (L/R=40ms) 0.30A@110Vdc 0.50A@110Vdc
0.15A@220Vdc 0.25A@220Vdc
Electrical life 10000 times 10000 times
Maximal system voltage 380Vac, 250Vdc
Test voltage across open contact 1000V RMS for 1min 1200V RMS for 1min
6A@3s 10A@3s
Short duration current 15A@0.5s 20A@0.5s
30A@0.2s 30A@0.2s

2.2 Mechanical Specifications


Mounting Way Flush mounted
Housing color Silver grey
Weight per device Approx. 40kg
Housing material Aluminum
Location of terminal Rear panel of the device
Device structure Plug-in modular type @ rear side, integrated front plate
Protection class
Standard IEC 60225-1:2009
Front side IP40
Other sides IP50 (chassis without cooling holes), IP30 (chassis with cooling holes)
Rear side, connection terminals IP30

2.3 Ambient Temperature and Humidity Range


Standard IEC 60225-1:2009
Operating temperature -20C to +55C
Transport and storage temperature
-40C to +70C
range
Permissible humidity 5%-95%, without condensation

2-2 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

Pollution degree 2
Altitude <3000m

2.4 Communication Port


2.4.1 EIA-485 Port
Baud rate 4.8kbit/s, 9.6kbit/s, 19.2kbit/s, 38.4kbit/s, 57.6kbit/s, 115.2kbit/s
Protocol IEC 60870-5-103:1997
Maximal capacity 32
Transmission distance <500m
Safety level Isolation to ELV level
Twisted pair Screened twisted pair cable

2.4.2 Ethernet Port


Connector type RJ-45
Transmission rate 100Mbits/s
Transmission standard 100Base-TX
Transmission distance <100m
Protocol IEC 60870-5-103:1997 or IEC 61850
Safety level Isolation to ELV level

2.4.3 Optical Fibre Port

2.4.3.1 For Station Level

Characteristic Glass optical fiber


Connector type ST, SC
Fibre type Multi mode
Transmission distance <2km
Wave length 1310nm
Transmission power Min. -20.0dBm
Minimum receiving power Min. -30.0dBm
Margin Min +3.0dB

2.4.3.2 For Process Level

Characteristic Glass optical fiber


Connector type LC
Fibre type Multi mode
Transmission distance <2km
Wave length 1310nm
Transmission power Min. -20.0dBm
Minimum receiving power Min. -30.0dBm
Margin Min +3.0dB

PCS-985G Generator Relay 2-3


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

2.4.3.3 For Pilot Channel

Characteristic Glass optical fiber


Connector type FC
Fibre type Single mode
Transmission distance <40km (1310nm), <100km (1550nm)
Wave length 1310nm, 1550nm
Transmission power Min. -18.0dBm
Minimum receiving power Min. -38.0dBm
Margin Min +3.0dB

2.4.3.4 For Synchronization Port

Characteristic Glass optical fiber


Connector type ST
Fibre type Multi mode
Wave length 820nm
Minimum receiving power Min. -25.0dBm
Margin Min +3.0dB

2.4.4 Print Port


Type RS-232
Baud Rate 4.8kbit/s, 9.6kbit/s, 19.2kbit/s, 38.4kbit/s, 57.6kbit/s, 115.2kbit/s

Printer type EPSON 300K printer
Safety level Isolation to ELV level

2.4.5 Clock Synchronization Port


Type RS-485
Transmission distance <500m
Maximal capacity 32
Timing standard PPS, IRIG-B
Safety level Isolation to ELV level

2.5 Type Tests


2.5.1 Environmental Tests

Dry cold test IEC60068-2-1:2007


Dry heat test IEC60068-2-2:2007
Damp heat test, cyclic IEC60068-2-30:2005

2.5.2 Mechanical Tests

Vibration IEC 60255-21-1:1988 Class I


Shock and bump IEC 60255-21-2:1988 Class I

2-4 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

2.5.3 Electrical Tests

Standard IEC 60255-27:2005


Dielectric tests Test voltage 2kV, 50Hz, 1min
Standard IEC 60255-5:2000
Impulse voltage tests Test voltage 5kV
Overvoltage category

Insulation resistance
Isolation resistance >100M@500VDC
measurements

2.5.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility


IEC 60255-22-1:2007
1MHz burst disturbance test Common mode: class III 2.5kV
Differential mode: class III 1.0kV
IEC60255-22-2:2008 class IV
Electrostatic discharge test For contact discharge: 8kV
For air discharge: 15kV
IEC 60255-22-3:2007 class III
Frequency sweep
Radiated amplitude-modulated
10V/m (rms), f=80~1000MHz
Radio frequency interference tests Spot frequency
Radiated amplitude-modulated
10V/m (rms), f=80MHz/160MHz/450MHz/900MHz
Radiated pulse-modulated
10V/m (rms), f=900MHz
IEC 60255-22-4:2008
Fast transient disturbance tests Power supply, I/O, Earth: class IV, 4kV, 2.5kHz, 5/50ns
Communication terminals: class IV, 2kV, 5kHz, 5/50ns
IEC 60255-22-5:2008
Power supply, AC input, I/O port: class IV, 1.2/50us
Surge immunity test
Common mode: 4kV
Differential mode: 2kV
IEC 60255-22-6:2001
Conducted RF Electromagnetic
Power supply, AC, I/O, Comm. Terminal: Class III, 10Vrms, 150
Disturbance
kHz~80MHz
Power Frequency Magnetic Field IEC 61000-4-8:2001
Immunity class V, 100A/m for 1min, 1000A/m for 3s
IEC 61000-4-9:2001
Pulse Magnetic Field Immunity
class V, 6.4/16s, 1000A/m for 3s
Damped oscillatory magnetic field IEC 61000-4-10:2001
immunity class V, 100kHz & 1MHz100A/m

PCS-985G Generator Relay 2-5


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

Auxiliary power supply performance IEC60255-11: 2008


- Voltage dips Up to 500ms for dips to 40% of rated voltage without reset
-Voltage short interruptions 100ms for interruption without rebooting

2.6 Certifications
ISO9001:2008

ISO14001:2004

OHSAS18001:2007

ISO10012:2003

CMMI L4

EMC: 2004/108/EC, EN50263:1999

Products safety(PS): 2006/95/EC, EN61010-1:2001

2.7 Protective Functions

Note!

Ie is secondary rated current of generator

In is secondary rated current of CT

Un is secondary rated voltage of VT

Pn is rated active power of generator

2.7.1 Generator/ Exciter Differential Protection


Pickup setting range of percentage differential
0.1Ie~1.5Ie
element
Setting accuracy 5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Setting range of unrestrained instantaneous
2Ie~14Ie
differential element
Setting accuracy 2.5%
Setting range of first slope of percentage differential
0~0.50
element
Setting range of maximum slope of percentage
0.30~0.80
differential element
Operation time of percentage differential protection 25ms (2 times pickup current settings)
Operation time of unrestrained instantaneous
20ms (1.5 times pickup current settings)
differential protection

2-6 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

2.7.2 Excitation Transformer Differential Protection


Pickup setting range of percentage differential
0.1Ie~1.5Ie
element
Setting accuracy 5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Setting range of unrestrained instantaneous
2Ie~14Ie
differential element
Setting accuracy 2.5%
Setting range of first slope of percentage differential
0~0.50
element
Setting range of maximum slope of percentage
0.50~0.80
differential element
Secondary harmonic restraint coefficient 0.10~0.35
Operation time of percentage differential protection 35ms(2 times pickup current settings)
Operation time of unrestrained instantaneous
25ms(1.5 times pickup current settings)
differential protection

2.7.3 Generator Transverse Differential Protection


Setting range of transverse differential element 0.1ln~10ln
High setting range of transverse differential element 0.1ln~10ln
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Time delay of transverse differential element
0.1~10s
(one-point earth)
Operating time 35ms (1.5 times pickup current settings)

2.7.4 Generator Longitudinal Residual Overvoltage Protection


Setting range of longitudinal residual voltage element 1~10V
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.05V whichever is greater
Setting accuracy of calculated longitudinal residual
2.5% or 0.05V whichever is greater
voltage element
Time delay of longitudinal residual voltage element 0.1~10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.5 Generator Stator Earth-fault Protection


Setting range of residual voltage blocking element 1~100V
Setting range of residual voltage element 0.1~50V
High setting range of residual voltage element 0.1~50V
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.05V whichever is greater
Setting range of third harmonic voltage ratio element 0.5~10
Setting range of third harmonic voltage differential
0.05~2.0
element
Setting accuracy 5%
Time delay 0.1~10s

PCS-985G Generator Relay 2-7


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.6 Stator Earth-fault Protection with External Inject Principle


Resistance setting range 0.1~30k
Setting accuracy 5%
Residual current setting range 0.02~1.50A
Setting accuracy 5% or 0.001A whichever is greater
Time delay 0.1~10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.7 Generator Rotor Earth-fault Protection


Resistance setting range of one-point earth 0.1~100k
Setting accuracy 10% or 0.5k whichever is greater
negative-sequence voltage setting range of 2nd
0.1~10V
harmonic
Setting range of switchover cycle 0.5~10s
Time delay 0.1~10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 1s

2.7.8 Generator Stator Overload Protection


Definite-time current setting range 0.1In~10In
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Inverse-time pickup current setting range 0.1In~20In
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Time delay 0.1 ~10s
Setting accuracy 1%Seting + 40ms
Setting range of thermal capacity of stator windings 1~100
Setting range of heat emission factor 1.02~2.0

2.7.9 Generator Negative-sequence Overload Protection


Definite-time negative-sequence current setting range 0.1In~4In
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Time delay 0.1~10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms
Inverse-time negative-sequence pickup current
0.05In~1In
setting range
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Setting range of rotor heat constant 1~100
Setting range of continuous tolerable
0.05ln~1ln
negative-sequence current

2-8 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

2.7.10 Excitation Windings Overload Protection


Definite-time current setting range 0.1ln~20ln
Inverse-time pickup current setting range 0.05ln~10ln
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Time delay 0.1~25s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms
Setting range of thermal capacity factor 1~100
Setting range of reference current 0.1ln~10ln

2.7.11 Generator Loss-of-excitation Protection


Impedance setting range (Z1) 0.1 ~ 200
Impedance setting range (Z2) 0.1 ~ 200
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.1 whichever is greater
Reverse reactive power setting range 0 ~ 50.00%Pn
Setting accuracy 1% or 0.002Pn whichever is greater
Low-voltage setting range of rotor 1 ~ 500V
No-load voltage setting range of rotor 1 ~ 500V
Low-voltage setting range of bus or generator terminal 0.1 ~ 100V
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.05V whichever is greater
Setting range of rotor low-voltage factor 0 ~ 10
Time delay of stage 1 and stage 2 0.1 ~ 10s
Time delay of stage 3 0.1 ~ 3000s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.12 Generator Out-of-step Protection


Impedance setting A range 0 ~ 100
Impedance setting B range 0 ~ 100
Impedance setting C range 0 ~ 100
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.1whichever is greater
Setting range of sensitive angle 0 ~ 90
Setting range of lens inner angle lens 0 ~ 150
Setting accuracy 3
Setting range of pole slipping number 1 ~ 1000
Setting range of permitted tripping current 0.1ln ~ 20ln
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater

2.7.13 Generator Voltage Abnormality Protection


Vero-voltage setting range 0.1 ~ 200V
Under-voltage setting range 0.1 ~ 100V
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.05V whichever is greater
Time delay 0 ~ 10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

PCS-985G Generator Relay 2-9


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

2.7.14 Generator Over-excitation Protection


Definite time V/F setting range 1.0 ~ 2.0 pu
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01 whichever is greater
Definite time delay for tripping 0.1 ~ 3000.0s
Definite time delay for alarm 0.1 ~ 25s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms
Inverse time V/F setting range 1.0 ~ 2.0 pu
Inverse time delay for tripping 0.1 ~ 3000.0s

2.7.15 Generator Power Protection


Setting range of reverse power element 0.5 ~ 50%Pn
Setting range of reverse power sequential tripping
0.5 ~ 10%Pn
element
Setting range of under-power element 0.5 ~ 10%Pn
Setting accuracy 10% or 0.002Pn whichever is greater
Time delay of reverse power element 0.1 ~ 3000s
Time delay of reverse power sequential tripping
0.01~10s
element
Time delay of under-power element 0.01~10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.16 Generator Frequency Protection


Setting range of underfrequency protection (stage
0.90~1.02fn
1~3)
Setting range of overfrequency protection (stage 1-2) 1.00~1.20fn
Setting accuracy 0.02Hz
Time delay of underfrequency protection (stage 1~2) 0.1 ~ 300min
Time delay of underfrequency protection (stage 3) 0.1 ~ 100s
Time delay of overfrequency protection (stage 1) 0.1 ~ 100min
Time delay of overfrequency protection (stage 2) 0.1 ~ 100s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.17 Generator Inadvertent Energization Protection


Current setting range of inadvertent energization
0.1ln ~ 10ln
protection
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Undervoltage setting range of inadvertent
6~80V
energization protection
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.05V whichever is greater
Blocking frequency setting range 0.80~1.00fn
Time delay of inadvertent energization protection 0.01 ~ 1.0s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2-10 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

2.7.18 Generator Startup/shutdown Protection


Blocking frequency setting range 0.80~1.00fn
Differential current setting range 0.2le~10Ie
Setting accuracy 5% or 0.02In whichever is greater
Overcurrent setting range under low-frequency
0.1ln ~ 20ln
condition
Setting accuracy 5% or 0.02In whichever is greater
Residual voltage setting range 5 ~ 25V
Setting accuracy 5% or 0.02Un whichever is greater
Time delay 0 ~ 10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms
setting range

2.7.19 Low-impedance Protection


Forward impedance setting range 0.1 ~ 100
Reverse impedance setting range 0.1 ~ 100
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.1 whichever is greater
Time delay 0.1 ~ 10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.20 Voltage Controlled Overcurrent Protection


Negative-sequence voltage setting range 1 ~ 20V
Low voltage setting range 10 ~ 100V
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.05V whichever is greater
Current setting range 0.1ln ~ 20ln
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Time delay 0 ~ 10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.21 Mechanical Protection


Time delay 0.1 ~ 10s
Setting accuracy 1%Setting + 40ms

2.7.22 Breaker Failure Protection at Generator Terminal


Phase current setting range 0.1ln ~ 4ln
Negative-sequence current setting range 0.1ln ~ 4ln
Setting accuracy 2.5% or 0.01In whichever is greater
Time delay 0.1~ 10s
Setting accuracy 1% + 40ms

PCS-985G Generator Relay 2-11


Date: 2013-06-24
2 Technical Data

2.8 Metering Scope and Accuracy


Metering Item Range Accuracy
Phase range 0~ 360 0.5% or 1
Frequency 35.00Hz ~ 70.00Hz 0.02Hz
Currents from dedicated metering current transformers
Current 0.05 ~ 1.40In 0.2% of rating
Active power (W) 0.05 ~ 1.20Un, 0.05 ~ 1.40In 1.0% of rating at unity power factor
Currents from protection measurement current transformers
Current 0.05 ~ 1.40In 2.0% of rating
Voltage 0.05 ~ 1.20Un 1.0% of rating
Active power (W) 0.05 ~ 1.20Un, 0.05 ~ 1.40In 3.0% of rating at unity power factor

2.9 Management Functions


2.9.1 Clock Performance
Real time clock accuracy 3s/day
Accuracy of GPS synchronization 1ms
External time synchronization IRIG-B (200-98), PPS, IEEE1588 or SNTP protocol

2.9.2 Fault and Disturbance Recording


Magnitude and relative phases 2.5% of applied quantities
Maximum duration 2048 sampled points (24 sampled points per cycle)
Recording position 3 cycles before pickup of trigger element

2.9.3 Binary Input Signal


Resolution of binary input signal 1ms
Binary input mode Potential-free contact
Resolution of SOE 2ms

2-12 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-24
3 Operation Theory

3 Operation Theory

Table of Contents
3 Operation Theory ............................................................................ 3-a
3.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 Fault Detector (FD) .......................................................................................... 3-1
3.2.1 Differential Protection of Generator ..................................................................................... 3-2

3.2.2 Inter-turn Protection of Generator ....................................................................................... 3-2

3.2.3 Stator Earth-fault Protection of Generator ........................................................................... 3-2

3.2.4 Stator Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection of Generator........................................ 3-2

3.2.5 Rotor Earth-fault Protection of Generator ........................................................................... 3-2

3.2.6 Stator Overload Protection of Generator ............................................................................. 3-3

3.2.7 Negative-sequence Overload Protection of Generator ....................................................... 3-3

3.2.8 Loss-of-excitation Protection of Generator .......................................................................... 3-3

3.2.9 Out-of-step Protection of Generator .................................................................................... 3-3

3.2.10 Voltage Protection of Generator ........................................................................................ 3-3

3.2.11 Over-excitation Protection of Generator ............................................................................ 3-3

3.2.12 Power Protection of Generator .......................................................................................... 3-4

3.2.13 Frequency Protection of Generator ................................................................................... 3-4

3.2.14 Inadvertent Energization Protection of Generator ............................................................. 3-4

3.2.15 Startup/shutdown Protection of Generator ........................................................................ 3-4

3.2.16 Differential Protection of Excitation Transformer/Exciter ................................................... 3-4

3.2.17 Overcurrent Protection/Overload Protection of Excitation Transformer/Exciter................ 3-5

3.2.18 Breaker Failure Protection at Generator Terminal............................................................. 3-5

3.2.19 Mechanical Protection ....................................................................................................... 3-5

3.3 Differential Protection of Excitation Transformer/Exciter............................ 3-5


3.3.1 Operation Characteristic ...................................................................................................... 3-5

3.3.2 Inrush Current Detection Element ....................................................................................... 3-7

PCS-985G Generator Relay 3-a


Date: 2013-06-28
3 Operation Theory

3.3.3 CT Saturation Detection Element ........................................................................................ 3-8

3.3.4 High-setting Percentage Differential Protection Element (HSDP) ...................................... 3-8

3.3.5 Unrestrained Instantaneous Differential Protection Element (UIDP) .................................. 3-9

3.3.6 Differential Current Abnormality Alarm and CT Circuit Failure Blocking ............................. 3-9

3.3.7 Overexcitation Detection Element ..................................................................................... 3-10

3.3.8 Logic Scheme .....................................................................................................................3-11

3.4 Differential Protection of Generator ............................................................ 3-12


3.4.1 Percentage Differential Protection (SPDP) ....................................................................... 3-12

3.4.2 High Performance Blocking Technique in Case of CT Saturation .................................... 3-13

3.4.3 High-setting Percentage Differential Protection (HSDP) ................................................... 3-14

3.4.4 Unrestrained Instantaneous Differential Protection (UIDP) .............................................. 3-14

3.4.5 Differential Current Abnormality Alarm and CT Circuit Failure Blocking ........................... 3-14

3.4.6 Logic Scheme .................................................................................................................... 3-15

3.5 DPFC Differential Protection ........................................................................ 3-15


3.5.1 Operation Characteristic .................................................................................................... 3-16

3.5.2 Differential Current Abnormality Alarm and CT Circuit Failure Blocking ........................... 3-17

3.5.3 Logic Scheme .................................................................................................................... 3-17

3.6 Generator Inter-turn Protection ................................................................... 3-18


3.6.1 High-sensitive Transverse Differential Protection ............................................................. 3-18

3.6.2 Longitudinal Residual Voltage Protection .......................................................................... 3-20

3.6.3 VT2 Circuit Failure Alarm and Blocking ............................................................................. 3-20

3.6.4 DPFC Inter-turn Protection ................................................................................................ 3-21

3.6.5 Calculated Longitudinal Residual Voltage Protection ....................................................... 3-21

3.6.6 VT1 Circuit Failure Alarm and Blocking ............................................................................. 3-23

3.7 Phase-to-phase Backup Protection of Generator ...................................... 3-23


3.7.1 Voltage Controlled Overcurrent Protection ........................................................................ 3-23

3.7.2 Impedance Protection........................................................................................................ 3-25

3.8 Stator Earth-fault Protection ........................................................................ 3-27


3.8.1 Fundamental Residual Overvoltage Protection ................................................................. 3-27

3.8.2 Third Harmonic Voltage Ratio Protection .......................................................................... 3-28

3-b PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-28
3 Operation Theory

3.8.3 Third Harmonic Voltage Differential Protection ................................................................. 3-29

3.8.4 VT Circuit Failure Blocking ................................................................................................ 3-29

3.8.5 Logic Scheme .................................................................................................................... 3-30

3.9 Stator Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection ................................... 3-32


3.9.1 Earthing Resistance Criterion ............................................................................................ 3-32

3.9.2 Earthing Current Criterion.................................................................................................. 3-33

3.9.3 External Voltage Circuit Monitoring ................................................................................... 3-33

3.9.4 Logic Scheme .................................................................................................................... 3-34

3.10 Rotor Earth-fault Protection with Ping-pang Type ................................... 3-34


3.10.1 One-point Earth-fault Protection ...................................................................................... 3-34

3.10.2 Two-points Earth fault Protection .................................................................................... 3-35

3.11 Rotor Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection .................................. 3-36


3.11.1 One-point Earth-fault Protection ...................................................................................... 3-36

3.11.2 Two-point Earth-fault Protection ...................................................................................... 3-37

3.12 Stator Overload Protection......................................................................... 3-38


3.12.1 Definite-time Stator Overload Protection ......................................................................... 3-38

3.12.2 Inverse-time Stator Overload Protection ......................................................................... 3-39

3.13 Negative-sequence Overload Protection .................................................. 3-40


3.13.1 Definite-time Negative-sequence Overload Protection ................................................... 3-40

3.13.2 Inverse-time Negative-sequence Overload Protection ................................................... 3-41

3.14 Loss-of-excitation Protection..................................................................... 3-42


3.14.1 Undervoltage Criterion ..................................................................................................... 3-42

3.14.2 Stator-side Impedance Criterion ...................................................................................... 3-43

3.14.3 Rotor-side Criterion ......................................................................................................... 3-44

3.14.4 Logic Scheme .................................................................................................................. 3-45

3.15 Out-of-step Protection ................................................................................ 3-46


3.16 Generator Voltage Protection ..................................................................... 3-48
3.16.1 Overvoltage Protection .................................................................................................... 3-48

3.16.2 Undervoltage Protection .................................................................................................. 3-49

3.17 Over-excitation Protection ......................................................................... 3-50

PCS-985G Generator Relay 3-c


Date: 2013-06-28
3 Operation Theory

3.17.1 Definite-time Over-excitation Protection .......................................................................... 3-50

3.17.2 Inverse-time Over-excitation Protection .......................................................................... 3-50

3.18 Power Protection......................................................................................... 3-51


3.18.1 Reverse Power Protection ............................................................................................... 3-51

3.18.2 Sequence Tripping Reverse Power Protection ............................................................... 3-52

3.18.3 Low Power Protection...................................................................................................... 3-53

3.19 Frequency Protection ................................................................................. 3-53


3.19.1 Underfrequency Protection .............................................................................................. 3-53

3.19.2 Overfrequency Protection ................................................................................................ 3-53

3.19.3 Logic Scheme .................................................................................................................. 3-54

3.20 Inadvertent Energization Protection.......................................................... 3-54


3.21 Startup and Shutdown Protection ............................................................. 3-56
3.22 Overload Protection of Excitation Windings ............................................ 3-57
3.22.1 Definite-time Excitation Winding Overload Protection .................................................... 3-57

3.22.2 Inverse-time Excitation Winding Overload Protection ..................................................... 3-58

3.23 Excitation Transformer /Exciter Overcurrent Protection ......................... 3-59


3.24 Breaker Failure Protection at Generator Terminal ................................... 3-59
3.25 CT Circuit Supervision ............................................................................... 3-60
3.25.1 Three-phase Current Circuit Failure Alarm ..................................................................... 3-60

3.25.2 Differential Current Alarm in Differential Protection Circuit ............................................. 3-60

3.25.3 Alarm or Blocking to Differential Protection by CT Circuit Failure ................................... 3-61

3.26 VT Circuit Supervision ................................................................................ 3-61


3.26.1 VT Circuit of Any Side Failure Alarm ............................................................................... 3-61

3.26.2 Voltage Valance on Generator Terminals ........................................................................ 3-62

3.26.3 Three-phase Voltage Circuit Failure Supervision ............................................................ 3-62

3.27 Mechanical protection ................................................................................ 3-62

List of Figures
Figure 3.1-1 Hardware structure ................................................................................................ 3-1

Figure 3.3-1 Operation characteristic of differential protection............................................. 3-6

3-d PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-28
3 Operation Theory

Figure 3.3-2 Operation characteristic of HSDP ........................................................................ 3-9

Figure 3.3-3 Logic diagram of differential protection............................................................ 3-11

Figure 3.4-1 Operation characteristic of percentage differential protection ...................... 3-12

Figure 3.4-2 Logic diagram of differential protection............................................................ 3-15

Figure 3.5-1 Operating characteristic of DPFC percentage differential protection ........... 3-17

Figure 3.5-2 Logic diagram of DPFC percentage differential protection ............................ 3-17

Figure 3.6-1 Logic diagram of high-setting stage transverse differential protection ........ 3-19

Figure 3.6-2 Logic diagram of sensitive stage transverse differential protection ............. 3-19

Figure 3.6-3 Logic diagram of longitudinal residual voltage protection ............................. 3-20

Figure 3.6-4 Logic diagram of calculated longitudinal residual voltage protection .......... 3-22

Figure 3.7-1 Logic diagram of overcurrent protection .......................................................... 3-25

Figure 3.7-2 Operation characteristic of impedance protection .......................................... 3-26

Figure 3.7-3 Logic diagram of impedance protection ........................................................... 3-27

Figure 3.8-1 Logic diagram of stator earth-fault protection ................................................. 3-31

Figure 3.9-1 Circuit design of stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection ............ 3-32

Figure 3.9-2 Logic diagram of stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection ........... 3-34

Figure 3.10-1 Schematic diagram of measurement principle............................................... 3-35

Figure 3.10-2 Logic diagram of one-point earth fault protection ......................................... 3-35

Figure 3.10-3 Logic diagram of two-points earth fault protection ....................................... 3-36

Figure 3.11-1 Measuring scheme of voltage injection into the rotor winding at single-end
.............................................................................................................................................. 3-36

Figure 3.11-2 Measuring scheme of voltage injection into the rotor winding at double-ends
.............................................................................................................................................. 3-37

Figure 3.11-3 Logic diagram of one-point earth-fault protection ......................................... 3-37

Figure 3.11-4 Logic diagram of two-points earth-fault protection ....................................... 3-38

Figure 3.12-1 Logic diagram of definite-time stator overload protection ........................... 3-39

Figure 3.12-2 Operation curve of inverse-time stator overload protection ........................ 3-39

Figure 3.12-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time stator overload protection ........................... 3-40

Figure 3.13-1 Logic diagram of definite-time negative-sequence overload protection .... 3-41

Figure 3.13-2 Operation curve of inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection.. 3-41

PCS-985G Generator Relay 3-e


Date: 2013-06-28
3 Operation Theory

Figure 3.13-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection..... 3-42

Figure 3.14-1 Operation characteristic of steady-state stabilization impedance circle .... 3-43

Figure 3.14-2 Operation characteristic of asynchronous impedance circle ...................... 3-44

Figure 3.14-3 Logic diagram of loss-of-excitation protection (stage 1) .............................. 3-45

Figure 3.14-4 Logic diagram of loss-of-excitation protection (stage 2) .............................. 3-46

Figure 3.14-5 Logic diagram of loss-of-excitation protection (stage 3) .............................. 3-46

Figure 3.15-1 Operation characteristic of out-of-step protection ........................................ 3-47

Figure 3.15-2 Logic diagram of out-of-step protection ......................................................... 3-48

Figure 3.16-1 Logic diagram of overvoltage protection ........................................................ 3-49

Figure 3.16-2 Logic diagram of undervoltage protection ..................................................... 3-49

Figure 3.17-1 Logic diagram of definite-time over-excitation protection............................ 3-50

Figure 3.17-2 Inverse-time characteristics ............................................................................. 3-51

Figure 3.17-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time over-excitation protection ............................ 3-51

Figure 3.18-1 Logic diagram of reverse power protection ................................................... 3-52

Figure 3.18-2 Logic diagram of sequence tripping reverse power protection ................... 3-52

Figure 3.18-3 Logic diagram of low power protection .......................................................... 3-53

Figure 3.19-1 Logic diagram of underfrequency protection................................................. 3-54

Figure 3.19-2 Logic diagram of overfrequency protection ................................................... 3-54

Figure 3.20-1 Logic diagram of inadvertent energization protection (standard version) . 3-55

Figure 3.20-2 Logic diagram of inadvertent energization protection (special version) .... 3-56

Figure 3.21-1 Logic diagram of generator startup and shutdown protection .................... 3-57

Figure 3.22-1 Logic diagram of definite time excitation winding overload protection ...... 3-57

Figure 3.22-2 Operation characteristic of inverse-time excitation winding overload


protection ............................................................................................................................ 3-58

Figure 3.22-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time excitation winding overload protection ...... 3-59

Figure 3.23-1 Logic diagram of excitation transformer or exciter overcurrent protection 3-59

Figure 3.24-1 Logic diagram of breaker failure protection ................................................... 3-60

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3 Operation Theory

3.1 Overview
The device has 2 plug-in modules (i.e. protection DSP module and fault detector DSP module),
and the logic relation between them is AND. They have independent sample circuit and output
circuit. AC current and voltage is converted into small voltage signal and sent to protection
calculation module (also called DSP module 1) and fault detector calculation module (also called
DSP module 2) respectively. Protection DSP module is responsible for protection calculation and
fault detector DSP module is responsible for fault detector. Fault detectors on fault detector DSP
module picks up to connect positive pole of power supply of output relays. Real-time data
exchange between protection DSP module and fault detector DSP module is performed. Based on
strict mutual check and self-check, any of them fails will lead to block the device and issue alarm
signal. The device will not mal-operate due to hardware error.

Serial port Ethernet


CPU
Print Clock Synchronization

AC Opto-
Signal LPF A/D DSP coupler
External BI

Protection DSP module Output


Relay

QDJ

+E
LPF A/D DSP

Fault detector DSP module

Figure 3.1-1 Hardware structure

3.2 Fault Detector (FD)


Each fault detector element will be enabled when the corresponding protection element is enabled.
After the fault detector element operates, the positive power supply will be provided to output relay
and pickup signal will keep 500ms even the fault detector element drops off. Tripping output is only
enabled if both corresponding fault detector element on fault detector DSP module and
corresponding protection element on protection DSP module operate, otherwise the device will
issue alarm signal. The fault detector element with the prefix of FD_ will delay drop-off with a
time delay of 500ms, and the fault detector element with the prefix of St_ will dropoff with no
time delay. The principle of each fault detector element is given below:

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3 Operation Theory

3.2.1 Differential Protection of Generator


When the differential current of generator is greater than the setting [I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Gen], the
fault detector element of generator differential protection [FD_Diff_Gen] and [St1_DiffProt_Gen]
will operate.

When the fundamental variation of differential current is greater than the threshold value, the fault
detector element of generator differential protection [FD_Diff_Gen] and [St2_DiffProt_Gen] will
operate.

3.2.2 Inter-turn Protection of Generator


When the transverse differential current of generator is greater than the setting
[I_SensTrvDiff_Gen], the fault detector element of generator transverse differential protection
[FD_IntTurn_Gen] and [St_TrvDiffProt_Gen] will operate.

When the longitudinal residual voltage is greater than the setting [V_SensROV_Longl_Gen], the
fault detector element of longitudinal residual voltage protection [FD_IntTurn_Gen] and
[St_ROV_Longl_Gen] will operate.

When the fundamental variation of negative-sequence voltage, current and power are greater than
their threshold values, the fault detector element of DPFC inter-turn protection [FD_IntTurn_Gen]
and [St_DPFC_IntTurn_Gen] will operate.

When the calculated longitudinal residual voltage is greater than the setting
[V_SensROV_Longl_Gen], the fault detector element of longitudinal residual voltage protection
[FD_IntTurn_Gen] and [St_ROV_Longl2_Gen] will operate.

3.2.3 Stator Earth-fault Protection of Generator


When residual voltage of generator terminal and neutral point are greater than the setting
[V_SensROV_Sta], the fault detector element of residual voltage protection [FD_StaEF_Gen] and
[St_ROVProt_Sta] will operate.

When third harmonic voltage ratio is greater than the setting [k_V3rdHRatio_PreSync_Sta] or
[k_V3rdHRatio_PostSync_Sta], the fault detector element of third harmonic voltage ratio
protection [FD_StaEF_Gen] and [St_V3rdHRatio_Sta] will operate.

3.2.4 Stator Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection of Generator


When the calculated earth resistance is lower than the resistance setting [R_Trp_Inj_EF_Sta], the
fault detector element [FD_InjStaEF_Gen] and [St_InjR_Sta] will operate.

When earthing current of stator without being subjected to digital filter is greater than the current
setting [I_ROC_Inj_EF_Sta], the fault detector element [FD_InjStaEF_Gen] and [St_InjI0_Sta] will
operate.

3.2.5 Rotor Earth-fault Protection of Generator


When grounded resistance of rotor windings is smaller than its setting [R_1PEF_RotWdg], the
fault detector element of rotor one-point earth-fault protection [FD_EF_RotWdg] and

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3 Operation Theory

[St_1PEF_RotWdg] will operate.

When the change of rotor grounding location is greater than its internally fixed setting, the fault
detector element of rotor two-points earth-fault protection will [FD_EF_RotWdg] and
[St_2PEF_RotWdg] operate.

3.2.6 Stator Overload Protection of Generator


When maximum value of three phase currents is greater than the setting [I_OvLd_Sta], the fault
detector element of definite-time overload protection [FD_StaOvLd_Gen] and [St_OvLd_Sta] will
operate.

When the inverse time accumulated value is greater than the setting [I_InvOvLd_Sta], the fault
detector element of inverse-time overload protection [FD_StaOvLd_Gen] and [St_InvOvLd_Sta]
will operate.

3.2.7 Negative-sequence Overload Protection of Generator


When maximum value of negative sequence current is greater than the setting [I_NegOC_Gen],
the fault detector element of definite-time negative-sequence overload protection
[FD_NegOC_Gen] and [St_NegOC_Sta] will operate.

When the inverse time accumulated value is greater than the setting [I_InvNegOC_Gen], the fault
detector element of inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection [FD_NegOC_Gen] and
[St_InvNegOC_Sta] will operate.

3.2.8 Loss-of-excitation Protection of Generator


When the locus of calculated impedance enters into impedance circle, the fault detector of
loss-of-excitation protection [FD_LossExc_Gen] and [St_LossExcn_Gen] (n can be 1, 2 or 3) will
operate.

3.2.9 Out-of-step Protection of Generator


When the locus of calculated impedance leaves boundary of impedance operation zone, the fault
detector of out-of-step protection [FD_OOS_Gen] and [St_x_OOS_Gen] (x can be Ext or Int) will
operate.

3.2.10 Voltage Protection of Generator

When maximum value of three phase-to-phase voltage is greater than the setting [V_OVn_Gen],
the fault detector element of overvoltage protection [FD_VoltProt_Gen] and [St_OVn_Gen] will
operate (n can be 1 or 2).

When maximum value of three phase-to-phase voltage is greater than the setting [V_UV_Gen],
the fault detector element of overvoltage protection [FD_VoltProt_Gen] and [St_UV_Gen] will
operate.

3.2.11 Over-excitation Protection of Generator


When the measured U/F is greater than the setting [k_OvExc1_Gen], the fault detector element of

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3 Operation Theory

definite-time over-excitation protection [FD_OvExc_Gen] and [St_OvExc1_Gen] will operate.

When the accumulated value is greater than the setting [k0_InvOvExc_Gen], the fault detector
element of inverse-time over-excitation protection [FD_OvExc_Gen] and [St_OvExc2_Gen] will
operate.

3.2.12 Power Protection of Generator


When reverse power is greater than setting [P_RevP_Gen], the fault detector of reverse power
protection [FD_PwrProt_Gen] and [St_RevP_Gen] will operate.

When reverse power is greater than setting [P_SeqTrpRevP_Gen], the fault detector of reverse
power protection [FD_PwrProt_Gen] and [St_SeqTrpRevP_Gen] will operate.

When power is lower than setting [P_UP_Gen] and the binary input [BI_NotUrgBrake] is energized,
the fault detector of low power protection [FD_PwrProt_Gen] and [St_UP_Gen] will operate.

3.2.13 Frequency Protection of Generator


When the frequency is smaller than the setting value for a specified time interval, the fault detector
element of low-frequency protection [FD_Freq_Gen] and [St_UFn_Gen] (n can be 1, 2 or 3) will
operate.

When the frequency is greater than the setting value for a specified time interval, the fault detector
element of over-frequency protection [FD_Freq_Gen] and [St_OFx_Gen] (x can be 1 or 2) will
operate.

3.2.14 Inadvertent Energization Protection of Generator


When the maximum value of three phase currents of generator is greater than the setting
[I_OC_AccEnerg_Gen], the fault detector element of generator inadvertent energization protection
[FD_AccEnerg_Gen] and [St_AccEnerg_Gen] will operate.

3.2.15 Startup/shutdown Protection of Generator


When the differential current of generator is greater than the setting [I_GenDiff_StShut_Gen], the
fault detector element of generator startup/shutdown protection [FD_StShut_Gen] and
[St_GenDiff_StShut_Gen] will operate.

When the residual voltage of generator is greater than the setting [V_StaROV_StShut_Gen], the
fault detector element of generator startup/shutdown protection [FD_StShut_Gen] and
[St_StaROV_StShut_Gen] will operate.

When the low-frequency current of generator neutral point is greater than the setting
[I_OC_StShut_Gen], the fault detector element of generator startup/shutdown protection
[FD_StShut_Gen] and [St_OC_StShut_Gen] will operate.

3.2.16 Differential Protection of Excitation Transformer/Exciter


When the maximum value of three phase differential currents is greater than the setting
[I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Exc], the fault detector element of differential protection [FD_Diff_Exc] and
[St_DiffProt_Exc] will operate.

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3 Operation Theory

3.2.17 Overcurrent Protection/Overload Protection of Excitation


Transformer/Exciter

When the maximum value of three phase currents is greater than the setting [I_OCn_Exc] (n can
be 1 or 2), the fault detector element of overcurrent protection [FD_Bak_Exc] and [St_OCn_Exc]
will operate.

3.2.18 Breaker Failure Protection at Generator Terminal


When the binary input [BI_ExtTrpCtrl] is energized, and phase current or negative-sequence
current is greater than the setting value, the fault detector element of breaker failure protection
[FD_BFPGCBProt] and [St_BFPGCBProt] will operate.

3.2.19 Mechanical Protection


When the operation duration of mechanical protection is greater than its time delay, the fault
detector element of mechanical protection [FD_MechRly] and [St_MechRlyn] (n can be 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7 or 8) will operate.

Note!

These setting values of above fault detector elements are formed automatically by the
device, it needs not to set manually.

3.3 Differential Protection of Excitation Transformer/Exciter


3.3.1 Operation Characteristic
Operation criterion of percentage differential protection is

I d K bl I r I cdqd ( I r nIe )

K bl K bl1 K blr ( I r / I e )

I d K bl 2 ( I r nI e ) b I cdqd ( I r nI e )

K blr ( K bl 2 K bl1 ) /(2 n)


b ( K bl1 K blr n) nIe
Equation 3.3-1

I1 I 2
I r
2

I I 1 I 2
d

n is the multiple of restraint current at the second slope and is fixed at 6.

Figure 3.3-1 shows operation characteristic of differential protection.

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3 Operation Theory

Id

Operation area of unrestrained


instantaneous differential protection
Icdsd
Operation area of high-
setting percentage

io e
ro ce of
ct ag
differential protection

l p er a

n
te nt
ia p re
.0

nt te a
Kbl2

=1

re ta ion
K

ffe y s at
di d er
ea p
st O
1.2Ie
Kbl1
Icdqd
Ir
0 Ie nIe

Figure 3.3-1 Operation characteristic of differential protection

Where:

Icdqd is pickup value of differential current fault detector.

Id is differential current.

Ir is restraint current.

Ie is rated current.

Icdsd is the setting of unrestrained instantaneous differential protection.

Kbl is percentage differential restraint factor and Kb1r is its increment.

Kbl1 is the first slope of percentage differential with setting range 0.05~0.15. 0.10 is applicable
usually.

Kbl2 is the second slope of percentage differential with setting range 0.50~0.80. 0.70 is applicable
usually.

I1 represents current of HV side of excitation transformer/exciter.

I2 represents current of LV side of excitation transformer/exciter.

Steady-state percentage differential protection element will not send tripping signal in case of CT
saturation, CT circuit failure (optional), inrush current and overexcitation condition. It can ensure
sensitivity of protection and avoid unwanted operation when CT is saturated during external fault.
Its operation area is tint shadow area.

High-setting percentage differential protection element (described in section 3.3.4) will not send

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3 Operation Theory

tripping signal only due to CT circuit failure (optional) and inrush current. It eliminates influence of
transient and steady saturation of CT during external fault and ensures reliable operation even if
CT is in saturation condition during internal fault by means of its percentage restraint characteristic.
Its operation area is deep shadow area.

Unrestrained instantaneous differential protection element (described in section 3.3.5) will send
tripping signal without any blocking if differential current of any phase reaches its setting. Its
operation area is over the above two areas with no shadow.

3.3.2 Inrush Current Detection Element


1. Second harmonic restraint principle

In the device, the second harmonic of differential current can be used to distinguish inrush current.
Its operation criterion is:

I 2 nd K 2 xb I1st

Where:

I 2 nd is the second harmonic of each phase differential current.

I1st is the differential fundamental current of corresponding phase.

k 2 xb is the setting of restraint coefficient of second harmonic. (0.15 is recommended value)

2. Waveform distortion discrimination principle

During internal fault, differential currents of various sides transferred by CT are basically
fundamental sinusoidal wave. But when the transformer is energized, lots of harmonics occur. The
waveform is intermittent and unsymmetrical. A special algorithm can be used for discrimination of
the inrush current.

During internal fault, following relation exists:

S kb*S

S St

Where:

S is the full cycle integral of differential current

S+ is full cycle integral of the sum of instantaneous value of differential current and that of half
cycle before.

Kb is a fixed constant.

St is a threshold value which can be represented as follows:

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3 Operation Theory

St * I d 0.1* I e

Where:

Id is the full cycle integral of differential current.

is a proportional constant.

Ie is the secondary rated current of excitation transformer/exciter.

If any of three phases can not meet above equation, the differential current can be considered as
inrush current and percentage differential protection will be blocked.

In this device, logic setting is provided for user to select the restraint blocking principle. If the logic
setting is set as 0, discrimination by harmonics is enabled. Otherwise, discrimination by
waveform distortion is enabled.

3.3.3 CT Saturation Detection Element


In order to prevent undesired operation of steady-state percentage differential protection caused
by transient or steady-state CT saturation during external fault, composite harmonics of secondary
differential current is used for the device to discriminate CT saturation. The expression is as
following:

I cop K nxb I1

Where:

I cop is the composite harmonics of phase differential current.

I1 is the fundamental component of corresponding phase differential current.

k nxb is proportional coefficient.

For an internal fault, DPFC restraint current and DPFC differential current appear simultaneously.
If DPFC restraint current appears before DPFC differential current, it maybe an external fault. CT
saturation detection element shall be adopted in this case. It can prevent percentage differential
protection from undesired operation due to CT saturation.

3.3.4 High-setting Percentage Differential Protection Element (HSDP)


A percentage differential protection with high percentage and high setting is equipped with the
device to prevent delayed operation of percentage differential protection caused by CT saturation
and other factors during serious internal fault. This protection is blocked only by inrush current
criterion i.e. second harmonic of differential current or waveform discrimination. It can prevent
influence of steady state and transient CT saturation during external fault and can operate
correctly and quickly during internal fault even if CT is in saturation condition. Operation criterion of

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3 Operation Theory

this high setting percentage differential protection is:

I d 1.2 I e

I d 1.0 I r

Where:

Id is differential current as mentioned above.

Ir is restraint current as mentioned above.

Id

Instantaneous operation area


Icdsd

Operation area

K=1.0

1.2Ie

Ir
0

Figure 3.3-2 Operation characteristic of HSDP

When fault occurs, the operation criterion will be discriminated phase by phase and percentage
differential protection will operate if the criterion is met.

Note!

Parameters of this protection have been fixed in program and do not need to be configured
by user.

3.3.5 Unrestrained Instantaneous Differential Protection Element (UIDP)


The aim of unrestrained instantaneous differential protection for excitation transformer/exciter is to
accelerate the trip speed for excitation transformer/exciters inner fault. So the element does not
need any block element, but the setting should be greater than maximum inrush current.

Its operation criterion is:

Differential current of any phase is greater than the setting [I_InstDiff_Exc].

3.3.6 Differential Current Abnormality Alarm and CT Circuit Failure Blocking


Differential current abnormality alarm with percentage restraint and instant CT circuit failure
blocking function are equipped with the device.

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3 Operation Theory

CT circuit failure blocking function can be configured by logic setting [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_Exc].


When such failure occurs and is discriminated, issuing alarm signal only or blocking percentage
differential protection is optional. If the logic setting is set as 1, percentage differential protection
will be blocked immediately.

3.3.7 Overexcitation Detection Element


When an excitation transformer/exciter is overexcited, the exciting current will increase sharply
which may result in unwanted operation of differential protection. Therefore the overexcitation
shall be discriminated to block the current differential protection. The fifth harmonic of differential
current is used as criterion of overexcitation discrimination.

I 5th k5 xb * I1st

Where:

I1st is fundamental component of differential current.

I 5th is fifth harmonic of differential current.

k5 xb is the fifth harmonic restraint coefficient, it is fixed at 0.25.

Note!

High-setting percentage differential protection is not blocked by fifth harmonic of differential


current.

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3 Operation Theory

3.3.8 Logic Scheme

SIG Flg_UIDP_EXC

BI [EBI_Diff_Exc] &
&
EN [En_Diff_Exc]
Op_InstDiff_Exc
EN [En_InstDiff_Exc]

SIG [FD_Diff_Exc]

SET [TrpLog_Diff_Exc].Bit0

SIG Flg_Inrush_Exc

SIG Flg_HSDP_Exc

BI [EBI_Diff_Exc] & &


EN [En_Diff_Exc]

EN [En_PcntDiff_Exc]
1
SIG [Alm_CTS_Diff_Exc]

SET [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_Exc]
&
SIG [FD_Diff_Exc]

SET [TrpLog_Diff_Exc].Bit0

SIG Flg_CTsat &


SIG Flg_Inrush
1
SIG Flg_SPDP_Exc Op_PcntDiff_Exc

BI [EBI_Diff_Exc] &
EN [En_Diff_Exc]

EN [En_PcntDiff_Exc]

1
SIG [Alm_CTS_Diff_Exc]

SET [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_Exc] & &

SIG Flg_OvExc_Exc

SIG [FD_Diff_Exc]

Figure 3.3-3 Logic diagram of differential protection

Where:

FD_Diff_Exc: fault detector of differential protection of excitation transformer/exciter.

Flg_UIDP_Exc is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of UIDP element is met.

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Flg_HSDP_Exc is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of HSDP element is met.

Flg_SPDP_Exc is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of SPDP element is met.

Flg_CTsat is the flag indicating whether or not the CT is in saturation state.

Flg_Inrush is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of inrush current detection is met.

Flg_OvExc_Exc is the flag indicating whether or not the excitation transformer/exciter is in


overexcitation state.

3.4 Differential Protection of Generator


3.4.1 Percentage Differential Protection (SPDP)
Operation characteristic of percentage differential protection is as shown as following figure.

Id

Unrestraint operation area

Icdsd

Kbl2
Operation area

Restraint area

Kbl1
Icdqd
Ir
0
Ie nIe

Figure 3.4-1 Operation characteristic of percentage differential protection

Operation equation of this percentage differential protection is

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I d K bl I r I cdqd ( I r nI e )

K bl K bl1 K blr ( I r / I e )

I d K bl 2 ( I r nI e ) b I cdqd ( I r nI e )

K blr ( K bl 2 K bl1 ) /(2 n)


b ( K bl1 K blr n) nI e
Equation 3.4-1


I 1 I2

Ir
2

I d I 1 I 2

Where:

I d is differential current.

I r is restraint current.

I cdqd is pickup value of differential current.

I e is rated current of generator.

K bl is percentage differential restraint coefficient and K blr is its increment.

K bl1 is the first slope of percentage differential with setting range 0.05~0.15. 0.05 is

recommended usually.

K bl 2 is the second slope of percentage differential with setting range 0.30~0.70. 0.50 is

recommended usually.

n is the multiple of restraint current at second percentage restraint coefficient and is fixed at 4.

For differential protection of generator and exciter, I1 and I 2 are currents of terminal and neutral

point respectively.

3.4.2 High Performance Blocking Technique in Case of CT Saturation


In order to prevent unwanted operation of steady-state percentage differential protection due to CT
transient or steady state saturation during external fault, discrimination of waveform of differential
current principle is adopted as criterion of CT saturation.

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3 Operation Theory

When fault occurs, the equipment decides firstly whether it is internal or external fault. If it is
external fault, criterion of CT saturation is enabled. If any phase differential current of differential
protection meets the criterion, it is decided that this differential current comes from CT saturation
and the percentage differential protection will be blocked.

3.4.3 High-setting Percentage Differential Protection (HSDP)


A percentage differential protection with high percentage coefficient and high pick-up setting is
equipped with the equipment to prevent operation of percentage differential protection delayed by
CT saturation and other factors during serious internal fault. It can prevent influence of steady
state and transient CT saturation during external fault due to its percentage restraint characteristic
and can operate correctly and quickly during internal fault and CT being saturated. Operation
criterion of this high setting percentage differential protection is

I d 1.2 I e

I d 1.0 I r

Where:

Differential current I d and restraint current I r are the same as mentioned above.

When fault occurs, the operation criterion will be discriminated phase by phase and percentage
differential protection will operate if the criterion is met.

Parameters of this protection are configured during manufacturing and not need to be configured
in site.

3.4.4 Unrestrained Instantaneous Differential Protection (UIDP)


This protection will operate and trip immediately if differential current of any phase is higher than
its setting.

3.4.5 Differential Current Abnormality Alarm and CT Circuit Failure Blocking


Differential current abnormality alarm with percentage restraint and instant CT circuit failure
blocking function are equipped with the device.

CT circuit failure blocking function can be configured by logic setting [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_Gen].


When such failure occurs and is discriminated, issuing alarm signal only or blocking percentage
differential protection is optional. If the logic setting is set as 1, percentage differential protection
will be blocked immediately.

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3.4.6 Logic Scheme

SIG Flg_UIDP_Gen

BI [EBI_Diff_Gen] &
EN [En_Diff_Gen]
&
EN [En_InstDiff_Gen] Op_InstDiff_Gen

SIG [FD_Diff_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_Diff_Gen].Bit0

SIG Flg_HSDP_Gen

BI [EBI_Diff_Gen] &
EN [En_Diff_Gen] &
EN [En_PcntDiff_Gen]

SIG [Alm_CTS_Diff_Gen] 1

SET [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff__Gen]

&
SIG [FD_Diff_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_Diff_Gen].Bit0

SIG Flg_CTsat 1
Op_PcntDiff_Gen
SIG Flg_SPDP_Gen

BI [EBI_Diff_Gen] & & &


EN [En_Diff_Gen]

EN [En_PcntDiff_Gen]

SIG [Alm_CTS_Diff_Gen] 1

SET [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff__Gen]

SIG [FD_Diff_Gen]

Figure 3.4-2 Logic diagram of differential protection

Where:

Flg_UIDP_Gen is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of UIDP element is met.

Flg_HSDP _Gen is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of HSDP element is met.

Flg_SPDP_Gen is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of SPDP element is met.

FD_Diff_Gen: fault detector of differential protection of generator.

Flg_CTsat is the flag indicating whether or not the CT is in saturation state.

3.5 DPFC Differential Protection


If slight fault occurs in generator, steady-state differential protection may not response sensitively

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due to influence of load current. DPFC percentage differential protection of generator is equipped
with the device for that and it can significantly improve sensitivity of the protection during small
current internal fault of generator.

3.5.1 Operation Characteristic


The operation criteria of DPFC percentage differential are as follows:


I d 1.25I dt I dth
I d 0.6I r I r 2 I e

I d 0.75I r 0.3I e I r 2 I e Equation 3.5-1
I I1 I 2
r
I I1 I2
d
Where:

I dt is floating threshold which increases progressively along with DPFC increasing. Take its

multiple as 1.25 can ensure threshold voltage always a bit higher than imbalance current. So that
unwanted operation of the equipment can be avoided during power swing and frequency deviation
conditions.

I1 and I 2 are currents at the generator terminal and the neutral point of generator
respectively.

I d is DPFC differential current.

I r is DPFC restraint current whose maximum value is taken for actual restraint.

I dth is fixed threshold.

Note!

Calculation of restraint current of DPFC percentage differential protection is different from


steady-state percentage differential protection, it is difficult to test this function on site, so
we recommend only qualitative function test on site.

DPFC differential protection is equipped to each phase of generator, but the user should
know that DPFC restraint quantity for each phase is the same maximum value among the
three phases.

The following figure shows operating characteristic of DPFC percentage differential protection.

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Id

Differential current

0.75

0.6
Icdqd
Ir
2Ie Restraint current

Figure 3.5-1 Operating characteristic of DPFC percentage differential protection

When fault occurs, the operation criterion will be discriminated phase by phase and percentage
differential protection will operate if the criterion is met. This protection element has high ability to
eliminate the effect of transient and steady-state CT saturation during the external fault because
the restraint coefficient is set at a higher value.

3.5.2 Differential Current Abnormality Alarm and CT Circuit Failure Blocking


Differential current abnormality alarm with percentage restraint and instant CT circuit failure
blocking function are equipped with the device.

3.5.3 Logic Scheme

SIG Flg_CTsat

SIG Flg_DPFC_Diff_Gen

BI [EBI_Diff_Gen] & &


0ms 20ms
EN [En_Diff_Gen]

EN [En_DPFC_Diff_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_Diff_Gen].Bit0
&
Op_DPFC_Diff_Gen

SIG [Alm_CTS_Diff_Gen] 1

SET [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_Gen]

SIG [FD_Diff_Gen]

Figure 3.5-2 Logic diagram of DPFC percentage differential protection

Where:

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Flg_DPFC_Diff_Gen is the flag indicating whether or not the criterion of DPFC differential element
is met.

FD_Diff_Gen: fault detector of generator differential protection.

Flg_CTsat is the flag indicating whether or not the CT is in saturation state.

The corresponding parameters of DPFC differential protection is are fixed and need not to be set
on site.

3.6 Generator Inter-turn Protection


3.6.1 High-sensitive Transverse Differential Protection
Transverse differential protection installed on connection between two neutral points of generator
is used as main protection of inter-turn fault of generators stator winding, open circuit fault of
branches and short circuit fault between phases.

Since this protection adopts frequency tracing, digital filtering and full cycle Fourier algorithm, the
third harmonic can be reduced to 1/100 within the frequency tracing range and the protection can
response the fundamental component only.

This protection comprises two stages: high-setting stage (insensitive stage) and sensitive stage.

3.6.1.1 High-setting Stage

This stage is equivalent to traditional transverse differential protection. When the transverse
differential current is in excess of the setting [I_InsensTrvDiff_Gen], high-setting stage of
transverse differential protection operates.

3.6.1.2 Sensitive Stage

Phase current percentage restraint principle is used for this stage. The operation criterion is

I d I hcZD when I MAX I e


I MAX I e
I (1 K
hcZD ) I hcZD when I MAX I e


d
I e

Where:

I d is the transverse differential current.

I hcZD is the transverse differential current setting [I_SensTrvDiff_Gen].

I MAX is the maximum value of three phase current of generator.

I d is the rated current of generator.

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K hcZD is the restraint coefficient.

Phase current percentage restraint transverse differential principle can ensure no unwanted
operation during external fault and sensitive operation during internal fault. As this principle is
adopted, current setting of the transverse differential protection shall be only higher than
unbalance current during normal operation and much less than that of traditional transverse
differential current protection. Sensitivity for inter-turn fault of generator can be enhanced then.

This protection has also a floating threshold for high transverse differential unbalance current
during other normal operation conditions.

Operation of the high sensitive transverse differential protection will lead a tripping immediately.
When rotor of generator is grounded at one point, a configurable time delay [t_TrvDiff_Gen] will be
inserted in the tripping course. Figure 3.6-1 shows logic diagram of this protection.

3.6.1.3 Logic Scheme

SIG Flg_InsensTrvDiff_Gen

EN [En_InsensTrvDiff_Gen] &
EN [En_IntTurn_Gen] &
Op_InsensTrvDiff_Gen
BI [EBI_IntTurn_Gen]

SIG [FD_IntTurn_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_IntTurn_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.6-1 Logic diagram of high-setting stage transverse differential protection

SIG Alm_1PEF_RotWdg 1

BI [BI_1PEF_RotWdg] &
[t_TrvDiff_Gen] 0s 1
SIG Flg_SensTrvDiff_Gen

EN [En_SensTrvDiff_Gen] &
&
EN [En_IntTurn_Gen] &
Op_SensTrvDiff_Gen
BI [EBI_IntTurn_Gen]

SIG [FD_IntTurn_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_IntTurn_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.6-2 Logic diagram of sensitive stage transverse differential protection

Where:

[BI_1PEF_RotWdg]: rotor one-point earth binary input.

Flg_SensTrvDiff_Gen is flag indicating the criterion of sensitive stage transverse differential


protection of generator is met.

Flg_InsensTrvDiff_Gen is flag indicating the criterion of high-setting stage transverse differential


protection of generator is met.

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FD_IntTurn_Gen: fault detector of inter-turn protection of generator.

3.6.2 Longitudinal Residual Voltage Protection


Longitudinal residual voltage protection is configured for inter-turn fault of stator winding of
generator. It uses open-delta voltage of dedicated VT at the generator terminal as the criterion.

Since this protection adopts frequency tracing, digital filtering and full cycle Fourier algorithm, the
third harmonic can be reduced to 1/100 within the frequency tracing range and the protection can
response the basic wave component only.

Setting of this protection shall be higher than maximum unbalance voltage during external fault,
whilst directional flag indicating internal fault must be satisfied. When measured longitudinal
residual voltage is in excess of the setting [V_SensROV_Longl_Gen] and lasts for longer than the
delay setting [t_ROV_Longl_Gen], this protective element will trip breakers according to the
configuration of [TrpLog_IntTurn_Gen].

Operation of this element is usually configured to be delayed shortly by 0.1s~0.2s.

3.6.2.1 Logic Scheme

SIG Flg_Dir_NegP
&
SIG Flg_LonglROV_Gen

SIG Flag_VTS2

EN [En_SensROV_Longl_Gen]
&
EN [En_IntTurn_Gen]

BI [EBI_IntTurn_Gen]
&
SIG [FD_IntTurn_Gen] [t_ROV_Longl_Gen] Op_SensIntTurn_Gen

SET [TrpLog_IntTurn_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.6-3 Logic diagram of longitudinal residual voltage protection

Where:

Flg_Dir_NegP is internally generated flag indicating whether or not the direction element
calculated from negative-sequence voltage and current is met the faulty condition.

Flg_LonglROV_Gen is internally generated flag indicating whether or not the longitudinal residual
overvoltage protection operates.

3.6.3 VT2 Circuit Failure Alarm and Blocking


Longitudinal residual voltage protection for inter-turn fault of stator shall be blocked when the
dedicated VT2 circuit at the generator terminal fails. There are two criteria to decide to whether or
not block the protection.

Criterion 1:

1. Negative-sequence voltage of VT1: 3U2<U2_set1 and broken-delta voltage of VT2: 3U0>Uozd

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(residual voltage setting)

2. Negative-sequence voltage of VT2: 3U2<U2_set2 and broken-delta voltage of VT2:


3U0>Uozd (residual voltage setting)

Criterion 2:

U AB U ab 5V or U BC U bc 5V or U CA U ca 5V , and broken-delta voltage of VT2:

3U0>Uozd (residual voltage setting)

Where:

U AB , U BC , U CA are phase-to-phase voltages of VT1

U ab , U bc , U ca are phase-to-phase voltages of VT2

That any one of these three sub-criteria is met means criterion 2 picks up.

When any of criterion 1 and criterion 2 operates, alarm of VT2 circuit failure will be issued with a
time delay of 40ms and longitudinal residual voltage protection will be blocked.

After VT2 circuit failure reverting to normal condition, blocking can be released by pressing the
reset button.

3.6.4 DPFC Inter-turn Protection


The operation criterion is:



FRe U 2 I 2 e j 1.25 dF

U 2 0.5V 1.25du

I 2 0.02In 1.25di

If the three criterions are met simultaneity, the directional flag of protection is set. Under
negative-sequence voltage and negative-sequence current controlling, the protection operates
after 0.2~0.5s time delay.

AC current and voltage input of DPFC inter-turn protection are from the generator terminal directly.
When the VT1 at the generator terminal fails, DPFC inter-turn protection is blocked. The setting is
default setting. The sensitivity is about 3V of longitudinal residual voltage.

DPFC inter-turn protection cannot response to inter-turn fault before the generator is connected
into the power system.

3.6.5 Calculated Longitudinal Residual Voltage Protection


Dedicated VT is not needed in this protection, calculated longitudinal residual voltage used by the

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protection is composed of residual voltage of generator terminal VT1 and neutral point, the
protection is configured for inter-turn fault of stator winding of generator.

The operation criterion is:

U z0 U f 0 K tz U n 0 U z 0 zd

Where:

U zozd is the residual voltage setting [V_SensROV_Longl_Gen].

U f 0 is residual voltage of generator terminal VT1.

U n 0 is residual voltage of neutral point.

K tz is complex number adjustment coefficient.

After the generator is connected into the power system, calculated longitudinal residual voltage
protection will be controlled by DPFC negative-sequence power direction element, the voltage
setting for this protection should be greater than the maximum unbalance voltage during normal
operation.

Calculated longitudinal residual voltage protection share the voltage setting and time delay setting
with longitudinal residual voltage protection, it can operate to issue alarm signal or trip with a short
time delay (0.1s~0.2s.)

3.6.5.1 Logic Scheme

EN [En_Alm_ROV2_Longl_Gen]

EN [En_IntTurn_Gen] &
& [t_ROV_Longl_Gen] Alm_IntTurn2_Gen
SIG Flg_ROV2_Longl_Gen

SIG Flag_VTS1

SIG Flg_Gen_UnConnect >=1

SIG Flg_Dir_NegP
&
EN [En_Trp_ROV2_Longl_Gen]

BI [EBI_IntTurn_Gen]
&
SIG [FD_IntTurn_Gen] [t_ROV_Longl_Gen] Op_SensIntTurn2_Gen

SET [TrpLog_IntTurn_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.6-4 Logic diagram of calculated longitudinal residual voltage protection

Where:

Flg_Dir_NegP is internally generated flag indicating whether or not the direction element

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calculated from negative-sequence voltage and current is met the faulty condition.

Flg_ROV2_Longl_Gen is internally generated flag indicating whether or not the calculated


longitudinal residual overvoltage protection operates.

Flg_Gen_UnConnect is the internal generated flag indicating the generator is not connected into
the power system.

3.6.6 VT1 Circuit Failure Alarm and Blocking


If VT1 circuit fails, calculated longitudinal residual voltage protection will be blocked.

Criterion 1:

1. Negative-sequence voltage of VT1: 3U2<U2_set1 and calculated longitudinal residual voltage:


3U0>Uozd (residual voltage setting)

2. Negative-sequence voltage of VT2: 3U2<U2_set2 and calculated longitudinal residual voltage:


3U0>Uozd (residual voltage setting)

Criterion 2:

U ab U AB 5V or U bc U BC 5V or U ca U CA 5V , and calculated longitudinal

residual voltage : 3U 0 >Uozd (residual voltage setting)

Where:

U AB , U BC , U CA are phase-to-phase voltages of VT1.

U ab , U bc , U ca are phase-to-phase voltages of VT2.

When any of criterion 1 and criterion 2 operates, alarm of VT1 circuit failure will be issued with a
time delay of 40ms and calculated longitudinal residual voltage protection will be blocked.

After VT1 circuit failure reverting to normal condition, blocking can be released by pressing the
reset button.

3.7 Phase-to-phase Backup Protection of Generator


3.7.1 Voltage Controlled Overcurrent Protection
This protection is used as a backup protection of generator, main transformer, HV busbar and
adjacent lines. There are two stages with their own delay settings respectively. Stage 1 is used to
trip bus coupler breaker or other circuit breaker and stage 2 to shut down the generator. Figure
3.7-1 shows its logic diagram.

3.7.1.1 Composite Voltage Element

Composite voltage element consists of phase-to-phase undervoltage element and


negative-sequence overvoltage element. These two elements are jointed together by OR gate. By

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relevant logic setting, stage 1 and stage 2 of overcurrent protection can be configured to be
controlled by composite voltage element respectively.

3.7.1.2 Current Memory

For generators with self shunt excitation, current will decrease so quickly during fault that it may be
lower than overcurrent setting before tripping. So memorized function for remember fault current is
equipped with this protection. Logic setting [En_Mem_Curr_Gen] is used for configuration of this
function.

Note!

When logic setting [En_Mem_Curr_Gen] is enabled, overcurrent protection must be


controlled by voltage element.

3.7.1.3 Blocking by HV-side Composite Voltage

Overcurrent protection can be blocked not only by composite voltage at generator terminal but
also by composite voltage at HV side of main transformer. This function can be configured by
setting logic setting [En_HVS.VCE_Ctrl_OC_Gen] as 1.

3.7.1.4 Influence on Protection Performance during VT Circuit Failure

A logic setting [Opt_VTS_Ctrl_OC_Gen] is used to configure composite voltage element during VT


circuit failure. When this logic setting is set as 1, if VT circuit failure at this side is detected, the
composite voltage element will not meet conditions to operate. When this logic setting is set as 0,
if VT circuit failure at this side is detected, composite voltage element is disabled, overcurrent
protection will not be blocked and becomes a pure overcurrent protection.

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3.7.1.5 Logic Scheme

SET Upp< [Vpp_UV_VCE_Gen] 1


&
SET U2>[V_NegOV_VCE_ Gen] 1
Flg_VCE_Gen
SIG Flg_VTS

&

SET [Opt_VTS_Ctrl_OC_Gen]

&
1
EN [En_Mem_Curr_Gen] &
SIG Flg_OCn_Gen

SIG Flg_VCE_Gen 1

EN [En_VCE_Ctrl_OCn_Gen]

EN [En_PPF_Gen]
& &
SET [TrpLog_OCn_Gen].Bint0 [t_OCn_Gen] 0s Op_OCn_Gen

BI [EBI_PPF_Gen]

SIG [FD_PPF_Gen]

Figure 3.7-1 Logic diagram of overcurrent protection

Where:

Upp represents any one of the three phase-to-phase voltage of generator.

U2 is negative sequence voltage of generator calculated by protection.

Flg_OCn_Gen is internally generated flag indicating stage n of overcurrent operates, which means
the measured current is in excess of its setting [I_OCn_Gen]..

FD_PPF_Gen: fault detector of phase-to-phase backup protection of generator.

n can be 1 or 2.

As for principle of discrimination of VT circuit failure, see section 3.26.

3.7.2 Impedance Protection


Two stages impedance protection is equipped at the generator terminal as its phase-to-phase
backup protection. Phase-to-phase current used in impedance protection is derived from CT at the
neutral point of generator. Full impedance, directional impedance or shifted impedance
characteristic can be selected to operate for these two stages. Full impedance characteristic suits
case of forward setting of a zone being equal to its reverse setting. Directional impedance
characteristic suits case of reverse setting of a zone being set as 0. Shifted impedance
characteristic suits for case that forward setting of a zone is higher than its reverse setting. Reach
angle of impedance protection is 78. Forward of the impedance protection is configurable and

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generally points to generator.

jX

I Zp

U I Zp
m
U
R


U I Zn
I Zn

Figure 3.7-2 Operation characteristic of impedance protection

Figure 3.7-2 shows operation characteristic of impedance protection. In this figure, I is phase
current, U is corresponding phase-to-phase voltage, Zn is reverse impedance setting, and Zp is
forward impedance setting.

Operation criterion:

(U I Z P )
90 Arg
270
(U I Z n )

DPFC phase-to-phase current and negative-current current are adopted as fault detector of
impedance protection. Pickup signal will be maintained 500ms and will be kept if impedance
protection operates during this time interval. Operation criterion of the fault detector is:

I 1.25I t I th

Where:

I t is floating threshold which increases gradually along with DPFC increasing. Take its multiple

as 1.25 can ensure threshold voltage always a bit higher than imbalance voltage.

Unwanted operation of the device can be avoided during conditions of power swing and frequency
deviation from nominal values.

I th is the fixed threshold. When DPFC phase-to-phase current is higher than 0.2Ie, the fault

detector operates.

The logic scheme of impedance protection is shown in Figure 3.7-3.

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SIG Flg_VTS &


SIG Flg_Zn_Gen
&
EN [En_PPF_Gen]

BI [EBI_PPF_Gen]
&
SIG [FD_PPF_Gen] [t_Zn_Gen] 0s Op_Zn_Gen

SET [TrpLog_Zn_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.7-3 Logic diagram of impedance protection

Where:

Flg_Zn_Gen is internally generated indicating stage n of distance protection of generator is met.

n can be 1 or 2.

Note!

If VT circuit failure occurs, impedance protection of generator will be blocked.

Note!

When stage 1 of phase-to-phase backup protection of generator operates to trip bus


coupler circuit breaker, this function can be selected whether or not be blocked by the logic
setting [En_CB_Ctrl_OC1_Gen].

3.8 Stator Earth-fault Protection


3.8.1 Fundamental Residual Overvoltage Protection
Single-phase earth fault within 85%~95% ranges from terminal of stator winding can be protected
by fundamental residual overvoltage protection.

Fundamental residual overvoltage protection reacts to magnitude of residual voltage of generator.


Since it adopts frequency tracing, digital filtering and full cycle Fourier algorithm, the third
harmonic can be reduced to 1/100 within the frequency tracing range and the protection can
response the basic wave component only.

This protection comprises two stages: sensitive stage and insensitive stage (high setting stage).

3.8.1.1 Sensitive Stage

Operation criterion:

U n0 U 0zd

Where:

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U n 0 is residual voltage of neutral point of generator.

U 0zd is operation threshold setting of fundamental residual voltage [V_SensROV_Sta].

When the sensitive stage operates to trip, in order to prevent sensitive stage of fundamental
residual overvoltage protection from undesired trip due to external fault, it can be blocked by
residual voltage at HV side of main transformer, and the blocking setting of residual voltage can
settable.

3.8.1.2 High-setting Stage

Operation criterion:

U n0 U 0hzd

Where:

U n0 is residual voltage of neutral point of generator.

U 0hzd is residual voltage high setting [V_InsensROV_Sta]. 20V~25V is recommended generally.

The high-setting stage can be independently set to trip.

3.8.2 Third Harmonic Voltage Ratio Protection


This protection is designed to cover only about 25% of earth fault of the stator winding away from
generator terminal. Third harmonic voltage of generator terminal is got from its broken-delta
residual voltage. Third harmonic voltage of neutral point side is got from neutral point VT of the
generator.

Operation criterion:

U 3T / U 3N K 3wzd

Where:

U 3T and U 3N are third harmonic voltage of generator terminal and neutral point respectively.

K 3wzd is the third harmonic voltage percentage setting.

During incorporation of generator to power system, the ratio U3T/U3N changes considerably owing
to variation of equivalent capacitive reactance at generator terminal. So two different settings are
designed for protection before and after connection of generator with system, and these two
settings can be switched over with alternation of contacts position of the terminal breaker.

In addition, settings are provided for deciding whether the ratio protection of third harmonics

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voltage is used for alarm or tripping or both.

Third harmonic voltage ratio protection can operates for alarm purpose or trip purpose.

3.8.3 Third Harmonic Voltage Differential Protection


Operation criterion:


U 3T K t U 3 N Kre U 3 N

Where:


U 3T and U 3 N are third harmonic vector voltage of generator terminal and neutral point

K t is automatic tracing regulation coefficient

K re is third harmonic differential percentage setting

This protection is enabled automatically when the generator has been connected with the system
and load current is higher than 0.2 Ie (generator rated current) and only issues alarms if operates.

Third harmonic voltage differential protection operates only for alarm purpose.

3.8.4 VT Circuit Failure Blocking


1. Broken-delta VT circuit failure alarm of generator terminal and neutral point of generator

Since broken-delta voltages of VT at neutral point and generator terminal are taken for residual
voltage protection of stator, failure of these VT circuits will make this protection fail to operation. So
alarm shall be issued during this case. Third harmonic voltage ratio criterion and third harmonic
voltage differential criterion shall be disabled during VT circuit failure at neutral point of generator.

The operation criterion is:

Positive-sequence voltage of secondary winding of generator terminal is higher than 0.9Un and
third harmonic of residual voltage is lower than 0.1V.

VT circuit failure alarm will be issued by delay 10s and reverted automatically by delay 10s when
the failure vanishes.

If residual voltage of generator terminal is from calculated residual voltage, broken-delta circuit
failure of VT1 at generator terminal is not discriminated.

The alarm function of broken-delta VT circuit failure of generator terminal and neutral point of
generator can be enabled or disabled by logic setting [En_Alm_DeltVTS1_Gen].

2. Primary circuit failure of VT1 at generator terminal

Secondary circuit failure of VT1 of generator terminal will not influence ground protection of stator.

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Primary circuit failure of VT1 of generator terminal will cause basic wave component of residual
voltage of generator terminal increasing and third harmonic component decreasing, and will not
cause unwanted operation of basic wave residual voltage protection and third harmonic voltage
ratio protection. However, it will cause unwanted operation of third harmonic voltage differential
protection, so this protection shall be blocked during this failure. The operation criterion is:

1. Negative-sequence voltage of VT2: 3U2<3V

2. Negative-sequence voltage of VT1: 3U2 >8V

3. Calculated residual voltage of VT1: 3U0>8V

4. Open-delta residual voltage of VT1: 3U0>8V

When these criterions are met, VT1 primary circuit failure alarm will be sent by short delay and
third harmonic voltage differential protection and third harmonic voltage ratio protection will be
blocked.

If residual voltage of generator terminal is from calculated residual voltage, primary circuit failure of
VT1 is not discriminated.

3.8.5 Logic Scheme


Figure 3.8-1 show logic diagrams of stator earth-fault protection.

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EN [En_EF_Sta]

EN [En_Alm_ROV_Sta] &
[t_ROV_Sta] 0s Alm_ROV_Sta
SIG Flg_SensROV_Sta

SIG Flg_SensROV_Sta
&
SIG Flg_Blk_SensROV_Sta

EN [En_Trp_ROV_Sta]
&
EN [En_EF_Sta]

BI [EBI_ROV_Sta]
&
SIG [FD_StaEF_Gen] [t_ROV_Sta] 0s Op_SensROV_Sta

SET [TrpLog_EF_Sta].Bint0

SIG Flg_InsensROV_Sta &

EN [En_Trp_InsensROV_Sta]
&
EN [En_EF_Sta]

BI [EBI_ROV_Sta]
&
SIG [FD_StaEF_Gen] [t_InsensROV_Sta] 0s Op_InsensROV_Sta

SET [TrpLog_EF_Sta].Bint0

EN [En_Alm_V3rdHRatio_Sta] &
[t_V3rdH_Sta] 0s Alm_V3rdHRatio_Sta
SIG Flg_VTS
&
SIG Flg_V3rdHRatio_Sta

EN [En_EF_Sta]
&
EN [En_Trp_V3rdHRatio_Sta]

BI [EBI_V3rdH_Sta]
&
SIG [FD_StaEF_Gen] [t_V3rdH_Sta] 0s Op_V3rdHRatio_Sta

SET [TrpLog_EF_Sta].Bit0

EN [En_Alm_V3rdHDiff_Sta] &
[t_V3rdH_Sta] 0s Alm_V3rdHDiff_Sta
SIG Flg_VTS
&
BI [EBI_V3rdH_Sta]

SIG Flg_V3rdHDiff_Sta

EN [En_EF_Sta]

Figure 3.8-1 Logic diagram of stator earth-fault protection

Where:

Flg_SensROV_Sta is internally generated flag indicating sensitive stage of fundamental residual


overvoltage protection operates.

Flg_Blk_SensROV_Sta is voltage blocking condition for sensitive stage fundamental residual


overvoltage protection, i.e. residual voltage at HV side of main transformer is smaller than a

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settable value and there have broken-delta residual voltage for generator terminal.

Residual voltage at HV side of main transformer, and the blocking setting of residual voltage can
settable.

When the sensitive stage operates to trip, it will be blocked by broken-delta residual voltage of
generator terminal, and the blocking setting need not be set.

Flg_InsensROV_Sta is internally generated flag indicating insensitive stage of fundamental


residual overvoltage protection operates.

Flg_V3rdHRatio_Sta is internally generated flag indicating third harmonic voltage ratio protection
operates.

Flg_V3rdHDiff_Sta is internally generated flag indicating third harmonic voltage differential


protection operates.

3.9 Stator Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection

GND Earthing Generator Main Breaker Busbar


transformer transformer

Band-Pass Filter
B10

Load
Resistor
Voltage
Rn Divider Square-wave
power supply
A2
Inter-CT

ISEF USEF RCS-985U auxiliary power


Panel B
supply for stator earth fault
protection

PCS-985B Generator Relay

Figure 3.9-1 Circuit design of stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection

An external low-frequency alternating voltage source injects into neutral point of the generator via
secondary side of earthing transformer, or injects into secondary side of broken-delta VT at the
generator terminal.

3.9.1 Earthing Resistance Criterion


Earthing resistance criterion is not related to the location of stator windings earth fault, and it can
protect 100% range of stator windings for single-phase earth-fault.

According to the earthing resistance of stator windings, PCS-985G provides two stages for alarm
purpose with high setting and for trip purpose with low setting respectively. The operation

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criterions are:

RE REsetL
(for trip purpose)

RE REsetH
(for alarm purpose)

Where:

RE is calculated earth resistance.

REsetL is resistance setting for trip purpose.

REsetH is resistance setting for alarm purpose.

3.9.2 Earthing Current Criterion


If an earth fault happens to stator windings near generator terminal during normal generator
operation, fundamental components will increase obviously and the sensitivity of detecting
low-frequency faulty components will be affected seriously. In order to improve the sensitivity,
earthing current criterion is equipped with the device. It can detect single-phase fault with the
range of 80%~90% stator windings away from generator terminal. The great advantage of this
criterion is that more close to the generator terminal the fault point locates, more high sensitivity
the criterion can get, which can realize 100% stator earth-fault protection cooperated with the
earthing resistance criterion.

The operation criterion is:

I G 0 I Eset

Where:

I G 0 is earthing current of stator without being subjected to digital filter.

I Eset is earthing current setting.

3.9.3 External Voltage Circuit Monitoring

When U LF 0 ( U G 0 is low-frequency voltage after Un0 is digital filtered) is smaller than the setting

value or I LF 0 ( I G 0 is low-frequency current after In0 is digital filtered) is smaller than the setting

value, it means that external injection circuit for stator earth-fault protection is abnormal. The
device will be blocked and issue an alarm signal.

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The operation criterion is:

U LF 0 U LF 0 set

I LF 0 I LF 0 set

Where:

U LF 0 set is alarm setting of low-frequency voltage

I LF 0 set is alarm setting of low-frequency current

3.9.4 Logic Scheme


SET ULF0<[V_Supv_Inj_EF_Sta] 1 &
0s 0.1s Alm_Inj_Circuit
SET ILF0<[I_Supv_Inj_EF_Sta]
&
SET RE<[R_Alm_Inj_EF_Sta] [t_Alm_Inj_EF_Sta] 0s Alm_InjEF_Sta
EN [En_Alm_R_Inj_EF_Sta]

EN [En_Inj_EF_Sta]

SET RE<[R_Trp_Inj_EF_Sta]
&
EN [En_Trp_R_Inj_EF_Sta]
[t_Trp_Inj_EF_Sta] 0s Op_InjEF_Sta
BI [EBI_V3rdH_Sta]
&
SIG [FD_InjStaEF_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_Inj_EF_Sta].Bit0

SET IG0>[I_ROC_Inj_EF_Sta] &

EN [En_Trp_I0_Sta]

EN [En_Inj_EF_Sta] &
& [t_Trp_Inj_EF_Sta] 0s Op_InjI0_Sta
BI [EBI_V3rdH_Sta]

SIG [FD_InjStaEF_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_Inj_EF_Sta].Bit0

Figure 3.9-2 Logic diagram of stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection

3.10 Rotor Earth-fault Protection with Ping-pang Type


3.10.1 One-point Earth-fault Protection
If one-point earth fault of rotor occurs, insulation resistance between rotor winding and the axis will
drop down. Rotor earth-fault protection adopts switch-over sampling principle (ping-pang type)

Rotor earth-fault protection measures earthing resistance Rg of the winding by an unbalance


bridge as shown in Figure 3.10-1. Corresponding equations can be got by switching over S1 and
S2 alternately, and earthing resistance Rg and location of the earthing point can be found by

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calculation.

There are two stages equipped for one-point earth protection: sensitive stage and regular stage.
Sensitive stage is used for alarm and regular stage for tripping or alarm.

U
+ aU -

rotor
R Rg R

R S1 S2 R

Figure 3.10-1 Schematic diagram of measurement principle

Figure 3.10-2 show logic scheme of one-point earth fault protection.

SET Rg<[R_Sens1PEF_RotWdg]
&
EN [En_EF_RotWdg] [t_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg] 0s Alm_Sens1PEF_RotWdg

EN [En_Alm_Sens1PEF_RotWdg]

EN [En_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg] &
[t_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg] 0s Alm_1PEF_RotWdg
SET Rg<[R_1PEF_RotWdg] &

EN [En_EF_RotWdg]
&
EN [En_Trp_1PEF_RotWdg]

BI [EBI_EF_RotWdg]
&
SIG [FD_EF_RotWdg] [t_Trp_1PEF_RotWdg] 0s Op_1PEF_RotWdg

SET [TrpLog_EF_RotWdg].Bit0

Figure 3.10-2 Logic diagram of one-point earth fault protection

3.10.2 Two-points Earth fault Protection


If one-point earth protection is used for alarm only, when earth resistance Rg is less than setting of
its regular stage [R_1PEF_RotWdg], it will switch into two-points earth fault protection with a time
delay automatically. If the location of the earthing point varies and the variation reaches its setting
value, two-point earth fault protection will operate and issue a tripping command. In order to
improve the reliability, two-point earth fault protection can be blocked by second harmonic voltage
by setting logic setting [En_VCE_2PEF_RotWdg] as 1.

Figure 3.10-3 show logic diagram of two-points earth fault protection.

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SIG Alm_1PEF_RotWdg t 0s
&
SIG Flg_2PEF_RotWdg &
EN [En_EF_RotWdg]

SIG Flg_V2ndH_VCE_2PEF_RotWdg 1
&
[t_2PEF_RotWdg] 0s Op_2PEF_RotWdg
EN [En_VCE_2PEF_RotWdg]

EN [En_2PEF_RotWdg]
&
BI [EBI_EF_RotWdg]

SIG [FD_EF_RotWdg]

SET [TrpLog_EF_RotWdg].Bit0

Figure 3.10-3 Logic diagram of two-points earth fault protection

Where:

Flg_2PEF_RotWdg is the flag indicating whether or not two-point earth-fault protection meet its
criterion.

Flg_V2ndH_VCE_2PEF_RotWdg is the flag indicating whether or not the second harmonics


element used for control 2PEF operates.

3.11 Rotor Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection


3.11.1 One-point Earth-fault Protection
Based on leading-out mode of rotor windings, rotor earth fault protection with injection principle of
double-ends or single-end can be selected. The injected power supply is connected to rotor
winding from between the positive/negative pole (or only negative pole) and shaft. The switching
cycle of injected power supply can be adjusted depended on in accordance with the capacitor
between rotor winding and ground. The rotor earth-fault protection with injection principle can
reflect a decline in insulation resistance between generator rotor and shaft by real-time calculating
one-point earth resistance of rotor.

The work circuit of voltage injection into the rotor winding at double-ends and single-end is shown
in Figure 3.11-1 and Figure 3.11-2 respectively.

Ur+

Usq
Rg
Rotor Axis

Ig Rx
U

Ur-
Ry

Figure 3.11-1 Measuring scheme of voltage injection into the rotor winding at single-end

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Ry
Ur+

Usq
Rg
Rotor Axis

Rx Ig
U

Ur-
Ry

Figure 3.11-2 Measuring scheme of voltage injection into the rotor winding at double-ends

Where:

Ur: the rotor voltage

: the percentage of earthing location

RX: the resistance of measure circuit

Ry: the injected external resistance

Usq: the injected square power supply

Rg: the insulation resistance between rotor windings and shaft

Rotor one-point earth fault protection provides two stages: one stage is sensitive stage used to
issue alarm signal, and the other stage, regular stage, can operate to issue alarm signal or trip.

Figure 3.11-3 show logic diagram of one-point earth fault protection.

SET Rg<[R_Sens1PEF_RotWdg]
&
EN [En_EF_RotWdg] [t_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg] 0s Alm_Sens1PEF_RotWdg

EN [En_Alm_Sens1PEF_RotWdg]

EN [En_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg ] &
[t_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg] 0s Alm_1PEF_RotWdg
SET Rg<[R_1PEF_RotWdg] &

EN [En_EF_RotWdg]
&
EN [En_Trp_1PEF_RotWdg]

BI [EBI_EF_RotWdg]
&
SIG [FD_EF_RotWdg] [t_Trp_1PEF_RotWdg] 0s Op_1PEF_RotWdg

SET [TrpLog_EF_RotWdg].Bit0

Figure 3.11-3 Logic diagram of one-point earth-fault protection

3.11.2 Two-point Earth-fault Protection


If both positive and negative terminal of rotor windings are leaded out, rotor earth-fault protection

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with voltage injection can measure the one-point earthing location, and then implement two-point
earth fault protection according to the variation of the earthing location.

If rotor one-point earth fault protection is used to issue alarm signal only, it is optional whether rotor
two-points earth fault protection is put into service or not. If it is selected to be in service, rotor
two-point earth fault protection will be enabled automatically with a time delay after regular stage
of rotor one-point earth fault protection operating to issue alarm signal. After that, if the location of
earthing point varies and the variation reaches its internal threshold value, the protective device
thinks it as two-point earth fault and rotor two-points earth fault protection will operate to trip.

Figure 3.11-4 show logic diagram of two-point earth fault protection.

SIG Alm_1PEF_RotWdg t 0s
&
SIG Flg_2PEF_RotWdg &
[t_2PEF_RotWdg] 0s Op_2PEF_RotWdg
EN [En_EF_RotWdg]

EN [En_2PEF_RotWdg]
&
BI [EBI_EF_RotWdg]

SIG [FD_EF_RotWdg]

SET [TrpLog_EF_RotWdg].Bit0

Figure 3.11-4 Logic diagram of two-points earth-fault protection

Note!

The device only can enable any of rotor earth-fault protection with ping-pang type and rotor
earth-fault protection with voltage injection, the other is reserved.

3.12 Stator Overload Protection


Stator overload represents average heating of winding of the stator. This protection takes currents
from generator terminal and neutral point as its criterion.

3.12.1 Definite-time Stator Overload Protection


There are two stages equipped with definite-time stator overload protection: one for alarm and
another for tripping. Figure 3.12-1 shows its logic diagram.

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SET I>[I_Alm_OvLd_Sta] &


[t_Alm_OvLd_Sta] 0s Alm_OvLd_Sta
EN [En_OvLd_Sta]

SET I>[I_OvLd_Sta] &

EN [En_OvLd_Sta]

&
BI [EBI_OvLd_Sta] [t_OvLd_Sta] 0s Op_OvLd_Sta

SIG [FD_StaOvLd_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_OvLd_Sta].Bit0

Figure 3.12-1 Logic diagram of definite-time stator overload protection

3.12.2 Inverse-time Stator Overload Protection


Inverse-time stator overload protection consists of three parts: low-setting initiator, inverse-time
part and upper-limit definite-time part.

The upper-limit definite-time part has minimum operating time. When stator current reaches its low
setting (Iszd), inverse-time part initiates and the heat is accumulated. When the accumulated
value is greater than the setting, inverse-time stator overload protection operates to trip.

Inverse-time part can simulate generator-heating process including heat accumulation and
dissipation. When the stator current is lower than rated value, the heat accumulation will decrease
accordingly.

Figure 3.12-2 shows the inverse-time curve.

I
Ih

Iszd

t min t max

Figure 3.12-2 Operation curve of inverse-time stator overload protection

Where:

tmin is time delay of upper limit

tmax is time delay of lower limit

Iszd is initiation setting of inverse-time part

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Ih is upper-limit current value

Operation criterion of inverse-time stator overload protection:

[( I I ezd K srzd ] t KS zd
2 2

Where:

KS zd is time constant of generator heating

K srzd is heat dissipation factor of generator

I ezd is rated secondary current of generator

Figure 3.12-3 shows logic diagram of inverse-time stator overload protection.

SET I > [I_InvOvLd_Sta] & IDMT &

EN [En_OvLd_Sta] [tmin_InvOvLd_Sta] 0s

&
BI [EBI_OvLd_Sta] Op_InvOvLd_Sta

SIG [FD_StaOvLd_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_InvOvLd_Sta].Bit0

Figure 3.12-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time stator overload protection

Note !

In order to prevent heat accumulation from not being dissipated, the dissipation coefficient
(the setting [K_Disspt_Sta])should be set as 1.02~1.05.

3.13 Negative-sequence Overload Protection


Negative-sequence overload reflects overheating on surface of the rotor and other abnormality
due to negative-sequence current. This protection takes negative-sequence current at generator
terminal and neutral point as its criterion.

3.13.1 Definite-time Negative-sequence Overload Protection


There are two stages equipped with definite-time negative-sequence overload protection: one for
alarm and the other for tripping. Figure 3.13-1 shows its logic diagram.

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EN [En_NegOC_Gen] &
[t_Alm_NegOC_Gen] 0s Alm_NegOC_Gen
SET I2>[I_Alm_NegOC_Gen]

SET I2>[I_NegOC_Gen] &

EN [En_NegOC_Gen]
&
SET [TrpLog_NegOC_Gen].Bit0 [t_NegOC_Gen] 0s Op_NegOC_Gen
BI [EBI_NegOC_Gen]

SIG [FD_NegOC_Gen]

Figure 3.13-1 Logic diagram of definite-time negative-sequence overload protection

3.13.2 Inverse-time Negative-sequence Overload Protection


Inverse time negative sequence protection consists of three parts: low-setting initiator,
inverse-time part and upper-limit definite-time part.

The upper-limit definite-time part has minimum operating time. When negative-sequence current
reaches its low setting [I_InvNegOC_Gen], inverse-time part initiates and the heat is accumulated.
When the accumulated value is greater than the setting, inverse-time negative-sequence overload
protection operates to trip.

Inverse-time part can simulate generator-heating process including heat accumulation and
dissipation. When the stator current is lower than permissive continuous negative-sequence
current [I_Neg_Perm_Gen], the heat accumulation will decrease accordingly.

Figure 3.13-2 shows the inverse-time curve.

I2zd

t min t max

Figure 3.13-2 Operation curve of inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection

Operation criterion of inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection:

[( I 2 I ezd I 21 ] t A
2 2
Equation 3.13-1

Where:

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I 2 is generator negative-sequence current

I ezd is generator rated current

I 2l is permissive continuous negative-sequence current (per unit value)

A is negative-sequence heating constant of rotor.

Inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection can be set to trip to separation and field
suppression or alarm. Figure 3.13-3 shows its logic diagram.

t>[tmax_InvNegOC_Gen]
SET I2>[I_InvNegOC_Gen] & 1
IDMT &
EN [En_NegOC_Gen]
[tmin_InvNegOC_Gen] 0s

SET [TrpLog_InvNegOC_Gen].Bit0 & &


Op_InvNegOC_Gen
BI [EBI_NegOC_Gen]

SIG [FD_NegOC_Gen]

Figure 3.13-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection

Note!

The long time delay of lower limit should be smaller than the calculated operating time
using lower-limit pickup current according to Equation 3.13-1.

3.14 Loss-of-excitation Protection


Loss of excitation represents abnormal operation of generator due to excitation failure. There are 3
criterion used for loss-of-excitation protection: undervoltage criterion, stator-side impedance
criterion and rotor-side criterion.

3.14.1 Undervoltage Criterion


Three-phase voltages on busbar side generally and those at generator terminal sometimes are
taken as this criterion. Three-phase voltage should meet the criterion simultaneous.

U pp U lezd

Where:

Upp is phase-to-phase voltage of busbar or of generator terminal.

Ulezd is undervoltage setting [V_BusUV_LossExc_Gen].

When bus voltage is taken as the criterion, if bus VT circuit fails, the protection will be blocked.

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When generator terminal voltage is taken as the criterion, if one group of VT circuit fails, the other
group of VT will be switched over automatically.

3.14.2 Stator-side Impedance Criterion


This criterion is impedance circle including asynchronous impedance circle and steady-state
stabilization limit circle. The operation criterion is

Z jX B
270 Arg 90
Z jX A

Where:

XA: can be set as the system impedance Xs for steady-state stabilization limit circle and XA= 0.5
X'd for asynchronous impedance circle

XB: is taken as Xd+0.5 X'd for non-salient pole generator and 0.5(XdXq)+0.5 X'd for salient pole
generator

The impedance criterion can be combined with reverse reactive power criterion, i.e.,
Q<[Q_RevQ_LossExc_Gen].

Using the same current and voltage to calculate inactive power and reverse power.

Figure 3.14-1 and Figure 3.14-2 show operation characteristics of steady-state stabilization
impedance circle and asynchronous impedance circle.

jx
Z1

R
-Qzd

Z2

Figure 3.14-1 Operation characteristic of steady-state stabilization impedance circle

The hatched area is operating area, and the dotted line is operation limit of reverse reactive power.

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jx

Z1
R
-Qzd

Z2

Figure 3.14-2 Operation characteristic of asynchronous impedance circle

Besides operation criterion mentioned above, there are also auxiliary operation criterion, namely:

1. Positive-sequence voltage is greater than or equal to 6V

2. Negative-sequence voltage U2 is lower than 0.1Un (rated voltage of generator)

3. Generator current is no less than 0.1Ie (rated current of generator)

3.14.3 Rotor-side Criterion


Rotor-side criterion comprises:

Rotor-side undervoltage criterion: Ur<Ur1zd

Where:

Ur is rotor voltage

Ur1zd is undervoltage setting [V_RotUV_LossExc_Gen]

Variable excitation voltage criterion: Ur < KrelXdzPUf0

Where:

Xdz=Xd+Xs, Xd is synchronous reactance of generator (per unit value)

Xs is equivalent reactance on system side connected with the generator (per unit value)

P is rated apparent power of generator (per unit value)

Uf0 is rated voltage of exciter during generator without load

Krel is reliability coefficient.

If Ur drops to zero or minus value suddenly during loss of excitation, the rotor under voltage
criterion will be met quickly before steady-state stability limit of the generator reaches. If Ur drops
to zero or reduces to a value gradually during loss of excitation, the variable excitation voltage
criterion will be reached. Excitation undervoltage or loss of excitation will cause out-of-step, and
then excitation voltage and output power of the generator will swing seriously. In this case, the

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rotor under voltage criterion and the variable excitation voltage criterion will be met and withdrawn
periodically in general. So the excitation voltage element will revert with delay during out-of-step
condition while the impedance entering the steady state stability limit circle.

3.14.4 Logic Scheme


Three stages are equipped with loss-of-excitation protection: stage 1 is used to trip adopting
busbar-side undervoltage criterion, stage 2 is used to trip adopting generator terminal
undervoltage criterion, stage 3 is used to trip or alarm with long time delay.

Figure 3.14-3 shows logic diagram of stage 1 of loss-of-excitation protection.

SET Ur<[V_BusUV_LossExc_Gen] &


1
EN [En_BusUV_LossExc1_Gen] &
SET Ur<[V_RotUV_LossExc_Gen] 1
&
SET Ur<KrelXdzPUf0 1

EN [En_RotUV_LossExc1_Gen]
&
SIG Flg_Z_LossExc1_Gen & & [t_LossExc1_Gen] 0s Op_LossExc1_Gen

EN [En_Z_LossExc1_Gen]

& 1
SET Q>[Q_RevQ_LossExc_Gen] &
EN [En_RevQ_LossExc_Gen]

EN [En_LossExc_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_LossExc_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_LossExc1_Gen].Bit0

SIG [FD_LossExc_Gen]

Figure 3.14-3 Logic diagram of loss-of-excitation protection (stage 1)

Figure 3.14-4 shows logic diagram of stage 2 of loss-of-excitation protection. If excitation is lost
and voltage at generator terminal is lower than its setting, this stage will trip with a time delay. In
configuring this stage, considering of security, it is strongly recommended that impedance criterion
should be used as well as undervoltage criterion rather than that only undervoltage (busbar or
generator terminal) criterion and rotor undervoltage criterion are used.

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SET Upp<[V_TermUV_LossExc_Gen] &


1
EN [En_TermUV_LossExc2_Gen]

SET Ur<[V_RotUV_LossExc_Gen] 1
&
SET Ur<KrelXdzPUf0 1 &
[t_LossExc2_Gen] 0s Op_LossExc2_Gen
EN [En_RotUV_LossExc2_Gen]

Flg_Z_LossExc2_Gen
&
SIG &

EN [En_Z_LossExc2_Gen]

& 1
SET Q>[Q_RevQ_LossExc_Gen]

EN [En_RevQ_LossExc_Gen]

EN [En_LossExc_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_LossExc_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_LossExc2_Gen].Bit0

SIG [FD_LossExc_Gen]

Figure 3.14-4 Logic diagram of loss-of-excitation protection (stage 2)

Figure 3.14-5 shows logic diagram of stage 3 of loss-of-excitation protection. It is also used to trip
with a long time delay.

EN [En_Alm_LossExc3_Gen]

SET Ur<[V_RotUV_LossExc_Gen] 1
&
SET Ur<KrelXdzPUf0 1
&
[t_LossExc3_Gen] 0s Alm_LossExc_Gen
EN [En_RotUV_LossExc3_Gen]

Flg_Z_LossExc3_Gen
&
SIG
&

EN [En_Z_LossExc3_Gen]

SET Q>[Q_RevQ_LossExc_Gen] & 1

EN [En_RevQ_LossExc_Gen]

EN [En_LossExc_Gen]
&
& [t_LossExc3_Gen] 0s Op_LossExc3_Gen
BI [EBI_LossExc_Gen]

SIG [FD_LossExc_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_LossExc3_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.14-5 Logic diagram of loss-of-excitation protection (stage 3)

3.15 Out-of-step Protection


Out-of-step protection represents asynchronous operation of generator due to out of step.
Out-of-step protection calculates impedance element by positive-sequence voltage and current,

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and impedance locus can reflect any kinds of fault situation correctly.

Figure 3.15-1 shows operation characteristic of out-of-step protection that comprises three parts:
lens part, boundary part and reactance line part.

jx
Za
U

D
Zc
OL
IL 3
2
1 IR 1
OR
0 R

L R
Zb

Figure 3.15-1 Operation characteristic of out-of-step protection

1. Lens divides impedance plane into inside part I and outside part O

2. Boundary divides the impedance plane into left part L and right part R

3. Reactance line divides the impedance plane into upper part U and lower part D

Considering lens and boundary comprehensively, the impedance plane is divided into four areas:
OL, IL, IR and OR. If the locus of impedance is passing through these four areas in sequence from
right to left or vice versa, and staying in each area for a moment longer than the setting, this case
is considered as power swing. The times of passing through are accumulated and the grand total
is considered as the times of pole sliding. When the grand total reaches its setting value,
out-of-step protection operates.

As to reactance line, if the impedance locus passes through the upper part U, the swing center is
considered outside the generator. If the locus passes through the lower part D, the swing center is
considered within the generator. Settings of times of pole sliding can be configured separately for
these two cases.

Out-of-step protection can be used either for alarm only or tripping. Minimum swing period which
can be identified by this protection is 120 ms.

Figure 3.15-2 shows logic diagram of out-of-step protection.

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EN [En_Alm_X_OOS_Gen] &
Accumulated Times Alm_X_OOS_Gen
SIG Flg_Blk_OOS
&
SIG Flg_OOS_Gen

EN [En_OOS_Gen]
&
EN En_Trp_X_OOS_Gen

BI [EBI_OOS_Gen]
&
SIG [FD_OOS_Gen] Accumulated Times Op_X_OOS_Gen

SET [TrpLog_OOS_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.15-2 Logic diagram of out-of-step protection

Where:

X can be Int or Ext.

3.16 Generator Voltage Protection


3.16.1 Overvoltage Protection
Overvoltage protection is used as protection against stator overvoltage occurring in various
operation conditions. It will issue tripping command when the maximum phase-to-phase voltage at
the generator terminal is in excess of the setting. Voltage calculation is independent of the
variation of frequency. Two stages of overvoltage protection are equipped with PCS-985G for
tripping, stage 2 can also operate for alarming. Stage 2 of overvoltage protection can be used as
the no-load overvoltage protection, which can be disabled after the generator is connected into the
power system (controlled by the logic setting [En_CB_BlkOV2_Gen]). Figure 3.16-1 shows logic
diagram of overvoltage protection.

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SET Upp>[V_OV1_Gen] &

EN [En_VoltProt_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_VoltProt_Gen] &
[t_OV1_Gen] 0s Op_OV1_Gen
SIG [FD_VoltProt_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_OV1_Gen].Bit0

EN [En_Alm_OV2_Gen] &
Alm_OV_Gen
SET Upp>[V_OV2_Gen] &

EN [En_VoltProt_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_VoltProt_Gen] &
[t_OV2_Gen] 0s Op_OV2_Gen
SIG [FD_VoltProt_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_OV2_Gen].Bit0

SIG Flg_Gen_UnConnect 1

EN [En_CB_BlkOV2_Gen]

Figure 3.16-1 Logic diagram of overvoltage protection

Where:

Flg_Gen_UnConnect is the internal generated flag indicating the generator is not connected into
the power system.

3.16.2 Undervoltage Protection


Undervoltage protection responses to reduction of phase-to-phase voltage at the terminal of
generator and will trip terminal breaker of the generator with configurable delay. There are two
stages equipped with undervoltage protection: one for alarm and the other for tripping. Figure
3.16-2 shows logic diagram of undervoltage protection.

EN [En_Alm_UV_Gen] &
Alm_UV_Gen
SET Upp<[V_UV_Gen] &

EN [En_VoltProt_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_VoltProt_Gen] &
[t_UV_Gen] 0s Op_UV_Gen
SIG [FD_VoltProt_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_UV_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.16-2 Logic diagram of undervoltage protection

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3.17 Over-excitation Protection


Over-excitation protection is used to prevent generator from damage due to over excitation. It
represents multiple of over excitation of generator. Besides, over excitation protection comprises
definite-time protection and inverse-time protection.

For generator, over-excitation protection calculates the voltage from generator terminal to
discriminate whether it is over excitation.

3.17.1 Definite-time Over-excitation Protection


Two stages are equipped for definite-time over-excitation protection, and one stage for alarm
purpose and one stage for trip purpose. Their time delays can be configured.

Multiple of over excitation n can be expressed as follows:

n Upu / Fpu

Where:

Upu is per unit value of voltage

Fpu is per unit value of frequency

Figure 3.17-1 shows logic diagram of definite time over excitation protection.

EN [En_OvExc_Gen] &
[t_Alm_OvExc_Gen] 0s Alm_OvExc_Gen
SET U/F>[k_Alm_OvExc_Gen]

SET U/F>[k_OvExc1_Gen] &

EN [En_OvExc_Gen]

&
BI [EBI_OvExc_GTU] [t_OvExc1_Gen] 0s Op_OvExc_Gen

SIG [FD_OvExc_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_OvExc1_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.17-1 Logic diagram of definite-time over-excitation protection

3.17.2 Inverse-time Over-excitation Protection


Inverse-time over-excitation protection realizes inverse-time characteristic by linear processing on
given inverse time operation characteristic, obtaining multiple of over excitation by calculation, and
getting corresponding operation delay by sectional linear insertion. It reflects heat accumulation
and radiation.

Figure 3.17-1 shows inverse-time operation characteristics of over-excitation protection. It can be

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specified by 8 over excitation multiple settings n0~n7.

U/F
n0
n1
n2
n3
n4
n5
n6
n7

t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t(s) t7

Figure 3.17-2 Inverse-time characteristics

The over excitation multiple settings n (= U/F) are within range of 1.0~1.5 in general. Maximum
time delay t is considered as long as 3000s. Relation between various settings of n and t are:

n0 n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7

t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7

Figure 3.17-3 shows logic diagram of inverse-time over-excitation protection.

SET U/F>[kn_InvOvExc_Gen] &


IDMT
EN [En_OvExc_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_OvExc_Gen]
Op_InvOvExc_Gen

SIG [FD_OvExc_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_InvOvExc_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.17-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time over-excitation protection

Where:

n can be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7.

3.18 Power Protection


Power protection comprises reverse power protection, sequence tripping reverse power protection
and low power protection.

3.18.1 Reverse Power Protection


Reverse power protection can prevent turbine blades or gears from damage in the case that the
generator transforms into a motor mode and flows reverse power due to loss of its motive force.

Operation criterion of reverse power protection is

P<-[P_RevP_Gen]

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Where:

P is the power calculated from three phase voltages and currents at generator terminal.

[P_RevP_Gen] is the reverse power setting.

Two time delay are configured for reverse power protection, one for tripping and another for
alarming.

The setting range of reverse power setting is 0.5%~50%Pn. (Pn is rated active power of the
generator)

Figure 3.18-1 shows logic diagram of reverse power protection.

SET P-[P_RevP_Gen] &


[t_Alm_RevP_Gen] 0s Alm_RevP_Gen
EN [En_PwrProt_Gen]

&
SET [TrpLog_RevP_Gen].Bit0 [t_Trp_RevP_Gen] 0s Op_RevP_Gen

BI [EBI_PwrProt_Gen]

SIG [FD_PwrProt_Gen]

Figure 3.18-1 Logic diagram of reverse power protection

3.18.2 Sequence Tripping Reverse Power Protection


Sometimes, when overload, over-excitation or loss-of-excitation protection of generator initiate
and tripping is needed, the steam valve of turbine has to be closed firstly. Sequence tripping
reverse power protection is used for this condition. Such protection is a reverse power protection
blocked by position contact of steam valve and circuit breaker of generator. It can trip relevant
circuit breaker with a certain delay since the steam valve being closed. Its setting range is
0.5%~10% Pn.

Figure 3.18-2 shows logic diagram of sequence tripping reverse power protection.

BI [BI_52b_GCB] &
BI [BI_Valve_Turbine]

SET P-[P_SeqTrpRevP_Gen]

EN [En_PwrProt_Gen]
&
SET [TrpLog_SeqTrpRevP_Gen].Bit0 &
[t_SeqTrpRevP_Gen] Op_SeqTrpRevP_Gen
BI [EBI_PwrProt_Gen]

SIG [FD_PwrProt_Gen]

Figure 3.18-2 Logic diagram of sequence tripping reverse power protection

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3.18.3 Low Power Protection


One stage of low power protection is equipped for tripping. It is blocked by the binary input for
emergency shutoff generator [BI_NotUrgBrake].

The setting range of low power protection is 0.5%~10% Pn. (Pn is rated active power of the
generator)

Figure 3.18-3 shows logic diagram of low power protection.

BI [EBI_PwrProt_Gen &
SET [TrpLog_UP_Gen].Bit0
&
t_UP_Gen 0 Op_UP_Gen
SIG [FD_PwrProt_Gen]

BI Flg_Gen_Connect

BI [BI_NotUrgBrake] 1
&
&
BI [BI_Valve_Turbine]
Alm_BO_UP_Gen
SET P<[P_UP_Gen]

EN [En_PwrProt_Gen]

EN [En_BO_UP_Gen]

Figure 3.18-3 Logic diagram of low power protection

Where:

FD_PwrProt_Gen: fault detector of low power protection.

Flg_Gen_Connect: internal flag indicating the generator is connected into the power system.

3.19 Frequency Protection


Frequency protection of generator comprises underfrequency and overfrequency protection.

3.19.1 Underfrequency Protection


When frequency is lower than setting value, underfrequency protection will operate to issue alarm
or trip if the accumulated time or once duration of under frequency operation reaches time delay.
This protection is blocked by position contact of circuit breaker and no current flag.

Three stages of underfrequency protection are equipped for PCS-985G. Stage 1 is usually
configured as accumulating frequency protection, and can be reset to zero only after erasing
reports. Stage 2 and stage 3 can be configured as continuous frequency protection.

3.19.2 Overfrequency Protection


As to overfrequency protection, two stages are equipped for PCS-985G and they will issue alarm
or trip when operates.

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3.19.3 Logic Scheme

EN [En_Alm_UFn_Gen]

BI [BI_52b_CB_HVS1(2)_Tr]
&
& t 0 Alm_UFn_Gen
SET f<[f_UFn_Gen]

EN [En_FreqProt_Gen]
&
SET [TrpLog_UF_Gen].Bit0
&
t 0 Op_UFn_Gen
BI [EBI_FreqProt_Gen]

EN [En_Trp_UFn_Gen]

SIG [FD_Freq_Gen]

Figure 3.19-1 Logic diagram of underfrequency protection

Where:

n can be 1, 2, or 3.

EN [En_Alm_OFn_Gen]
&
SET f >[f_OFn_Gen] & t 0 Alm_OFn_Gen

EN [En_FreqProt_Gen]
&
SET [TrpLog_OF_Gen].Bit0
&
t 0 Op_OFn_Gen
BI [EBI_FreqProt_Gen]

EN [En_Trp_OFn_Gen]

SIG [FD_Freq_Gen]

Figure 3.19-2 Logic diagram of overfrequency protection

Where:

n can be 1 or 2.

3.20 Inadvertent Energization Protection


Inadvertent energization protection is also called unwanted closing protection is used for following
cases:

1. In the course of generators hand turning (low frequency condition), if it has not been excited,
breaker closure by accident may lead to asynchronous starting of the generator. The
protection is put into use automatically with time delay t1 when two groups of voltage derived
from two independent VTs are all less than undervoltage setting and exit with time delay t2
(designed to cooperate with low-frequency blocking criterion) when the two groups of voltage
revert to normal level.

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2. In the case that generator breaker is closed by accident in excited condition but frequency is
under normal level which may occur in startup-and-shutdown process. The protection is put
into use automatically with time delay t3 while low-frequency criterion is met and returns with
time delay t4 after the frequency criteria releases. Here, t4 should be set as long as to ensure
the completion of tripping course.

3. In the case that generator breaker is closed by accident in excited condition but frequency is
greater than the setting which may occur in startup-and-shutdown process. The protection is
put into use with time delay t3 and returns with time delay t4, which can be enabled or
disabled by logic setting, and is also controlled by position contact of circuit breaker. Here, t3
should coordinate with open time of circuit breaker, and t4 should be set as long as to ensure
the completion of tripping course.

Considering security of the protection, both currents from generator terminal and neutral point are
used in the logic as criteria.

The logic setting [Opt_AccEnerg_Gen] is used to select the logic of inadvertent energization
protection,

0, standard version

1, special version

When [Opt_AccEnerg_Gen] =0, the logic diagram of inadvertent energization protection is shown
in Figure 3.20-1.

SIG Flg_UF_Gen &


t3 t4 1
SIG Flg_UV_Gen 1
t1 t2
BI [BI_52b_GCB]
&
SIG Flg_NoCurr_CB_Gen t3 t4

EN [En_CB_Ctrl_AccEnerg_Gen]

SIG Flg_OC_Term_Gen
& &
SIG Flg_OC_NeuP_Gen [t_AccEnerg_Gen] 0s Op_AccEnerg_Gen

SIG Flg_NoCurr_CB_Tr

EN [En_AccEnerg_Gen] & &


BI [EBI_AccEnerg_Gen]

SIG [FD_AccEnerg_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_AccEnerg_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.20-1 Logic diagram of inadvertent energization protection (standard version)

When [Opt_AccEnerg_Gen] =1, the logic diagram of inadvertent energization protection is shown
in Figure 3.20-2.

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3 Operation Theory

SIG Flg_UF_Gen &


t3 t4 1
SIG Flg_UV_Gen &
t1 t2
BI [BI_52b_GCB]
&
SIG Flg_NoCurr_CB_Gen t3 t4

EN [En_CB_Ctrl_AccEnerg_Gen]

SIG Flg_OC_Term_Gen
& &
SIG Flg_OC_NeuP_Gen [t_AccEnerg_Gen] 0s Op_AccEnerg_Gen

SIG Flg_NoCurr_CB_Tr

EN [En_AccEnerg_Gen] & &


BI [EBI_AccEnerg_Gen]

SIG [FD_AccEnerg_Gen]

SET [TrpLog_AccEnerg_Gen].Bit0

Figure 3.20-2 Logic diagram of inadvertent energization protection (special version)

Where:

Flg_UF_Gen is the flag indicating whether or not low frequency element of generator operates.

Flg_UV_Gen is the flag indicating whether or not under voltage element of generator operates.

Flg_OC_Term_Gen is the flag indicating whether or not overcurrent current element of generator
terminal operates.

Flg_OC_NeuP_Gen is the flag indicating whether or not overcurrent current element of generator
neutral point operates.

3.21 Startup and Shutdown Protection


Protections functions that can reflect phase-to-phase fault and stator earth-fault are provided
during startup and shutdown process of generator.

For stator earth-fault, residual overvoltage protection is provided.

For phase-to-phase fault of generator, overcurrent protections of differential circuit or


low-frequency overcurrent protection is provided.

Since frequency during startup and shutdown process is usually very low, algorithm independent
of frequency is used for this protection.

Whether the protection should be blocked or not by frequency element or auxiliary contact of
circuit breaker can be determined by logic setting.

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SET F<[f_UF_StShut_Gen] t 0s
&
SIG Flg_GenDiff_StShut_Gen

EN [En_GenDiff_StShut_Gen]

EN [En_StShut_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_StShut_Gen] Op_GenDiff_StShut_Gen

SET [TrpLog_Diff_StShut_Gen].Bit0

SIG [FD_StShut_Gen]

SET F<[f_UF_StShut_Gen] t 0s
&
SIG Flg_StaROV_StShut_Gen

EN [En_StaROV_StShut_Gen]

EN [En_StShut_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_StShut_Gen] [t_StaROV_StShut_Gen] 0s Op_ROV_Sta_StShut_Gen

SET [TrpLog_StaROV_StShut_Gen].Bit0

SIG [FD_StShut_Gen]

SET F<[f_UF_StShut_Gen] t 0s
&
SIG Flg_OC_StShut_Gen

EN [En_GenCur_StShut_Gen]

EN [En_StShut_Gen]
&
BI [EBI_StShut_Gen] [t_OC_StShut_Gen] 0s Op_GenCur_StShut_Gen

SET [TrpLog_OC_StShut_Gen].Bit0

SIG [FD_StShut_Gen]

Figure 3.21-1 Logic diagram of generator startup and shutdown protection

3.22 Overload Protection of Excitation Windings


Excitation winding overload protection is equipped to reflect average heating condition of
excitation winding. Excitation transformer current, exciter current or rotor current of generator can
be taken as criterion of this protection.

Excitation winding protection comprises definite-time and inverse-time characteristics.

3.22.1 Definite-time Excitation Winding Overload Protection


Definite-time excitation winding overload protection provides one stage for alarm purpose.

Figure 3.22-1 shows logic diagram of definite-time excitation winding overload protection.

SET I>[I_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg] &


[t_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg] 0s Alm_OvLd_RotWdg
EN [En_OvLd_Exc]

Figure 3.22-1 Logic diagram of definite time excitation winding overload protection

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3 Operation Theory

3.22.2 Inverse-time Excitation Winding Overload Protection


Inverse-time excitation winding overload protection consists of three parts: low-setting initiator,
inverse-time part and high setting definite-time part. Minimum operation time delay
([tmin_InvOvLd_RotWdg]) is provided for extreme overload condition.

When current in excitation circuit reaches the low setting [Ib_InvOvLd_RotWdg], the heating
accumulation starts. When the heating accumulation reaches its setting, alarm will be issued. The
inverse time protection can simulate heating accumulation and radiation process.

Il

Ilh

Ilszd

t min tmax t
Figure 3.22-2 Operation characteristic of inverse-time excitation winding overload protection

Where:

t min is upper-limit time delay ([tmin_InvOvLd_RotWdg]).

t max is lower-limit time delay.

I 1szd is pickup setting ([Ib_InvOvLd_RotWdg]).

I 1h is the upper-limit current setting.

Its operation criterion is:

[( I l I jzzd 1] t KLzd
2

Where:

I l is the current in excitation circuit.

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I jzzd is inverse-time reference current of excitation circuit.

KL zd is setting of heat capacity factor of excitation windings.

Figure 3.22-3 shows logic diagram of inverse time excitation winding overload protection.

SET I>[I_InvOvLd_RotWdg] & IDMT &

EN [En_OvLd_Exc ] [tmin_InvOvLd_RotWdg] 0s

&
BI [EBI_Bak_Exc]
Op_InvOvLd_RotWdg

SIG [FD_InvOvLd_RotWdg]

SET [TrpLog_InvOvLd_RotWdg].Bit0

Figure 3.22-3 Logic diagram of inverse-time excitation winding overload protection

3.23 Excitation Transformer /Exciter Overcurrent Protection


Excitation transformer or exciter overcurrent protection includes two stages used as backup
protection. These two stages will trip the circuit breaker with configurable delay. Figure 3.23-1
shows its logic diagram.

SET I>[I_OCn_Exc]

EN [En_Bak_Exc]
& &
SET [TrpLog_OCn_Exc].Bit0 [t_OCn_Exc] 0s Op_OCn_Exc

BI [EBI_Bak_Exc]

SIG [FD_Bak_Exc]

Figure 3.23-1 Logic diagram of excitation transformer or exciter overcurrent protection

Where:

n can be 1 or 2.

3.24 Breaker Failure Protection at Generator Terminal


When there is an internal fault of the generator, the protection operates to trip. If the circuit at
generator terminal or at HV side of main transformer fails, it needs to initiate breaker failure
protection and trip adjacent circuit breaker in time. Breaker failure protection uses the current from
generator terminal CT as auxiliary criterion.

The current auxiliary criterion can be phase overcurrent element or negative-sequence current
element.

Figure 3.24-1 shows logic diagram of breaker failure protection.

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BI [BI_52b_GCB] 1

EN [En_CB_Ctrl_BFP_GCB]

BI [BI_ExtTrpCtrl]

SET I>[I_OC_BFP_GCB] &


1 &
EN [En_OC_BFP_GCB] &
SET I2>[I_NegOC_BFP_GCB] &

EN [En_NegOC_BFP_GCB]

EN [En_BFP_GCB]
& &
[t_BFP11_GCB] 0s OP_BFP11_GCB
BI [EBI_BFP_GCB]

SIG [FD_BFP_GCB]

SET [TrpLog_BFP11_GCB].Bit0 &


[t_BFP12_GCB] 0s OP_BFP12_GCB
SET [TrpLog_BFP12_GCB].Bit0

Figure 3.24-1 Logic diagram of breaker failure protection

3.25 CT Circuit Supervision


3.25.1 Three-phase Current Circuit Failure Alarm
The operation criterion is:

3I0 > 0.04 In+ 0.25Imax

Where:

3I0 is residual current

In is secondary rated current (1A or 5A).

Imax is maximum phase current.

If this criterion is met, CT circuit failure alarm will be issued with a time delay of 10s. Once the
condition reverts normal condition, the alarm will be reset with a time delay of 10s.

3.25.2 Differential Current Alarm in Differential Protection Circuit


This function is enabled only when relevant differential protection logic setting is set as enabled. If
the criterion is met, the alarm will be sent by delay 0.3s and corresponding differential protection
will not be blocked. When the differential current eliminates, the alarm will be reset by delay 1.2s.

In order to increase sensitivity of this alarm, percentage restraint differential current alarm criterion
is adopted as shown as below.

dI > di_bjzd

dI > kbj Ires

If the differential current reaches its threshold and reaches differential alarm level of percentage

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restraint factor multiplied by restraint current, the differential current alarm will be issued.

Where:

dI is differential current.

di_bjzd is threshold value of differential current alarm.

kbj is percentage coefficient of differential current alarm.

Ires is restrained current.

3.25.3 Alarm or Blocking to Differential Protection by CT Circuit Failure


Instantaneous CT circuit failure discrimination is equipped for differential protection. Only when
related logic setting and relevant enabling binary input of protection are set 1, the alarm or
blocking to instantaneous CT circuit failure discrimination will be enabled.

If an internal fault occurs, at least one of following four conditions will be present:

1. Negative-sequence voltage at any side is greater than 2V

2. Any phase current of a certain side increases after fault detector operating

3. Maximum phase current is greater than 1.2Ie after fault detector operating

4. At least three-phase currents increases after fault detector picks up

If none of above four conditions occurs within 40ms after differential protections fault detectors
picks up, the protection treats it as CT circuit failure. If the logic setting [Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_x]
(x can be Gen or Exc) is set as 1, the differential protection will be blocked and alarm will be
issued. If this logic setting is set as 0, the differential protection will trip and alarm will be issued
simultaneously.

If the alarm is issued, the signal can be removed only when the failure is removed and the device
is reset by manual.

Before the generator is connected to power grid, the blocking and alarm to CT circuit failure will be
disabled automatically.

3.26 VT Circuit Supervision


3.26.1 VT Circuit of Any Side Failure Alarm
The operation criterion is:

1. Positive-sequence voltage is smaller than 18V and any phase current is greater than 0.04In

2. Negative-sequence voltage 3U2 is in excess of 8V

If any one condition occurs, VT circuit failure alarm will be issued with a time delay of 10s, and the
alarm will be removed automatically by delay 10s when the failure is removed.

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3.26.2 Voltage Valance on Generator Terminals


When two groups of VT are equipped at generator terminal, VT circuit failure can be detected by
comparing phase voltage with positive sequence voltage of these two groups of VT.

Operation criterions are:

|UAB-Uab| >5V

|UBC-Ubc| >5V

|UCA-Uca| >5V

|U1 - U1| >3V

Where:

UAB, UBC, UCA and U1 are phase-to-phase voltage and positive sequence voltage of VT group 1.

Uab, Ubc, Uca and U1 are phase-to-phase voltage and positive sequence voltage of VT group 2.

If any condition mentioned above occurs, VT circuit failure alarm will be issued with delay 0.42s
and the VT group used will be switched.

When only a VT fails, it will not influence the function of related protection such as
loss-of-excitation, out-of-step, overvoltage, over-excitation, reverse power, frequency, impedance
protection and overcurrent protection.

If only one group of VT is provided at generators terminal, user can disable this function.

3.26.3 Three-phase Voltage Circuit Failure Supervision


Operation criterions are:

1. Positive-sequence voltage (U1) is greater than 48V

2. Calculated third harmonic residual voltage (3U0_3) is greater than k*U1.

k is percentage coefficient, and takes 0.2~0.5.

When the above criterions are met, corresponding alarm signal of VT circuit failure will be issued
with a time delay of 20s. The alarm signal will be removed automatically with a time delay of 20s
after the abnormality disappears.

For VT2 and other VTs, their percentage coefficient can be settable respectively and their failure
criterions are also enabled or disabled respectively.

3.27 Mechanical protection


Interfaces of mechanical protection such as thermo-technical protection, interruption of water
protection, excitation system protection and one spare mechanical protection are equipped for the
equipment. External protection equipments send those signals to PCS-985G to make the event
record and send alarm and maybe tripping command to relevant circuit breaker with delay. There
are eight binary inputs provided for those protections.

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Note!

The names of eight mechanical protections can be user-defined by auxiliary software.

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4 Supervision

Table of Contents
4 Supervision ..................................................................................... 4-a
4.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2 Relay Self-supervision.................................................................................... 4-1
4.2.1 Relay Hardware Supervision ............................................................................................... 4-1

4.2.2 Binary Output Supervision ................................................................................................... 4-1

4.2.3 Binary Input Supervision...................................................................................................... 4-1

4.2.4 Setting Checking.................................................................................................................. 4-1

4.2.5 Opto-coupler Power Supervision......................................................................................... 4-2

4.2.6 Fault Detector Element Supervision .................................................................................... 4-2

4.2.7 Test Mode Supervision ........................................................................................................ 4-2

4.2.8 Hardware Configuration Supervision................................................................................... 4-2

4.3 AC Circuit Supervision ................................................................................... 4-2


4.3.1 Voltage and Current Drift Supervision and Auto-adjustment............................................... 4-2

4.3.2 Sample Supervision ............................................................................................................. 4-2

4.4 Secondary Circuit Supervision ...................................................................... 4-2


4.4.1 Current Transformer Supervision (CTS) ............................................................................. 4-2

4.4.2 Voltage Transformer Supervision (VTS) .............................................................................. 4-3

4.5 Alarm Messages .............................................................................................. 4-3

List of Tables
Table 4.5-1 Self-supervision report ........................................................................................... 4-4

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4.1 Overview

Protection system is in quiescent state under normal conditions, and it is required to respond
promptly for faults occurred on power system. When equipment is in energizing process before the
LED HEALTHY is on, the equipment need to be checked to ensure no abnormality. Therefore,
the automatic supervision function, which checks the health of the protection system when startup
and during normal operation, plays an important role.

The numerical relay based on the microprocessor operations is suitable for implementing this
automatic supervision function of the protection system.

In case a defect is detected during initialization when DC power supply is provided to the
equipment, the equipment will be blocked with indication and alarm of relay out of service. It is
suggested a trial recovery of the equipment by re-energization. Please contact supplier if the
equipment is still failure.

When a failure is detected by the automatic supervision, it is followed by a LCD message, LED
indication and alarm contact outputs. The failure alarm is also recorded in event recording report
and can be printed if required.

4.2 Relay Self-supervision

4.2.1 Relay Hardware Supervision


The automatic supervision function can provide monitoring of all chips on protection DSP module
and fault detector DSP module to prevent any damaged or errors during the normal operation. The
alarm signals [Alm_DSP_ProtBrd] or [Alm_DSP_FDBrd] will be issued if any damages or errors
are detected and the device will be blocked.

4.2.2 Binary Output Supervision


The state of binary outputs of each BO module is continually monitored. If any abnormality is
detected, the alarm signals [Bxx.Alm_Output] will be issued with device being blocked (xx is the
slot No. of corresponding BO module).

4.2.3 Binary Input Supervision


The state of binary inputs detected by protection DSP module and fault detector DSP module
should be the same. Otherwise, the protective device will be blocked.

4.2.4 Setting Checking


This relay has 30 setting groups, while only one is active at the same time. The settings of active
setting group are checked to ensure they are reasonable. If settings are checked to be
unreasonable or out of setting scopes, a corresponding alarm signal will be issued, and the
protective device is blocked.

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4 Supervision

4.2.5 Opto-coupler Power Supervision


Positive power supply of opto-coupler on each BI module is continuously monitored, and if a
failure or damage on the module is detected, then the alarm signal [Alm_PwrLoss_Opto1] or
[Alm_PwrLoss_Opto2] will be issued.

4.2.6 Fault Detector Element Supervision


If any fault detector picks up to trigger oscillography function, the corresponding binary input
changing report will be recorded in IO Events menu with operation report [FD_Prot] being
issued.

When fault detector in fault detector DSP module picks up, while the fault detector in protection
DSP module doesnt pick up, or fault detectors in protection DSP and fault detector DSP module
picks up continuously, equipment will issue abnormality alarm but not be blocked.

4.2.7 Test Mode Supervision


When protection equipment is in test mode the alarm signal [Alm_TestMode] is issued without
blocking equipment.

4.2.8 Hardware Configuration Supervision


Module configuration is checked automatically during equipment initialization, if plug-in module
configuration is not consistent to the design drawing of an applied-specific, the alarm signal
[Fail_BoardConfig] is issued with the equipment being blocked.

4.3 AC Circuit Supervision

4.3.1 Voltage and Current Drift Supervision and Auto-adjustment


The voltage and current drift are influenced by the variation of temperature or other environment
factors. PCS-985 can continually and automatically trace the drift value and adjust it to normal
value.

4.3.2 Sample Supervision


The device can provide monitoring of AC current and voltage samplings for protection DSP
module and fault detector DSP module. If the detected values are wrong or inconsistent, an alarm
[Alm_Sample_DSP] will be issued and the relay will be blocked.

4.4 Secondary Circuit Supervision

4.4.1 Current Transformer Supervision (CTS)


The CTS function will be always processed all the time. The CTS logic in the relay is designed to
detect the CT secondary circuit to ensure that current measurement is the actual value of power
system. The main purpose is to detect faults in the secondary circuits of CT and to avoid
influences on corresponding protection functions.

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4 Supervision

Please refer to Section 3.31 for details.

4.4.2 Voltage Transformer Supervision (VTS)


The VTS function is also processed continuously. The VTS logic in the relay is designed to detect
the VT secondary circuit to ensure that voltage measurement is the actual value of power system.
When VT failure is detected, equipment can automatically adjust the configuration of protective
elements of which the stability would be affected and might lead to mal-operation.

Please refer to Section 3.32 for details.

4.5 Alarm Messages

PCS-985 can provide self-supervision of hardware circuit and device operation status. When any
abnormal condition is detected, the fault information or report can be displayed and a
corresponding alarm will be issued.

Note!

If alarm signal is issued with equipment being blocked, please try to make a fault diagnosis
by referring the issued alarm messages but not simply reboot or re-power the relay. If user
cannot find the failure reason on site, please inform the manufacturer or the agent for
maintenance.

All the alarm messages and relevant LED affections are listed in following table.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 4-3


Date: 2013-06-29
4 Supervision

Table 4.5-1 Self-supervision report

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

The signal is issued with other


specific alarm signals, and
1 Fail_Device OFF OFF OFF OFF The device fails. please refer to the handling
suggestion other specific alarm
signals.

The signal is issued with other


specific alarm signals, and
2 Alm_Device GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF The device is abnormal. please refer to the handling
suggestion other specific alarm
signals.

Step1: check whether the


selected clock synchronization
mode matches the clock
synchronization source;
Step 2: check whether the
wiring connection between the
3 Alm_TimeSync GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF Time synchronization abnormality alarm. equipment and the clock
synchronization source is
correct;
Step 3: check whether the
setting for selecting clock
synchronization (i.e.
[Opt_TimeSync]) is set

4-4 PCS-985G Generator Relay


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

correctly. If there is no clock


synchronization, please set the
setting [Opt_TimeSync] as No
TimeSync.

Error is found during checking settings on Check the settings, if the


4 Alm_Settings_ProtBrd OFF YELLOW OFF OFF
protection DSP module. settings are configured correctly
and this alarm signal still exists,
Error is found during checking settings on
5 Alm_Settings_FDBrd OFF YELLOW OFF OFF please Inform manufacturer for
fault detector DSP module.
maintenance.

Duration of pickup of any fault detector in


6 Alm_PersistFD_ProtBrd GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
protection DSP module is in excess of 10s.
Check the secondary circuit and
Duration of pickup of any fault detector in
the corresponding settings.
7 Alm_PersistFD_FDBrd GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF fault detector DSP module is in excess of
10s.

Mismatch of pickup of the same type fault Check the metering of


8 Alm_InconsistFD GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF detectors between protection DSP module protection DSP module and
and fault detector DSP module. fault detector DSP module.

FPGA on fault detector DSP module or Inform manufacturer for


9 Alm_Sample_DSP OFF YELLOW OFF OFF
protection DSP module is damaged. maintenance.

Any one of binary input sampled by Check the sampled binary input
10 Alm_BI GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF protection DSP module does not match with of protection DSP module and
that sampled by fault detector DSP module. fault detector DSP module.

11 Fail_Setting_OvRange OFF YELLOW OFF OFF Setting value is out of setting scope. Please reset setting values

PCS-985G Generator Relay 4-5


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

according to the range


described in the instruction
manual, then re-power or reboot
the equipment and the alarm
message will disappear and the
equipment will restore to normal
operation state.

Step 1: Go to the menu


Information->Board Info,
check the abnormality
information.
Step 2: For the abnormality
board, if the board is not used,
Mismatch between the configuration of then remove, and if the board is
12 Fail_BoardConfig OFF YELLOW OFF OFF plug-in boards and the designing drawing of used, then check whether the
a specific project board is installed properly and
work normally.
After the abnormality is
removed, re-power or reboot
the equipment and the
equipment will restore to normal
operation state.

The error is found during checking the Users may pay no attention to
13 Alm_Version GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
version of software downloaded to the the alarm signal in the project

4-6 PCS-985G Generator Relay


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

device. commissioning stage, but it is


needed to download the latest
package file (including correct
version checksum file) provided
by R&D engineer to make the
alarm signal disappear. Then
users get the correct software
version. It is not allowed that the
alarm signal is issued on the
device already has been put
into service. The devices having
being put into service so that
the alarm signal disappears.

Management procedure will upload and


check the parameters and settings of each
Inform manufacturer for
14 Alm_Settings_MON GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF protection plug-in module regularly, if the
maintenance.
parameters and settings are inconsistent, the
alarm signal will be issued

Please check the settings


mentioned in the prompt
After configure file is updated, settings of the
message on the LCD, and go to
15 Fail_SettingItem_Chgd OFF YELLOW OFF OFF file and settings saved on the device are not
the menu Settings and select
matched.
Confirm Settings item to
confirm settings. Then, the

PCS-985G Generator Relay 4-7


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

device will restore to normal


operation stage.

Please check the value of


setting [Active_Grp] and binary
input of indicating active group,
and make them matched. Then
The active group set by settings in device the ALARM LED will be
16 Alm_BI_SettingGrp GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
and that set by binary input are not matched extinguished and the
corresponding alarm message
will disappear and the
equipment will restore to normal
operation state

Loss of low voltage power supply of the


17 Alm_PwrLoss_Opto1 GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF optical couplers for binary inputs of the BI
Check if the power circuit of BI
module
module is connected correctly
Loss of high voltage power supply of the
with DC module.
18 Alm_PwrLoss_Opto2 GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF optical couplers for binary inputs of the BI
module

19 Alm_Insuf_Memory GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF Alarm indicating the memory is insufficient

DSP chip on fault detector DSP module is Put the protective device out of
20 Alm_DSP_FDBrd OFF YELLOW OFF OFF
damaged. service at once. Inform the

DSP chip on protection DSP module is factory or agency to maintain it.


21 Alm_DSP_ProtBrd OFF YELLOW OFF OFF
damaged.

4-8 PCS-985G Generator Relay


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

HTM bus communication of protection DSP


22 Alm_InnerComm OFF YELLOW OFF OFF module or fault detector DSP module is
abnormal.

Driving transistors of binary output module


23 Bx_Alm_Output OFF YELLOW OFF OFF located in slot No.x are damaged or DSP
module is damaged

24 Alm_PwrLoss_FPGA1 OFF YELLOW OFF OFF FPGA1 power supply is abnormal

25 Alm_PwrLoss_FPGA2 OFF YELLOW OFF OFF FPGA2 power supply is abnormal

26 Alm_PwrLoss_ADC1 OFF YELLOW OFF OFF ADC1 power supply is abnormal

27 Alm_PwrLoss_ADC2 OFF YELLOW OFF OFF ADC2 power supply is abnormal

Alarm indicating VT1 circuit failure and start


28 Alm_SwOv_VTS1_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
to switch over voltage circuit.

Alarm indicating VT2 circuit failure and start


29 Alm_SwOv_VTS2_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
to switch over voltage circuit.

Alarm indicating VT1 circuit failure and


30 Alm_BlkV3rdHDiff_VTS1 GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW blocking third harmonics voltage differential Check the metering and VT
protection. secondary circuit.

Alarm indicating VT2 circuit failure and


31 Alm_BlkIntTurn_VTS2 GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
blocking inter-turn protection.

Alarm indicating VT1 circuit failure and


32 Alm_BlkIntTurn_VTS1 GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
blocking inter-turn protection.

33 Alm_VTS_HVS_Tr GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW Alarm indicating secondary circuit failure of

PCS-985G Generator Relay 4-9


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

VT at HV side of main transformer.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit failure of


34 Alm_VTS_Term_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
VT at generator terminal.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit failure of


35 Alm_VTS_NP_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
VT at the neutral point of generator.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit failure at


36 Alm_DeltVTS1_Term_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
open-delta side of VT1 at generator terminal.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit failure at


37 Alm_DeltVTS2_Term_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
open-delta side of VT2 at generator terminal.

Alarm indicating the position of circuit Check the corresponding binary


38 Alm_Pos_GCB GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
breaker at generator terminal is abnormal. input.

Alarm indicating rotor voltage circuit failure Check the metering and VT
39 Alm_VTS_LossExc_RotWdg GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
which used by loss-of-excitation protection. secondary circuit.

Alarm indicating operation of DPFC interturn


40 Alm_DPFC_IntTurn_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
protective element. Treat according to specific
Alarm indicating operation of alarm stage of application requirement.
41 Alm_IntTurn2_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
calculated longitudinal residual voltage

Alarm indicating differential current of


42 Alm_Diff_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
generator is abnormal. Check the metering and

Alarm indicating differential current of secondary circuit.


43 Alm_Diff_Exc GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
excitation transformer or exciter is abnormal.

44 Alm_MR1 GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF Alarm indicating operation of mechanical Treat according to specific

4-10 PCS-985G Generator Relay


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

repeater 1. application requirement.

Alarm indicating operation of mechanical


45 Alm_MR2 GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
repeater 2.

Alarm indicating operation of mechanical


46 Alm_MR3 GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
repeater 3.

Alarm indicating operation of mechanical


47 Alm_MR4 GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
repeater 4.

Alarm indicating power loss of mechanical Provide the power supply for
48 Alm_PwrLoss_MechRly GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
relay. mechanical relay.

Alarm indicating 2 points earth fault


protection has been put into operation after
49 Alm_On_2PEF_RotWdg GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
operation of 1 point earth fault protection of
rotor.

Alarm indicating operation of sensitive stage


50 Alm_Sens1PEF_RotWdg GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF of 1 point earth fault protective element of
rotor.
Treat according to specific
Alarm indicating operation of normal stage of application requirement.
51 Alm_1PEF_RotWdg GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
1 point earth fault protective element of rotor.

Alarm indicating operation of


52 Alm_LossExc_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
loss-of-excitation protective element.

Alarm indicating operation of over excitation


53 Alm_OvExc_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
protective element.

54 Alm_OvLd_Sta GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF Alarm indicating operation of overload

PCS-985G Generator Relay 4-11


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

element of stator.

Alarm indicating operation of negative


55 Alm_NegOC_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
overcurrent protective element of generator.

Alarm indicating operation of overload


56 Alm_OvLd_RotWdg GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
protective element of rotor winding.

Alarm indicating operation of residual


57 Alm_ROV_Sta GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
overvoltage protection of stator.

Alarm indicating operation of 3rd harmonics


58 Alm_V3rdHRatio_Sta GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
ratio earth fault protective element of stator.

Alarm indicating operation of 3rd harmonics


59 Alm_V3rdHDiff_Sta GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF differential earth fault protective element of
stator.

Stator earth fault alarm (judged by stator


60 Alm_InjEF_Sta GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
earth-fault protection with voltage injection)

Alarm indicating external injection circuit for


61 Alm_Inj_Circuit GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
stator earth-fault protection is abnormal

Alarm indicating operation of stage 1 of


62 Alm_UF1_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF under frequency protective element of
generator.

Alarm indicating operation of stage 2 of


63 Alm_UF2_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF under frequency protective element of
generator.

64 Alm_UF3_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF Alarm indicating operation of stage 3 of

4-12 PCS-985G Generator Relay


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

under frequency protective element of


generator.

Alarm indicating operation of stage 1 of over


65 Alm_OF1_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
frequency protective element of generator.

Alarm indicating operation of stage 2 of over


66 Alm_OF2_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
frequency protective element of generator.

67 Alm_OV_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF Alarm indicating overvoltage of generator

68 Alm_UV_Gen

Alarm indicating operation of reverse power


69 Alm_RevP_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
protection.

Alarm indicating generator under power


70 Alm_BO_UP_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
alarming contact will close.

Alarm indicating out-of-step of system occurs


71 Alm_Ext_OOS_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF while the oscillation center is outside the
protected zone.

Alarm indicating out-of-step of system occurs


72 Alm_Int_OOS_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF and the oscillation center is inside the
protected zone.

Alarm indicating accelerate out-of-step


73 Alm_Accel_OOS_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
occurs.

Alarm indicating decelerate out-of-step


74 Alm_Decel_OOS_Gen GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
occurs.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 4-13


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

Alarm indicating secondary circuit


75 Alm_NeuVTS_TermVT1 GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW abnormality of VT1 at the neutral point of
generator terminal.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit


Check the metering and VT
76 Alm_NeuVTS_TermVT2 GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW abnormality of VT2 at the neutral point of
secondary circuit.
generator terminal.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit


77 Alm_NeuVTS_HVS_Tr GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW abnormality of VT at the neutral point of HV
side of transformer.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit failure of


78 Alm_CTS_Diff_Gen GREEN YELLOW YELLOW OFF CT used in differential protection of
generator.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit failure of


79 Alm_CTS_Diff_Exc GREEN YELLOW YELLOW OFF CT used in differential protection of excitation
transformer or exciter.
Disable the link and check the
Alarm indicating secondary circuit
80 Alm_CTS_Term_Gen GREEN YELLOW YELLOW OFF secondary circuit. After clear the
abnormality of CT at generator terminal.
error, reset the relay.
Alarm indicating secondary circuit
81 Alm_CTS_NP_Gen GREEN YELLOW YELLOW OFF abnormality of CT at the neutral point of
generator.

Alarm indicating secondary circuit


82 Alm_CTS_Bak_Gen GREEN YELLOW YELLOW OFF abnormality of CT at generator terminal for
backup overcurrent protection.

4-14 PCS-985G Generator Relay


4 Supervision

Indicator LED
No. Alarm Message CT VT Meaning Description Repairmen suggestion
HEALTHY ALARM
ALARM ALARM

No special treatment is needed.


Just wait the completion of
83 Alm_TestMode GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF The device is in the binary output test mode.
communication test or binary
output test., or exit the test.

Alarm indicating the external DC power Check the external DC power


84 Alm_dU_Inject GREEN YELLOW OFF OFF
supply abnormity of the rotor. supply.

Alarm indicating voltage circuit failure of rotor Check the metering and VT
85 Alm_VTS_RotWdg GREEN YELLOW OFF YELLOW
winding. secondary circuit.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 4-15


4 Supervision

4-16 PCS-985G Generator Relay


5 Management

5 Management

Table of Contents
5 Management.................................................................................... 5-a
5.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 Measurement ................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2.1 Measurement of Generator Protection ................................................................................ 5-1

5.2.2 Measurement of Excitation Transformer or Exciter Protection............................................ 5-4

5.2.3 Phase Angle Measurement ................................................................................................. 5-4

5.3 Status Signaling .............................................................................................. 5-5


5.4 Event and Fault Recorder ............................................................................... 5-9
5.4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 5-9

5.4.2 Event & Fault Records......................................................................................................... 5-9

5.4.3 Type of Event ....................................................................................................................... 5-9

5.4.4 State Change of Binary Inputs ............................................................................................. 5-9

5.4.5 Relay Alarm Signals ............................................................................................................ 5-9

5.4.6 Fault Detector Elements ...................................................................................................... 5-9

5.4.7 Protection Element ............................................................................................................ 5-10

5.5 Disturbance Record ...................................................................................... 5-13

List of Tables
Table 5.2-1 Current values in generator protection ................................................................. 5-1

Table 5.2-2 Voltages values in generator protection ............................................................... 5-2

Table 5.2-3 Misc measured values in generator protection .................................................... 5-3

Table 5.2-4 Current values in excitation transformer or exciter protection .......................... 5-4

Table 5.2-5 Phase angles of generator ...................................................................................... 5-4

Table 5.2-6 Phase angle of excitation transformer or exciter ................................................. 5-5

Table 5.3-1 Enabling binary inputs of generator ...................................................................... 5-6

Table 5.3-2 Enabling binary inputs of excitation transformer or exciter protection ............ 5-6

PCS-985G Generator Relay 5-a


Date: 2013-07-09
5 Management

Table 5.3-3 Binary inputs of mechanical protection ................................................................ 5-6

Table 5.3-4 Miscellaneous binary inputs................................................................................... 5-7

Table 5.3-5 Power supervision binary inputs ........................................................................... 5-7

Table 5.3-6 Fault detector flag generated internal by PROT ................................................... 5-7

Table 5.4-1 List of fault detector elements.............................................................................. 5-10

Table 5.4-2 List of the protection elements ............................................................................ 5-11

5-b PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-07-09
5 Management

5.1 Overview

The relay also provides some auxiliary functions, such as on-line data metering, binary input
status, event and disturbance recording, etc. All these make the relay meet the demands of the
modern power grid requirements.

5.2 Measurement

The equipment performs continuous measurement of the analogue input quantities. The
measurement data shown below is displayed on the LCD of the relay front panel or on the local or
remote PC.

Equipment samples 24 points per cycle. Calculate the RMS value in each interval and LCD will be
updated every 0.5 second. The following system quantities are displayed in RMS values of the
secondary side of CT and VT.

NOTE: Ie and In mentioned in following sections are units. Ie is secondary rated current

of main transformer or generator, and In is secondary rated current of CT

NOTE: The quantities listed in following tables are to be displayed on LCD for the device,

but for a certain application, some of these quantities may be eliminated due of the
scheme user required, so please look up the devices on site for actual quantities
displayed.

The quantities listed in following sections are to be displayed on LCD for PCS-985G, but for a
certain application, some of these quantities may be eliminated due of the scheme user required,
so please look up the devices on site for actual quantities displayed.

5.2.1 Measurement of Generator Protection


Table 5.2-1 Current values in generator protection

No. Item Description Unit


1 Ida_Diff_Gen Ie
2 Idb_Diff_Gen Phase A, B and C of per unit value of generator differential current. Ie
3 Idc_Diff_Gen Ie
4 Ia_Term_Gen A
5 Ib_Term_Gen Phase A, B and C of generator terminal current A
6 Ic_Term_Gen A
7 Ia_NP_Gen A
8 Ib_NP_Gen Phase A, B and C generator neutral point current A
9 Ic_NP_Gen A
10 I1_NP_Gen Positive sequence current at generator terminal. A

PCS-985G Generator Relay 5-1


Date: 2013-07-09
5 Management

No. Item Description Unit


11 I2_NP_Gen Negative sequence current at generator terminal. A
12 I0_NP_Gen Residual current at generator terminal. A
13 Ia_Bak_Gen A
14 Ib_Bak_Gen Phase A, B and C of current of generator backup protection A
15 Ic_Bak_Gen A
16 I1_Bak_Gen Positive sequence current of generator backup protection A
17 I2_Bak_Gen Negative sequence current of generator backup protection A
18 I0_Bak_Gen Residual current of generator backup protection A
19 Id_TrvDiff_Gen Transverse differential current of generator inter-turn protection A
Measurements-> Measurement1-> Gen Values1-> Gen Diff Values1
Path
Measurements-> Measurements2-> Gen Values2-> Gen Diff Values2

Table 5.2-2 Voltages values in generator protection

No. Item Description Unit


1 Ua_VT1_Term V
Phase A, B and C of voltage derived from VT1 at the generator
2 Ub_VT1_Term V
terminal.
3 Uc_VT1_Term V
4 U1_VT1_Term Calculated positive sequence voltage of VT1. V
5 U2_VT1_Term Calculated negative sequence voltage of VT1. V
6 U0_VT1_Term Calculated residual voltage of VT1. V
rd
7 U0Cal_3rdH_VT1_Term Calculated 3 harmonics of VT1 at the generator terminal. V
8 Ua_VT2_Term V
Phase A, B and C of voltage derived from VT2 at the generator
9 Ub_VT2_Term V
terminal.
10 Uc_VT2_Term V
11 U1_VT2_Term Calculated positive sequence voltage of VT2 V
12 U2_VT2_Term Calculated negative sequence voltage of VT2 V
13 U0_VT2_Term Calculated residual voltage of VT2 V
rd
14 U0Cal_3rdH_VT2_Term Calculated 3 harmonics of VT2 at the generator terminal. V
Voltage between phase A and phase B of VT1 at the generator
15 Uab_VT1_Term V
terminal
Voltage between phase B and phase C of VT1 at the generator
16 Ubc_VT1_Term V
terminal
Voltage between phase C and phase A of VT1 at the generator
17 Uca_VT1_Term V
terminal
Voltage between phase A and phase B of VT2 at the generator
18 Uab_VT2_Term V
terminal
Voltage between phase B and phase C of VT2 at the generator
19 Ubc_VT2_Term V
terminal
Voltage between phase C and phase A of VT2 at the generator
20 Uca_VT2_Term V
terminal
Residual voltage derived from open-delta side of VT1 at the
21 U0_DeltVT1_Term V
generator terminal.

5-2 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-07-09
5 Management

No. Item Description Unit


Residual voltage derived from VT at the neutral point of
22 U0_NP_Gen V
generator.
rd
3 harmonics derived from open-delta side of VT1 at the
23 U0_3rdH_VT1_Term V
generator terminal.
rd
3 harmonics derived from open-delta side of VT at the neutral
24 U0_3rdH_NP_Gen V
point of generator.
rd
25 k_V3rdHRatio_Sta 3 harmonic voltage percentage of stator earth-fault protection. /
rd
3 harmonics differential voltage between the terminal and the
26 Ud_3rdH_Sta V
neutral point of generator.
27 U0_Longl_Gen Longitudinal residual voltage of generator V
rd
28 U0_3rdH_Longl_Gen 3 harmonic of longitudinal residual voltage of generator V
Calculated residual voltage in longitudinal residual voltage
29 U02_Longl_Gen V
protection of generator
Measurements-> Measurement1-> Gen Values1-> Gen Volt Values1
Path
Measurements-> Measurements2-> Gen Values2-> Gen Volt Values2

Table 5.2-3 Misc measured values in generator protection

No. Item Description Unit


1 P_Gen Active power of generator. %
2 Q_Gen Reactive power of generator. %
3 Accu_InvOvLd_Sta Accumulation of thermal due to overload of stator. %
Accumulation of thermal due to negative sequence current
4 Accu_InvNegOC_Gen %
through stator result from interaction between rotor and stator.
5 U/F_OvExc_Gen Calculated ratio of per unit values of voltage and frequency. /
6 Accu_InvOvExc_Gen Accumulation of thermal due to over excitation of generator. %
7 f_Gen Real time calculated frequency of generator. Hz
Accumulation of under frequency condition time of generator to
8 Accu_UF1_Gen Min
decide operation of state 1 of under frequency protection.
Accumulation of under frequency condition time of generator to
9 Accu_UF2_Gen min
decide operation of state 2 of under frequency protection.
Negative sequence voltage of 2nd harmonics voltage of stator
10 U2_2ndH_VT1_Gen V
derived from VT1.
11 U_RotWdg Voltage of positive pole of rotor to negative pole. V
12 U+_RotWdg Voltage of positive pole of rotor to ground. V
13 U-_RotWdg Voltage of negative pole of rotor to ground. V
14 Rg_RotWdg Calculated grounded resistance of rotor. k
15 Loc_RotWdgEF Location of earth fault of rotor winding of generator. %
16 Ig1_RotWdg Leakage current 1 of rotor A
17 Ig2_RotWdg Leakage current 2 of rotor A
18 U_Injector Injected voltage of generator rotor V
19 Accu_InvOvLd_RotWdg Accumulation of thermal of rotor winding. %
20 U0_Inj_Sta Residual voltage of stator earth-fault protection. V

PCS-985G Generator Relay 5-3


Date: 2013-07-09
5 Management

No. Item Description Unit


21 I0_Inj_Sta Residual current of stator earth-fault protection. A
22 U20_Inj_Sta 20Hz voltage injected V
23 I20_Inj_Sta 20Hz current injected A
Injected 20Hz phase angle between same-phase voltage and
24 Angle_Inj_Sta
current
Corrected injected 20Hz phase angle between same-phase
25 CorrAngle_Inj_Sta
voltage and current
26 RSec_Inj_Sta Measured secondary resistance
27 XSec_Inj_Sta Measured secondary reactance
28 RCom_Inj_Sta Corrected resistance
29 RPri_Inj_Sta Measured primary reactance k
Measurements-> Measurement1-> Gen Values1-> Gen Misc Values1
Path
Measurements-> Measurements2-> Gen Values2-> Gen Misc Values2

5.2.2 Measurement of Excitation Transformer or Exciter Protection


Table 5.2-4 Current values in excitation transformer or exciter protection

No. Item Description Unit


1 Ida_Diff_Exc In
Phase A, B and C of differential current of excitation transformer or
2 Idb_Diff_Exc In
exciter.
3 Idc_Diff_Exc In
4 Icorra_S1_Exc In
Phase A, B and C of corrected current on the high voltage side of
5 Icorrb_S1_Exc In
excitation transformer or terminal side of exciter (Side 1).
6 Icorrc_S1_Exc In
7 Icorra_S2_Exc In
Phase A, B and C of corrected current on the low voltage side of
8 Icorrb_S2_Exc In
excitation transformer or neutral point side of exciter (Side 2).
9 Icorrc_S2_Exc In
10 Ia_S1_Exc A
Phase A, B and C of current on the high voltage side of excitation
11 Ib_S1_Exc A
transformer or terminal side of exciter (Side 1).
12 Ic_S1_Exc A
13 Ia_S2_Exc A
Phase A, B and C of current on the low voltage side of excitation
14 Ib_S2_Exc A
transformer or neutral point side of exciter (Side 2).
15 Ic_S2_Exc A
Measurements-> Measurement1-> Exc Values1
Path
Measurements-> Measurements2-> Exc Values2

5.2.3 Phase Angle Measurement


Table 5.2-5 Phase angles of generator

No. Item Description Unit


1 ANGa_Term&NP_Gen
Phase angle between same-phase currents at generator
2 ANGb_Term&NP_Gen
terminal and generators neutral point
3 ANGc_Term&NP_Gen

5-4 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-07-09
5 Management

No. Item Description Unit


4 ANGiab_Term_Gen
Phase - Phase angle between phase A and B, B and C, C and A
5 ANGibc_Term_Gen
of current derived from CT at generator terminal.
6 ANGica_Term_Gen
7 ANGiab_NP_Gen
Phase - Phase angle between phase A and B, B and C, C and A
8 ANGibc_NP_Gen
of current derived from CT at generator neutral point.
9 ANGica_NP_Gen
10 ANGvab_VT1_Term_Gen
Phase angle between phase A and B, B and C, C and A of
11 ANGvbc_VT1_Term_Gen
voltage derived from VT1 at generator terminal.
12 ANGvca_VT1_Term_Gen
13 ANGvab_VT2_Term_Gen
Phase angle between phase A and B, B and C, C and A of
14 ANGvbc_VT2_Term_Gen
voltage derived from VT2 at generator terminal.
15 ANGvca_VT2_Term_Gen
16 ANGva_VT1&VT2_Gen
Phase angle between same-phase voltages derived from VT1
17 ANGvb_VT1&VT2_Gen
and VT2 at generator terminal.
18 ANGvc_VT1&VT2_Gen
rd
19 ANG_V3rdH_Gen Phase angle of 3 harmonics voltage at generator neutral point.
20 ANGvia_Term_Gen
Phase angle between same-phase voltage and current of
21 ANGvib_Term_Gen
generator terminal.
22 ANGvic_Term_Gen
Path Measurements-> Measurements2-> Phase Angle Measurements2-> Gen PhaseAngle Values

Table 5.2-6 Phase angle of excitation transformer or exciter

No. Item Description Unit


1 ANGia_S1&S2_Exc
Phase angle between same-phase current at HV side and LV side
2 ANGib_S1&S2_Exc
of excitation transformer or exciter.
3 ANGic_S1&S2_Exc
4 ANGiab_S1_Exc
Phase angle between phase A and B, B and C, C and A of current
5 ANGibc_S1_Exc
at HV side of excitation transformer or exciter.
6 ANGica_S1_Exc
7 ANGiab_S2_Exc
Phase angle between phase A and B, B and C, C and A of current
8 ANGibc_S2_Exc
at LV side of excitation transformer or exciter.
9 ANGica_S2_Exc
Path Measurements-> Measurements2-> Phase Angle Measurements2-> Exc PhaseAngle Values

5.3 Status Signaling

All these signals can be displayed on LCD, locally printed or sent to automation system of
substation via communication channel.

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Table 5.3-1 Enabling binary inputs of generator

No. Item Description


1 EBI_Diff_Gen Enabling binary input of differential protection of generator.
2 EBI_IntTurn_Gen Enabling binary input of inter-turn protection of generator.
3 EBI_PPF_Gen Enabling binary input of phase-to-phase backup protection of generator.
4 EBI_ROV_Sta Enabling binary input of residual overvoltage protection of stator.
5 EBI_V3rdH_Sta Enabling binary input of third harmonic voltage protection
6 EBI_InjEF_Gen Enabling binary input of earth fault protection of generator (with injection).
7 EBI_EF_RotWdg Enabling binary input of earth fault protection of rotor.
8 EBI_OvLd_Sta Enabling binary input of overload protection of stator.
9 EBI_NegOC_Gen Enabling binary input of negative overcurrent protection of stator.
10 EBI_LossExc_Gen Enabling binary input of loss-of-excitation protection of generator.
11 EBI_OOS_Gen Enabling binary input of out-of-step protection of generator.
Enabling binary input of over-voltage and under-voltage protection of
12 EBI_VoltProt_Gen
generator.
Enabling binary input of over-excitation protection of generator-
13 EBI_OvExc_Gen
transformer unit.
14 EBI_PwrProt_Gen Enabling binary input of power protection of generator.
Enabling binary input of over-frequency and under-frequency protection of
15 EBI_FreqProt_Gen
generator.
16 EBI_AccEnerg_Gen Enabling binary input of accidental energization protection of generator.
17 EBI_StShut_Gen Enabling binary input of startup and shutdown protection of generator.
18 EBI_BFP_GCB Enabling binary input of breaker failure protection of generator
Path Status-> Prot BI-> Gen Prot BI

Table 5.3-2 Enabling binary inputs of excitation transformer or exciter protection

No. Item Description


Enabling binary input of differential protection of excitation transformer or
1 EBI_Diff_Exc
exciter.
Enabling binary input of backup protection of excitation transformer or
2 EBI_Bak_Exc
exciter.
Path Status-> Prot BI-> Exc Prot BI

Table 5.3-3 Binary inputs of mechanical protection

No. Item Description


Enabling binary input of mechanical protection to allow mechanical
1 EBI_Trp_MRx
repeater x to initial tripping. (x=1~8)
2 BI_MRx Binary input indicating operation of mechanical repeater. (x=1~8)
Path Status-> Prot BI-> MR Prot BI

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Table 5.3-4 Miscellaneous binary inputs

No. Item Description


Binary input of auxiliary contact of close position of circuit breaker at
1 BI_52b_GCB
generator terminal.
Binary input of auxiliary contact of close position of circuit breaker at
2 BI_52b_CB_HVS1_Tr
branch 1 of HV side of transformer.
Binary input of auxiliary contact of close position of circuit breaker at
3 BI_52b_CB_HVS2_Tr
branch 2 of HV side of transformer.
4 BI_Valve_Turbine Binary input of auxilary contact of close position of valve of turbine.
Binary input indicating that rotor one point earth fault protection of the other
5 BI_1PEF_RotWdg
set of generator-transformer unit protection operates to issue alarm signal
6 BI_PD_CB Binary input of pole disagreement of circuit breaker.
7 BI_ExtTrpCtrl Binary input of operation of external protection
8 BI_NotUrgBrake Binary input of braking blocking (non urgent situation) function
Path Status-> Prot BI-> Misc BI

Table 5.3-5 Power supervision binary inputs

No. Item Description


Binary input indicating the status of power supply for optical isolators on
1 BI_Pwr_Opto_B04
board 04
Binary input indicating binary input circuits on board 05 are working in good
2 BI_Pwr_Superv_B05
condition.
Binary input indicating the status of power supply for optical isolators on
3 BI_Pwr_Opto_B05
board 05
4 BI_Print Binary input used to initiate printer
5 BI_GPS Binary input used for synchronization time from GPS
6 BI_RstTarg Binary input of signal reset
7 BI_Maintenance Binary input used to device maintenance
Path Status-> Prot BI-> Pwr Superv BI

Table 5.3-6 Fault detector flag generated internal by PROT

No. Item Description


1 St_PcntDiffProt_Gen Percentage current differential protection of generator starts
2 St_DPFCDiffProt_Gen DPFC percentage differential protection of generator starts
3 St_TrvDiff_Gen Transverse differential protection stage 1 of generator starts
4 St_ROV_Longl_Gen Stage 1 of longitudinal residual voltage protection starts
5 St_DPFC_IntTurn_Gen DPFC inter-turn fault protection of generator starts.
6 St_ROV_Longl2_Gen Stage 2 of longitudinal residual voltage protection starts
7 St_OC1Prot_Gen Overcurrent protection stage 1 of generator starts
8 St_OC2Prot_Gen Overcurrent protection stage 2 of generator starts
9 St_Z1Prot_Gen Distance protection stage 1 of generator.
10 St_Z2Prot_Gen Distance protection stage 2 of generator starts
11 St_ROVProt_Sta Stator residual overvoltage protection starts

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No. Item Description


12 St_V3rdHRatio_Sta Stator third harmonic voltage ratio protection of step-transformer starts
13 St_InjR_Sta Earthling resistance element of stator earth-fault protection starts
14 St_InjI0_Sta Earthling current element of stator earth-fault protection starts
15 St_1PEF_RotWdg Rotor one-point earth-fault protection starts
16 St_2PEF_RotWdg Rotor two-points earth-fault protection starts
17 St_OvLd_Sta Definite-time overload protection starts
18 St_InvOvLd_Sta Stator inverse-time overload protection starts
19 St_NegOC_Sta Stator definite-time negative-sequence overload protection starts
20 St_InvNegOC_Sta Stator inverse-time negative-sequence overload protection starts
21 St_LossExc1_Gen Loss-of-excitation protection stage 1 of generator starts
22 St_LossExc2_Gen Loss-of-excitation protection stage 2 of generator starts
23 St_LossExc3_Gen Loss-of-excitation protection stage 3 of generator starts
24 St_Ext_OOS_Gen Out-of-step case outside the generator starts
25 St_Int_OOS_Gen In out-of-step case inside the generator starts
26 St_OV1_Gen Overvoltage protection stage 1 of generator starts
27 St_OV2_Gen Overvoltage protection stage 2 of generator starts
28 St_UV_Gen Under voltage protection of generator starts
29 St_OvExc1_Gen Definite time over excitation protection stage1 of generator starts
30 St_OvExc2_Gen Inverse-time over-excitation protection of generator starts
31 St_RevP_Gen Reverse power protection of generator starts
32 St_UP_Gen Under power protection of generator starts
33 St_UF1_Gen Low-frequency protection stage 1 of generator starts
34 St_UF2_Gen Low-frequency protection stage 2 of generator starts
35 St_UF3_Gen Low-frequency protection stage 3 of generator starts
36 St_OF1_Gen Over-frequency protection stage 1 of generator starts
37 St_OF2_Gen Over-frequency protection stage 2 of generator starts
38 St_GenDiff_StShut_Gen Differential current element of generator startup/shutdown protection starts
39 St_StaROV_StShut_Gen Residual element of generator startup/shutdown protection starts
Low-frequency current element of generator startup/shutdown protection
40 St_OC_StShut_Gen
starts
41 St_AccEnerg_Gen Generator inadvertent energization protection starts
42 St_BFP_GCB_Prot Breaker failure protection starts
43 St_DiffProt_Exc Differential protection of exciter/excitation transformer starts
44 St_OC1_Exc Overcurrent protection stage 1 of exciter/excitation transformer starts
45 St_OC2_Exc Overcurrent protection stage 2 of exciter/excitation transformer starts
46 St_InvOvLd_RotWdg Inverse-time overload protection of exciter/excitation transformer starts
47 St_MR1 Mechanical protection 1 of excitation transformer starts
48 St_MR2 Mechanical protection 2 of excitation transformer starts
49 St_MR3 Mechanical protection 3 of excitation transformer starts
50 St_MR4 Mechanical protection 4 of excitation transformer starts
51 St_MR5 Mechanical protection 5 of excitation transformer starts
52 St_MR6 Mechanical protection 6 of excitation transformer starts

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No. Item Description


53 St_MR7 Mechanical protection 7 of excitation transformer starts
54 St_MR8 Mechanical protection 8 of excitation transformer starts
Path Status-> Outputs-> Prot FD

5.4 Event and Fault Recorder

5.4.1 Introduction
The PCS-985G is equipped with integral measurements, event, fault and disturbance recording
facilities suitable for analysis of complex system disturbances. The relay is flexible enough to allow
for the programming of these facilities to specific user application requirements and is discussed
below.

5.4.2 Event & Fault Records


The relay records and time tags up to 32 events and stores them in non-volatile (battery backed up)
memory. This enables the system operator to establish the sequence of events that occurred
within the relay following a particular power system condition, switching sequence etc. When the
available space is exhausted, the oldest event is automatically overwritten by the new one.

The real time clock within the relay provides the time tag to each event, to a resolution of 1ms. The
event records are available for viewing either via the front plate LCD or remotely, via the
communications ports (courier and MODBUS versions only).

Local viewing on the LCD is achieved in the menu column entitled REPORT. This column allows
viewing of event and fault records and is shown by setting sequence No. of the event or fault
report by user. Refer to Section 8 for details of operation method.

5.4.3 Type of Event


An event may be a change of state of a control input or output relay, an alarm condition and
operation reports of protection etc.

5.4.4 State Change of Binary Inputs


If one or more of the opto inputs has changed state since the last time that the protection algorithm
ran, the new status is logged as an event.

Please see Section 5.3 for details about the binary input signals.

5.4.5 Relay Alarm Signals


Any alarm signal generated by the relays will also be logged as individual events.

Please see Section 4.4 for details about the alarm signals.

5.4.6 Fault Detector Elements


The signal of fault detector indicates one protection element (or several protection elements) picks

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5 Management

up to trig disturbance and fault recording with 500ms delay for dropping off.

The following table is the list of the fault detector elements, please see Chapter 3 for detailed
message.

Table 5.4-1 List of fault detector elements

No. Item Description


Internally generated binary input indicating alarm triggering disturbance
1 AlmTrigDFR
fault recorder
2 FD_Diff_Gen Fault detector of differential protection of generator picks up.
3 FD_Freq_Gen Fault detector of frequency protection of generator picks up.
4 FD_IntTurn_Gen Fault detector of generator inter-turn protection picks up.
Fault detector of generator negative-sequence overcurrent protection picks
5 FD_NegOC_Gen
up.
6 FD_OOS_Gen Fault detector of out-of-step protection of generator picks up.
7 FD_OvExc_Gen Fault detector of generator overexcitation protection picks up.
8 FD_PPF_Gen Fault detector of phase-to-phase fault protection of generator picks up.
9 FD_PwrProt_Gen Fault detector of power protection of generator picks up.
10 FD_VoltProt_Gen Fault detector of voltage protection of generator picks up.
11 FD_LossExc_Gen Fault detector of loss-of-excitation protection of generator picks up.
12 FD_MechRly Fault detector of mechanical protection of excitation transformer picks up.
13 FD_EF_RotWdg Fault detector of earth fault protection of rotor picks up.
14 FD_InvOvLd_RotWdg Fault detector of inverse-time overload protection of rotor picks up.
15 FD_SPDiff2_Gen Fault detector of incomplete differential protection 2 of generator picks up.
16 FD_StaEF_Gen Fault detector of stator earth-fault protection of generator picks up
17 FD_InjStaEF_Gen Fault detector of stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection picks up
18 FD_StaOvLd_Gen Fault detector of stator overload protection of generator picks up.
19 FD_StShut_Gen Fault detector of startup and shutdown protection of generator picks up.
20 FD_AccEnerg_Gen Fault detector of accidental energization protection of generator picks up.
21 FD_Bak_Exc Fault detector of backup protection of excitation transformer picks up.
22 FD_Diff_Exc Fault detector of differential protection of excitation transformer picks up.
23 FD_BFP_GCB Fault detector of breaker failure protection picks up.

5.4.7 Protection Element


Any operation of protection elements, (either a pickup or a trip condition) will be logged as an
event record, consisting of a text string indicating the operated element and an event sequence
number. Again, this number is intended not only for use by the event extraction software, such as
PCSPC, but also for the user.

All the protection element operation reports are listed as below. Please see Chapter 3 for details
about these operation reports.

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Table 5.4-2 List of the protection elements

No. Item Description


1 FD_Prot The fault detector element.
2 Op_InstDiff_Gen Operation of instantaneous unrestraint differential protection of generator
3 Op_PcntDiff_Gen Operation of percentage differential protection of generator
Operation of DPFC (Deviation of Power Frequency Component) differential
4 Op_DPFC_Diff_Gen
protection of generator
5 Op_SensTrvDiff_Gen Operation of high sensitive transverse differential protection of generator
Operation of high-setting stage of transverse differential protection of
6 Op_InsensTrvDiff_Gen
generator
Operation of high sensitive longitudinal residual overvoltage protection of
7 Op_SensIntTurn_Gen
generator.
Operation of high-setting stage of longitudinal residual overvoltage
8 Op_InsensIntTurn_Gen
protection of generator.
Operation of DPFC (Deviation of Power Frequency Component) of
9 Op_DPFC_IntTurn_Gen
inter-turn protection of generator
Operation of calculated longitudinal residual overvoltage protection of
10 Op_SensIntTurn2_Gen
generator
11 Op_OC1_Gen Operation of stage 1 of overcurrent protection of generator
12 Op_OC2_Gen Operation of stage 2 of overcurrent protection of generator
13 Op_Z1_Gen Operation of stage 1 of distance protection of generator
14 Op_Z2_Gen Operation of stage 2 of distance protection of generator
Operation of sensitive stage residual overvoltage element of earth fault
15 Op_SensROV_Sta
protection of stator
Operation of insensitive stage residual overvoltage element of earth fault
16 Op_InsensROV_Sta
protection of stator
rd
17 Op_V3rdHRatio_Sta Operation of 3 harmonics ratio earth fault protection of stator
Operation of stator earth-fault protection with injected according to earthing
18 Op_InjEF_Sta
resistance criterion
Operation of stator earth-fault protection with injected according to earthing
19 Op_InjI0_Sta
current criterion
20 Op_1PEF_RotWdg Operation of 1 point earth fault protection of rotor
21 Op_2PEF_RotWdg Operation of 2 point earth fault protection of rotor
22 Op_OvLd_Sta Operation of definitive time overload protection of stator
23 Op_InvOvLd_Sta Operation of inverse time overload protection of stator
24 Op_NegOC_Gen Operation of negative sequence overcurrent protection of rotor
Operation of inverse time negative sequence overcurrent protection of
25 Op_InvNegOC_Gen
rotor
26 Op_LossExc1_Gen Operation of stage 1 of loss-of-excitation protection of generator
27 Op_LossExc2_Gen Operation of stage 2 of loss-of-excitation protection of generator
28 Op_LossExc3_Gen Operation of stage 3 of loss-of-excitation protection of generator
29 Op_Ext_OOS_Gen Operation of out-of-step protection outside zone of generator
30 Op_Int_OOS_Gen Operation of out-of-step protection inside zone of generator

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31 Op_OV1_Gen Operation of stage 1 of overvoltage protection of generator


32 Op_OV2_Gen Operation of stage 2 of overvoltage protection of generator
33 Op_UV_Gen Operation of under voltage protection of generator
34 Op_OvExc_Gen Operation of definitive time over-excitation protection of generator
35 Op_InvOvExc_Gen Operation of inverse time over-excitation protection of generator
36 Op_RevP_Gen Operation of reverse power protection of generator
Operation of sequence tripping with reverse power controlled protection of
37 Op_SeqTrpRevP_Gen
generator
38 Op_UP_Gen Operation of low power protection of generator
39 Op_UF1_Gen Operation of stage 1 of under-frequency protection of generator
40 Op_UF2_Gen Operation of stage 2 of under-frequency protection of generator
41 Op_UF3_Gen Operation of stage 3 of under-frequency protection of generator
42 Op_OF1_Gen Operation of stage 1 of over-frequency protection of generator
43 Op_OF2_Gen Operation of stage 2 of over-frequency protection of generator
Operation of differential current element of generator during startup and
44 Op_GenDiff_StShut_Gen
shutoff process
Operation of stator residual overvoltage element of generator during
45 Op_ StaROV _StShut_Gen
startup and shutoff process
Operation of under-frequency overcurrent element of generator during
46 Op_GenCur_StShut_Gen
startup and shutoff process
47 Op_AccEnerg_Gen Operation of accidental energization protection of generator
48 Op_BFP11_GCB Operation of stage 1 breaker failure protection at generator terminal
49 Op_BFP12_GCB Operation of stage 2 breaker failure protection at generator terminal
Operation of instantaneous differential protection of excitation transformer
50 Op_InstDiff_Exc
or exciter
Operation of percentage differential protection of excitation transformer or
51 Op_PcntDiff_Exc
exciter
Operation of stage 1 of overcurrent protection of excitation transformer or
52 Op_OC1_Exc
exciter
Operation of stage 2 of overcurrent protection of excitation transformer or
53 Op_OC2_Exc
exciter
54 Op_InvOvLd_RotWdg Operation of inverse time overload protection of rotor winding
55 Op_MR1 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 1
56 Op_MR2 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 2
57 Op_MR3 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 3
58 Op_MR4 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 4
59 Op_MR5 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 5
60 Op_MR6 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 6
61 Op_MR7 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 7
62 Op_MR8 Operation of repeater of external mechanical input 8
63 TrpOutp5 Operation of the tripping output 5
64 TrpOutp6 Operation of the tripping output 6
65 TrpOutp7 Operation of the tripping output 7

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66 TrpOutp8 Operation of the tripping output 8


67 TrpOutp9 Operation of the tripping output 9
68 TrpOutp10 Operation of the tripping output 10
69 TrpOutp11 Operation of the tripping output 11
70 TrpOutp12 Operation of the tripping output 12
71 TrpOutp13 Operation of the tripping output 13
72 TrpOutp14 Operation of the tripping output 14
73 TrpOutp15 Operation of the tripping output 15
74 TrpOutp16 Operation of the tripping output 16
75 TrpOutp17 Operation of the tripping output 17
76 TrpOutp18 Operation of the tripping output 18
77 TrpOutp19 Operation of the tripping output 19
78 TrpOutp20 Operation of the tripping output 20
79 TrpOutp21 Operation of the tripping output 21
80 TrpOutp22 Operation of the tripping output 22
81 TrpOutp23 Operation of the tripping output 23
82 TrpOutp24 Operation of the tripping output 24
83 TrpOutp25 Operation of the tripping output 25
84 TrpOutp26 Operation of the tripping output 26
85 TrpOutp27 Operation of the tripping output 27
86 TrpOutp28 Operation of the tripping output 28
87 TrpOutp29 Operation of the tripping output 29

5.5 Disturbance Record

The integral disturbance recorder has an area of memory specifically set aside for record storage.
The number of records that may be stored by the relay is dependent upon the selected recording
duration. The recorder of CPU board can typically store a minimum of 32 records, among them 8
records with instantaneous waveform. The record is composed of tripping element, faulty phase,
operation time and the waveform content is composed of differential currents, corrected current of
each side of generator or transformer, three-phase current of each side, residual current of each
side (if available), three-phase voltages, residual voltage of each side, negative sequence voltage
and tripping pulse.

The MON board can store up to 4 seconds (24 sampling points per cycle) or 8 seconds (12
sampling points per cycle) continual waveform, which including all channels analog quantities
(sampled data, differential currents and so on), all the binary input changing state, binary output,
pick up flags of fault detectors, alarm signals, operation signals and tripping signals. Disturbance
records continue to be recorded until the available memory is exhausted, at which time the oldest
record(s) are overwritten to make space for the newest one.

It is not possible to view the disturbance records locally via the LCD; they must be extracted using
suitable software such as PCS-PC.

The CPU board can also record latest 8 cycles of waveform in normal operation condition, which is

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composed of three phases current, corrected current of each side for differential protection, three
phases voltage and residual voltage of each side. This function can help user to check the poles
correctness of secondary circuit by comparing the phase of related quantities shown in wave
figure.

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6 Hardware

6 Hardware

Table of Contents
6 Hardware ......................................................................................... 6-a
6.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.1 CT Requirement .................................................................................................................. 6-4

6.2 Plug-in Module Terminal Definition ............................................................... 6-5


6.2.1 PWR Plug-in Module (Power Supply) ................................................................................. 6-5

6.2.2 MON Plug-in Module (Monitor) ............................................................................................ 6-7

6.2.3 DSP Module 1 (Protection Calculation) ............................................................................... 6-9

6.2.4 DSP Module 2 (Fault Detector) ......................................................................................... 6-10

6.2.5 BI Module (Binary Input) .................................................................................................... 6-10

6.2.6 BO Module (Binary Output) ............................................................................................... 6-13

6.2.7 AI Module (Analog Input) ................................................................................................... 6-19

List of Figures
Figure 6.1-1 Hardware diagram.................................................................................................. 6-1

Figure 6.1-2 Front view of PCS-985 (only for reference) ......................................................... 6-3

Figure 6.1-3 Typical rear view of PCS-985 (only for reference) .............................................. 6-3

Figure 6.2-1 View of PWR plug-in module ................................................................................ 6-6

Figure 6.2-2 Output contacts of PWR plug-in module............................................................. 6-6

Figure 6.2-3 View of MON plug-in module ................................................................................ 6-8

Figure 6.2-4 Connection of communication terminal .............................................................. 6-9

Figure 6.2-5 Rear view of DSP module.................................................................................... 6-10

Figure 6.2-6 Terminal definition of NR1502D.......................................................................... 6-11

Figure 6.2-7 Terminal definition of NR1505A.......................................................................... 6-11

Figure 6.2-8 Terminal definition of NR1533A/B ...................................................................... 6-12

Figure 6.2-9 Trip output contact without latching.................................................................. 6-18

Figure 6.2-10 Trip output contact with latching ..................................................................... 6-19

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6.1 verview
6 Hardware

Figure 6.2-11 AC current and voltage ...................................................................................... 6-20

Figure 6.2-12 Pin definition of the AI module ......................................................................... 6-21

List of Tables
Table 6.1-1 PCS-985 module configuration .............................................................................. 6-2

Table 6.2-1 Terminal definition and description ....................................................................... 6-6

Table 6.2-2 Alarm signals.......................................................................................................... 6-13

Table 6.2-3 Trip signals ............................................................................................................. 6-14

Table 6.2-4 Trip signals ............................................................................................................. 6-15

Table 6.2-5 Abnormality signals............................................................................................... 6-16

Table 6.2-6 Alarm signals.......................................................................................................... 6-17

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6 Hardware

6.1 Overview

Output Relay
Binary Input
External
Protection
Conventional CT/VT A/D Calculation
DSP

ECVT

Fault
A/D Detector Pickup
DSP Relay

ECVT
ETHERNET
LCD +E
GPS
Power
Uaux LED CPU
Supply
RJ45
Keypad
PRINT

Figure 6.1-1 Hardware diagram

PCS-985 adopts 32-bit microchip processor CPU as control core for logic calculation and
management function, meanwhile, adopts high-speed digital signal processor DSP to be in charge
of all the protection calculation. 24 points are sampled in every cycle and parallel processing of
sampled data can be realized in each sampling interval to ensure ultra-high reliability and safety of
protection equipment.

The working process of the device is as follows: firstly, the current and voltage is converted into
small voltage signal and sent to DSP module after being filtered and converted by AD for
protection calculation and fault detector respectively. When DSP module completes all the
protection calculation, the result will be sent to 32-bit CPU on MON module to be recorded.
Protection calculation DSP module carries out protection logic calculation, tripping output, and
MON module completes SOE (sequence of event) record, waveform recording, printing,
communication between protection and SAS and communication between HMI and CPU. The
work process of fault detector DSP module is similar to that of protection DSP module, and the
only difference is, when fault detector DSP module decides a fault detector picks up, only positive
power supply of output relay is switched on.

PCS-985 is comprised of intelligent modules, except that few particular modules position cannot
be changed in the whole device (PWR module and DSP module), the others like AI (analog input)
module such as AC current, AC voltage and etc., and BI/BO module such as binary input, tripping
output, signal output, and etc can be flexibly configured according to the remained slot positions.

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6.1 verview
6 Hardware

Table 6.1-1 PCS-985 module configuration

No. Module description


1 Management module (MON module)

2 Protection calculation module (DSP module 1)


3 Fault detector calculation module (DSP module 2)

4 Analog input module ( AI module )

5 Binary input module (BI module)

6 Tripping output module (BO trip module )

7 Signal output module (BO signal module )

8 Power supply module (PWR module)


9 Human machine interface module (HMI module)

MON module provides functions like management function, completed event record, setting
management, etc.

DSP modules are totally the same, to carry out filtering, sampling and protection calculation
and fault detector calculation respectively.

AI module converts AC current and voltage to low voltage signals with current transformers
and voltage transformers respectively.

BI module provides binary input, and the binary is inputted via 24V, 48V, 110V/125V, or
220V/250V opto-coupler (configurable).

BO trip module provides all tripping outputs.

BO signal module provides all kinds of signal output contact, including annunciation signal,
remote signal, fault and disturbance signal, operation abnormal signal, etc.

PWR module converts DC 250/220/125/110V into different DC voltage levels for various
modules of the equipment

HMI module is comprised of LCD, keypad, LED indicator and test serial ports, and it is
convenient for user to perform human-machine interaction with equipment.

Following figures show front and rear views of PCS-985 respectively. Programmable LED
indicators (No.8-No.20) can be defined by user through PCS-PC software.

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6 Hardware

1
HEALTHY
11 PCS-985
2 12
ALARM
GENERATOR RELAY
3 13
TRIP

4 14

P
VT ALARM

GR
5 15
CT ALARM

6 16 ENT
STA EF ALARM

C
ES
7 17
ROT EF ALARM

8 18

9 19

10 20

Figure 6.1-2 Front view of PCS-985 (only for reference)

Slot No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 P1

NR1101D NR1151D NR1151D NR1502D NR1505A NR1533A NR1526A NR1526A NR1526A NR1533A NR1541C NR1541C NR1541C NR1541C NR1541D NR1301A
1 2 3 1 2 3
5V BJ

4 5 6 4 5 6

ETHERNET BJJ BSJ

1 BO_COM1

2 BO_FAIL

3 BO_ALM
4 BO_COM2

5 BO_FAIL

6 BO_ALM

7 OPTO+

8 OPTO-

9
10 PWR+

11 PWR-

12 GND

NR1401 NR1401 NR1401 NR1401 NR1526A NR1417 NR1541A NR1541A

DANGER DANGER DANGER DANGER

Slot No. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Figure 6.1-3 Typical rear view of PCS-985 (only for reference)

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-3


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6.1.1 CT Requirement
-Rated primary current Ipn:

According to the rated current or maximum load current of primary apparatus.

-Rated continuous thermal current Icth:

According to the maximum load current.

-Rated short-time thermal current Ith and rated dynamic current Idyn:

According to the maximum fault current.

-Rated secondary current Isn

-Accuracy limit factor Kalf:

Ipn Rated primary current (amps)


Icth Rated continuous thermal current (amps)
Ith Rated short-time thermal current (amps)
Idyn Rated dynamic current (amps)
Isn Rated secondary current (amps)
Kalf Accuracy limit factor ( Kalf=Ipal/Ipn)
IPal Rated accuracy limit primary current (amps)

Performance verification

Esl > Esl

Rated secondary limiting e.m.f (volts)


Esl
Esl = kalfIsn(Rct+Rbn)
Kalf Accuracy limit factor (Kalf=Ipal/Ipn)
IPal Rated accuracy limit primary current (amps)
Ipn Rated primary current (amps)
Isn Rated secondary current (amps)
Rct Current transformer secondary winding resistance. (ohms)
Rated resistance burden (ohms)
Rbn 2
Rbn=Sbn/Isn
Sbn Rated burden (VAs)

Required secondary limiting e.m.f (volts)


Esl
Esl = kIpcf Isn(Rct+Rb)/Ipn
k stability factor = 2
Protective checking factor current (amps)
Ipcf
Same as the maximum prospective fault current
Isn Rated secondary current (amps)
Rct Current transformer secondary winding resistance. (ohms)
Real resistance burden (ohms)
Rb
Rb=Rr+2RL+Rc

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6 Hardware

Rc Contact resistance, 0.05-0.1 ohm (ohms)


RL Resistance of a single lead from relay to current transformer (ohms)
Rr Impedance of relay phase current input (ohms)
Ipn Rated primary current (amps)

For example:

1. Kalf=30, Isn=5A, Rct=1ohm, Sbn=60VA

Esl = kalfIsn(Rct+Rbn) = kalfIsn(Rct+ Sbn/Isn2)

= 305(1+60/25)=510V

2. Ipcf=40000A, RL=0.5ohm, Rr=0.1ohm, Rc=0.1ohm, Ipn=2000A

Esl = 2IpcfIsn(Rct+Rb)/Ipn

= 2Ipcf Isn(Rct+(Rr+2RL+Rc))/Ipn

= 2400005(1+(0.1+20.5+0.1))/2000=440V

Thus, Esl > Esl

6.2 Plug-in Module Terminal Definition

The device consists of power supply module, MON module, DSP module, AI module, BI module,
tripping output module, signal output module, input and output signal for mechanical relay. The
definition and application of each module and its terminal is introduced as follows:

6.2.1 PWR Plug-in Module (Power Supply)


PWR module (slot P1) is a DC/DC or AC/DC converter with electrical insulation between input and
output. It has an input voltage range as described in Chapter 2 Technical Data. The standardized
output voltages are +5V and +24V DC. The tolerances of the output voltages are continuously
monitored.

The +5V DC output provides power supply for all the electrical elements that need +5V DC power
supply in this device. The +24V DC output provides power supply for the static relays of this
device.

The use of an external miniature circuit breaker is recommended. The miniature circuit breaker
must be in the on position when the device is in operation and in the off position when the device is
in cold reserve.

A 12-pin connector is fixed on PWR module. The terminal definition of the connector is described
as below.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-5


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NR1301A

5V OK ALM

BO_ALM BO_FAIL

1 BO_COM1
2 BO_FAIL
3 BO_ALM
4 BO_COM2
5 BO_FAIL
6 BO_ALM
7 OPTO+
8 OPTO-
9
10 PWR+
11 PWR-
12 GND

Figure 6.2-1 View of PWR plug-in module

01
BO_FAIL
02
BO_ALM
03

04
BO_FAIL
05
BO_ALM
06

Figure 6.2-2 Output contacts of PWR plug-in module

Terminals definition and description are shown as follows:

Table 6.2-1 Terminal definition and description

Terminal No. Symbol Description

01 BO_COM1 Common terminal 1

02 BO_FAIL Device failure output 1 (01-02, NC)

03 BO_ALM Device abnormality alarm output 1 (01-03, NO)

04 BO_COM2 Common terminal 2

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Terminal No. Symbol Description

05 BO_FAIL Device failure output 2 (04-05, NC)

06 BO_ALM Device abnormality alarm output 2 (04-06, NO)

07 OPTO+ Positive power supply for BI module (24V)

08 OPTO- Negative power supply for BI module (24V)

09 Blank Not used

10 PWR+ Positive input of power supply for the device (250/220V/125/110V)

11 PWR- Negative input of power supply for the device (250/220V/125/110V)

12 GND Grounded connection of the device

Note!

The standard rated voltage of PWR module is self-adaptive to 220Vdc or 110Vdc. For
non-standard rated voltage power supply module please specify when place order, and
check if the rated voltage of power supply module is the same as the voltage of power
source before the device being put into service.

PWR module provides terminal 12 and grounding screw for device grounding. Terminal 12
shall be connected to grounding screw and then connected to the earth copper bar of
panel via dedicated grounding wire.

Effective grounding is the most important measure for a device to prevent EMI, so effective
grounding must be ensured before the device is put into service.

PCS-985, like almost all electronic relays, contains electrolytic capacitors. These
capacitors are well known to be subject to deterioration over time if voltage is not applied
periodically. Deterioration can be avoided by powering the relays up once a year.

6.2.2 MON Plug-in Module (Monitor)


MON module (slot 01) consists of high-performance built-in processor, FLASH, SRAM, SDRAM,
Ethernet controller and other peripherals. Its functions include management of the complete
device, human machine interface, communication and waveform recording etc.

MON module uses the internal bus to receive the data from other modules of the device. It
communicates with the LCD module by RS-485 bus. This module comprises 100BaseT Ethernet
interfaces, RS-485 communication interfaces, PPS/IRIG-B differential time synchronization
interface and RS-232 printing interface.

Modules with various combinations of memory and interface are available as shown in the table
below.

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NR1102M NR1102N NR1101D

TX
ETHERNET ETHERNET
RX

TX

RX

ETHERNET

Figure 6.2-3 View of MON plug-in module

Module ID Interface Terminal No. Usage Physical Layer


4 RJ45 Ethernet To SCADA UTP shield Network Cable
01 SYN+
02 SYN-
RS-485 To clock synchronization
03 SGND
NR1102M
04 Twisted pair wire
05 RTS
RS-232 06 TXD To printer
07 SGND
2 RJ45 Ethernet To SCADA UTP shield Network Cable
2 FO Ethernet To SCADA Optical fiber ST
01 SYN+
02 SYN-
RS-485 To clock synchronization
NR1102N 03 SGND
04 Twisted pair wire
05 RTS
RS-232 06 TXD To printer
07 SGND
2 RJ45 Ethernet To SCADA UTP shield Network Cable
01 A
NR1101D
RS-485 02 B To SCADA Twisted pair wire
03 SGND

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6 Hardware

Module ID Interface Terminal No. Usage Physical Layer


04
05 A
06 B
RS-485 To SCADA
07 SGND
08
09 SYN+
10 SYN-
RS-485 To clock synchronization
11 SGND
12
13 RTS
RS-232 14 TXD
To printer
15 SGND
16

The correct connection is shown in Figure 6.2-4. Generally, the shielded cable with two pairs of
twisted pairs inside shall be applied. One pair of the twisted pairs are respectively used to connect
the + and terminals of difference signal. The other pair of twisted pairs are used to connect
the signal ground of the communication interface. The module reserves a free terminal for all the
communication ports. The free terminal has no connection with any signal of the device, and it is
used to connect the external shields of the cable when connecting multiple devices in series. The
external shield of the cable shall be grounded at one of the ends only.

Twisted pair wire


A 01

B 02
COM
cable with single point earthing
To the screen of other coaxial

SGND 03

04

Twisted pair wire


SYN+ 01
Clock SYN

SYN- 02

SGND 03

04

Twisted pair wire


RTS 05
PRINT

TXD 06

SGND 07

Figure 6.2-4 Connection of communication terminal

6.2.3 DSP Module 1 (Protection Calculation)


The module (slot 02) consists of high-performance digital signal processor, optical-fiber interface,
16-digit high-accuracy ADC that can perform synchronous sampling and other peripherals. The

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-9


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functions of this module include analog data acquisition, calculation of protection logic and tripping
output etc.

NR1151D

1 2 3

4 5 6

Figure 6.2-5 Rear view of DSP module

6.2.4 DSP Module 2 (Fault Detector)


The module (slot 03) consists of high-performance digital signal processor, optical-fiber interface,
16-digit high-accuracy ADC that can perform synchronous sampling and other peripherals. The
functions of this module include analog data acquisition, calculation of fault detector elements and
providing positive power supply to output relay. (DSP module 1 and DSP module 2 have same
hardware configuration, see Figure 6.2-5.)

6.2.5 BI Module (Binary Input)


There are three kinds of BI modules available, NR1502D, NR1505A and NR1533A/B. The device
provides 13 HV binary signals (220V or 110V), including 4 binary signals of mechanical protection,
8 binary signals of auxiliary contact and 1 spare binary signals.

The device also provides 38 LV binary signals (24V).

Four binary signals [BI_TimeSyn], [BI_Print], [BI_Pwr_Opto] and [BI_RstTarg] are fixed, they are
used to time synchronization, print, device maintenance and reset signal respectively. The power
supply for the device is independent with that of mechanical protection, and they are equipped
with the monitoring circuit of power supply.

6-10 PCS-985G Generator Relay


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6 Hardware

Up to 4 BI modules (slot 04, 05, 06, 10) can be equipped with the device. They are respectively
NR1502D for LV binary signal, NR1505A for both HV and LV binary signal and NR1533A/B for
binary signal of mechanical protection. The terminal definition of BI module is described as below.

B04 NR1502D B04

EBI_IntTurn_Gen BI02 02 01 BI01 EBI_Diff_Gen

EBI_V3rdH_Sta BI04 04 03 BI03 EBI_ROV_Sta

EBI_OvLd_Sta BI06 06 05 BI05 EBI_EF_RotWdg

EBI_LossExc_Gen BI08 08 07 BI07 EBI_NegOC_Gen

EBI_VoltProt_Gen BI10 10 09 BI09 EBI_OOS_Gen

EBI_PwrProt_Gen BI12 12 11 BI11 EBI_OvExc_GTU

BI_Pwr_Opto BI13 14 13
OPT-
16 15
(24V)
EBI_AccEnerg_Gen BI15 18 17 BI14 EBI_FreqProt_Gen

EBI_PPF_Gen BI17 20 19 BI16 EBI_StShut_Gen

EBI_Bak_Exc BI19 22 21 BI18 EBI_Diff_Exc

EBI_Trp_MechRly1 BI21 24 23 BI20 EBI_BFP_GCB

EBI_Trp_MechRly3 BI23 26 25 BI22 EBI_Trp_MechRly2

EBI_Trp_MechRly5 BI25 28 27 BI24 EBI_Trp_MechRly4

30 29 BI26 EBI_Trp_MechRly6

Figure 6.2-6 Terminal definition of NR1502D

B05 NR1505A B05

EBI_Trp_MechRly8 BI02 02 01 BI01 EBI_Trp_MechRly7

Spare BI04 04 03 BI03 EBI_InjStaEf_Gen

Spare BI06 06 05 BI05 Spare

Spare BI08 08 07 BI07 Spare

Spare BI10 10 09 BI09 Spare

BI_TimeSyn BI12 12 11 BI11 Spare

BI_Print BI14 14 13 BI13 BI_RstTarg

BI_Pwr_Opto BI16 16 15 BI15 BI_Maintenance


OPT-
18 17
(24V)
BI_52b_CB_HVS1_Tr BI02 20 19 BI01 BI_52b_GCB

BI_Valve_Turbine BI04 22 21 BI03 BI_52b_CB_HVS2_Tr

BI_PD_CB BI06 24 23 BI05 BI_ExtTrpCtrl

BI_NotUrgBrake BI08 26 25 BI07 BI_1PEF_RotWdg

BI_Pwr_Superv BI10 28 27 BI09 BI_Reserved


OPT-
30 29
(220V)

Figure 6.2-7 Terminal definition of NR1505A

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B06 NR1533A/B B06

BO_MR1 02 01 RESET Reset

BO_MR2 04 03 BI01 BI_MR1


Local Signal

Binary Input
BO_MR3 06 05 BI02 BI_MR2

BO_MR4 08 07 BI03 BI_MR3

Com 10 09 BI04 BI_MR4

BO_MR1 12 11 BO_MR1
Remote Signal

BO_MR2 14 13 BO_MR2

Trip
BO_MR3 16 15 BO_MR3

BO_MR4 18 17 BO_MR4

Com 20 19 Com

BO_MR1 22 21
Event Recorder

BO_MR2 24 23

BO_MR3 26 25 V+ Pwr+ (For MR)

Supply
Power
BO_MR4 28 27

Com 30 29 V- Pwr- (For MR)

B10 NR1533A/B B10

BO_MR5 02 01 RESET Reset

BO_MR6 04 03 BI01 BI_MR5


Local Signal

Binary Input

BO_MR7 06 05 BI02 BI_MR6

BO_MR8 08 07 BI03 BI_MR7

Com 10 09 BI04 BI_MR8

BO_MR5 12 11 BO_MR5
Remote Signal

BO_MR6 14 13 BO_MR6
Trip

BO_MR7 16 15 BO_MR7

BO_MR8 18 17 BO_MR8

Com 20 19 Com

BO_MR5 22 21
Event Recorder

BO_MR6 24 23

BO_MR7 26 25 V+ Pwr+ (For MR)


Supply
Power

BO_MR8 28 27

Com 30 29 V- Pwr- (For MR)

Figure 6.2-8 Terminal definition of NR1533A/B

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6 Hardware

Note!

NR1533A is 220V mechanical protection BI module and NR1533B is 110V mechanical


protection BI module.

6.2.6 BO Module (Binary Output)

6.2.6.1 Signal Binary Output Module

Seven BO modules (slot 07, 08, 09, 15, 24, 31, 32) are used to output alarm signals, trip signals
and other abnormality signals. The terminal definition of BO module is described as below.

NR1526A B07

02 01 BO_Alm_CTS

04 03 BO_Alm_VTS

06 05 BO_Alm_RevP

08 07 BO_Alm_OvExc

10 09 Com

12 11 BO_Alm_OvLd

Alarm Signal
14 13 BO_Alm_NegOC

16 15 BO_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg

18 17 BO_Alm_EF_Sta

20 19 Com

22 21 BO_EF_RotWdg

24 23 BO_Alm_LossExc

26 25 BO_Alm_OOS

28 27 BO_Alm_Freq

30 29 Com

Table 6.2-2 Alarm signals

No. Alarm Signal Description


1 BO_Alm_CTS CT circuit failure alarm
2 BO_Alm_VTS VT circuit failure alarm
3 BO_Alm_RevP Reverse power alarm
4 BO_Alm_OvExc Overexcitation alarm
5 BO_Alm_OvLd Overload alarm
6 BO_Alm_NegOC Negative-sequence overload alarm
7 BO_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg Excitation overload alarm
8 BO_Alm_EF_Sta Stator earth fault alarm
9 BO_Alm_EF_RotWdg Rotor earth fault alarm
10 BO_Alm_LossExc Loss-of-excitation alarm

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-13


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No. Alarm Signal Description


11 BO_Alm_OOS Out-of-step alarm
12 BO_Alm_LowFreq Low-frequency alarm

NR1526B B08 NR1541A-100482 B32

02 01 BO_Fail # 02 01
RLY01 BO_Diff_Exc
04 03 BO_Diff_Exc # 04 03

# 06 05
06 05 BO_Bak_Exc
RLY02 BO_Bak_Exc
# 08 07
08 07 BO_MechRly
# 10 09

Trip Signal
10 09 Com RLY03 BO_MechRly
# 12 11
12 11 BO_AccEnerg_Gen
# RLY04 14 13 BO_AccEnerg_Gen
14 13 BO_RevP_Gen
# RLY05 16 15 BO_RevP_Gen
16 15 BO_SeqTrpRevP_Gen
# RLY06 18 17 BO_StShut_Gen
18 17 BO_StShut_Gen # RLY07 20 19 BO_BFP_GCB

20 19 Com # RLY08 22 21 BO_UF_Gen

22 21 BO_BFP_GCB # RLY09 24 23 BO_SeqTrpRevP_Gen


Trip Signal

24 23 BO_UF_GEN # RLY10 26 25 SPARE

# RLY11 28 27 SPARE
26 25 SPARE
# RLY12 30 29 SPARE
28 27 SPARE
# Magnetic latching output
30 29 Com contact

Table 6.2-3 Trip signals

No. Alarm Signal Description

1 BO_Fail Device failure output

2 BO_Diff_Exc Excitation differential protection tripping

3 BO_Bak_Exc Excitation backup protection tripping

4 BO_MechRly Mechanical protection tripping

5 BO_AccEnerg_Gen Generator inadvertent energization protection tripping

6 BO_RevP_Gen Generator reverse power protection tripping


Generator sequential-tripping reverse power protection tripping. It also
7 BO_SeqTrpRevP_Gen
can be trip signal of forward low power protection (BO_FLP_Gen)
8 BO_StShut_Gen Generator startup and shutoff protection tripping

9 BO_BFP_GCB Generator breaker failure protection tripping

10 BO_UF_GEN Generator under voltage protection tripping

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6 Hardware

NR1526A B09 NR1541A-100482 B31

02 01 BO_Diff_Gen # 02 01
RLY01 BO_Diff_Gen
04 03 BO_EF_Sta # 04 03

# 06 05
06 05 BO_IntTurn_Gen
RLY02 BO_EF_Sta
# 08 07
08 07 BO_OvLd_Sta
# 10 09
10 09 Com RLY03 BO_IntTurn_Gen
# 12 11
12 11 BO_VoltProt_Gen
# RLY04 14 13 BO_OvLd_Sta
14 13 BO_LossExc

Trip Signal
# RLY05 16 15 BO_VolProt_Gen
16 15 BO_OSS_Gen
# RLY06 18 17 BO_LossExc
18 17 BO_NegOC_Gen # RLY07 20 19 BO_OSS_Gen

20 19 Com # RLY08 22 21 BO_NegOC_Gen

22 21 BO_EF_RotWdg # RLY09 24 23 BO_EF_RotWdg

24 23 BO_OvExc_Gen # RLY10 26 25 BO_OvExc_Gen

# RLY11 28 27 BO_FreqProt_Gen
26 25 BO_FreqProt_Gen
# RLY12 30 29 BO_PPF_Gen
28 27 BO_PPF_Gen
# Magnetic latching output
30 29 Com contact

Table 6.2-4 Trip signals

No. Alarm Signal Description

1 BO_Diff_Gen Generator differential protection tripping

2 BO_EF_Sta Stator earth fault protection tripping

3 BO_IntTurn_Gen Generator interturn fault protection tripping

4 BO_OvLd_Sta Stator overload protection tripping

5 BO_VoltProt_Gen Generator voltage protection tripping

6 BO_LossExc Generator loss-of-excitation protection tripping

7 BO_OSS_Gen Generator out-of-step protection tripping

8 BO_NegOC_Gen Generator negative sequence overload protection tripping

9 BO_EF_RotWdg Rotor earth fault protection tripping

10 BO_OvExc_Gen Generator over excitation protection tripping

11 BO_FreqProt_Gen Generator frequency protection tripping

12 BO_PPF_Gen Generator phase-to-phase backup protection tripping

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-15


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NR1541D B15

02 01
RLY01 BO_Alarm
04 03

06 05
RLY02 SPARE
08 07

10 09
RLY03 SPARE
12 11

RLY04 14 13

RLY05 16 15 BO_Alm_OV_Gen

RLY06 18 17

RLY07 20 19
BO_Alm_UP_Gen
RLY08 22 21

RLY09 24 23 SPARE

RLY10 26 25

RLY11 28 27 BO_Alm_UV_Gen

RLY12 30 29

Table 6.2-5 Abnormality signals

No. Alarm Signal Description

1 BO_Alarm Output contact of device abnormality alarm


2 BO_Alm_OV_Gen Output contact of generator over voltage alarm
3 BO_Alm_UP_Gen Output contact of generator low power alarm
4 BO_Alm_UV_Gen Output contact of generator under voltage alarm

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NR1526A B24

02 01 BO_Alm_CTS

04 03 BO_Alm_VTS

06 05 BO_Alm_RevP

08 07 BO_Alm_OvExc

10 09 Com

12 11 BO_Alm_OvLd

Alarm Signal
14 13 BO_Alm_NegOC

16 15 BO_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg

18 17 BO_Alm_EF_Sta

20 19 Com

22 21 BO_EF_RotWdg

24 23 BO_Alm_LossExc

26 25 BO_Alm_OOS

28 27 BO_Alm_Freq

30 29 Com

Table 6.2-6 Alarm signals

No. Alarm Signal Description


1 BO_Alm_CTS CT circuit failure alarm
2 BO_Alm_VTS VT circuit failure alarm
3 BO_Alm_RevP Reverse power alarm
4 BO_Alm_OvExc Overexcitation alarm
5 BO_Alm_OvLd Overload alarm
6 BO_Alm_NegOC Negative-sequence overload alarm
7 BO_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg Excitation overload alarm
8 BO_Alm_EF_Sta Stator earth fault alarm
9 BO_Alm_EF_RotWdg Rotor earth fault alarm
10 BO_Alm_LossExc Loss-of-excitation alarm
11 BO_Alm_OOS Out-of-step alarm
12 BO_Alm_LowFreq Low-frequency alarm

6.2.6.2 Trip Binary Output Module

PCS-985B provides 4 trip binary output modules (slot 11, 12, 13, 14). And the definition of all trip
output signal can be user-defined by auxiliary software. The trip output signal can be set to be
broadened, and the time is settable, default value is 140ms. The instantaneous drop-off contacts
can be used to initiate breaker failure protection. The terminal definition of BO module is described
as below.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-17


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NR1541C B11 NR1541C B12

02 01 02 01
RLY01 RLY01
04 03 04 03
BO_TrpOutp1 BO_TrpOutp5
06 05 06 05
RLY02 RLY02
08 07 08 07

10 09 10 09
RLY03 RLY03
12 11 12 11
BO_TrpOutp2 BO_TrpOutp6
RLY04 14 13 RLY04 14 13

RLY05 16 15 RLY05 16 15

RLY06 18 17 RLY06 18 17

RLY07 20 19 RLY07 20 19 BO_TrpOutp7


BO_TrpOutp3
RLY08 22 21 RLY08 22 21

RLY09 24 23 RLY09 24 23

RLY10 26 25 RLY10 26 25
BO_TrpOutp8
RLY11 28 27 BO_TrpOutp4 RLY11 28 27

RLY12 30 29 RLY12 30 29

NR1541C B13 NR1541C B14

02 01 02 01
RLY01 BO_TrpOutp9 RLY01 BO_TrpOutp18
04 03 04 03

06 05 06 05
RLY02 BO_TrpOutp10 RLY02 BO_TrpOutp19
08 07 08 07

10 09 10 09
RLY03 BO_TrpOutp11 RLY03 BO_TrpOutp20
12 11 12 11

RLY04 14 13 RLY04 14 13 BO_TrpOutp21


BO_TrpOutp12
RLY05 16 15 RLY05 16 15 BO_TrpOutp22

RLY06 18 17 BO_TrpOutp13 RLY06 18 17 BO_TrpOutp23

RLY07 20 19 BO_TrpOutp14 RLY07 20 19 BO_TrpOutp24

RLY08 22 21 BO_TrpOutp15 RLY08 22 21 BO_TrpOutp25

RLY09 24 23 BO_TrpOutp16 RLY09 24 23 BO_TrpOutp26

RLY10 26 25 RLY10 26 25 BO_TrpOutp27

RLY11 28 27 BO_TrpOutp17 RLY11 28 27 BO_TrpOutp28

RLY12 30 29 RLY12 30 29 BO_TrpOutp29

Figure 6.2-9 Trip output contact without latching

Note!

The trip output contact can be latching shown as below. # means that this contact is a
magnetic-latching contact

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6 Hardware

NR1541A B11 NR1541A B12

# 02 01 # 02 01
RLY01 RLY01
# 04 03 # 04 03
BO_TrpOutp1 BO_TrpOutp5
# 06 05 # 06 05
RLY02 RLY02
# 08 07 # 08 07

# 10 09 # 10 09
RLY03 RLY03
# 12 11 # 12 11
BO_TrpOutp2 BO_TrpOutp6
# RLY04 14 13 # RLY04 14 13

# RLY05 16 15 # RLY05 16 15

# RLY06 18 17 # RLY06 18 17

# RLY07 20 19 # RLY07 20 19 BO_TrpOutp7


BO_TrpOutp3
# RLY08 22 21 # RLY08 22 21

# RLY09 24 23 # RLY09 24 23

# RLY10 26 25 # RLY10 26 25
BO_TrpOutp8
# RLY11 28 27 BO_TrpOutp4 # RLY11 28 27

# RLY12 30 29 # RLY12 30 29

NR1541B B13 NR1541C B14

# 02 01 02 01
RLY01 BO_TrpOutp9 RLY01 BO_TrpOutp18
# 04 03 04 03

# 06 05 06 05
RLY02 BO_TrpOutp10 RLY02 BO_TrpOutp19
# 08 07 08 07

# 10 09 10 09
RLY03 BO_TrpOutp11 RLY03 BO_TrpOutp20
# 12 11 12 11

# RLY04 14 13 RLY04 14 13 BO_TrpOutp21


BO_TrpOutp12
# RLY05 16 15 RLY05 16 15 BO_TrpOutp22

RLY06 18 17 BO_TrpOutp13 RLY06 18 17 BO_TrpOutp23

RLY07 20 19 BO_TrpOutp14 RLY07 20 19 BO_TrpOutp24

RLY08 22 21 BO_TrpOutp15 RLY08 22 21 BO_TrpOutp25

RLY09 24 23 BO_TrpOutp16 RLY09 24 23 BO_TrpOutp26

RLY10 26 25 RLY10 26 25 BO_TrpOutp27

RLY11 28 27 BO_TrpOutp17 RLY11 28 27 BO_TrpOutp28

RLY12 30 29 RLY12 30 29 BO_TrpOutp29

Figure 6.2-10 Trip output contact with latching

6.2.7 AI Module (Analog Input)


PCS-985B can provide 48 analog input channels, and the terminal definition of analog current and
analog voltage input is described as below.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-19


Date: 2013-06-29

6.1 verview
6 Hardware

B16 NR1401X B18 NR1401X

A 01 02 A' A 01 02 A'
Current Current
B 03 04 B' B 03 04 B'
channel 1 channel 5
C 05 06 C' C 05 06 C'

A 07 08 A' A 07 08 A'
Current Current
B 09 10 B' B 09 10 B'
channel 2 channel 6
C 11 12 C' C 11 12 C'

A 13 14 A' A 13 14 A'
Current Current
B 15 16 B' B 15 16 B'
channel 3 channel 7
C 17 18 C' C 17 18 C'

A 19 20 A' A 19 20 A'
Current Current
B 21 22 B' B 21 22 B'
channel 4 channel 8
C 23 24 C' C 23 24 C'

12I 12I

B20 NR1401X B22 NR1401X

A 01 02 N A 01 02 A
Current channel 9
B 03 04 N B 03 04 B
VT1 of generator (for measurement CT)
terminal C 05 06 C
C 05 06 N

L 07 08 N Reserved L 07 08 N

A 09 10 N

B 11 12 N
VT2 of generator
terminal
C 13 14 N

L 15 16 N
Transverse differential
A 17 18 N L 17 18 N
current
VT at HV side of main Residual current at
B 19 20 N L 19 20 N
transformer neutral point
Residual VT2 at
C 21 22 N L 21 22 N
generator neutral point
Residual VT at HV side Residual VT at
L 23 24 N L 23 24 N
of main transformer generator neutral point
12U 6I2U

Figure 6.2-11 AC current and voltage

If stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection is used, the pin definition of the AI module will
be changed as following figure.

6-20 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-29
6 Hardware

Slot 30 NR1418 Slot 30 NR1417

IR+ 01 IR+ 01

02 02
Input from DC Input from DC
current transmitter current transmitter
IR- 03 IR- 03

04 04

UR2+ 05 Rotor voltage used UR2+ 05


Rotor voltage used by loss-of-excitation
in loss-of-excitation 06 protection& rotor 06
protection earth-fault protection
UR2- 07 with voltage injection UR2- 07

08 08

09 09

UR1+ 10 UOUT 10

11 11

12 12

13 13

14 Rotor voltage used 14


Rotor voltage used
by rotor earth-fault
in rotor earth-fault
RGND 15 protection with RGND 15
protection with ping-
external voltage
pang principle
16 injection principle 16

TEST 17 TEST 17

18 18

19 UIN+ 19

UR1- 20 20

21 UIN- 21

22 22

Figure 6.2-12 Pin definition of the AI module

Note!

1. Three-phase current channel 9 is measurement CT channel, it can be connected with


the measurement CT that used for reverse power protection.

2. Traditional rotor earth-fault protection use the voltage channel of B22_23~B22_24


(Generator neutral point residual VT1)

3. Rotor earth-fault protection with voltage injection adopts the following 2 channels:

1) B22_19~B22_20, residual current from neutral point;

2) B22_21~B22_22, from generator neutral point residual VT2.

4. For rotor earth-fault protection with ping-pang type, NR1418 should be selected.

In NR1418, UR2+ should be connected to positive pole of rotor winding, and UR2-
should be connected to negative pole of rotor winding. UR2+ and UR2- are applied to
acquire the rotor voltage used for loss-of-excitation protection.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 6-21


Date: 2013-06-29

6.1 verview
6 Hardware

UR1+ and UR1- are applied as the inputs of big power resistor (13.6k). UR1+ and
UR1- should be connected to the positive/negative pole of rotor winding via the big
power resistor.

RGND is applied to connect the shaft of rotor winding.

TEST is applied for test (the test resistor is 18k).

5. For rotor earth-fault protection with voltage injection, NR1417 should be selected.

In NR1417, UR2+ should be connected to positive pole of rotor winding, and UR2-
should be connected to negative pole of rotor winding. UR2+ and UR2- are applied to
acquire the rotor voltage for loss-of-excitation protection.

UOUT is applied as the input of big power resistor (47k).

RGND is applied to connect the shaft of rotor winding.

TEST is applied for test (the test resistor is 18k).

UIN+ and UIN- are applied to connect to the external power supply, can be 220V
(NR1417A) or 220V (NR1417B) (predetermined when ordering).

6-22 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-06-29
7 Settings

7 Settings

Table of Contents
7 Settings ........................................................................................... 7-a
7.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 Device Setup ................................................................................................... 7-1
7.2.1 Communication Settings...................................................................................................... 7-1

7.2.2 Device Settings .................................................................................................................... 7-4

7.3 General Settings ............................................................................................. 7-5


7.3.1 System Settings ................................................................................................................... 7-5

7.3.2 Enable Settings.................................................................................................................... 7-5

7.3.3 Main Transformer System Settings ..................................................................................... 7-7

7.3.4 Generator System Settings ................................................................................................. 7-7

7.3.5 System Settings of Excitation Transformer or Exciter ......................................................... 7-9

7.3.6 Implicit Configuration Settings ............................................................................................. 7-9

7.4 Protection Settings ....................................................................................... 7-12


7.4.1 Settings of Differential Protection of Generator................................................................. 7-12

7.4.2 Settings of Inter-turn Fault Protection of Generator .......................................................... 7-15

7.4.3 Settings of Phase-to-phase Backup Protection of Generator ........................................... 7-17

7.4.4 Settings of Stator Earth-fault Protection ............................................................................ 7-21

7.4.5 Settings of Stator Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection ......................................... 7-25

7.4.6 Settings of Rotor Earth-fault Protection ............................................................................. 7-27

7.4.7 Settings of Thermal Overload Protection of Stator ............................................................ 7-29

7.4.8 Settings of Negative-sequence Overcurrent Protection .................................................... 7-31

7.4.9 Settings of Loss-of-excitation Protection ........................................................................... 7-33

7.4.10 Settings of Out-of-step Protection ................................................................................... 7-38

7.4.11 Settings of Overvoltage Protection .................................................................................. 7-41

7.4.12 Settings of Overexcitation Protection of Generator ......................................................... 7-43

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-a


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

7.4.13 Settings of Power Protection of Generator...................................................................... 7-44

7.4.14 Settings of Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection ........................................... 7-46

7.4.15 Settings of Startup and Shutdown Protection of Generator ............................................ 7-47

7.4.16 Settings of Inadvertent Energization Protection of Generator ........................................ 7-49

7.4.17 Settings of Breaker Failure Protection of Generator ....................................................... 7-50

7.4.18 Settings of Differential Protection of Excitation Transformer or Exciter .......................... 7-52

7.4.19 Settings of Backup Protection of Excitation Transformer or Exciter ............................... 7-53

7.4.20 Settings of Overload Protection of Excitation Transformer or Exciter ............................. 7-54

7.4.21 Settings of Mechanical Protection ................................................................................... 7-55

7.5 Calculated Parameters ................................................................................. 7-56


7.5.1 Calculated Parameters of Secondary Rated Current........................................................ 7-56

7.5.2 Calculated Parameters of Secondary Rated Voltage ........................................................ 7-57

7.5.3 Calculated Parameters of Differential Coefficient ............................................................. 7-57

List of Tables
Table 7.2-1 Communication settings ......................................................................................... 7-1

Table 7.2-2 Device settings......................................................................................................... 7-4

Table 7.3-1 List of system settings ............................................................................................ 7-5

Table 7.3-2 List of protection configuration settings .............................................................. 7-5

Table 7.3-3 List of transformer system settings ...................................................................... 7-7

Table 7.3-4 List of generator system settings .......................................................................... 7-8

Table 7.3-5 List of excitation transformer or exciter settings................................................. 7-9

Table 7.3-6 List of implicit configuration settings ................................................................. 7-10

Table 7.4-1 List of generator differential protection settings ............................................... 7-12

Table 7.4-2 List of inter-turn fault protection settings........................................................... 7-15

Table 7.4-3 List of phase-to-phase backup protection settings ........................................... 7-17

Table 7.4-4 List of stator earth fault protection settings ....................................................... 7-21

Table 7.4-5 List of stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection settings ................. 7-25

Table 7.4-6 List of earth fault protection settings of rotor .................................................... 7-27

Table 7.4-7 List of thermal overload protection settings of stator ....................................... 7-29

7-b PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Table 7.4-8 List of negative sequence overload protection .................................................. 7-31

Table 7.4-9 List of loss-of-excitation protection .................................................................... 7-33

Table 7.4-10 List of out-of-step protection ............................................................................. 7-38

Table 7.4-11 List of overvoltage protection settings ............................................................. 7-41

Table 7.4-12 List of over excitation protection settings of generator.................................. 7-43

Table 7.4-13 List of power protection settings of generator ................................................ 7-44

Table 7.4-14 List of frequency protection settings ................................................................ 7-46

Table 7.4-15 List of startup and shutdown protection settings of generator ..................... 7-47

Table 7.4-16 List of accidental energaization protection settings of generator ................. 7-49

Table 7.4-17 List of breaker failure protection settings of generator .................................. 7-50

Table 7.4-18 List of differential protection settings of excitation transformer or exciter.. 7-52

Table 7.4-19 List of backup protection settings of excitation transformer or exciter ....... 7-53

Table 7.4-20 List of overload protection settings of exciter ................................................. 7-54

Table 7.4-21 List of mechanical protection settings .............................................................. 7-55

Table 7.5-1 List of calculated parameters of secondary rated current ................................ 7-57

Table 7.5-2 List of calculated parameters of secondary rated voltage ................................ 7-57

Table 7.5-3 List of calculated parameters of differential coefficient.................................... 7-57

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-c


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

7.1 Overview

The device has some setting groups for protection to coordinate with the mode of power system
operation, one of which is assigned to be active. However, general settings and device setup are
shared by all protection setting groups, and settings of protection element are set according to
secondary values.

7.2 Device Setup

7.2.1 Communication Settings

Settings list

Table 7.2-1 Communication settings

No. Settings item Range Description

000.000.000.000~
1 IP_LAN1 IP address of Ethernet port 1.
255.255.255.255

000.000.000.000~
2 Mask_LAN1 Subnet mask of Ethernet port 1.
255.255.255.255

000.000.000.000~
3 IP_LAN2 IP address of Ethernet port 2.
255.255.255.255

000.000.000.000~
4 Mask_LAN2 Subnet mask of Ethernet port 2.
255.255.255.255

5 En_LAN2 0/1 Enable(1)/disable(0) the IP address of port 2.

000.000.000.000~
6 IP_LAN3 IP address of Ethernet port 3.
255.255.255.255

000.000.000.000~
7 Mask_LAN3 Subnet mask of Ethernet port 3.
255.255.255.255

8 En_LAN3 0/1 Enable(1)/disable(0) the IP address of port 3.

000.000.000.000~
9 IP_LAN4 IP address of Ethernet port 4.
255.255.255.255

000.000.000.000~
10 Mask_LAN4 Subnet mask of Ethernet port 4.
255.255.255.255

11 En_LAN4 0/1 Enable(1)/disable(0) the IP address of port 4.

000.000.000.000~
12 Gateway Gateway of router
255.255.255.255

Enable(1)/disable(0) sending message in broadcast mode


13 En_Broadcast 0/1
via network. (IEC103).

14 Protocol_NET 0~3 Communication protocol of port

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-1


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

No. Settings item Range Description

Time scale format of IEC 60870-5-103 protocol (for


15 Fmt_Net_103 0, 1
Ethernet port).

Communication address between the protective device


16 Addr_RS485A 0255
with the SCADA or RTU via RS-485 serial port 1.

4800,9600,19200,
17 Baud_RS485A Baud rate of rear RS-485 serial port 1.
38400,57600,115200bps

Communication protocol of rear RS-485 serial port 1.


0: IEC60870-5-103;
18 Protocol_RS485A 09 1: Modbus
2: Reserved
Others: Not available

Spontaneous events are sent in the format of FUN and INF


19 Inf_RS485A_103 0, 1 based on IEC 60870-5-103 protocol (for RS-485 serial port
1).

Time scale format of IEC 60870-5-103 protocol (for RS-485


20 Fmt_RS485A_103 0, 1
serial port 1).

Communication address between the protective device


21 Addr_RS485B 0255
with the SCADA or RTU via RS-485 serial port 2.

4800,9600,19200,
22 Baud_RS485B Baud rate of rear RS-485 serial port 2.
38400,57600,115200bps

Communication protocol of rear RS-485 serial port 2.


0: IEC60870-5-103;
23 Protocol_RS485B 09 1: Modbus
2: Reserved
Others: Not available

Spontaneous events are sent in the format of FUN and INF


24 Inf_RS485B_103 0, 1 based on IEC 60870-5-103 protocol (for RS-485 serial port
2).

Time scale format of IEC 60870-5-103 protocol (for RS-485


25 Fmt_RS485B_103 0, 1
serial port 2).

26 Baud_Printer 4800,9600,19200,38400bps Baud rate of printer port

27 En_AutoPrint 0/1 Enable(1)/disable(0) automatic printing function

Conventional
SAS
28 Opt_TimeSyn Select the mode of time synchronization of equipment.
Advanced
NoTimeSyn

000.000.000.000~ The address of the external SNTP clock synchronization


29 IP_Server_SNTP
255.255.255.255 server sending SNTP message to the equipment.

30 IED_Name IED name used in IEC61850 communication

7-2 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Setting Explanation

1. [En_LAN1], [En_LAN2], [En_LAN3], [En_LAN4]

Put Ethernet 1, Ethernet 2, Ethernet 3 and Ethernet 4 in service

They are used for Ethernet communication based on the 103 protocol. When the IEC 61850
protocol is applied, the IP address of Ethernet A will be GOOSE source MAC address.

2. [Opt_TimeSyn]

There are four selections for clock synchronization of device, each selection includes different time
clock synchronization signals shown in following table.

Item Description
PPS(RS-485): Pulse per second (PPS) via RS-485 differential level.
IRIG-B(RS-485): IRIG-B via RS-485 differential level.
Conventional
PPM(DIN): Pulse per minute (PPM) via the binary input [BI_TimeSyn].
PPS(DIN): Pulse per second (PPS) via the binary input [BI_TimeSyn].
SNTP(PTP): Unicast (point to point) SNTP mode via Ethernet network.
SAS SNTP(BC): Broadcast SNTP mode via Ethernet network.
Message (IEC103): Clock messages through IEC103 protocol.
IEEE1588: Clock message via IEEE1588.
Advanced IRIG-B(Fiber): IRIG-B via optical-fibre interface.
PPS(Fiber) PPS: Pulse per second (PPS) via optical-fibre interface.
When no time synchronization signal is connected to the equipment, please select this
NoTimeSync
option and the alarm message [Alm_TimeSync] will not be issued anymore.

Conventional mode and SAS mode are always be supported by device, but Advanced mode
is only supported when NET-DSP module is equipped. The alarm signal [Alm_TimeSyn] may be
issued to remind user loss of time synchronization signals.

1) When SAS is selected, if there is no conventional clock synchronization signal, the device
will not send the alarm signal [Alm_TimeSyn]. When Conventional mode is selected, if there
is no conventional clock synchronization signal, SASmode will be enabled automatically with
the alarm signal [Alm_TimeSyn] being issued simultaneously.

2) When Advanced mode is selected, if there is no conventional clock synchronization signal


connected to NET-DSP module, SAS mode is enabled automatically with the alarm signal
[Alm_TimeSyn] being issued simultaneously.

3) When NoTimeSyn mode is selected, the device will not send alarm signals without

Note!

Above table listed all the communication settings, the device delivered to the user maybe only
show some settings of them according to the communication interface configuration. If only
the Ethernet ports are applied, the settings about the serial ports (port A and port B) are not
listed in this submenu. In addition, the settings about the Ethernet ports only listed in this

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-3


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

submenu according to the actual number of Ethernet ports.

The standard arrangement of the Ethernet port is two, at most four (predetermined when
ordering). Set the IP address according to actual arrangement of Ethernet numbers and the
un-useful port/ports need not be configured. If the PCS-PC configuration tool auxiliary
software is connected with this device through the Ethernet, the IP address of the PCS-PC
must be set as one of the available IP address of this device.

Note!

The clock message via IEC103 protocol is invalid when the device receives the IRIG-B
signal through RC-485 port.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

MainMenuSettingsDevice SetupComm Settings

7.2.2 Device Settings

Settings list

Table 7.2-2 Device settings

No. Setting Item Range Description

Select encoding format of header (HDR) file


0:GB18030
1 HDR_EncodeMode COMTRADE recording file. Default value is
1: UTF-8
UTF-8.

2 Un_BinaryInput 24V, 48V, 110V, 220V Voltage level of binary input

Enable/disable moveable disk to realize the


3 En_MDisk 0, 1 backup and recovery function.
Default value is 0, and the function is reserved.

Setting Explanation

1. [HDR_EncodeMode]

The logic settings to select encoding format of header file.

Default value of [HDR_EncodeMode] is 1(i.e. UTF-8 code) and please set it to 0(i.e. GB18030)
according to the special requirement.

2. [Un_BinaryInput]

This setting is used to set voltage level of binary input module. If low-voltage BI module is
equipped, 24V or 48V can be set according to the actual requirement, and if high-voltage BI
module is equipped, 110V or 220V can be set according to the actual requirement.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

7-4 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

MainMenuSettingsDevice SetupDevice Settings

7.3 General Settings


7.3.1 System Settings

Settings List

Table 7.3-1 List of system settings

No. Setting Item Range Step Description

1 Active_Grp 1~30 1 Current setting group.

2 Substation Max 20 characters Name of the substation

Name of the protected primary equipment, such as


3 PrimaryEquip_Name Max 20 characters
transformer, line, etc.

4 PrimaryEquip_ID Max 20 characters Number of the device.

Setting Explanation

1. [Active_Grp]

The current protection setting group number, and total 30 group settings are provided. The device
settings, communication settings and system settings, are common for all protection groups.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> General Settings -> System Settings

7.3.2 Enable Settings


If any of the following settings is set as 1, corresponding protection function is enabled. If any of
the following settings is set as 0, corresponding protection function is disabled and related
setting submenu and settings will be hidden.

Settings List

Table 7.3-2 List of protection configuration settings

No. Symbol Range Description


Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) differential protection
1 En_Diff_Gen 0/1
of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) inter-turn fault
2 En_IntTurn_Gen 0/1
protection of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) phase to phase fault
3 En_PPF_Gen 0/1
protection of generator
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) stator earth fault
4 En_EF_Sta 0/1
protection of generator.
5 En_InjEF_Sta 0/1 Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) stator earth-fault

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-5


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

protection with voltage injection of generator.


Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) earth fault protection
6 En_EF_RotWdg 0/1
of rotor winding.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) overload protection of
7 En_OvLd_Sta 0/1
stator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) negative sequence
8 En_NegOC_Gen 0/1
overcurrent protection of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) loss of excitation
9 En_LossExc_Gen 0/1
protection of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) out-of-step protection
10 En_OOS_Gen 0/1
of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) overvoltage and
11 En_VoltProt_Gen 0/1
undervoltage protection of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) overexcitation
12 En_OvExc_Gen 0/1
protection of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) overpower and
13 En_PwrProt_Gen 0/1
underpower protection of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) overfrequency and
14 En_FreqProt_Gen 0/1
underfrequency protection of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) all relative protections
15 En_StShut_Gen 0/1
in Startup/shutdown conditions of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) relevant protection in
16 En_AccEnerg_Gen 0/1
case of accident energization of generator.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) generator terminal
17 En_BFP_GCB 0/1
circuit breaker failure protection.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) differential protection
18 En_Diff_Exc 0/1
of exciting transformer or exciter.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) backup protection of
19 En_Bak_Exc 0/1
exciting transformer or exciter.
Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) overload protection of
20 En_OvLd_Exc 0/1
exciting transformer or exciter.
21 En_MechRly 0/1 Logic setting used to enable (1) or disable (0) mechanical protection.
Logic setting used to enable(1) or disable(0) voltage balance
22 En_VTComp_Term_Gen 0/1
function of VTs at the generator terminal.
Logic setting used to enable(1) or disable(0) neutral line failure
23 En_NeuVTS_VT2 0/1
supervision of VT2 (i.e. inter-turn fault protection used VT)
Logic setting used to enable(1) or disable(0) neutral line failure
24 En_NeuVTS_OtherVT 0/1
supervision of other VT (except for VT2).
Logic setting used to enable(1) or disable(0) debugging operation
25 En_TestMode 0/1
through PCS-PC software.

Setting Explanation

1. [En_TestMode]

7-6 PCS-985G Generator Relay


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

This logic setting is configured for equipment debugging status. If it is set as 1, debugging
window can be open by PCS-PC software. Under debugging window, corresponding protection
tripping signals and alarm signals can be issued, corresponding tripping contacts can be
energized without actual happening of corresponding fault. If it is set as 0, debugging window
can not be open.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> General Settings ->Enable Settings

7.3.3 Main Transformer System Settings

Setting List

Table 7.3-3 List of transformer system settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


System rated voltage at HV side of main
1 U1n_HVS_Tr 0.01-2000 0.01 kV
transformer
Rated primary voltage of VT at HV side of main
2 U1n_VT_HVS_Tr 0.01-2000 0.01 kV
transformer.
Rated secondary voltage of VT at HV side of main
3 U2n_VT_HVS_Tr 0.01-200 0.01 V
transformer.
Rated secondary voltage of open-delta of VT at
4 U2n_DeltVT_HVS_Tr 0.01-300 0.01 V
HV side of main transformer.
Logic setting of selecting connection mode of main
transformer
5 Opt_Conn_Tr 0/1
0: Yd connection mode
1: YYd connection mode
Logic setting of circuit breaker at terminal of
generator.
0: There is circuit breaker located at generator
6 Opt_GCB 0/1
terminal
1: There is no circuit breaker located at generator
terminal

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> General Settings ->TrSys Settings

7.3.4 Generator System Settings

Setting List

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-7


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Table 7.3-4 List of generator system settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


1 Pn_Gen 0.1-2000.0 0.1 MW Capacity of active power of generator
2 PF_Gen 0.01-1.00 0.01 Rated power factor of generator.
3 U1n_Gen 0.01-100.0 0.01 kV System rated voltage at the terminal of generator.
Rated primary voltage of VT at the terminal of
4 U1n_VT_Term_Gen 0.01-100.0 0.01 kV
generator.
Rated secondary voltage of VT at the terminal of
5 U2n_VT_Term_Gen 0.01-200.0 0.01 V
generator.
Rated secondary open-delta voltage at the
6 U2n_DeltVT_Term_Gen 0.01-300.0 0.01 V
terminal of generator.
Rated primary voltage of VT at the neutral point of
7 U1n_VT_NP_Gen 0.01-100.0 0.01 kV
generator.
Rated secondary voltage of VT at the neutral point
8 U2n_VT_NP_Gen 0.01-300.0 0.01 V
of generator.
Rated primary current of CT at the terminal of the
9 I1n_CT_Term_Gen 0-60000 1 A
generator.
Rated secondary current of CT at the terminal of
10 I2n_CT_Term_Gen 15 1 A
the generator.
Rated primary current of CT at the neutral point of
11 I1n_CT_NP_Gen 0-60000 1 A
the generator.
Rated secondary current of CT at the neutral point
12 I2n_CT_NP_Gen 15 1 A
of the generator.
Rated primary current of CT used for transverse
13 I1n_CT_TrvDiff_Gen 0-60000 1 A
differential protection.
Rated secondary current of CT used for
14 I2n_CT_TrvDiff_Gen 15 1 A
transverse differential protection.
15 k_U_RotWdg 0-2.000 0.001 Correction coefficient of rotor voltage.
16 Urmax_Transmitter 0-4000 V The maximum value of transmitter input voltage

Setting Explanation

1. [k_U_RotWdg]

This is the correction coefficient of rotor voltage. For the occasion that partial rotor voltage is
connected to the device, rotor voltage needs to be corrected by the setting. For example, if only
half of rotor voltage is connected to the device, this setting should be set as 2, if total rotor
voltage is connected to the device, this setting should be set as 1.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> General Settings ->GenSys Settings

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7 Settings

7.3.5 System Settings of Excitation Transformer or Exciter

Setting List

Table 7.3-5 List of excitation transformer or exciter settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


1 Sn_Exc 0-100.0 0.01 MVA Capacity of the exciter or excitation transformer
System rated voltage on HV side of the excitation
2 U1n_S1_Exc 0-100.00 0.01 kV
transformer.
System rated voltage on LV side of the excitation
3 U1n_S2_Exc 0-100.00 0.01 kV
transformer.
Primary rated current of the CT on HV side of the
4 I1n_CT_S1_Exc 0-60000 1 A
excitation transformer or CT at the terminal of the exciter.
Secondary rated current of the CT on HV side of the
5 I2n_CT_S1_Exc 1, 5 1 A
excitation transformer or CT at the terminal of the exciter.
Primary rated current of the CT on LV side of the
6 I1n_CT_S2_Exc 0-60000 1 A excitation transformer or CT at the neutral point of the
exciter.
Secondary rated current of the CT on LV side of the
7 I2n_CT_S2_Exc 15 1 A excitation transformer or CT at the neutral point of the
exciter.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic setting of excitation system,
0: the excitation transformer is used in the generator
8 Opt_Exc 0/1 system instead of exciter.
1: the exciter is used in the generator system instead of
excitation transformer.
Logic setting of selecting the connection mode of
excitation transformer.
0: Yy-12 connection mode;
9 Opt_Conn_ET 1: Dd-12 connection mode;
2: Dy-11 connection mode;
3: Yd-11 connection mode;
4: Dy-1 connection mode.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> General Settings ->ExcSys Settings

7.3.6 Implicit Configuration Settings


The settings in the following list are associated with application-specific primary layout of
generator and exciter, tripping logics. These settings can not be seen on LCD of equipment and
only be viewed and configured on PC through PCS-PC software. These settings are usually

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7 Settings

configured in factory or configured by field commission engineer according to the design drawing
and project requirement.

Setting List

Table 7.3-6 List of implicit configuration settings

No. settings Range Description

1 Cfg_Polar_CT 0-3FF CT polarity definition


Logic setting of selecting three-phase current channel
2 Cfg_CT_Term_Gen Current channel 0-8
for CT at generator terminal
Logic setting of selecting residual current channel for CT
3 Cfg_CT_NP_Gen Current channel 0-8
at neutral point 1 of generator
Logic setting of selecting three-phase backup current
4 Cfg_CT_Bak_Gen Current channel 0-8
channel for generator
Logic setting of selecting three-phase current channel of
5 Cfg_CT_PwrProt_Gen Current channel 0-9
CT for power protection
Logic setting of selecting three-phase current channel
6 Cfg_CT_S1_Exc Current channel 0-8
for CT of side 1 of excitation transformer or exciter
Logic setting of selecting three-phase current channel
7 Cfg_CT_S2_Exc Current channel 0-8
for CT of side 2 of excitation transformer or exciter
Logic setting of selecting three-phase current CT for
reverse power protection of generator.
8 Opt_CT_PwrProt_Gen 0/1
0: CT of P level.
1: CT of S level.
Logic setting of selecting residual voltage at generator
terminal
9 Opt_3U0_Gen 0/1
0: the voltage is measured residual voltage.
1: the voltage is calculated residual voltage.
Logic setting to configure which output relays will delay
10 Cfg_Ext_TrpOutp 0-3FFFFFFF
dropoff since corresponding tripping signal dropoff.
DDO (delay dropoff) time of tripping output relays, its
11 t_Ext_TrpOutp 0-450
default value is 140ms.
Differential current adjust coefficient for third harmonic
12 kmax_V3rdHDiff_Sta 3-6
differential current protection, 3.0 generally.
13 t_CurrMemory 1-20s Memory time of current, 10s generally.
Ratio coefficient to judge whether neutral line failure of
14 K_NeuVTS_VT2 0.1-1.0 VT2 (inter-turn fault protection used VT) happens, 0.4
generally.
Ratio coefficient to judge whether neutral line failure of
15 K_NeuVTS_OtherVT 0.1-1.0
other VT (except for VT2) happens, 0.2 generally.
16 K_dU_RotWdg 0.05-0.3 Rotor voltage fluctuation coefficient
17 k1_U0_Longl_Gen 0-3.5 Calculated longitudinal residual voltage coefficient 1
18 k2_U0_Longl_Gen 0-3.5 Calculated longitudinal residual voltage coefficient 2

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7 Settings

Polarity adjustment for calculated longitudinal residual


19 Polar_VT_NP_Gen 0-1
voltage

Setting Explanation

1. [Cfg_Polar_CT]

Generally, CT polarity definition is shown as the below table. However if some CT polarity direction
is reversed by incorrect wiring connecting, there is still chance to correct it by configuring this logic
setting easily. Please set the corresponding digit of the logic setting. Bit.1-9 are corresponding to 9
three-phase current channels one by one. If any bit is set as 0, the program will reverse the
current polarity of this channel before calculation.

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Three-phase channel 7
Three-phase channel 9

Three-phase channel 8

Three-phase channel 6

Three-phase channel 5

Three-phase channel 4

Three-phase channel 3

Three-phase channel 2

Three-phase channel 1

2. [Cfg_CT_Term_Gen] No definition

Configurable setting for deciding which channel is chosen to input three-phase current for CT at
generator terminal.

Following table gives all the choices that user can decide. Only one bit at most can be set as 1
simultaneously.

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Three-phase channel 9

Three-phase channel 8

Three-phase channel 7

Three-phase channel 6

Three-phase channel 5

Three-phase channel 4

Three-phase channel 3

Three-phase channel 2

Three-phase channel 1

No definition

The definition of each bit of other configurable settings is the same to that of [Cfg_CT_Term_Gen].

3. [K_dU_RotWdg]

Rotor voltage fluctuation coefficient, it is used to adjust the permissible rotor voltage fluctuation for
rotor earth-fault protection. The permissible rotor voltage fluctuation is bigger if the coefficient is
bigger. Rotor earth-fault protection will be blocked if rotor voltage fluctuation is too big.

4. [k1_U0_Longl_Gen], [k2_U0_Longl_Gen]

Calculated longitudinal residual voltage coefficient 1 and calculated longitudinal residual voltage

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7 Settings

coefficient 2. The two coefficients are used in calculated longitudinal residual voltage protection for
compensation function. The two coefficients can be gotten by stator earth-fault testing.

5. [Polar_VT_NP_Gen]

Polarity adjustment for calculated longitudinal residual voltage, it is only used to adjust the polarity
of neutral point residual voltage in calculated longitudinal residual voltage protection, the polarity
of neutral point residual voltage in stator earth-fault protection will not be affected.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> General Settings ->Config Settings

7.4 Protection Settings


7.4.1 Settings of Differential Protection of Generator

Settings List

Table 7.4-1 List of generator differential protection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Pickup setting of percentage current
1 I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Gen 0.101.50 0.01 Ie
differential protection
Current setting of unrestrained
2 I_InstDiff_Gen 2.0014.00 0.01 Ie
instantaneous differential protection.
Differential current alarm setting of
3 I_AlmDiff_Gen 0.051.00 0.01 Ie
generator.
Restraint coefficient setting of the first
4 Slope1_PcntDiff_Gen 0.000.50 0.01 slope of percentage differential
protection
Maximum value of restraint coefficient
5 Slope2_PcntDiff_Gen 0.300.80 0.01
of the differential characteristic curve.
Tripping output logic setting of
6 TrpLog_Diff_Gen 00003FFFFFFF 1
differential protection of generator.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
7 En_InstDiff_Gen 0/1 enable(1) unrestrained instantaneous
differential protection
Logic settings of disable(0) or
8 En_PcntDiff_Gen 0/1 enable(1) percentage differential
protection
Logic settings of disable(0) or
9 En_DPFC_Diff_Gen 0/1 enable(1) DPFC percentage
differential protection
10 Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_Gen 0/1 Logic setting of selecting whether

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7 Settings

percentage differential protection will


be blocked during CT circuit failure.
0: the protection will not be blocked
during CT circuit failure.
1: the protection will be blocked
during CT circuit failure.

Setting Explanation

1. [I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Gen]

This is pickup setting of percentage current differential protection, which is also the setting of fault
detector of percentage differential protection. It shall be higher than maximum unbalance current
when the generator operates on normal rated load, i.e.

I cdqd Krel 2 0.03I f 2n or I cdqd Krel Iunb.0 Equation 7.4-1

Where:

I f 2 n is secondary rated current of generator,

I f 1n
I f 2n
n fLH

Where:

I f 1n is primary rated current of generator and n fLH is ratio of generator CT.

Pn / cos
I f 1n
3U f 1n

Where:

Pn is rated capacity of generator;

cos is power factor of generator and

U f 1n is rated voltage of generator terminal.

K rel is reliability factor, 1.5 in general;

I unb.0 is the measured actual unbalance current during rated load of generator, 0.2 I f 2 n -0.3 I f 2 n

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7 Settings

is recommended for reference.

Where:

I cdqd represents the setting [I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Gen].

2. [I_InstDiff_Gen]

Setting of unrestrained instantaneous differential protection.

Unrestraint instantaneous differential protection is a complementary part of differential protection.


Its current setting shall be higher than maximum unbalance current due to breakers asynchronous
closure. For large unit, it can be set as 3 or 4 times of rated current. 4 times of rated current is
recommended.

3. [I_AlmDiff_Gen]

Differential current alarm setting of generator. It shall be higher than normal unbalance differential
current and lower than [I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Gen].

4. [Slope1_PcntDiff_Gen]

Restraint coefficient setting of the first slope of percentage differential protection, it shall be:

K bl1 K rel K cc K er Equation 7.4-2

Where:

K rel is reliability coefficient which is considered to be 1.0~2.0 in general;

K cc is the type factor of CT, takes 0.5;

K er is error factor of CT ratio, takes 0.1.

K bl1 represents [Slope1_PcntDiff_Gen] which is set as 0.05~0.1 in general.

5. [Slope2_PcntDiff_Gen]

Maximum value of restraint coefficient of the differential characteristic curve.

With type factor of CT not taken into account, the maximum unbalance current is, ,

I unb. max K ap K er I k . max Equation 7.4-3

Where:

K ap is non periodic component factor, usually no less than 2.0;

K er is error factor of CT ratio, no more than 0.1;

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I k .max is periodic component of secondary value of external three phase short circuit current and it

can be taken as 4 times of rated current if it is less than 4 times of rated current.

Maximum slope of percentage differential protection is:

I unb.max* I cdqd * 2kbl1


kbl 2 Equation 7.4-4
I k .max* 2

Where:

I unb.max* , I cdqd * and I k .max* are all per unit value of rated current of generator;

kbl 2 ([Slope2_PcntDiff_Gen] ) is taken as 0.50 generally.

If the percentage differential protection is configured based on rules mentioned above, when
phase-to-phase metallic short circuit fault occurs at the terminal of generator, sensitivity factor will

meet requirement K sen 2 surely.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenDiffProt Settings

7.4.2 Settings of Inter-turn Fault Protection of Generator

Setting List

Table 7.4-2 List of inter-turn fault protection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Current setting of high sensitive
1 I_SensTrvDiff_Gen 0.10 50.00 0.01 A
transverse differential protection.
Current setting of high-setting
2 I_InsensTrvDiff_Gen 0.10 50.00 0.01 A
transverse differential protection.
Delay of transverse differential
3 t_TrvDiff_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
protection
Voltage setting of high sensitive
4 V_SensROV_Longl_Gen 1 10.00 0.01 V longitudinal residual overvoltage
protection.
Delay of longitudinal residual
overvoltage. Short delay 0.10s
5 t_ROV_Longl_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 s
0.20s is recommended for operation
and output of this protection.

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7 Settings

Tripping output logic setting of


6 TrpLog_IntTurn_Gen 00003FFFFFFF 1 turn-to-turn fault protection of
generator.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
7 En_SensTrvDiff1_Gen 0/1 enable(1) high sensitive transverse
differential protection 1 of generator.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
8 En_InsensTrvDiff1_Gen 0/1 enable(1) high-setting transverse
differential protection 1 of generator.
Enable high sensitive longitudinal
9 En_SensROV_Longl_Gen 0/1 residual overvoltage protection of
generator.
Enable directional DPFC inter-turn
10 En_DPFC_IntTurn_Gen 0/1
fault protection of generator.
Enable alarm function of calculated
11 En_Alm_ROV2_Longl_Gen 0/1 longitudinal residual overvoltage
protection of generator
Enable Tripping function of calculated
12 En_Trp_ROV2_Longl_Gen 0/1 longitudinal residual overvoltage
protection of generator

Setting Explanation

1. [I_SensTrvDiff_Gen]

Setting of this protection shall be higher than maximum unbalance current during normal operation
condition. Reliability factor can be more than 2. The setting value is usually:

I op 0.05 I f ln / na Equation 7.4-5

Where:

I OP represents the setting [I_SensTrvDiff_Gen].

I f ln is primary rated current of generator and

na is ratio of residual CT of transverse differential protection.

Phase current restraint factor is a fixed coefficient in the program.

2. [I_InsensTrvDiff_Gen]

This is the current setting of high-setting transverse differential protection.

It is equivalent to traditional transverse differential protection. Setting of this protection is as follows


which shall be higher than maximum unbalance current during external short circuit fault.

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7 Settings

I op 0.20~0.30I f ln / na Equation 7.4-6

Where:

I OP represents the setting [I_SensTrvDiff_Gen].

I f ln is primary rated current of generator and

n a is ratio of residual CT of transverse differential protection.

3. [t_TrvDiff_Gen]

This is the delay of transverse differential protection (act on only after the occurrence of one-point
ground of rotor).

When one point earth fault occurs within rotor of generator and one point earth fault protection
operates, in order to prevent unwanted operation of transverse protection due to instantaneous
two points earth fault within the rotor, operation of this protection shall be delayed for 0.5 s 1 s.

Note!

When a turn-to-turn fault occurs, the equipment will trip relevant breakers without delay
according to the tripping output logic setting, but a time delay decided by user will act on
after occurrence of one-point ground of rotor.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenIntTurnProt Settings

7.4.3 Settings of Phase-to-phase Backup Protection of Generator

Setting List

Table 7.4-3 List of phase-to-phase backup protection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Negative sequence voltage setting of
1 V_NegOV_VCE_Gen 1.00 20.00 0.01 V
composite voltage control element.
Setting of phase-to-phase
2 Vpp_UV_VCE_Gen 2.00 100.00 0.01 V undervoltage of composite voltage
control element.
Current setting of overcurrent
3 I_OC1_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01 A
protection stage 1.
Time delay of overcurrent protection
4 t_OC1_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
stage 1.
5 TrpLog_OC1_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1 Tripping output logic setting of

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7 Settings

overcurrent protection stage 1


Current setting of overcurrent
protection stage 2, which shall be
6 I_OC2_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01 A
higher than rated current of
transformer.
Time delay of overcurrent protection
7 t_OC2_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
stage2.
Tripping output logic setting of
8 TrpLog_OC2_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1
overcurrent protection stage2.
Positive direction impedance setting
9 Z1_Fwd_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01
of distance protection stage1.
Negative direction impedance setting
of distance protection stage1. In
10 Z1_Rev_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01 general, this setting is set as 5-10%
of the positive direction impedance
setting.
11 t_Z1_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S Delay of distance protection stage1.
Tripping output logic setting of
12 TrpLog_Z1_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1
distance protection stage1.
Positive direction impedance setting
13 Z2_Fwd_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01
of distance protection stage2.
Negative direction impedance setting
14 Z2_Rev_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01
of distance protection stage2
15 t_Z2_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S Delay of distance protection stage2
Tripping output logic setting of
16 TrpLog_Z2_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1
distance protection stage2.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) controlling function to stage
17 En_VCE_Ctrl_OC1_Gen 0/1
1 of overcurrent protection by
composite voltage element
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) controlling function to stage
18 En_VCE_Ctrl_OC2_Gen 0/1
2 of overcurrent protection by
composite voltage element.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) controlling function to
19 En_HVS.VCE_Ctrl_OC_Gen 0/1 overcurrent protection by composite
voltage element from HVS of
transformer.
Logic setting of selecting protection
performance during VT circuit failure.
20 Opt_VTS_Ctrl_OC_Gen 0/1
0: when VT circuit failure at one side
is detected, the voltage-controlled

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7 Settings

overcurrent element will become a


pure overcurrent relay without
composite voltage element
controlling.
1: when VT circuit failure at one side
is detected, composite voltage
element will be disabled if
corresponding logic setting is set as
1.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
21 En_Mem_Curr_Gen 0/1
enable(1) memory function of current.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) stage 1 of overcurrent
protection controlled by power
22 En_CB_Ctrl_OC1_Gen network connected status of
generator, it will be blocked if the
generator is connected with the
power network.

Setting Explanation

1. [V_NegOV_VCE_Gen]

This is negative sequence voltage setting of composite voltage control element. Setting and
displayed value of negative sequence voltage are U2.

Setting of negative sequence voltage relay shall be higher than unbalance voltage during normal
operation, generally

U op.2 (0.06--0.08 ) U n Equation 7.4-7

Where: U n is secondary rated voltage.

Sensitivity factor shall be checked by phase-to-phase short circuit fault on HV side bus of main
transformer:
U 2. min
K sen Equation 7.4-8
U op 2

Where:

U 2. min is minimum negative sequence voltage at location of the equipment during phase-to-phase

short circuit fault on HV side bus of main transformer. K sen 1.5 is required.

2. [Vpp_UV_VCE_Gen]

This is the voltage setting of phase-to-phase undervoltage of composite voltage control element.

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7 Settings

Its operating voltage U op can be set as following:

For turbine generator, U op 0.6U gn and for hydro-generator, U op 0.7U gn

Where U gn is rated phase-to-phase voltage of generator.

Sensitivity factor shall be checked by three-phase short circuit fault on HV side bus of main
transformer:

U op
K sen Equation 7.4-9
X t I k(3. max
)

Where I k(3. max


)
is maximum secondary fault current during three-phase short circuit on HV side bus

of main transformer; X t is reactance of main transformer, X t Z t . K sen 1.2 is required.

3. [I_OC1_Gen]

This is the current setting of overcurrent protection stage 1.

Setting of overcurrent relay shall be higher than rated current of generator.

K rel
I op I gn Equation 7.4-10
Kr
Where:

K rel is reliability factor, 1.3 1.5;

K r is release factor, 0.85 0.95;

I gn is secondary rated current of generator.

Sensitivity factor of overcurrent relay shall be checked by following:

I k( .2min
)
K sen Equation 7.4-11
I op

( 2)
Where I k . min is minimum fault current through location of the relay during phase-to-phase

metallic short circuit on HV side of main transformer. K sen 1.2 is required.

4. [t_OC1_Gen]

Time delay of overcurrent protection stage 1. Delay of this protection shall be higher than that of
operation of backup protection of step-up transformer. This protection is used for islanding and
generator shutting off.

5. [Z1_Fwd_Gen]

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7 Settings

This is the positive direction impedance setting of distance protection stage1. Here positive
direction means the direction is pointing to the transformer instead of generator itself.

If the value of this setting is greater than the next one, then the characteristic of distance protection
is set as excursive impedance circle; if it is equal to the next one, the characteristic is whole
impedance circle; if the next one is set as 0, the characteristic becomes directional impedance.

Generally, low impedance protection is considered as the backup protection of generator in case
that voltage-controlled overcurrent protection cannot satisfy the sensitivity requirement of
generator.

6. [Z1_Rev_Gen]

Negative direction impedance setting of distance protection stage1. In general, this setting is set
as 5-10% of the positive direction impedance setting.

7. [En_Mem_Curr_Gen]

That the setting is set as 1 indicates the excitation mode of generator is self shunt excitation
mode. In that case, the protection will remember the current value at the initiation of fault, and
operates based on it, no matter whether the current will decrease due to the descending excitation
voltage result from terminal voltages getting down when external fault occurs. Once this setting is
set as 1, the backup overcurrent protection of generator is always controlled by composite
voltage element.

Note!

In the above Tablecurrent used in backup protection of generator comes from the backup
current input channel.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenPPFBakProt Settings

7.4.4 Settings of Stator Earth-fault Protection

Setting List

Table 7.4-4 List of stator earth fault protection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Voltage setting of residual voltage
1 V_ROV_VCE_Tr 1.00-100.00 0.01 V control element for ground
overcurrent protection.
Voltage setting of fundamental
2 V_SensROV_Sta 0.10 20.00 0.01 V
residual overvoltage protection.
Voltage setting of high-setting
3 V_InsensROV_Sta 0.10 20.00 0.01 V
fundamental residual overvoltage

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7 Settings

protection.
Delay of fundamental residual
4 t_ROV_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
overvoltage protection.
Delay of high-setting fundamental
5 t_InsensROV_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
residual overvoltage protection.
rd
Ratio setting of 3 harmonics
6 k_V3rdHRatio_PreSync_Sta 0.50 10.00 0.01 before incorporation of generator in
power network.
rd
Ratio setting of 3 harmonics after
7 k_V3rdHRatio_PostSync_Sta 0.50 10.00 0.01
incorporation in power network.
Restraint coefficient of percentage
8 k_V3rdHDiff_Sta 0.05 2.00 0.01 third harmonic voltage earth fault
protection.
Delay of percentage third harmonic
9 t_V3rdH_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
voltage earth fault protection.
Tripping output logic setting of
10 TrpLog_EF_Sta 00003FFFFFFF 1
stator earth fault protection.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
11 En_Alm_ROV_Sta 0/1 enable(1) alarm function of residual
overvoltage.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
12 En_Trp_ROV_Sta 0/1 enable(1) residual overvoltage
protection.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
13 En_Alm_V3rdHRatio_Sta 0/1 enable(1) alarm function of third
harmonic voltage ratio element.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
14 En_Alm_V3rdHDiff_Sta 0/1 enable(1) alarm function of third
harmonics differential voltage.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
15 En_Trp_V3rdHRatio_Sta 0/1 enable(1) tripping function of third
harmonic voltage ratio element.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) tripping function of high
16 En_Trp_InsensROV_Sta 0/1
setting residual overvoltage
protection
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) open-delta failure
17 En_Alm_DeltVTS1_Gen 0/1
supervision of VT1 at generator
terminal.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
18 En_Alm_VTS_NP_Gen 0/1 enable(1) open-delta failure
supervision of VT at neutral point of

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7 Settings

generator.

Setting Explanation

1. [V_SensROV_Sta]

This is the setting of fundamental residual overvoltage protection.

Setting of this protection U op shall be higher than maximum unbalance voltage U unb. max of single

phase VT at neutral point during normal operation.

U op K rel U unb. max Equation 7.4-12

Where K rel is reliability factor, 1.21.3 generally; U unb. max is the maximum measured fundamental

unbalance residual voltage derived from single VT at the neutral point of generator.

To assure its security, user should check the transferred residual voltage through coupling
capacitance between HV side and LV side of transformer when external earth fault occurs on the
HV side of the transformer. Meanwhile, settings, including time delay and operation setting, should
be considered to cooperate with that of earth fault protection of the system.

Note!

The residual voltage used in this protection comes from VT at the neutral point of
generator.

2. [V_InsensROV_Sta]

This is the setting of high-setting fundamental residual overvoltage protection.

Only residual voltage at neutral point is taken for high setting zone of fundamental residual voltage

U gn
protection. If ratio of VT on neutral point is nTVN /100V , this setting is usually 20 V 25 V.
3

Residual voltage transferred by coupling capacitance per phase between HV and LV side windings
of step-up transformer shall be checked when external fault occurs at HV side of the transformer.
Coordination both on setting and delay between this protection and system earth fault protection
could be achieved then.

3. [k_V3rdHRatio_PreSync_Sta]

This is the ratio setting of 3rd harmonics before incorporation of generator in power network.

Let third harmonic voltage at the end and neutral point of generator be U t and U n , ratio setting of
third harmonic voltage percentage earth fault protection shall be

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7 Settings


Ut Un Equation 7.4-13

3 nTVN
And K rel during pre-configuration,
nTV 0
Where:

K rel is reliability factor, 1.3 1.5 in general;

nTV 0 is ratio of open-delta residual voltage at the terminal of generator;

nTVN is ratio of residual VT on neutral point.

During incorporation of generator to power system, the ratio U 3T / U 3N changes considerably

owing to variation of equivalent capacitive reactance at generator terminal. So two different


settings are designed for protection before and after connection of generator with system, and
these two settings can be switched over with alternation of contacts position of the terminal
breaker.

The setting shall be (1.3 1.5) before incorporation and (1.3 1.5) 2 after that.

Where 1 and 2 are the maximum real-measured third harmonic voltage ratio before and
after incorporation respectively.

4. [k_V3rdHDiff_Sta]

This is the restraint coefficient of percentage third harmonic voltage earth fault protection.

U t k p U n k zd U n Equation 7.4-14

Where:

k p is vectorial automatic tracing regulation factor;

k zd is restraint factor [3rdHarm Diff. Ratio], 0.3~0.5 is recommended.

U t is 3rd harmonics derived from the terminal of generator.

U n is 3rd harmonics derived from the neutral point of generator.

5. [t_V3rdH_Sta]

This is the delay of percentage third harmonic voltage earth fault protection. It shall be longer than
that of backup protection against external fault.

Access Path

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Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> StaEFProt Settings

7.4.5 Settings of Stator Earth-fault Protection with Voltage Injection

Setting List

Table 7.4-5 List of stator earth-fault protection with voltage injection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Resistance setting of external
1 R_Alm_InjEF_Sta 0.10 30.00 0.01 k voltage-injecting earth fault protection of
stator for alarm.
Resistance setting of external
2 R_Trp_InjEF_Sta 0.10 30.00 0.01 k voltage-injecting earth fault protection of
stator for tripping.
Time delay setting of external
3 t_Alm_InjEF_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S voltage-injecting earth fault protection of
stator for alarm.
Time delay setting of external
4 t_Trp_InjEF_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S voltage-injecting earth fault protection of
stator for tripping.
Current setting of ground overcurrent
5 I_ROC_InjEF_Sta 0.00 4.00 0.01 A
protection.
Voltage setting of residual voltage element
6 V_Supv_InjEF_Sta 0.00 15.00 0.01 V for supervising the working condition of
external power supply.
Current setting of residual current element
7 I_Supv_InjEF_Sta 0.00 40 0.01 mA for supervising the working condition of
external power supply.
Correction angle to eliminate angle error of
the CTs and angle distortions caused by a
8 ANG_corr_InjEF_Sta 0.0 360 0.1
less than ideal earthing or neutral
transformer.
Compensating resistance caused by the
angle error of the CTs and angle distortions
9 R_InjEF_Sta 0.0 3000.0 0.1
caused by a less than ideal earthing or
neutral transformer.
Compensating reactance caused by the
angle error of the CTs and angle distortions
10 X_InjEF_Sta 0.0 3000.0 0.1
caused by a less than ideal earthing or
neutral transformer.
11 Rp_InjEF_Sta 0.0 3000.0 0.1 Parallel load resistance value.
Compensating coefficient for parallel load
12 k_R_InjEF_Sta 0.1 21.00 0.01
resistance value.

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-25


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Tripping output logic setting of external


13 TrpLog_InjEF_Sta 00003FFFFFFF 1 voltage-injecting stator earth fault
protection
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
14 En_Alm_R_InjEF_Sta 0/1 alarm function of external voltage-injecting
stator earth fault protection.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1) trip
15 En_Trp_R_InjEF_Sta 0/1 function of external voltage-injecting stator
earth fault protection.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
residual overcurrent element act on in
16 En_Trp_IO_Sta 0/1
external voltage-injecting stator earth fault
protection.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
compensation test in external
17 En_TestMode_InjEF_Sta 0/1
voltage-injecting stator earth fault
protection.

Setting Explanation

1. [I_ROC_InjEF_Sta]

This is the current setting of ground overcurrent protection. Cooperating with the criteria of
earthing resistance, residual current criteria acts as backup protection against earth fault within
80% of the stators winding apart from the terminal of generator. This criteria responses to the
current flowing thought the connection line between generator neutral point and the ground. This
setting can be set as:

U N sec 1
I opK rel 0.2
RL nCT

Where:

U Nsec is secondary voltage of ground-transformer when single-phase metallic short circuit fault

occurs at the terminal of generator;

nCT is ratio of inter-CT connected at secondary side of ground-transformer;

RL is secondary load resistance of secondary side of ground-transformer.

K rel is reliability coefficient. Generally 1.1~1.3 is recommended.

2. [V_Supv_InjEF_Sta]

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7 Settings

This is voltage setting of residual voltage element for supervising the working condition of external
power supply. If measured residual voltage is below this setting and measured residual current is
below the next one, it means the external power supply fails.

3. [ANG_corr_InjEF_Sta]

Correction Angle to eliminate angle error of the CTs and angle distortions caused by a less than
ideal earthing or neutral transformer. The correct setting for this parameter can only be determined
with a primary test. The adjustment should be made for the tripping value.

4. [R_InjEF_Sta]

The setting is used to compensate the resistance caused by the angle error of the CTs and angle
distortions caused by a less than ideal earthing or neutral transformer. The correct setting for this
parameter can only be determined with a primary test. The adjustment should be made for the
tripping value.

Note!

In large power units with generator circuit breaker, applications can be found where there
is some additional loading equipment on the low-voltage side of the unit transformer to
reduce the influence by the residual voltage when the generator circuit breaker is open.
The 20 Hz source is connected via the neutral transformer in the generator neutral point.
With the generator circuit breaker closed, the protection measures the loading resistance
on the unit transformer side, which can be mistaken for an earth resistance.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> InjStaEFProt Settings

7.4.6 Settings of Rotor Earth-fault Protection

Setting List

Table 7.4-6 List of earth fault protection settings of rotor

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Impedance setting of sensitive
1 R_Sens1PEF_RotWdg 0.10 100.00 0.01 k stage of one-point earth fault
protection of rotor.
Impedance setting of one-point
2 R_1PEF_RotWdg 0.10 100.00 0.01 k
earth fault protection of rotor.
Delay of one-point earth fault
3 t_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg 0.00 10.00 0.01 S protection of rotor operates to
alarm.
Delay of one-point earth fault
4 t_Trp_1PEF_RotWdg 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
protection of rotor operates to trip.

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Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Delay of two-point earth fault


5 t_2PEF_RotWdg 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
protection of rotor.
For rotor earth fault protection with
injection principle, it is switching
cycle of square wave power.
6 t_Switch 0.50 10.00 0.01 S
For rotor earth fault protection with
ping-pang principle, it is switching
cycle of electronic switch.
The external connected heavy
7 R_Injected 0.10 100.00k 0.01 k power resistance, it is 47k
generally.
Logic setting for selecting principle
of earth fault protection of rotor
0: ping-pang principle
8 Opt_EF_RotWdg 0-2 1
1: injection principle of
double-ends
2: injection principle of single-end
Tripping output logic setting of earth
9 TrpLog_EF_RotWdg 0000 3FFFFFFF 1
fault protection of rotor.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) alarm function of
10 En_Alm_Sens1PEF_RotWdg 0/1
sensitive stage of one-point earth
fault protection of rotor.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) alarm function of
11 En_Alm_1PEF_RotWdg 0/1
one-point earth fault protection of
rotor.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) tripping function of
12 En_Trp_1PEF_RotWdg 0/1
one-point earth fault protection of
rotor.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
13 En_2PEF_RotWdg 0/1 enable(1) two-point earth fault
protection of rotor.

Setting Explanation

1. [R_Sens1PEF_RotWdg]

This is the impedance setting of sensitive stage of one-point earth fault protection of rotor.

General specification of generator specifies that insulation resistance of its excitation winding shall
be higher than 1 M for air cooled and hydrogen-cooled turbine generator during cooling state,
and 2 k for water cooled excitation winding. General specification of hydro-generator specifies
that insulation resistance of its excitation winding shall be higher than 0.5 M in any case.

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7 Settings

Sensitive stage of this protection is used for alarm. Its setting could be 20 k 80 k generally.

2. [R_1PEF_RotWdg]

This is the impedance setting of one-point earth fault protection of rotor.

Setting of one point earth fault protection can be 20 k for air-cooled and hydrogen-cooled turbine
generator and 2.5 k for water cooled excitation winding. This protection can be used for alarm or
generator shutting with delay.

Actual measured insulation resistance is used for this protection.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> RotWdgEFProt Settings

7.4.7 Settings of Thermal Overload Protection of Stator

Setting List

Table 7.4-7 List of thermal overload protection settings of stator

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Current setting of definite time overcurrent
1 I_OvLd_Sta 0.10 50.00 0.01 A
protection.
2 t_OvLd_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S Delay of definite time overcurrent protection.
Tripping output logic setting of definite time
3 TrpLog_OvLd_Sta 00003FFFFFFF 1
overcurrent protection.
Current setting of definite time overcurrent
4 I_Alm_OvLd_Sta 0.10 50.00 0.01 A
alarm.
Delay of alarm issued by definite time
5 t_Alm_OvLd_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
overcurrent element.
Pickup current of inverse time overcurrent
6 I_InvOvLd_Sta 0.10 100.00 0.01 A
protection.
Delay of upper limit of inverse time
7 tmin_InvOvLd_Sta 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
overcurrent protection
Thermal capacity parameter of stator
8 A_Therm_Sta 1.00 100.00 0.01
winding.
Heat dissipation factor for inverse time
9 K_Disspt_Sta 1.02 2.00 0.01
overcurrent.
Tripping output logic setting of inverse time
10 TrpLog_InvOvLd_Sta 00003FFFFFFF 1
overcurrent protection.

Setting Explanation

1. [I_OvLd_Sta]

This is the setting of definite time overcurrent protection.

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Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Setting of this protection is determined by the requirement of reliable release during permissive
continuous load current of generator.

I gn
I OP K rel Equation 7.4-15
Kr

Where:

K rel is reliability factor, 1.05 generally;

K r is release factor, 0.85 0.95;

I gn is secondary rated current of generator.

Delay of this protection shall be longer than maximum delay of backup protection. Alarm will be
issued or load will be reduced when it operates.

2. [I_InvOvLd_Sta]

This is the pickup current of inverse time overcurrent protection.

Characteristic of this protection is indefinite time relationship between multiple of load current and
corresponding permissive duration which is determined by permissive overload capability of stator
provided by the factory.

K tc
t Equation 7.4-16
I *2 K sr2

Where:

K tc is heat capacity factor of stator winding;

I * is per unit value of load current referred to rated current of stator;

K sr is heat dissipation factor, 1.02 1.05 generally.

Minimum delay for upper limit of this protection shall coordinate with unrestraint protection.
Current setting of lower limit of this protection shall coordinate with definite time overload
protection mentioned above, namely

I gn
I OP. min K c 0 K rel Equation 7.4-17
Kr

Where: K C 0 is coordination factor, 1.05 in general.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> StaOvLdProt Settings

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7 Settings

7.4.8 Settings of Negative-sequence Overcurrent Protection

Setting List

Table 7.4-8 List of negative sequence overload protection

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Current setting of negative sequence
1 I_NegOC_Gen 0.10 20.00 0.01 A
overcurrent protection.
Delay of negative sequence
2 t_NegOC_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
overcurrent protection.
Tripping output logic setting of
3 TrpLog_NegOC_Gen 00003FFFFFFF 1 negative sequence overcurrent
protection.
Current setting of alarm issued by
4 I_Alm_NegOC_Gen 0.05 20.00 0.01 A negative sequence overcurrent
element.
Delay of alarm issued by negative
5 t_Alm_NegOC_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
sequence overcurrent element.
Pickup current of inverse time
6 I_InvNegOC_Gen 0.05 5.00 0.01 A negative sequence overcurrent
protection.
Permitted continuous currents of
inverse time negative sequence
7 I_Neg_Perm_Gen 0.05 5.00 0.01 A
overcurrent protection for lasting
operation.
Delay of upper limit of inverse
negative sequence overcurrent
8 tmin_InvNegOC_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 S protection. Minimum delay for upper
limit of this protection shall coordinate
with unrestraint protection.
Delay of upper limit of inverse
negative sequence overcurrent
9 tmax_InvNegOC_Gen 0.10 5000.00 0.1 S protection. Maximum delay for upper
limit of this protection shall coordinate
with unrestraint protection.
Heat dissipation factor for inverse
10 A_Therm_RotBody 1.00 100.00 0.01
time negative sequence overcurrent.
Tripping output logic setting of inverse
11 TrpLog_InvNegOC_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1 time negative sequence overcurrent
protection.

Setting Explanation

1. [I_NegOC_Gen]

This is the setting of negative sequence overcurrent protection.

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Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Setting of this protection is determined by the threshold under which this protection can release

reliably, that threshold value is continuously permissive negative sequence current I 2 . So,

I 2 I gn
I OP K rel Equation 7.4-18
Kr
Where:

I OP is the setting [I_OvLd_Sta].

K rel is reliability factor, 1.05;

K r is release factor, 0.85 0.95;

I 2 is per unit value of continuously permissive negative sequence current,

I gn is secondary rated current of generator.

2. [t_NegOC_Gen]

This is the delay of negative sequence overcurrent protection.

Delay of this protection shall be longer than maximum delay of backup protection. Alarm will be
issued when it operates.

3. [I_InvNegOC_Gen]

This is the pickup current of inverse time negative sequence overcurrent protection.

Characteristic of this protection is determined by permissive negative sequence overload


capability of rotor surface provided by the manufacturer.

A
t Equation 7.4-19
I 22* I 22

Where:

A is permissive negative sequence current factor of rotor surface;

I 2* is per unit value of negative sequence current of generator;

I 2 is per unit value of permissive continues negative sequence current.

Minimum delay for upper limit of this protection shall coordinate with unrestraint protection.

4. [I_Neg_Perm_Gen]

This is the permitted continuous currents of inverse time negative sequence overcurrent protection

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7 Settings

for lasting operation.

Current setting of lower limit of this protection shall be the operating current corresponding to
delay 1000 s, namely

A
I OP. min I 22 Equation 7.4-20
1000
This protection is used for islanding or program tripping.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenNegOCProt Settings

7.4.9 Settings of Loss-of-excitation Protection

Setting List

Table 7.4-9 List of loss-of-excitation protection

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Impedance setting 1 of
1 X1_LossExc_Gen 0.000-2.000 0.001
loss-of-excitation protection
Impedance setting 2 of
2 X2_LossExc_Gen 0.000-2.000 0.001
loss-of-excitation protection
Reverse power setting of reactive
3 Q_RevQ_LossExc_Gen 0.01 50.00 0.01 %
power
4 V_RotUV_LossExc_Gen 0.10500.00 0.01 V Low voltage setting of rotor.
Rated excitation voltage of the
5 Un_RotNoLoad_LossExc_Gen 0.10500.00 0.01 V
generator without load.
Restrained coefficient of low voltage
6 k_RotUV_LossExc_Gen 0.0010.00 0.01 pu
criterion of rotor.
Low voltage setting for generator
7 V_TermUV_LossExc_Gen 0.10100.00 0.01 V
terminal undervoltage criterion.
Low voltage setting for busbar
8 V_BusUV_LossExc_Gen 0.10100.00 0.01 V
undervoltage criterion.
Delay of loss-of-excitation protection
9 t_LossExc1_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 S
stage 1
Delay of loss-of-excitation protection
10 t_LossExc2_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 S
stage 2
Delay of loss-of-excitation protection
11 t_LossExc3_Gen 0.103000.00 0.01 S
stage 3
Tripping output logic setting of
12 TrpLog_LossExc1_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1
loss-of-excitation protection stage 1
Tripping output logic setting of
13 TrpLog_LossExc2_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1
loss-of-excitation protection stage 2

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Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Tripping output logic setting of


14 TrpLog_LossExc3_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1
loss-of-excitation protection stage 3
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
15 En_Z_LossExc1_Gen 0/1 enable(1) impedance criterion in
loss-of-excitation protection stage 1
Logic settings of disable(0) or
16 En_RotUV_LossExc1_Gen 0/1 enable(1) the criterion of rotor voltage
in loss-of-excitation protection stage 1
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) the criterion of busbar
17 En_BusUV_LossExc1_Gen 0/1
voltage in loss-of-excitation protection
stage 1
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) the criterion of generator
18 En_TermUV_LossExc2_Gen 0/1
terminal voltage in loss-of-excitation
protection stage 2
Logic settings of disable(0) or
19 En_Z_LossExc2_Gen 0/1 enable(1) impedance criterion in
loss-of-excitation protection stage 2
Logic settings of disable(0) or
20 En_RotUV_LossExc2_Gen 0/1 enable(1) the criterion of rotor voltage
in loss-of-excitation protection stage 2
Logic settings of disable(0) or
21 En_Z_LossExc3_Gen 0/1 enable(1) impedance criterion in
loss-of-excitation protection stage 3.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
22 En_RotUV_LossExc3_Gen 0/1 enable(1) the criterion of rotor voltage
in loss-of-excitation protection stage 3
Logic settings of disable(0) or
23 En_Alm_LossExc3_Gen 0/1 enable(1) alarm function of
loss-of-excitation protection stage 3
Logic setting of selecting impedance
circle
0, choose steady state stability
24 Opt_Z_LossExc_Gen 0/1
circle.
1, choose asynchronous impedance
cycle.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
25 En_RevQ_LossExc_Gen 0/1
enable(1) reverse power criterion
Logic setting of selecting the input
mode of rotor voltage
26 Opt_RotV_LossExc_Gen 0/1
0, input directly
1, input by transmitter

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7 Settings

Setting Explanation

1. [Xd_Gen]

This is the impedance setting1 of loss-of-excitation protection. In the following figure,


jx
Xc

R
Xa

Xb

Figure 7.4-1 Impedance circle of loss of excitation protection

For asynchronous impedance cycle, this setting represents for X a , and the next setting (NO.2) is

X b . Here

X d' U gn na
2

Xa Equation 7.4-21
2 S gn nv

X d'
2
U gn na
X b ( X d ) Equation 7.4-22
2 S gn nv
Where:
'
X d and X d are unsaturated per unit value of transient reactance and synchronous reactance of
generator,

U gn and S gn are rated voltage and rated apparent power of generator;

n a and n v are CT ratio and VT ratio.

For steady state stability limit circle, this setting represents for X C , and the next setting is X b ,

here
2
U gn na
Xc Xs Equation 7.4-23
S gn nv

X d'
2
U gn na
X b ( X d ) Equation 7.4-24
2 S gn nv
Where:

PCS-985G Generator Relay 7-35


Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

X s is equivalent reactance on system side (including step-up transformer) connected with the

generator (per unit value, reference capacity is apparent power of the generator).

Asynchronous impedance circle and steady state stability limit circle can be selected by logic
setting [Opt_Z_LossExc_Gen].

For practical project, impedance between asynchronous impedance circle and steady state
stability limit circle can be selected for optimal combination of reliability and speed.

2. [Q_RevQ_LossExc_Gen]

This is the reverse power setting of reactive power

Reverse reactive power criterion:

Q jx
Q zd K rel Equation 7.4-25
Pgn

Where:

K rel is reliability factor, 1 - 1.3;

Q jx is permissive incoming reactive power to the generator;

Pgn is rated active power of the generator.

Reverse reactive power criterion can be selected by logic setting [En_RevQ_LossExc_Gen] .

3. [V_RotUV_LossExc_Gen]

This is the low voltage setting of rotor. There are two low voltages setting of rotor, they are

a) Excitation undervoltage criterion

U fd .op K rel U fd 0 Equation 7.4-26

Where:

U fd .op is this setting.

K rel is reliability factor, 0.60 0.80;

U fd 0 is rated excitation voltage of the generator without load.

b) Variable excitation voltage criterion

For a generator connecting with power system, there is a necessary excitation voltage U fd 0 for

keeping steady state stability.

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7 Settings

Variable excitation voltage criterion is

P
U fd .op K xs U fd 0 Equation 7.4-27
Sn

K xs K rel ( X d X S ) Equation 7.4-28

Where:

K xs is rotor voltage criterion coefficient.

K rel is reliability factor, 0.70 0.85;

X d and X s are per unit value of synchronous reactance of generator and equivalent reactance

of system connecting with the generator (referred to rated capacity of the generator);

P is current active power of the generator;

U fd 0 is rated excitation voltage of generator without load.

4. [V_GTermUV_LossExc_Gen]

This is the low voltage setting for generator terminal undervoltage criterion.

This criterion is used mainly to prevent generator terminal voltage lower than the permissible value
due to loss of excitation of generator.

Under voltage criterion for three phase simultaneously:

U op.3 ph K rel U gn Equation 7.4-29

Where:

K rel is reliability factor, 0.85 0.90;

U gn is rated voltage of generator.

5. [V_BusUV_LossExc_Gen]

This is the low voltage setting for busbar undervoltage criterion.

This criterion is used mainly to prevent voltage collapse due to loss of excitation of generator for a
system without enough spare reactive power. Voltage on bus of system side is adopted for this
criterion.

Under voltage criterion for three phase simultaneously:

U op.3 ph K rel U h. min Equation 7.4-30

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Date: 2013-07-04
7 Settings

Where:

K rel is reliability factor, 0.90 0.95;

U h. min is minimum normal operation voltage of HV side of the system.

This criterion can also be configured as 0.90 0.95 times of terminal voltage of generator.

Note!

There must be one stage of loss-of-excitation protection, the criterion of busbar voltage is
not enabled and it will operate to reduce power output.

Following criterion are recommended for various stages of this protection:

Criterion Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3


Stator side impedance
Busbar under voltage criterion
Generator terminal under voltage criterion
Rotor voltage criterion
power output reduction
switching over backup excitation
Delay ( s ) 0.51s 0.51s 0.51s >1s

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenLossExcProt Settings

7.4.10 Settings of Out-of-step Protection


Setting List

Table 7.4-10 List of out-of-step protection

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Impedance setting A of out-of-step
1 Za_OOS_Gen 0.00 100.00 0.01
protection.
Impedance setting B of out-of-step
2 Zb_OOS_Gen 0.00 100.00 0.01
protection.
Impedance setting C of out-of-step
3 Zc_OOS_Gen 0.00 100.00 0.01
protection.
4 ANG_Reach_OOS_Gen 0 90.00 0.01 Reach angle of system impedance.
5 ANG_Inner_OOS_Gen 0 150.00 0.01 Internal angle of lens characteristic
Pole sliding number setting for external
fault of generator. When the oscillation
6 n_Slip_Ext_OOS_Gen 1-1000 1
center situates outside the protected
section, times of pole sliding shall be set

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7 Settings

as 2 15 for alarm and more than 15 for


tripping.
Pole sliding number setting for internal
fault of generator. When the oscillation
7 n_Slip_Int_OOS_Gen 1-1000 1 center situates within the protected
section, time of pole sliding shall be set as
1-2 in general.
Tolerating current of breaker in tripping.
This is an auxiliary criterion and is
8 Ibrk_CB_HVS_Tr 0.10 100.00 0.01 A
determined by interruption capacity of the
circuit breaker of main transformer.
Tripping output logic setting of out-of-step
9 TrpLog_OOS_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1
protection.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
10 En_Alm_Ext_OOS_Gen 0/1 alarm in out-of-step case outside the
generator.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
11 En_Trp_Ext_OOS_Gen 0/1 tripping in out-of-step case outside the
generator.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
12 En_Alm_Int_OOS_Gen 0/1 alarm in out-of-step case inside the
generator.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
13 En_Trp_Int_OOS_Gen 0/1 tripping in out-of-step case inside the
generator.

Setting Explanation

Explanation of the settings

Out-of-step protection operates only when out-of-step occurs in power system. Then, based on
situation at that time, the dispatching center will adopt islanding, generator shutting or restraint and
other necessary measures. Only if center of oscillation situates within the generator or near the
generator, or the oscillation lasts too long, and phase difference of electro-motive force between
two sides of the breaker less than 90, this protection will trip.

Characteristic of this protection comprises three parts: lens part , boundary part and
reactance line part . See the following figure.

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7 Settings

jx

Za
U

D
Zc 3
OL
IL
1 IR
OR
0
R
1

Zb
2
L R

Figure 7.4-2 Impedance of out-of-step protection

1. [Za_OOS_Gen]

This is the impedance setting A of out-of-step protection.

Refer to Figure 7.4-2, this setting can be set by means of the following formula.

2
U gn na
Za ( X S X C ) Equation 7.4-31
S gn nv
Where:

X C is per unit value of equivalent reactance of transformer connecting to the generator;

X S is equivalent reactance of power system network;

U gn and Sgn are rated voltage and rated apparent power of generator;

na and nv are CT ratio and VT ratio.

2. [Zb_OOS_Gen]

This is the impedance setting B of out-of-step protection.

Refer to figure 7.3.2, this setting can be set by means of the following formula.

2
U gn na
Zb X '
Equation 7.4-32
S gn nv
d

Where:

X d' is transient reactance of generator;

3. [Zc_OOS_Gen]

This is the impedance setting C of out-of-step protection. Reactance line is the dividing line of

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7 Settings

oscillation center. Refer to Figure 7.4-2, this setting can be set by means of the following formula.
In practice, 0.9 times of transformer impedance is recommended.
2
U gn na
Z c 0.9 X c Equation 7.4-33
S gn nv

4. [_Reach_OOS_Gen]

This is the reach angle of system impedance.

= 80- 85according to the real angle of system.

5. [_Inner_OOS_Gen]

This is the internal angle of lens characteristic , 120is recommended. The following formula is
for reference,

2Z r
180 2 arctan
Za Zb

1
Zr RL. min Equation 7.4-34
1.3

Where RL. min is minimum load impedance of generator.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenOOSProt Settings

7.4.11 Settings of Overvoltage Protection

Setting List

Table 7.4-11 List of overvoltage protection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Voltage setting of overvoltage protection
1 V_OV1_Gen 10.00 170.00 0.01 V
stage 1.
2 t_OV1_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 S Delay of overvoltage protection stage 1.
Tripping output logic setting of overvoltage
3 TrpLog_OV1_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1
protection stage 1.
Voltage setting of overvoltage protection
4 V_OV2_Gen 10.0 0 170.00 0.01 V
stage 2.
5 t_OV2_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 S Delay of overvoltage protection stage 2.
Tripping output logic setting of overvoltage
6 TrpLog_OV2_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1
protection stage 2.
7 V_UV_Gen 10.00 100.00 0.01 V Voltage setting of undervoltage protection.

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7 Settings

8 t_UV_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 S Delay of undervoltage protection.


Tripping output logic setting of undervoltage
9 TrpLog_UV_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1
protection.
Voltage alarm setting of undervoltage
10 V_Alm_UV_Gen 0.10 110.00 0.01 V
protection.
Delay alarm setting of undervoltage
11 t_Alm_UV_Gen 0 10.00 0.01 S
protection.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Enable alarm function of overvoltage
12 En_Alm_OV2_Gen 0/1
protection stage 2.
Enable stage 2 of overvoltage protection
controlled by power network connected
13 En_CB_BlkOV2_Gen 0/1 status of generator, it will be blocked if the
generator is connected with the power
network.
Enable alarm function of undervoltage
14 En_Alm_UV_Gen 0/1
protection stage.

Setting Explanation

1. [V_OV1_Gen]

This is the voltage setting of overvoltage protection stage 1.

Setting of overvoltage protection of stator shall base on permissive overvoltage capability provided
by the factory or insulation condition of the stator.

For turbo-generator with capacity more than 200 MW,

Uop 1.3U gn Equation 7.4-35

Where:

U gn is the secondary rated phase-to-phase voltage.

This is used for islanding and excitation shutting with delay 0.5 s.
For hydro-generator,

Uop 1.5U gn Equation 7.4-36

This is used for islanding and excitation shutting with delay 0.5 s.

For hydro-generator with SCR excitation,

Uop 1.3U gn Equation 7.4-37

This is used for islanding and excitation shutting with delay 0.3 s.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

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7 Settings

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenVoltProt Settings

7.4.12 Settings of Overexcitation Protection of Generator

Setting List

Table 7.4-12 List of over excitation protection settings of generator

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Multiple setting of stage 1 of definite time
1 k_OvExc1_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01
over excitation protection.
Delay of stage 1 of definite time over
2 t_OvExc1_Gen 0.10 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation protection.
Tripping output logic setting of stage 1 of
definite time over excitation protection. The
3 TrpLog_OvExc1_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1 function of this protection is used for
islanding, excitation shutting or
programming, excitation reducing etc.
Multiple setting of over excitation alarm.
Setting of alarm shall be lower than that of
4 k_Alm_OvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01
over excitation protection. 1.1 is
recommended.
5 t_Alm_OvExc_Gen 0.10 25.00 0.01 S Delay of over excitation alarm.
Upper limit of multiple setting of inverse
6 k0_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01
time over excitation protectionn0
Delay of upper limit of inverse time over
7 t0_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation protection.
8 k1_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01 Inverse time over excitation multiple n1.
Delay at the point n1 on inverse time over
9 t1_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation curvet1
10 k2_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01 Inverse time over excitation multiple n2.
Delay at the point n2 on inverse time over
11 t2_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation curvet2
12 k3_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01 Inverse time over excitation multiple n3.
Delay at the point n3 on inverse time over
13 t3_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.0 S
excitation curvet3.
14 k4_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01 Inverse time over excitation multiple n4.
Delay at the point n4 on inverse time over
15 t4_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation curvet4
16 k5_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01 Inverse time over excitation multiple n5.
Delay at the point n5 on inverse time over
17 t5_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation curvet5.
18 k6_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01 Inverse time over excitation multiple n6.
Delay at the point n6 on inverse time over
19 t6_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation curvet6.

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7 Settings

20 k7_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 2.00 0.01 Inverse time over excitation multiple n7.
Delay at the point n7 on inverse time over
21 t7_InvOvExc_Gen 1.00 3000.00 0.01 S
excitation curvet7.
Tripping output logic setting of inverse time
22 TrpLog_InvOvExc_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1
over excitation protection.

Setting Explanation

The calculation principle can refer to Section 7.4.6.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenOvExcProt Settings

7.4.13 Settings of Power Protection of Generator

Setting List

Table 7.4-13 List of power protection settings of generator

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Power setting of reverse power
1 P_RevP_Gen 0.50 50.00 0.01 %
protection.
Delay of reverse power alarm. For
reverse power protection without steam
2 t_Alm_RevP_Gen 0.10 3000.00 0.01 S
valve contact blocking, delay 15 s for
alarm.
3 t_Trp_RevP_Gen 0.10 3000.00 0.01 S Delay of reverse power protection.
Tripping output logic setting of reverse
4 TrpLog_RevP_Gen 00003FFFFFFF 1
power protection.
Power setting of sequent-tripping
5 P_SeqTrpRevP_Gen 0.50 10.00 0.01 %
reverse power protection.
Delay of sequent-tripping reverse
power protection. For sequent-tripping
6 t_SeqTrpRevP_Gen 0.01 10.00 0.01 S reverse power protection with steam
valve contact blocking, delay 0.5 s
1.00 s for islanding.
Tripping output logic setting of
7 TrpLog_SeqTrpRevP_Gen 00003FFFFFFF 1 sequent-tripping reverse power
protection.
Power setting of low power protection.
8 P_UP_Gen 0.50 10.00 0.01 % 1%~2% of rated active power is
recommended.
Power setting of low power protection.
9 t_UP_Gen 0.01 10.00 0.01 S For low power protection controlled by
un-emergency shutoff binary input,

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7 Settings

delay 0.5 s 1.5 s is set for islanding.


Tripping output logic setting of low
10 TrpLog_UP_Gen 00003FFFFFFF 1
power protection.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
11 En_BO_UP_Gen 0/1 reverse power protection controlled by
guide blade contact.

Setting Explanation

1. [P_RevP_Gen]

This is the power setting of reverse power protection.

Pop K rel ( P1 P2 ) Equation 7.4-38

Where:

K rel is reliability coefficient, 0.5 0.8 generally;

P1 is minimum loss of turbine during reverse power operation, 2% - 4% of rated power generally;

P2 is minimum loss of generator during reverse power operation, P2 (1 ) Pgn generally,

is efficiency factor of generator, 98.6% - 98.7%;

Pgn is rated power of generator.

Pop is set as 1% - 2% of rated active power generally, and 1% is recommended.

2. [t_Trp_RevP_Gen]

This is the delay of reverse power protection. For reverse power protection without guide blade
contact blocking, according to permissive operation time of reverse power, delay 1 min 3 min is
set for islanding in general.

For program reverse power protection with blade position blocking, delay 0.5 s 1.5 s is set for
islanding.

3. [En_BO_UP_Gen]

Enable binary output function of generator low power protection. If it is set as 1, the generator
low power protection output contact will operate once generator low power protection operates,
otherwise the contact will not operate even if generator low power protection operates.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenPwrProt Settings

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7 Settings

7.4.14 Settings of Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection

Setting List

Table 7.4-14 List of frequency protection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Frequency setting of under frequency
1 f_UF1_Gen 0.9fn 1.02fn 0.01 Hz
protection stage 1.
The sum of delay setting of under frequency
2 t_Accu_UF1_Gen 0.10 300.00 0.01 min
protection stage 1.
Frequency setting of under frequency
3 f_UF2_Gen 0.9fn 1.02fn 0.01 Hz
protection stage 2.
4 t_UF2_Gen 0.10 300.00 0.01 min Delay of under frequency protection stage 2.
Frequency setting of under frequency
5 f_UF3_Gen 0.9fn 1.02fn 0.01 Hz
protection stage 3.
6 t_UF3_Gen 0.10 300.00 0.01 min Delay of under frequency protection stage 3.
Tripping output logic setting of under frequency
7 TrpLog_UF_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1
protection.
Frequency setting of over frequency protection
8 f_OF1_Gen 1.00fn 1.02fn 0.01 Hz
stage 1.
9 t_OF1_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01 min Delay of over frequency protection stage 1.
Frequency setting of over frequency protection
10 f_OF2_Gen 1.00fn 1.02fn 0.01 Hz
stage 2.
11 t_OF2_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01 s Delay of over frequency protection stage 2.
Tripping output logic setting of over frequency
12 TrpLog_OF_Gen 0000 3FFFFFFF 1
protection.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1) alarm
13 En_Alm_UF1_Gen 0/1
function of under frequency protection stage1.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
14 En_Trp_UF1_Gen 0/1 tripping function of under frequency protection
stage1.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1) alarm
15 En_Alm_UF2_Gen 0/1
function of under frequency protection stage2.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
16 En_Trp_UF2_Gen 0/1 tripping function of under frequency protection
stage2.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1) alarm
17 En_Alm_UF3_Gen 0/1
function of under frequency protection stage3.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
18 En_Trp_UF3_Gen 0/1 tripping function of under frequency protection
stage3.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1) alarm
19 En_Alm_OF1_Gen 0/1
function of over frequency protection stage1.

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7 Settings

Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)


20 En_Trp_OF1_Gen 0/1 tripping function of over frequency protection
stage1.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1) alarm
21 En_Alm_OF2_Gen 0/1
function of over frequency protection stage2.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
22 En_Trp_OF2_Gen 0/1 tripping function of over frequency protection
stage2.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenFreqProt Settings

7.4.15 Settings of Startup and Shutdown Protection of Generator

Setting List

Table 7.4-15 List of startup and shutdown protection settings of generator

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Frequency setting for blocking
1 f_UF_StShut_Gen 0.80fn 1.00fn 0.01 Hz startup and shutdown protection of
generator.
Differential current setting for the
2 I_GenDiff_StShut_Gen 0.10 10.00 0.01 Ie differential protection of generator in
startup and shutdown condition.
Tripping output logic setting of low
frequency differential protection of
3 TrpLog_GenDiff_StShut_Gen 00-3FFFFFFF 1
generator in startup and shutdown
condition.
Residual voltage setting of stator
4 V_StaROV_StShut_Gen 5.00 25.00 0.01 V earth fault protection in startup and
shutdown condition.
Delay of stator earth fault protection
5 t_StaROV_StShut_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
in startup and shutdown condition.
Tripping output logic setting of
6 TrpLog_StaROV_StShut_Gen 00-3FFFFFFF 1 stator earth fault protection in
startup and shutdown condition.
Current setting of overcurrent
protection in startup and shutdown
7 I_OC_StShut_Gen 0.10 100.00 0.01 A
condition. 1.1~1.3 times of rated
current is recommended.
Time delay of overcurrent protection
8 t_OC_StShut_Gen 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
in startup and shutdown condition.
9 TrpLog_OC_StShut_Gen 003FFFFFFF 1 Tripping output logic setting of

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7 Settings

overcurrent protection in startup


and shutdown condition.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) differential current
10 En_GenDiff_StShut_Gen 0/1
protective element of generator in
startup and shutdown condition.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) low frequency residual
11 En_StaROV_StShut_Gen 0/1
voltage protective element of stator
in startup and shutdown condition.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) low frequency
12 En_GenCur_StShut_Gen 0/1
overcurrent element in startup and
shutdown condition.
Logic settings of selecting residual
voltage:
13 Opt_U0 0/1 0: residual voltage at generator
terminal.
1: residual voltage at neutral point.

Setting Explanation

1. [f_UF_StShut_Gen]

This is the frequency setting for blocking startup and shutdown protection of generator.

Startup and shutdown protection is used for earth fault and phase-to-phase fault of stator during
low speed operation of the generator. Its algorithm is insensitive to variation of frequency.

This protection is auxiliary protection of generator during low frequency operation. Blocking setting
of this protection is 0.8 0.9 times of rated frequency.

2. [I_GenDiff_StShut_Gen]

This is the differential current setting for the differential protection of generator in startup and
shutdown condition. Setting of this protection shall be higher than unbalance differential current in
full load and rated frequency condition,

I op Krel Iunb Equation 7.4-39

Where:

K rel is reliability factor, 1.30 1.50 generally;

I unb is the unbalance differential current in full load and rated frequency condition.

3. [V_StaROV_StShut_Gen]

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7 Settings

This is the residual voltage setting of stator earth fault protection in startup and shutdown
condition.
For earth fault, residual voltage derived from neutral point is adopted as criterion with setting 10 V
in general.

4. [t_StaROV_StShut_Gen]

This is the delay of stator earth fault protection in startup and shutdown condition. It should be not
shorter than delay of fundamental residual voltage earth fault protection for stator.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenStShutProt Settings

7.4.16 Settings of Inadvertent Energization Protection of Generator

Setting List

Table 7.4-16 List of accidental energaization protection settings of generator

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Frequency setting for blocking accident
1 f_UF_AccEnerg_Gen 0.80fn 1.00fn 0.01 Hz
energization protection of generator.
Current setting of accident energization
2 I_OC_AccEnerg_Gen 0.10100.00 0.01 A
overcurrent protection.
Voltage setting of accident energization
3 V_UV_AccEnerg_Gen 6.00-80.00 0.01 V
protection. 12V is recommended.
Delay of accident energization
4 t_AccEnerg_Gen 0.00 1.00 0.01 s
overcurrent protection.
Tripping output logic setting of accident
5 TrpLog_AccEnerg_Gen 00-3FFFFFFF 1
energization overcurrent protection.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
6 En_CB_Ctrl_AccEnerg_Gen 0/1 breaker position auxiliary contact
blocking function.
Logic option of accident energization
protection.
7 Opt_Logic_AccEnerg_Gen 0/1
0, standard edition
1, special edition

Setting Explanation

1. [I_OC_AccEnerg_Gen]

This is the current setting of accident energization overcurrent protection.

Current setting shall be 50% of minimum accidental closing current (generator terminal side)
during process of generator starting up but having not been excited. If accidental closing current of

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7 Settings

circuit breaker on auxiliary transformer side shall be taken into account, current setting shall base
on minimum accidental closing current during this condition. The current used for this setting is
derived from the CT at the terminal of generator.

In general, this setting shall be in excess of 1.3 times of rated current of generator.

2. [I_NegOC_Flash_CB_HVS_Tr]

This is the negative sequence current setting of breaker flashover protection.

This setting shall be higher than possible unbalance current during normal operation. It must be
set according to the secondary current of the CT at the HV side of main transformer.

3. [TrpLog_Flash11_CB_HVS_Tr]

This is the tripping output logic setting of breaker flashover protection with time delay 1.

If impulse current may be higher than capacity of circuit breaker during asynchronous closing, the
protection shall shut off the excitation firstly. If current passing through circuit breaker is lower than
permissive value, the protection can trip the circuit breaker on outlet.

Permissive tripping current of circuit breaker shall be configured as that provided by factory.

4. [En_CB_Ctrl_AccEnerg_Gen]

This is the setting to enable or disable breaker position auxiliary contact blocking function.

If asynchronous unwanted closing is considered, breaker position contact blocking shall be


selected.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> GenAccEnergProt Settings

7.4.17 Settings of Breaker Failure Protection of Generator

Setting List

Table 7.4-17 List of breaker failure protection settings of generator

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Phase overcurrent setting of generator
1 I_ OC_BFP_GCB 0.10 20.00 0.01 A
breaker failure protection.
Negative-sequence current setting of
2 I_NegOC_BFP_GCB 0.10 20.00 0.01 A
generator breaker failure protection.
Time delay 1 of generator breaker
failure protection. It should be long
3 t_BFP11_GCB 0.00 10.00 0.01 s
than tripping time of the breaker, takes
0.3~0.5s.
00- Tripping output logic setting of
4 TrpLog_BFP11_GCB 1
3FFFFFFF generator breaker failure protection

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7 Settings

with time delay 1.


Time delay 2 of generator breaker
5 t_BFP12_GCB 0.00 10.00 0.01 s
failure protection.
Tripping output logic setting of
00-
6 TrpLog_BFP12_GCB 1 generator breaker failure protection
3FFFFFFF
with time delay 2.
Logic setting 1 enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) generator breaker failure
7 En_NegOC_BFP_GCB 0/1
protection being blocked by
negative-sequence current element.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) generator breaker failure
8 En_OC_BFP_GCB 0/1
protection being blocked by phase
current element.
Logic settings of disable(0) or
enable(1) generator breaker failure
9 En_CB_Ctrl_BFP_GCB 0/1
protection being blocked by the
position of circuit breaker.

Setting Explanation

1. [I_BFP_GCB]

This is phase current setting of generator breaker failure protection. It should be larger than rated
current of generator.

K rel
I op I gn Equation 7.4-40
K r na

Where:

I OP is the setting [I_BFP_GCB].

K rel is reliability factor, takes 1.1~1.3;

K r is release factor, takes 0.90~0.95;

I gn is secondary rated current of generator.

na is CT ratio.

2. [I_NegOC_BFP_GCB]

This is the negative-sequence current setting of generator breaker failure protection. It should be
larger than maximum unbalance negative sequence current under normal operating condition.

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7 Settings

I gn
I 2 op (0.1 ~ 0.2) Equation 7.4-41
na

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> GenProt Settings -> BfgGCBProt Settings

7.4.18 Settings of Differential Protection of Excitation Transformer or Exciter

Setting List

Table 7.4-18 List of differential protection settings of excitation transformer or exciter

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Current setting of pickup value of
1 I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Exc 0.10 1.00 0.01 Ie percentage differential current of
excitation transformer or exciter.
Current setting of unrestrained
2 I_InstDiff_Exc 4.00 14.00 0.01 Ie
instantaneous differential protection.
Differential current alarm setting of
3 I_AlmDiff_Exc 0.05 1.00 0.01 Ie
excitation transformer or exciter.
Restraint coefficient of the first slope of
4 Slope1_PcntDiff_Exc 0.05 0.15 0.01
the differential characteristic curve.
Maximum value of restraint coefficient of
5 Slope2_PcntDiff_Exc 0.40 0.80 0.01
the differential characteristic curve.
6 k_Harm_PcntDiff_Exc 0.10 0.35 0.01 Restraint coefficient of second harmonics
Tripping output logic setting of differential
7 TrpLog_Diff_Exc 00-3FFFFFFF 1 protection of excitation transformer of
exciter.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
unrestrained instantaneous differential
8 En_InstDiff_Exc 0/1
protection of excitation transformer or
exciter.
Logic settings of disable(0) or enable(1)
9 En_PcntDiff_Exc 0/1 percentage differential protection of
excitation transformer or exciter.
Logic setting of selecting criterion of
Inrush current detection
10 Opt_Inrush_Ident_Exc 0/1 0, discrimination by harmonics;
1, discrimination by waveform distortion
criterion

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7 Settings

Logic setting of selecting whether


percentage differential protection is
controlled during CT circuit failure
11 Opt_CTS_Blk_PcntDiff_Exc 0/1 0: alarm will be issued but the
protection will not be blocked
1: the protection will be blocked and
alarm will be issued.

Setting Explanation

1. [I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Exc]

This is the setting of pickup value of percentage differential current of excitation transformer or
exciter. In practice, for excitation transformer, characteristic of CT on two sides may differ
significantly and the unbalance differential current may be larger than that of main transformer. So
for pickup setting, larger than 0.5 Ie is recommended.

2. [I_AlmDiff_Exc]

This is the differential current alarm setting of excitation transformer or exciter. It shall be higher
than normal unbalance differential current and lower than [I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Exc].

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> ExcProt Settings -> ExcDiffProt Settings

7.4.19 Settings of Backup Protection of Excitation Transformer or Exciter

Setting List

Table 7.4-19 List of backup protection settings of excitation transformer or exciter

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Current setting of definite time
1 I_OC1_Exc 0.10 100.00 0.01 A
overcurrent protection stage1.
Delay of definite time overcurrent
2 t_OC1_Exc 0.00 10.00 0.01 S
protection stage1.
Tripping output logic setting of definite
3 TrpLog_OC1_Exc 00- 3FFFFFFF 1
time overcurrent protection.
Current setting of definitive time
4 I_OC2_Exc 0.10 100.00 0.01 A
overcurrent protection stage2.
Delay of definite time overcurrent
5 t_OC2_Exc 0.00 25.00 0.01 S
protection stage2.
Tripping output logic setting of definite
6 TrpLog_OC2_Exc 00 - 3FFFFFFF 1
time overcurrent protection stage2.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
7 Opt_CT_OC_Exc 0/1 Logic setting of CT selection for

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7 Settings

overcurrent protection of excitation


transformer or exciter
0: CT of HV side
1: CT of LV side

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> ExcProt Settings -> ExcBakProt Settings

Note!

The current used in the overcurrent protection is derived from the CT at the HV side of
excitation transformer or the CT at the neutral point of exciter.

7.4.20 Settings of Overload Protection of Excitation Transformer or Exciter

Setting list

Table 7.4-20 List of overload protection settings of exciter

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


1 I_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg 0.10 100.00 0.01 A Current setting of overload alarm.
2 t_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg 0.00 25.00 0.01 S Delay of overload alarm.
Pickup current of inverse time
3 I_InvOvLd_RotWdg 0.10 50.00 0.01 A
overload protection.
Delay of upper limit of inverse
4 tmin_InvOvLd_RotWdg 0.10 10.00 0.01 S
time overload protection.
Thermal capacity parameter of
5 A_Therm_RotWdg 1.00 100.00 0.01
excitation winding.
Reference current setting of
6 Ib_InvOvLd_RotWdg 0.10 50.00 0.01 A
inverse time overload.
Tripping output logic setting of
7 TrpLog_InvOvLd_RotWdg 0000- 3FFFFFFF 1
inverse time overload protection.
Logic setting 1 - enable, 0 disable
Logic setting of CT selection for
overload protection of excitation
8 Opt_CT_OvLd_RotWdg 0/1 transformer or exciter.
0: CT of side 1.
1: CT of side 2.

Setting Explanation

1. [I_Alm_OvLd_RotWdg]

This is the current setting of overload alarm.

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It should make inverse time overload protection dropoff reliably under normal rated excitation
current. If the protection is configured at AC side, the current setting will be (rated excitation

current I fd should be converted into RMS value of AC side, if bridge-type uncontrollable rectifier

is adopted, I grn 0.816 I fd ):

I grn
I op K rel Equation 7.4-42
Kr
Where:

K rel is reliability factor, takes 1.05;

K r is release factor, takes 0.85~0.95;

I grn is secondary rated excitation current of generator.

2. [I_InvOvLd_RotWdg]

Pickup current of inverse time overload protection. It should coordinate with definite time overload
protection.

I grn
I OP. min K c 0 K rel
Kr
Where:

K co is coordination factor, takes 1.05.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> ExcProt Settings -> RotWdgOvLdProt Settings

7.4.21 Settings of Mechanical Protection

Setting List

Table 7.4-21 List of mechanical protection settings

No. Symbol Range Step Unit Description


Time delay of output contact of external
1 t_MR1 0.00 300.0 0.01 S
mechanical contact input1 repeater.
Tripping output logic setting of output contact of
2 TrpLog_MR1 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1
mechanical contact input1.
Time delay of output contact of external
3 t_MR2 0.00 300.0 0.01 S
mechanical contact input2 repeater.
4 TrpLog_MR2 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1 Tripping output logic setting of output contact of

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7 Settings

mechanical contact input2.


Time delay of output contact of external
5 t_MR3 0.00 300.0 0.01 S
mechanical contact input3 repeater.
Tripping output logic setting of output contact of
6 TrpLog_MR3 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1
mechanical contact input3.
Time delay of output contact of external
7 t_MR4 0.00 6000.0 0.1 S
mechanical contact input4 repeater.
Tripping output logic setting of output contact of
8 TrpLog_MR4 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1
mechanical contact input4.
Time delay of output contact of external
9 t_MR5 0.00 300.0 0.01 S
mechanical contact input5 repeater.
Tripping output logic setting of output contact of
10 TrpLog_MR5 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1
mechanical contact input5.
Time delay of output contact of external
11 t_MR6 0.00 300.0 0.01 S
mechanical contact input6 repeater.
Tripping output logic setting of output contact of
12 TrpLog_MR6 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1
mechanical contact input6.
Time delay of output contact of external
13 t_MR7 0.00 300.0 0.01 S
mechanical contact input7 repeater.
Tripping output logic setting of output contact of
14 TrpLog_MR7 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1
mechanical contact input7.
Time delay of output contact of external
15 t_MR8 0.00 6000.0 0.1 S
mechanical contact input8 repeater.
Tripping output logic setting of output contact of
16 TrpLog_MR8 0000 - 3FFFFFFF 1
mechanical contact input8.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Settings -> MechRlyProt Settings -> MechRlyProt Settings

7.5 Calculated Parameters


The settings listed in the following tables calculated by the RCS-985A itself automatically, they
need not to be set by user. The settings are calculated according to the system parameters that
user input, include primary rated currents, secondary rated currents, secondary rated voltages and
correction coefficients used in all kinds of differential protection relays. Listing of the calculated
settings is only for reference of setting check or commission.

7.5.1 Calculated Parameters of Secondary Rated Current

Parameters List

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Table 7.5-1 List of calculated parameters of secondary rated current

No. Symbol Range Description


1 I2b_SnGen_CT_Term_Gen 0-600 A Secondary rated current at terminal of generator.
Secondary rated current at neutral point 1 of
2 I2b_SnGen_CT_NP_Gen 0-600 A
generator.
Secondary rated current at HV side of excitation
3 I2b_SnExc_CT_S1_Exc 0-600 A
transformer or terminal side of exciter.
Secondary rated current at LV side of excitation
4 I2b_SnExc_CT_S2_Exc 0-600 A
transformer or neutral point side of exciter.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Measurement -> Measurement2 -> Cal Settings -> Sec Rated Curr Values

7.5.2 Calculated Parameters of Secondary Rated Voltage

Parameters List

Table 7.5-2 List of calculated parameters of secondary rated voltage

No. Symbol Range Description


1 U2b_VT_Term_Gen 0-600 V Secondary rated voltage at terminal VT of generator.
Secondary rated voltage of delta VT at terminal of
2 U2b_DeltVT_Term_Gen 0-600 V
generator.
Secondary rated voltage at neutral point VT of
3 U2b_NP_Gen 0-600 V
generator.
The ratio of residual voltage between terminal and
4 k_DeltVT_Gen 0-600 V neutral point of generator. That is the ratio between
[U2b_DeltVT_Term_Gen] to [U2b_NP_Gen].

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Measurement -> Measurement2 -> Cal Settings -> Sec Rated Volt Values

7.5.3 Calculated Parameters of Differential Coefficient

Parameters List

Table 7.5-3 List of calculated parameters of differential coefficient

No. Symbol Range Description


Differential coefficient of terminal of generator for
1 k_Term_Diff_Gen 0-60
differential protection of generator.
Differential coefficient of neutral point side of
2 k_NP_Diff_Gen 0-60
generator for differential protection of generator.
3 k_S1_Diff_Exc 0-60 Differential coefficient of side 1 of exciter for

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7 Settings

differential protection of exciter.


Differential coefficient of side 2 of exciter for
4 k_S2_Diff_Exc 0-60
differential protection of exciter.

Access Path

Access path in menu is:

Main Menu -> Measurement -> Measurement2 -> Cal Settings -> Diff Corr Coef

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8 Human Machine Interface

8 Human Machine Interface

Table of Contents
8 Human Machine Interface .............................................................. 8-a
8.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.1 Keypad Operation ................................................................................................................ 8-2

8.1.2 LED Indications.................................................................................................................... 8-3

8.1.3 Front Communication Port................................................................................................... 8-4

8.1.4 Ethernet Port Setup ............................................................................................................. 8-4

8.2 Menu Tree ........................................................................................................ 8-5


8.2.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 8-5

8.2.2 Main Menus ......................................................................................................................... 8-6

8.2.3 Sub Menus........................................................................................................................... 8-8

8.3 LCD Display ................................................................................................... 8-18


8.3.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 8-18

8.3.2 Normal Display .................................................................................................................. 8-18

8.3.3 Display Disturbance Records ............................................................................................ 8-19

8.3.4 Display Supervision Event ................................................................................................. 8-21

8.3.5 Display IO Events .............................................................................................................. 8-21

8.3.6 Display Device Logs .......................................................................................................... 8-22

8.4 Keypad Operation ......................................................................................... 8-23


8.4.1 View Device Measurements .............................................................................................. 8-23

8.4.2 View Device Status ............................................................................................................ 8-23

8.4.3 View Device Records......................................................................................................... 8-24

8.4.4 Print Device Report ........................................................................................................... 8-24

8.4.5 View Device Setting ........................................................................................................... 8-25

8.4.6 Modify Device Setting ........................................................................................................ 8-26

8.4.7 Copy Device Setting .......................................................................................................... 8-28

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8.4.8 Switch Setting Group ......................................................................................................... 8-29

8.4.9 Delete Device Records ...................................................................................................... 8-29

8.4.10 Modify Device Clock ........................................................................................................ 8-30

8.4.11 View Module Information ................................................................................................. 8-31

8.4.12 Check Software Version .................................................................................................. 8-31

8.4.13 Select Language .............................................................................................................. 8-31

List of Figures
Figure 8.1-1 Front panel .............................................................................................................. 8-1

Figure 8.1-2 Keypad buttons ...................................................................................................... 8-2

Figure 8.1-3 LED indications ...................................................................................................... 8-3

Figure 8.1-4 Corresponding cable of the RJ45 port in the front panel .................................. 8-4

Figure 8.1-5 Rear view and terminal definition of NR1102C ................................................... 8-5

Figure 8.2-1 Menu tree ................................................................................................................ 8-7

List of Tables
Table 8.1-1 Definition of the 8-core cable ................................................................................. 8-4

Table 8.3-1 User Operating event list ...................................................................................... 8-23

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8 Human Machine Interface

The operator can access the protective device from the front panel. Local communication with the
protective device is possible using a computer via a multiplex RJ45 port on the front panel.
Furthermore, remote communication is also possible using a PC with the substation automation
system via rear RS485 port or rear Ethernet port. The operator is able to check the protective
device status at any time.

This chapter describes human machine interface (HMI), and give operator an instruction about
how to display or print event report, setting and so on through HMI menu tree and display metering
value, including R.M.S. current, voltage, etc. through LCD. Procedures to change active setting
group or a settable parameter value through keypad are also described in details.

8.1 Overview
The human-machine interface consists of a human-machine interface (HMI) module which allows
a communication to be as simple as possible for the user. The HMI module helps to draw your
attention to something that has occurred which may activate a LED or a report displayed on the
LCD. Operator can locate the data of interest by navigating the keypad.

5
1 11 PCS-985
2 12
GENERATOR RELAY
3 13

4 14
P
GR

5 15

6 16 ENT
C

7 17
ES

8 18

9 19
1 3
10 20
4

Figure 8.1-1 Front panel

The function of HMI module:

No. Item Description


A 320240 dot matrix backlight LCD display is visible in dim lighting
1 LCD conditions. The corresponding messages are displayed when there is
operation implemented.

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2 LED 20 status indication LEDs, 7 LEDs are used


3 Keypad Navigation keypad and command keys for full access to device
4 Communication port a multiplex RJ45 port for local communication with a PC
5 Logo Type and designation and manufacturer of device

8.1.1 Keypad Operation

GR
P
ENT

ESC

Figure 8.1-2 Keypad buttons

1. ESC:

Cancel the operation

Quit the current menu

2. ENT:

Execute the operation

Confirm the interface

3. GRP

Activate the switching interface of setting group

4. leftward and rightward direction keys ( and ):

Move the cursor horizontally

Enter the next menu or return to the previous menu

5. upward and downward direction keys ( and )

Move the cursor vertically

Select command menu within the same level of menu

6. plus and minus sign keys ( and )

Modify the value

Modify and display the message number

Page up/down

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8.1.2 LED Indications

HEALTHY

ALARM

TRIP

VT ALARM

CT ALARM

STA EF ALARM

ROT EF ALARM

Figure 8.1-3 LED indications

A brief explanation has been made as bellow.

LED Display Description


When the equipment is out of service or any hardware error is defected during
Off
HEALTHY self-check.

Steady Green Lit when the equipment is in service and ready for operation.

Off When equipment in normal operating condition.


ALARM
Steady Yellow Lit when other abnormal alarm is issued.

Off When equipment in normal operating condition.


TRIP
Steady Red Lit when the relay operates to trip

VT Off When equipment in normal operating condition.

ALARM Steady Yellow Lit when VT circuit fails

CT Off When equipment in normal operating condition.

ALARM Steady Yellow Lit when CT circuit fails

STA EF Off When equipment in normal operating condition.

ALARM Steady Yellow Lit when stator earth-fault happens

ROT EF Off When equipment in normal operating condition.

ALARM Steady Yellow Lit when rotor earth-fault happens

Note!

HEALTHY LED can only be turned on by energizing the device and no abnormality
detected.

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8.1.3 Front Communication Port


There is a multiplex RJ45 port on the front panel. This port can be used as an RS-232 serial port
as well as a twisted-pair ethernet port. As shown in the following figure, a customized cable is
applied for debugging via this multiplex RJ45 port.

Figure 8.1-4 Corresponding cable of the RJ45 port in the front panel

In the above figure and the following table:

P1: To connect the multiplex RJ45 port. An 8-core cable is applied here.

P2: To connect the twisted-pair ethernet port of the computer.

P3: To connect the RS-232 serial port of the computer.

The definition of the 8-core cable in the above figure is introduced in the following table.

Table 8.1-1 Definition of the 8-core cable

Terminal Device side Computer side


Core color Function
No. (Left) (Right)
1 Orange TX+ of the ethernet port P1-1 P2-1
2 Orange & white TX- of the ethernet port P1-2 P2-2
3 Green & white RX+ of the ethernet port P1-3 P2-3
4 Blue TXD of the RS-232 serial port P1-4 P3-2
5 Brown & white RTS of the RS-232 serial port P1-5 P3-3
6 Green RX- for the ethernet port P1-6 P2-6
7 Blue & white The ground connection of the RS-232 port. P1-7 P3-5

8.1.4 Ethernet Port Setup


MON plug-in module is equipped with two or four 100Base-TX Ethernet interface, take NR1102C
as an example, as shown in Figure 8.1-5. Its rear view and the definition of terminals.

The Ethernet port can be used to communication with PC via auxiliary software (PCS-PC) after
connecting the protection device with PC, so as to fulfill on-line function (please refer to the
instruction manual of PCS-PC). At first, the connection between the protection device and PC
must be established. Through setting the IP address and subnet mask of corresponding Ethernet
interface in the menu SettingsDevice SetupComm Settings, it should be ensured that the

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protection device and PC are in the same network segment. For example, setting the IP address
and subnet mask of network A. (using network A to connect with PC)

PC: IP address is set as 198.87.96.102, subnet mask is set as 255.255.255.0

The IP address and subnet mask of protection device should be [IP_LAN1]= 198.87.96.XXX,
[Mask_LAN1]=255.255.255.0, [En_LAN1]=1. (XXX can be any value from 0 to 255 except 102)

If the logic setting [En_LAN1] is non-available, it means that network A is always enabled.

NR1102C

ETHERNET

Network A

Network B

SYN+
SYN-
SGND

RTS
TXD
SGND

Figure 8.1-5 Rear view and terminal definition of NR1102C

Note!

If using other Ethernet port, for example, Ethernet B, the logic setting [En_LAN2] must be
set as 1.

8.2 Menu Tree


8.2.1 Overview
Press of any running interface and enter the main menu. Select different submenu by and
. Enter the selected submenu by pressing ENT or . Press and return to the previous
menu. Press ESC back to main menu directly. For sake of entering the command menu again, a
command menu will be recorded in the quick menu after its execution. Five latest command
menus can be recorded in the quick menu. When five command menus are recorded, the latest
command menu will cover the earliest one, adopting the first in first out principle. It is arranged
from top to bottom and in accordance with the execution order of command menus.

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8 Human Machine Interface

Press to enter the main menu with the interface as shown in the following diagram:

MainMenu

Language
Clock

Quick Menu

For the first powered protective device, there is no record in quick menu. Press to enter the
main menu with the interface as shown in the following diagram:

Measurements

Status

Records

Print
Settings
Local Cmd

Information

Test

Clock

Language

The descriptions about menu is based on the maximized configuration, for a specific project, if
some function is not available, the corresponding submenu will hidden.

8.2.2 Main Menus


The menu of the PCS-985 is organized into main menu and submenus, much like a PC directory
structure. The menu of the PCS-985 is divided into 10 sections:

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Main Menu

Measurements

Status

Records

Print

Settings

Local Cmd

Information

Test

Clock

Language

Figure 8.2-1 Menu tree

Under the main interface, press to enter the main menu, and select submenu by pressing ,
and ENT. The command menu adopts a tree shaped content structure. The above diagram
provides the integral structure and all main menus under menu tree of the protection device.

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8.2.3 Sub Menus

8.2.3.1 Measurements

Main Menu

Measurements

Measurements1

Gen Values1

Exc Values1

Measurements2

Gen Values2

Exc Values2

Phase Angle

Prot Status

Cal Settings

This menu is used to display real-time measured values, including AC voltage, AC current, phase
angle and calculated quantities. These data can help users to acquaint the devices status. This
menu comprises following submenus. Please refer to Chapter 5 about the detailed measured
values.

No. Item Function description

1 Measurement1 Display measured values from protection calculation DSP

2 Measurement2 Display sampled values from fault detector DSP

The submenu Measurement1 comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Gen Values Display measured values of generator

2 Exc Values Display measured values of excitation transformer or exciter

1) The submenu Gen Values comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Gen Diff Values Display measured differential current values of generator

2 Gen Volt Values Display measured voltage values of generator

3 Gen Misc Values Display measured miscellaneous values of generator

The submenu Measurement2 comprises the following command menus.

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No. Item Function description

1 Gen Values Display measured values of generator

2 Exc Values Display measured values of excitation transformer or exciter

3 Phase Angle Display measured phase angle

4 Prot Status Display status related to each protection element

5 Cal Settings Display calculated settings

1) The submenu Gen Values comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Gen Diff Values Display measured differential current values of generator

2 Gen Volt Values Display measured voltage values of generator

3 Gen Misc Values Display measured miscellaneous values of generator

2) The submenu Phase Angle comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Gen PhaseAngle Values Display measured phase angle related to generator

Display measured phase angle related to excitation transformer or


2 Exc PhaseAngle Values
exciter

3) The submenu Prot Status comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

Display status of some elements which are enabled/disabled


1 Prot On/Off Status Values
automatically

2 Gen Prot CalValues Display calculated values related to generator

3 Exc Prot CalValues Display calculated values related to excitation transformer or exciter

4) The submenu Cal Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Sec Rated Curr Values Display calculated settings of secondary rated current

2 Sec Rated Volt Values Display calculated settings of secondary rated voltage

3 Diff Corr Coef Values Display calculated settings of differential coefficient

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8.2.3.2 Status

Main Menu

Status

Prot BI

Gen Prot BI

Exc Prot BI

MR Prot BI

Misc BI

Pwr Superv BI

Outputs

Contact Outputs

Prot FD

This menu is used to display real time input signals and output signals of the device. These data
can help users to acquaint the devices status. This menu comprises following submenus. Please
refer to section 5.3 about the detailed input and output signals.

No. Item Function description

1 Prot BI Display all input signal states

2 Outputs Display all output signal states

The submenu Prot BI comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Gen Prot BI Display states of binary inputs related to generator

2 Exc Prot BI Display states of binary inputs related to excitation transformer or exciter

3 MR Prot BI Display states of binary inputs related to mechanical protection

4 Misc BI Display states of binary inputs related to miscellaneous protection

5 Pwr Superv BI Display states of binary inputs of power supply supervision

The submenu Outputs comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Contact Outputs Display states of contact binary outputs

2 Prot FD Display states of fault detectors

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8.2.3.3 Records

Main Menu

Records

Disturb Records

Superv Events

IO Events

Device Logs

This menu is used to display all kinds of records, including the disturbance records, supervision
events, binary events and device logs, so that the operator can load to view and use as the
reference of analyzing accidents and repairing the device. All records are stored in non-volatile
memory, it can still record them even if it loses its power.

This menu comprises the following submenus.

No. Item Function description


1 Disturb Records Display disturbance records of the device
2 Superv Events Display supervision events of the device
3 IO Events Display binary events of the device
4 Device Logs Display device logs of the device

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8.2.3.4 Print

Main Menu

Print

Device Info

Settings

General Settings

GenProt Settings

ExcProt Settings

MiscProt Settings

Logic Links

Device Setup

All Settings

Latest Chgd Settings

Disturb Records

Superv Events

IO Events

Device Status

Waveforms

IEC103 Info

Cancel Print

This menu is used to print device description, settings, all kinds of records, waveform, and
information related to IEC60870-5-103 protocol.

This menu comprises the following submenus.

No. Item Function description

Print the description information of the device, including software


1 Device Info
version.

Print device setup, general settings, logic links and protection settings. It
2 Settings can print by different classifications as well as printing all settings of the
device. Besides, it can also print the latest modified settings.

3 Disturb Records Print the disturbance records

4 Superv Events Print the supervision events

5 IO Events Print the binary events

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Print the current state of the device, including the sampled value of
6 Device Status
voltage and current, the state of binary inputs, setting and so on

7 Waveforms Print the recorded waveform

Print 103 Protocol information, including function type (FUN),


8 IEC103 Info information serial number (INF), general classification service group
number, and channel number (ACC)

9 Cancel Print Cancel the print command

The submenu Settings comprises the following submenus.

No. Item Function description

1 General Settings Print the general settings

2 GenProt Settings Print generator protection settings

3 ExcProt Settings Print settings related to excitation transformer or exciter

4 MiscProt Settings Print misc protection settings

5 Logic Links Print logic links

6 Device Setup Print the settings related to device setup

Print all settings including device setup, system settings and protection
7 All Settings
settings

8 Latest Modified Print the setting latest modified

1) The submenu General Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 System Settings Print system settings

2 Enable Settings Print logic settings of configuring functions

3 TrSys Settings Print system settings related to main transformer

4 GenSys Settings Print system settings related to generator

5 ExcSys Settings Print system settings related to excitation transformer or exciter

6 Config Settings Print configuration settings

2) The submenu GenProt Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 GenDiffProt Settings Print settings of differential protection of generator

2 GenIntTurnProt Settings Print settings of turn-to-turn fault protection of generator

3 GenPPFBakProt Settings Print settings of backup protection of generator

4 StaEFProt Settings Print settings of earth fault protection of stator windings

5 RotWdgEFProt Settings Print settings of earth fault protection of rotor

6 StaOvLdProt Settings Print settings of thermal overload protection of stator

7 GenNegOCProt Settings Print settings of negative sequence overcurrent protection of generator

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8 LossExcProt Settings Print settings of Loss-of-Excitation protection

9 GenOOSProt Settings Print settings of out-of-step protection

10 GenVoltProt Settings Print settings of voltage protection of generator

11 GenOvExcProt Settings Print settings of overexcitation protection of generator

12 GenPwrProt Settings Print settings of power protection of generator

Print settings of underfrequency and overfrequency protection of


13 GenFreqProt Settings
generator

14 StShutProt Settings Print settings of startup and shutdown protection of generator

15 AccEnergProt Settings Print settings of inadvertent energization protection of generator

16 BFPGCBProt Settings Print settings of breaker failure protection of generator

3) The submenu ExcProt Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 ExcDiffProt Settings Print settings of differential protection of excitation transformer or exciter

2 ExcBakProt Settings Print settings of backup protection of excitation transformer or exciter

3 RotWdgOvLdProt Settings Print settings of overload protection of excitation transformer or exciter

4) The submenu MiscProt Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 MechRlyProt Settings Print mechanical protection settings

The submenu Logic Links comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Function Links Print function links

The submenu Device Setup comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Device Settings Print the device settings.

2 Comm Settings Print the communication settings.

The submenu Waveforms comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Gen Diff Wave Print differential current waveforms of generator

2 Gen Volt Wave Print voltage waveforms of generator

3 Gen Misc Wave Print miscellaneous waveforms of generator

4 Exc Curr Wave Print current waveforms of excitation

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8.2.3.5 Settings

Main Menu

Settings

General Settings

GenProt Settings

ExcProt Settings

MiscProt Settings

Logic Links

Device Setup

Copy Settings

This menu is used to check the device setup, general settings, logic links and protection settings,
as well as modifying any of the above setting items. Moreover, it can also execute the setting copy
between different setting groups.

This menu comprises the following submenus.

No. Item Function description

1 General Settings Check or modify the general settings

2 GenProt Settings Check or modify generator protection settings

3 ExcProt Settings Check or modify settings related to excitation transformer or exciter

4 MiscProt Settings Check or modify misc protection settings

5 Logic Links Check or modify logic links

6 Device Setup Check or modify settings related to device setup

7 Copy Settings Copy setting between different setting groups

The submenu General Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 System Settings Check or modify system settings

2 Enable Settings Check or modify logic settings of configuring functions

3 TrSys Settings Check or modify system settings related to main transformer

4 GenSys Settings Check or modify system settings related to generator

Check or modify system settings related to excitation transformer or


5 ExcSys Settings
exciter

6 Config Settings Check or modify configuration settings

The submenu GenProt Settings comprises the following command menus.

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No. Item Function description

1 GenDiffProt Settings Check or modify settings of differential protection of generator

2 GenIntTurnProt Settings Check or modify settings of turn-to-turn fault protection of generator

3 GenPPFBakProt Settings Check or modify settings of backup protection of generator

4 StaEFProt Settings Check or modify settings of earth fault protection of stator windings

5 RotWdgEFProt Settings Check or modify settings of earth fault protection of rotor

6 StaOvLdProt Settings Check or modify settings of thermal overload protection of stator

Check or modify settings of negative sequence overcurrent protection of


7 GenNegOCProt Settings
generator

8 LossExcProt Settings Check or modify settings of Loss-of-Excitation protection

9 GenOOSProt Settings Check or modify settings of out-of-step protection

10 GenVoltProt Settings Check or modify settings of voltage protection of generator

11 GenOvExcProt Settings Check or modify settings of overexcitation protection of generator

12 GenPwrProt Settings Check or modify settings of power protection of generator

Check or modify settings of underfrequency and overfrequency


13 GenFreqProt Settings
protection of generator

14 StShutProt Settings Check or modify settings of startup and shutdown protection of generator

Check or modify settings of inadvertent energization protection of


15 AccEnergProt Settings
generator

16 BFPGCBProt Settings Check or modify settings of breaker failure protection of generator

The submenu ExcProt Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

Check or modify settings of differential protection of excitation


1 ExcDiffProt Settings
transformer or exciter

Check or modify settings of backup protection of excitation transformer


2 ExcBakProt Settings
or exciter

Check or modify settings of overload protection of excitation transformer


3 RotWdgOvLdProt Settings
or exciter

The submenu MiscProt Settings comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 MechRlyProt Settings Check or modify mechanical protection settings

The submenu Logic Links comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

1 Function Links Check or modify function links

The submenu Device Setup comprises the following command menus.

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8 Human Machine Interface

No. Item Function description

1 Device Settings Check or modify the device settings.

2 Comm Settings Check or modify the communication settings.

8.2.3.6 Local Cmd

Main Menu

Local Cmd

Reset Target

Trig Oscillograph

Download

This menu is used to reset the tripping relay with latch, indicator LED, LCD display, and as same
as the resetting function of binary inputs. This menu provides a method of manually recording the
current waveform data of the device under normal condition for printing and uploading SAS.
Besides, it can send out the request of program download.

This menu comprises the following submenus.

No. Item Function description

1 Reset Target Reset the local signal, indicator LED, LCD display and so on

2 Trig Oscillograph Trigger waveform recording

3 Download Send out the request of downloading program

8.2.3.7 Information

Main Menu

Information

Version Info

Board Info

In this menu, the LCD displays software information of all kinds of intelligent plug-in modules,
which consists of version, creating time of software, CRC codes and management sequence
number. Besides, plug-in module information can also be viewed.

This menu comprises the following command menus.

No. Item Function description

Display software information of DSP module, MON module and HMI module,
1 Version Info which consists of version, creating time of software, CRC codes and
management sequence number.

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2 Board Info Monitor the current working state of each intelligent module.

8.2.3.8 Test

Main Menu

Test

Disturb Record Items

DC Zero Adjust

DC Zero Adjust

This menu comprises the following submenus.

No. Item Function description

1 Disturb Record Items Check the fault report one by one.

2 DC Zero Adjust DC component zero drift adjustment

3 SetLCD Detect the LCD and LED of the device

8.2.3.9 Clock

The current time of internal clock can be viewed here. The time is displayed in the form
YY-MM-DD and hh:mm:ss. All values are presented with digits and can be modified.

8.2.3.10 Language

This menu is mainly used to set LCD display language.

8.3 LCD Display


8.3.1 Overview
There are five kinds of LCD display, SLD (single line diagram) display, tripping reports, alarm
reports, binary input changing reports and control reports. Tripping reports and alarm reports will
not disappear until these reports are acknowledged by pressing the RESET button in the
protection panel (i.e. energizing the binary input [BI_RstTarg]). User can press both ENT and
ESC at the same time to switch the display among trip reports, alarm reports and the SLD display.
IO events will be displayed for 5s and then it will return to the previous display interface
automatically. Device logs will not pop up and can only be viewed by navigating the corresponding
menu.

8.3.2 Normal Display


After the protection device is powered and entered into the initiating interface, it takes 30 seconds
to complete the initialization of protection device. During the initialization of protection device, the
HEALTHY indicator lamp of the protection device goes out.

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Under normal condition, the LCD will display the following. The LCD adopts white color as its
backlight that is activated if once there is any keyboard operation, and is extinguished
automatically after 60 seconds of no operation.

Addr100 2011-06-25 10:28:03 Group01

0.00A
DIF: 0.00Ie
0.00A DIE: 0.00Ie
0.00V

0.00A 0.00A F: 0.00 Hz


0.00V
0.00A P: +0.00 %
Q: +0.00 %
Ur: 0.0 V
Rg: 300.00k
0.00V

The content displayed on the screen contains: the current date and time of the protection device
(with a format of yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss:), the active setting group number, the three-phase
current sampling value, the neutral current sampling value, the three-phase voltage sampling
value, the neutral voltage sampling value, the synchronism voltage sampling value, line frequency
and the address relevant to IP address of Ethernet A. If all the sampling values of the voltage and
the current cant be fully displayed within one screen, they will be scrolling-displayed automatically
from the top to the bottom.

If the device has detected any abnormal state, it will display the self-check alarm information.

8.3.3 Display Disturbance Records


This device can store 64 disturbance records and 64 disturbance records with fault waveform.
When there is protection element operating, the LCD will automatically display the latest
disturbance record, and two kinds of LCD display interfaces will be available depending on
whether there are supervision events at present.

For the situation that the disturbance records and the supervision events coexist, the upper half
part is the disturbance record, and the lower half part is the supervision event. As to the upper half
part, it displays separately the record number of the disturbance record, fault name, generating
time of the disturbance record (with a format of yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss), protection element and
tripping element. If there is protection element operation, faulty phase and relative operation time
with reference to fault detector element are displayed. At the same time, if displayed rows of
protection element and tripping element are more than 3, a scroll bar will appear at the right. The
height of the black part of the scroll bar basically indicates the total lines of protection element and
tripping element, and its position suggests the position of the currently displayed line of the total

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lines. The scroll bar of protection element and tripping element will roll up at the speed of one line
per time. When it rolls to the last three lines, it will roll from the earliest protection element and
tripping element again. The displayed content of the lower half part is similar to that of the upper
half part.

If the device has no the supervision event, the display interface will only show the disturbance
record.

Disturb Records NO.2


2011-06-25 07:10:00:200
0 ms FD_BFP_GCB
24 ms Op_BFP_GCB

If the device has the supervision event, the display interface will show the disturbance record and
the supervision event at the same time.

Disturb Records NO.2


2011-06-25 07:10:00:200
0 ms FD_BFP_GCB
24 ms Op_BFP_GCB

Superv Events NO.3


2011-06-25 07:09:00:200
Alm_BI

Disturb Records NO.2 shows the title and SOE number of the disturbance record.

2011-06-25 07:10:00:200 shows the time when fault detector picks up, the format is
yearmonth-date and hour:minute:second:millisecond.

0ms FD_BFP_GCB shows fault detector element and its operating time (set as 0ms

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fixedly).

24ms Op_BFP_GCB shows operation element and its relative operation time

8.3.4 Display Supervision Event


This device can store 1024 pieces of supervision events. During the running of the device, the
supervision event of hardware self-check errors or system running abnormity will be displayed
immediately.

Superv Events NO.4


2011-06-25 9:18:47:500ms

Alm_BI 0 1

Superv Events NO.4 shows the SOE number and title of the supervision event

2011-06-25 09:18:47:500 shows the real time of the report: yearmonth-date and
hour:minute:second:millisecond

Alm_BI 01 shows the content of abnormality alarm

8.3.5 Display IO Events


This device can store 1024 pieces of binary events. During the running of the device, the binary
input will be displayed once its state has changed, i.e. from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0.

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IO Events NO.4
2011-06-25 09:18:47:500ms

BI_Pwr_Superv 0 1

IO Events NO.4 shows the number and title of the binary event

2011-06-25 09:18:47:500 shows date and time when the report occurred, the format is
yearmonth-date and hour:minute:second:millisecond

BI_Pwr_Superv 01 shows the state change of binary input, including binary input
name, original state and final state

8.3.6 Display Device Logs


This device can store 1024 pieces of device logs. During the running of the device, the device log
will be displayed after any operation of it is conducted.

Device Logs NO.4


2011-06-25 10:18:47:569ms
Reboot

Device Logs NO. 4 shows the title and the number of the device log

2011-06-25 10:18:47:569 shows date and time when the report occurred, the format is
yearmonth-date and hour:minute:second:millisecond

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Reboot shows the manipulation content of the device log

User operating information listed below may be displayed.

Table 8.3-1 User Operating event list

No. Message Description


1 Reboot The device has been reboot.
2 Settings_Chgd The devices settings have been changed.
3 ActiveGrp_Chgd Active setting group has been changed.
4 Report_Cleared All reports have been deleted. (Device logs can not be deleted)
5 Waveform_Cleared All waveforms have been deleted.
6 SubProcess_Exit A Subprocess has exited.

It will be displayed on the LCD before the fault report and self-check report are confirmed. Only
pressing the restore button on the protection screen or pressing both ENT and ESC at the
same time can switch among the fault report, the self-check report and the normal running state of
protection device to display it. The binary input change report will be displayed for 5s and then it
will return to the previous display interface automatically.

8.4 Keypad Operation


8.4.1 View Device Measurements
The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Measurements menu, and then press
the ENT or to enter the menu;

3. Press the or to move the cursor to any command menu, and then press the
ENT to enter the menu;

4. Press the or to page up/down (if all information cannot be displayed in one
display screen, one screen can display 14 lines of information at most);

5. Press the or to select pervious or next command menu;

6. Press the ENT or ESC to exit this menu (returning to the Measurements menu);

8.4.2 View Device Status


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the key to enter the main menu.

2. Press the key or to move the cursor to the Status menu, and then press the
ENT or to enter the menu.

3. Press the key or to move the cursor to any command menu item, and then press
the key ENT to enter the submenu.

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4. Press the or to page up/down (if all information cannot be displayed in one
display screen, one screen can display 14 lines of information at most).

5. Press the key or to select pervious or next command menu.

6. Press the key ENT or ESC to exit this menu (returning to the Status menu).

8.4.3 View Device Records


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Records menu, and then press the
ENT or to enter the menu;

3. Press the or to move the cursor to any command menu, and then press the
ENT to enter the menu;

4. Press the or to page up/down;

5. Press the or to select pervious or next record;

6. Press the or to select pervious or next command menu;

7. Press the ENT or ESC to exit this menu (returning to the Records menu);

8.4.4 Print Device Report


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Print menu, and then press the ENT or
to enter the menu;

3. Press the or to move the cursor to any command menu, and then press the
ENT to enter the menu;

Selecting the Disturb Records, and then press the or to select pervious
or next record. After pressing the key ENT, the LCD will display Start Printing... ,
and then automatically exit this menu (returning to the menu Print). If the printer
doesnt complete its current print task and re-start it for printing, and the LCD will
display Printer Busy. Press the key ESC to exit this menu (returning to the
menu Print).

Selecting the command menu Superv Events or IO Events, and then press the
key or to move the cursor. Press the or to select the starting and
ending numbers of printing message. After pressing the key ENT, the LCD will
display Start Printing, and then automatically exit this menu (returning to the
menu Print). Press the key ESC to exit this menu (returning to the menu Print).

4. If selecting the command menu Device Info, Device Status or IEC103 Info, press
the key ENT, the LCD will display Start printing.., and then automatically exit this menu

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(returning to the menu Print).

5. If selecting the Settings, press the key ENT or to enter the next level of menu.

6. After entering the submenu Settings, press the key or to move the cursor, and
then press the key ENT to print the corresponding default value. If selecting any item to
printing:

Press the key or to select the setting group to be printed. After pressing the key
ENT, the LCD will display Start Printing, and then automatically exit this menu
(returning to the menu Settings). Press the key ESC to exit this menu (returning to the
menu Settings).

7. After entering the submenu Waveforms, press the or to select the waveform
item to be printed and press ENT to enter. If there is no any waveform data, the LCD will
display No Waveform Data! (Before executing the command menu Waveforms, it is
necessary to execute the command menu Trig Oscillograph in the menu Local Cmd,
otherwise the LCD will display No Waveform Data!). With waveform data existing:

Press the key or to select pervious or next record. After pressing the key ENT, the LCD
will display Start Printing, and then automatically exit this menu (returning to the menu
Waveforms). If the printer does not complete its current print task and re-start it for printing, and
the LCD will display Printer Busy. Press the key ESC to exit this menu (returning to the menu
Waveforms).

8.4.5 View Device Setting


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Settings menu, and then press the
ENT or to enter the menu;

3. Press the or to move the cursor to any command menu, and then press the
ENT to enter the menu;

4. Press the or to move the cursor;

5. Press the + or - to page up/down;

6. Press the or to select pervious or next command menu;

7. Press the ESC to exit this menu (returning to the menu Settings).

Note!

If the displayed information exceeds 14 lines, the scroll bar will appear on the right side of
the LCD to indicate the quantity of all displayed information of the command menu and the
relative location of information where the current cursor points at.

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8.4.6 Modify Device Setting


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Settings menu, and then press the
ENT or to enter the menu;

3. Press the or to move the cursor to any command menu, and then press the
ENT to enter the menu;

4. Press the or to move the cursor;

5. Press the or to select pervious or next command menu;

6. Press the ESC to exit this menu (returning to the menu Settings );

7. If selecting the submenu GenProt Settings, and press ENT to enter. After
selecting different command menu, the LCD will display the following interface: (take
GenDiffProt Settings as an example)

GenDiffProt Settings

Please Select Group for Config

Active Group: 01

Selected Group: 02

Press the or to modify the value, and then press the ENT to enter it. Move the cursor to
the setting item to be modified, press the ENT to enter.

Take the setting [I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Gen] as an example is selected to modify, then press the ENT
to enter and the LCD will display the following interface. is shown the or to modify the
value and then press the ENT to confirm.

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8 Human Machine Interface

I_Pkp_PcntDiff_Gen

Current Value 0.30

Modified Value 0.32

Min Value 0.10

Max Value 1.50

Press the or to modify the value (if the modified value is of multi-bit, press the or
to move the cursor to the digit bit, and then press the or to modify the value), press the
ESC to cancel the modification and return to the displayed interface of the command menu
GenDiffProt Settings. Press the ENT to automatically exit this menu (returning to the
displayed interface of the command menu GenDiffProt Settings).

Move the cursor to continue modifying other setting items. After all setting values are modified,
press the , or ESC, and the LCD will display Save or Not?. Directly press the ESC or
press the or to move the cursor. Select the Cancel, and then press the ENT to
automatically exit this menu (returning to the displayed interface of the command menu
GenDiffProt Settings).

Press the or to move the cursor. Select No and press the ENT, all modified setting item
will restore to its original value, exit this menu (returning to the menu GenProt Settings).

Press the or to move the cursor to select Yes, and then press the ENT, the LCD will
display password input interface.

Password:

____

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8 Human Machine Interface

Input a 4-bit password (, , or ). If the password is incorrect, continue inputting it,


and then press the ESC to exit the password input interface and return to the displayed interface
of the command menu GenDiffProt Settings. If the password is correct, LCD will display Save
Setting Now, and then exit this menu (returning to the displayed interface of the command
menu GenDiffProt Settings), with all modified setting items as modified values.

Note!

For different setting items, their displayed interfaces are different but their modification
methods are the same.

Note!

After modifying protection settings in current active setting group or system settings of the
device, the HEALTHY indicator lamp of the device will go out, and the device will
automatically restart and re-check them. If the check doesnt pass, the device will be
blocked.

8.4.7 Copy Device Setting


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Settings menu, and then press the
ENT or to enter the menu;

3. Press the or to move the cursor to the command menu Copy Settings, and
then press the ENT to enter the menu.

Copy Settings

Active Group: 01

Copy To Group: 02

Press the or to modify the value. Press the ESC, and return to the menu Settings.
Press the ENT, the LCD will display the interface for password input, if the password is incorrect,
continue inputting it, press the ESC to exit the password input interface and return to the menu

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Settings. If the password is correct, the LCD will display copy setting OK!, and exit this menu
(returning to the menu Settings).

8.4.8 Switch Setting Group


The operation is as follows:

1. Exit the main menu;

2. Press the GRP

Change Active Group

Active Group: 01

Change To Group: 02

Press the or to modify the value, and then press the ESC to exit this menu (returning to
the main menu). After pressing the ENT, the LCD will display the password input interface. If the
password is incorrect, continue inputting it, and then press the ESC to exit the password input
interface and return to its original state. If the password is correct, the HEALTHY indicator lamp
of the protection device will go out, and the protection device will re-check the protection setting. If
the check doesnt pass, the protection device will be blocked. If the check is successful, the LCD
will return to its original state.

8.4.9 Delete Device Records


The operation is as follows:

1. Exit the main menu;

2. Press the , , , and ENT; Press the ESC to exit this menu (returning to
the original state). Press the ENT to carry out the deletion.

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Press <ENT> To Clear


Press <ESC> To Exit

Note!

The operation of deleting device message will delete all messages saved by the protection
device, including disturbance records, supervision events, binary events, but not including
device logs. Furthermore, the message is irrecoverable after deletion, so the application of
the function shall be cautious.

8.4.10 Modify Device Clock


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Clock menu, and then press the ENT
to enter clock display

3. Press the or to move the cursor to the date or time to be modified;

4. Press the + or - to modify value, and then press the ENT to save the modification
and return to the main menu;

5. Press the ESC to cancel the modification and return to the main menu.

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8 Human Machine Interface

Clock

Year 2008
Month 11
Day 28
Hour 20
Minute 59
Second 14

8.4.11 View Module Information


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu;

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Information menu, and then press the
ENT or to enter the menu;

3. Press the or to move the cursor to the command menu Board Info, and then
press the ENT to enter the menu;

4. Press the or to move the scroll bar;

5. Press the ENT or ESC to exit this menu (returning to the Information menu).

8.4.12 Check Software Version


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the to enter the main menu.

2. Press the or to move the cursor to the Information menu, and then press the
ENT to enter the submenu.

3. Press the key or to move the cursor to the command menu Version Info, and
then press the key ENT to display the software version.

4. Press the ESC to return to the main menu.

8.4.13 Select Language


The operation is as follows:

1. Press the key to enter the main menu.

2. Press the key or to move the cursor to the command menu Language, and

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8 Human Machine Interface

then press the key ENT to enter the menu and the following display will be shown on
LCD.

Please Select Language:

1
2 English

3. Press the key or to move the cursor to the language user preferred and press
the key ENT to execute language switching. After language switching is finished, LCD
will return to the menu Language, and the display language is changed. Otherwise,
press the key ESC to cancel language switching and return to the menu Language.

Note!

LCD interface provided in this chapter is only a reference and available for explaining
specific definition of LCD. The displayed interface of the actual device may be some
different from it, so you shall be subject to the actual protection device.

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9 Communication

9 Communication

Table of Contents

9.1 Overview........................................................................................................... 9-1


9.2 Rear Communication Port Information .......................................................... 9-1
9.2.1 RS-485 Interface .................................................................................................................. 9-1

9.2.2 Ethernet Interface ................................................................................................................. 9-3

9.2.3 IEC60870-5-103 Communication ......................................................................................... 9-4

9.3 IEC60870-5-103 Interface over Serial Port ..................................................... 9-4


9.3.1 Physical Connection and Link Layer .................................................................................... 9-5

9.3.2 Initialization ........................................................................................................................... 9-5

9.3.3 Time Synchronization ........................................................................................................... 9-5

9.3.4 Spontaneous Events ............................................................................................................ 9-5

9.3.5 General Interrogation ........................................................................................................... 9-6

9.3.6 General Functions ................................................................................................................ 9-6

9.3.7 Disturbance Records ............................................................................................................ 9-6

9.4 Messages Description for IEC61850 Protocol ............................................... 9-6


9.4.1 Overview............................................................................................................................... 9-6

9.4.2 Communication Profiles ....................................................................................................... 9-7

9.4.3 MMS Communication Network Deployment ........................................................................ 9-8

9.4.4 Server Data Organization ................................................................................................... 9-11

9.4.5 Server Features and Configuration .................................................................................... 9-14

9.4.6 ACSI Conformance............................................................................................................. 9-16

9.4.7 Logical Nodes..................................................................................................................... 9-20

9.5 DNP3.0 Interface ............................................................................................ 9-22


9.5.1 Overview............................................................................................................................. 9-22

9.5.2 Link Layer Functions .......................................................................................................... 9-23

9.5.3 Transport Functions............................................................................................................ 9-23

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9 Communication

9.5.4 Application Layer Functions ............................................................................................... 9-23

List of Figures

Figure 9.2-1 EIA RS-485 bus connection arrangements ......................................................... 9-2

Figure 9.2-2 Ethernet communication cable ............................................................................ 9-3

Figure 9.2-3 Ethernet communication structure ...................................................................... 9-4

Figure 9.4-1 Dual-net full duplex mode sharing the RCB block instance ............................. 9-9

Figure 9.4-2 Dual-net hot-standby mode sharing the same RCB instance ........................ 9-10

Figure 9.4-3 Dual-net full duplex mode with 2 independent RCB instances ...................... 9-11

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9 Communication

9.1 Overview
This section outlines the remote communications interfaces of NR equipment. The protective
device supports a choice of three protocols via the rear communication interface (RS-485 or
Ethernet), selected via the model number by setting. The protocol provided by the protective
device is indicated in the menu SettingsDevice SetupComm Settings. Using the keypad
and LCD, set the parameter [Protocol_RS485A] and [Protocol_RS485B], the corresponding
protocol will be selected.

The rear EIA RS-485 interface is isolated and is suitable for permanent connection of whichever
protocol is selected. The advantage of this type of connection is that up to 32 protective devices
can be daisy chained together using a simple twisted pair electrical connection.

It should be noted that the descriptions contained within this section do not aim to fully detail the
protocol itself. The relevant documentation for the protocol should be referred to for this
information. This section serves to describe the specific implementation of the protocol in the relay.

9.2 Rear Communication Port Information


9.2.1 RS-485 Interface
This protective device provides two rear RS-485 communication ports, and each port has three
terminals in the 12-terminal screw connector located on the back of the relay and each port has a
ground terminal for the earth shield of the communication cable. Please refer to the section of
Communication Interface module for details of the connection terminals. The rear ports provide
RS-485 serial data communication and are intended for use with a permanently wired connection
to a remote control center.

9.2.1.1 EIA RS-485 Standardized Bus

The EIA RS-485 two-wire connection provides a half-duplex fully isolated serial connection to the
product. The connection is polarized and whilst the products connection diagrams indicate the
polarization of the connection terminals it should be borne in mind that there is no agreed
definition of which terminal is which. If the master is unable to communicate with the product, and
the communication parameters match, then it is possible that the two-wire connection is reversed.

9.2.1.2 Bus Termination

The EIA RS-485 bus must have 120 (Ohm) Watt terminating resistors fitted at either end
across the signal wires (refer to Figure 9.2-1). Some devices may be able to provide the bus
terminating resistors by different connection or configuration arrangements, in which case
separate external components will not be required. However, this product does not provide such a
facility, so if it is located at the bus terminus then an external termination resistor will be required.

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9 Communication

EIA RS-485
Master 120 Ohm

120 Ohm

Slave Slave Slave

Figure 9.2-1 EIA RS-485 bus connection arrangements

9.2.1.3 Bus Connections & Topologies

The EIA RS-485 standard requires that each device is directly connected to the physical cable that
is the communications bus. Stubs and tees are expressly forbidden, such as star topologies. Loop
bus topologies are not part of the EIA RS-485 standard and are forbidden by it also.

Two-core screened cable is recommended. The specification of the cable will be dependent on the
application, although a multi-strand 0.5mm2 per core is normally adequate. Total cable length
must not exceed 500m. The screen must be continuous and connected to ground at one end,
normally at the master connection point; it is important to avoid circulating currents, especially
when the cable runs between buildings, for both safety and noise reasons.

This product does not provide a signal ground connection. If a signal ground connection is present
in the bus cable then it must be ignored, although it must have continuity for the benefit of other
devices connected to the bus. At no stage must the signal ground be connected to the cables
screen or to the products chassis. This is for both safety and noise reasons.

9.2.1.4 Biasing

It may also be necessary to bias the signal wires to prevent jabber. Jabber occurs when the signal
level has an indeterminate state because the bus is not being actively driven. This can occur when
all the slaves are in receive mode and the master is slow to turn from receive mode to transmit
mode. This may be because the master purposefully waits in receive mode, or even in a high
impedance state, until it has something to transmit. Jabber causes the receiving device(s) to miss
the first bits of the first character in the packet, which results in the slave rejecting the message
and consequentially not responding. Symptoms of these are poor response times (due to retries),
increasing message error counters, erratic communications, and even a complete failure to
communicate.

Biasing requires that the signal lines be weakly pulled to a defined voltage level of about 1V. There
should only be one bias point on the bus, which is best situated at the master connection point.
The DC source used for the bias must be clean; otherwise noise will be injected. Note that some
devices may (optionally) be able to provide the bus bias, in which case external components will
not be required.

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NOTE!

It is extremely important that the 120 termination resistors are fitted. Failure to do so
will result in an excessive bias voltage that may damage the devices connected to the
bus.

As the field voltage is much higher than that required, NR cannot assume
responsibility for any damage that may occur to a device connected to the network as
a result of incorrect application of this voltage.

Ensure that the field voltage is not being used for other purposes (i.e. powering logic
inputs) as this may cause noise to be passed to the communication network.

9.2.2 Ethernet Interface


This protective device can provide four rear Ethernet interfaces (optional) and they are unattached
each other. Parameters of each Ethernet port can be configured in the submenu in the menu
SettingsDevice SetupComm Settings.

9.2.2.1 Ethernet Standardized Communication Cable

It is recommended to use twisted screened eight-core cable as the communication cable. A picture
is shown bellow.

Figure 9.2-2 Ethernet communication cable

9.2.2.2 Connections and Topologies

Each device is connected with an exchanger via communication cable, and thereby it forms a star
structure network. Dual-network is recommended in order to increase reliability. SCADA is also
connected to the exchanger and will play a role of master station, so the every equipment which
has been connected to the exchanger will play a role of slave unit.

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SCADA

Switch: Net A

Switch: Net B

Figure 9.2-3 Ethernet communication structure

9.2.3 IEC60870-5-103 Communication


The IEC specification IEC60870-5-103: Telecontrol Equipment and Systems, Part 5: Transmission
Protocols Section 103 defines the use of standards IEC60870-5-1 to IEC60870-5-5 to perform
communication with protective device. The standard configuration for the IEC60870-5-103
protocol is to use a twisted pair EIA RS-485 connection over distances up to 500m. It also supports
to use an Ethernet connection. The relay operates as a slave in the system, responding to
commands from a master station.

To use the rear port with IEC60870-5-103 communication, the relevant settings of the protective
device must be configured. To do this use the keypad and LCD user interface. In the menu
SettingsDevice SetupComm Settings, set the parameters [Protocol_RS485A],
[Protocol_RS485B], [Baud_RS485A] and [Baud_RS485B]. For using the Ethernet port with
IEC60870-5-103 communication, the IP address and submask of each Ethernet port can be set in
the same submenu. Please refer to the corresponding section in Chapter Settings for further
details.

9.3 IEC60870-5-103 Interface over Serial Port

The IEC60870-5-103 interface over serial port (RS-485) is a master/slave interface with the
protective device as the slave device. It is properly developed by NR.

The protective device conforms to compatibility level 3.

The following IEC60870-5-103 facilities are supported by this interface:

Initialization (reset)

Time synchronization

Event record extraction

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General interrogation

General functions

Disturbance records

9.3.1 Physical Connection and Link Layer


Two EIA RS-485 standardized ports are available for IEC60870-5-103 in this protective device.
The transmission speed is optional: 4800 bit/s, 9600 bit/s, 19200 bit/s or 38400 bit/s.

The link layer strictly abides by the rules defined in the IEC60870-5-103.

9.3.2 Initialization
Whenever the protective device has been powered up, or if the communication parameters have
been changed, a reset command is required to initialize the communications. The protective
device will respond to either of the two reset commands (Reset CU or Reset FCB), the difference
is that the Reset CU will clear any unsent messages in the transmit buffer.

The protective device will respond to the reset command with an identification message ASDU 5,
the COT (Cause Of Transmission) of this response will be either Reset CU or Reset FCB
depending on the nature of the reset command.

9.3.3 Time Synchronization


The protective device time and date can be set using the time synchronization feature of the
IEC60870-5-103 protocol. The protective device will correct for the transmission delay as specified
in IEC60870-5-103. If the time synchronization message is sent as a send/confirm message then
the protective device will respond with a confirmation. Whether the time-synchronization message
is sent as a send confirmation or a broadcast (send/no reply) message, a time synchronization
class 1 event will be generated/produced.

If the protective device clock is synchronized using the IRIG-B input then it will not be possible to
set the protective device time using the IEC60870-5-103 interface. An attempt to set the time via
the interface will cause the protective device to create an event with the current date and time
taken from the IRIG-B synchronized internal clock.

9.3.4 Spontaneous Events


Events are categorized using the following information:

Type identification (TYP)

Function type (FUN)

Information number (INF)

Messages sent to substation automation system are grouped according to IEC60870-5-103


protocol. Operation elements are sent by ASDU2 (time-tagged message with relative time), and
status of binary Input and alarm element are sent by ASDU1 (time-tagged message). The cause of
transmission (COT) of these responses is 1.

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1. Operation elements sent by ASDU2

2. Alarm element sent by ASDU1

3. Binary input sent by ASDU1

Please print the IEC103 information by the menu Print->IEC103 Info for each specific project.

9.3.5 General Interrogation


The GI can be used to read the status of the relay, the function numbers, and information numbers
that will be returned during the GI cycle. The GI cycle strictly abides by the rules defined in the
IEC60870-5-103.

Refer the IEC60870-5-103 standard can get the enough details about general interrogation.

9.3.6 General Functions


The generic functions can be used to read the setting and protection measurement of the relay,
and modify the setting. Two supported type identifications are ASDU 21 and ASDU 10. For more
details about generic functions, see the IEC60870-5-103 standard.

9.3.7 Disturbance Records


This protective device can store up to 64 disturbance records in its memory. A pickup of the fault
detector or an operation of the relay can make the protective device store the disturbance records.

The disturbance records are stored in uncompressed format and can be extracted by using the
standard mechanisms described in IEC60870-5-103.

9.4 Messages Description for IEC61850 Protocol


9.4.1 Overview
The IEC 61850 standard is the result of years of work by electric utilities and vendors of electronic
equipment to produce standardized communications systems. IEC 61850 is a series of standards
describing client/server and peer-to-peer communications, substation design and configuration,
testing, environmental and project standards. The complete set includes:

IEC 61850-1: Introduction and overview

IEC 61850-2: Glossary

IEC 61850-3: General requirements

IEC 61850-4: System and project management

IEC 61850-5: Communications and requirements for functions and device models

IEC 61850-6: Configuration description language for communication in electrical substations


related to IEDs

IEC 61850-7-1: Basic communication structure for substation and feeder equipment -
Principles and models

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IEC 61850-7-2: Basic communication structure for substation and feeder equipment - Abstract
communication service interface (ACSI)

IEC 61850-7-3: Basic communication structure for substation and feeder equipment
Common data classes

IEC 61850-7-4: Basic communication structure for substation and feeder equipment
Compatible logical node classes and data classes

IEC 61850-8-1: Specific Communication Service Mapping (SCSM) Mappings to MMS (ISO
9506-1 and ISO 9506-2) and to ISO/IEC 8802-3

IEC 61850-9-1: Specific Communication Service Mapping (SCSM) Sampled values over
serial unidirectional multidrop point to point link

IEC 61850-9-2: Specific Communication Service Mapping (SCSM) Sampled values over
ISO/IEC 8802-3

IEC 61850-10: Conformance testing

These documents can be obtained from the IEC (http://www.iec.ch). It is strongly recommended
that all those involved with any IEC 61850 implementation obtain this document set.

9.4.2 Communication Profiles


The PCS-985G series relays supports IEC 61850 server services over TCP/IP communication
protocol stacks. The TCP/IP profile requires the PCS-985G series relays to have an IP address to
establish communications. These addresses are located in the submenu Settings->Device
Setup->Comm Settings.

1. MMS protocol

IEC 61850 specifies the use of the Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) at the upper
(application) layer for transfer of real-time data. This protocol has been in existence for a number
of years and provides a set of services suitable for the transfer of data within a substation LAN
environment. IEC 61850-7-2 abstract services and objects are mapped to actual MMS protocol
services in IEC61850-8-1.

2. Client/server

This is a connection-oriented type of communication. The connection and communication activity


is initiated and controlled by the client. Substation computers running HMI programs or SOE
logging software are considered as IEC61850 clients. Substation equipment such as protection
relays, meters, RTUs, instrument transformer, tap changers, or bay control units are considered as
servers.

Please note that gateways can be considered as clients and servers subject to the communication
object. When retrieving data from IEDs within the substation, the gateways are considered as
servers whereas transmitting data to control centers, the gateways are considered as clients.

3. Peer-to-peer

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9 Communication

This is a non-connection-oriented, high speed type of communication usually between substation


equipment, such as protection relays. GOOSE is the method of peer-to-peer communication.

4. Substation configuration language (SCL)

A substation configuration language is a number of files used to describe IED configurations and
communication systems according to IEC 61850-5 and IEC 61850-7. Each configured device has
an IED Capability Description (ICD) file and a Configured IED Description (CID) file. The
substation single line information is stored in a System Specification Description (SSD) file. The
entire substation configuration is stored in a Substation Configuration Description (SCD) file. The
SCD file is the combination of the following items: individual ICD files, SSD file, communication
system parameters (MMS, GOOSE control block, SV control block), as well as GOOSE/SV
connection relationship amongst IEDs.

9.4.3 MMS Communication Network Deployment


To enhance the stability and reliability of SAS, dual-MMS Ethernet is widely adopted. This section
is applied to introduce the details of dual-MMS Ethernet technology. Generally, single-MMS
Ethernet is recommended to be adopted in the SAS of 110kV and lower voltage levels, while
dual-MMS Ethernet is recommended to be adopted in the SAS of voltage levels above 110kV.

Client-server mode is adopted: clients (SCADA, control center and etc.) communicate with the
IEDs via MMS communication network, and the IEDs operate as the servers. IEDs are connected
to clients passively, and they can interact with the clients according to the configuration and the
issued command of the clients.

Three modes for dual-MMS Ethernet (abbreviated as dual-net) are provided as below.

Note! Hereinafter, the normal operation status of net means the physical link and TCP

link are both ok. The abnormal operation status of net means physical link or TCP link is
broken.

1) Mode 1: Dual-net full duplex mode sharing the same RCB instance

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Client Client

Net A Net B Net A Net B

Report Instance 1 Report Instance 1

RptEna = true RptEna = true

Report Control Block Report Control Block


IED (Server) IED (Server)

Normal operation status Abnormal operation status

TCP Link

MMS Link

Figure 9.4-1 Dual-net full duplex mode sharing the RCB block instance

Net A and Net B share the same report control block (abbreviated as RCB) enabled by the client.
IED sends undifferentiated date through dual-net to the clients. If one net is physically
disconnected, the flag of RCB instance (i.e.: RptEna in above figure) is still true. Only when
both Net A and Net B are disconnected, the flag of the RCB instance will automatically change to
false.

In normal operation status of mode 1, IED provides the same MMS service for Net A and Net B. If
one net is physically disconnected (i.e.: Abnormal operation status in above figure), the working
mode will switch to single-net mode seamlessly and immediately. Network communication
supervision is unnecessary here, and Buffered Report Control Block (abbreviated as BRCB) need
not to be used. On the other net, date alternation works normally. Therefore, MMS service can
interact normally without interruption. This mode ensures no data loss during one net is in
abnormal operation status.

In mode 1, one report will be transmitted twice via dual nets for the same report instance, so the
client needs to distinguish whether two reports are same according to corresponding EntryIDs.

2) Mode 2: Dual-net hot-standby mode sharing the same RCB instance

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Client Client

Net A Net B Net A Net B

Report Instance 1 Report Instance 1

RptEna = true RptEna = true

Report Control Block Report Control Block


IED (Server) IED (Server)

Normal operation status Abnormal operation status

TCP Link

Main MMS Link

Standby MMS Link

Figure 9.4-2 Dual-net hot-standby mode sharing the same RCB instance

In mode 2, the MMS service is provided on main MMS link, no MMS service interacts on the
standby MMS link. The definitions of two links are as follows:

Main MMS Link: Physically connected, TCP level connected, MMS report service available.

Standby MMS Link: Physically connected, TCP level connected, MMS report service not
available.

If the main net fails to operate (i.e.: Abnormal operation status in the above figure), the IED will
set RptEna to false. Meanwhile the client will detect the failure by heartbeat message or
keep-alive, it will automatically enable the RCB instance by setting RptEna back to true
through standby MMS link. By the buffer function of BRCB, the IED can provide uninterrupted
MMS service on the standby net. However, the differences of BRCB standards among different
manufacturers may cause data loss. Moreover, if duration of net switch is too long, the data loss is
positively as the capacity of BRCBs buffer function is limited.

Note! In mode 1 and mode 2, Net A IED host address and Net B IED host address must be

the same. E.g.: if the subnet mask is 255.255.0.0, network prefix of Net A is 198.120.0.0,
network prefix of Net B is 198.121.0.0, Net A IP address of the IED is 198.120.1.2, and
then Net B IP address of the IED must be configured as 198.121.1.2, i.e.: Net A IED host
address =1x256+2=258, Net B IED host address =1x256+2=258, Net A IED host address
equals to Net B IED host address.

3) Mode 3: Dual-net full duplex mode with 2 independent RCB instances

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Client Client

Net A Net B Net A Net B

Report Instance 1 Report Instance 2 Report Instance 1 Report Instance 2

RptEna = true RptEna = true RptEna = false RptEna = true

Report Control Block Report Control Block


IED (Server) IED (Server)

TCP Link

MMS Link

Figure 9.4-3 Dual-net full duplex mode with 2 independent RCB instances

In mode 3, IED provides 2 report instances for each RCB, Net A and Net B work independently
from each other, failures of one net will not affect the other net at all.

In this mode, 2 report instances are required for each client. Therefore, the IED may be unable to
provide enough report instances if there are too many clients.

Net A and Net B send the same report separately when they operates normally, To ensure no
repeated data is saved into database, massive calculation is required for the client.

Moreover, accurate clock synchronization of the IED is required to distinguish whether 2 reports
are the same report according to the timestamps. Clock synchronization error of the IED may lead
to report loss/redundancy.

As a conclusion:

In mode 2, its difficult to realize seamless switchover between dual nets;

In mode 3, the IED may be unable to provide enough report instances if too many clients are
applied on site.

For the consideration of client treatment and IED implementation, mode 1 (Dual-net full duplex
mode sharing the same report instance) is recommended for MMS communication network
deployment.

9.4.4 Server Data Organization


IEC61850 defines an object-oriented approach to data and services. An IEC61850 physical device
can contain one or more logical device(s) (for proxy). Each logical device can contain many logical
nodes. Each logical node can contain many data objects. Each data object is composed of data
attributes and data attribute components. Services are available at each level for performing
various functions, such as reading, writing, control commands, and reporting.

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Each IED represents one IEC61850 physical device. The physical device contains one or more
logical device(s), and the logical device contains many logical nodes. The logical node LPHD
contains information about the IED physical device. The logical node LLN0 contains common
information about the IED logical device.

9.4.4.1 Digital Status Values

The GGIO logical node is available in the PCS-985G series relays to provide access to digital
status points (including general I/O inputs and warnings) and associated timestamps and quality
flags. The data content must be configured before the data can be used. GGIO provides digital
status points for access by clients. It is intended that clients use GGIO in order to access digital
status values from the PCS-985G series relays. Clients can utilize the IEC61850 buffered
reporting features available from GGIO in order to build sequence of events (SOE) logs and HMI
display screens. Buffered reporting should generally be used for SOE logs since the buffering
capability reduces the chances of missing data state changes. All needed status data objects are
transmitted to HMI clients via buffered reporting, and the corresponding buffered reporting control
block (BRCB) is defined in LLN0.

9.4.4.2 Analog Values

Most of analog measured values are available through the MMXU logical nodes, and metering
values in MMTR, the others in MMXN, MSQI and so on. Each MMXU logical node provides data
from an IED current/voltage source. There is one MMXU available for each configurable source.
MMXU1 provides data from CT/VT source 1(usually for protection purpose), and MMXU2 provides
data from CT/VT source 2 (usually for monitor and display purpose). All these analog data objects
are transmitted to HMI clients via unbuffered reporting periodically, and the corresponding
unbuffered reporting control block (URCB) is defined in LLN0. MMXUx logical nodes provide the
following data for each source:

MMXU.MX.Hz: frequency

MMXU.MX.PPV.phsAB: phase AB voltage magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.PPV.phsBC: phase BC voltage magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.PPV.phsCA: Phase CA voltage magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.PhV.phsA: phase AG voltage magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.PhV.phsB: phase BG voltage magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.PhV.phsC: phase CG voltage magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.A.phsA: phase A current magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.A.phsB: phase B current magnitude and angle

MMXU.MX.A.phsC: phase C current magnitude and angle

9.4.4.3 Protection Logical Nodes

The following list describes the protection elements for all PCS-985G relays. The specified relay

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will contain a subset of protection elements from this list.

PDIS: Phase-to-phase distance, phase-to-ground distance and SOTF distance

PTUC: Undercurrent

PTOC: Phase overcurrent, zero-sequence overcurrent and overcurrent when VT circuit failure

PTTR: Thermal overload

PTUV: Undervoltage

PTOV: Overvoltage and auxiliary overvoltage

PTOF: Overfrequency

PTUF: Underfrequency

PSCH: Protection scheme

RBRF:Breaker failure

RPSB: Power swing detection/blocking

RREC: Automatic reclosing

RSYN: Synchronism-check

RFLO: Fault location

The protection elements listed above contain start (pickup) and operate flags, instead of any
element has its own start (pickup) flag separately, all the elements share a common start (pickup)
flags PTRC.ST.Str.general. The operate flag for PTOC1 is PTOC1.ST.Op.general. For the
PCS-985G relays protection elements, these flags take their values from related module for the
corresponding element. Similar to digital status values, the protection trip information is reported
via BRCB, and it also locates in LLN0.

9.4.4.4 LLN0 and Other Logical Nodes

Logical node LLN0 is essential for an IEC61850 based IED. This LN shall be used to address
common issues for Logical Devices. Most of the public services, the common settings, control
values and some device oriented data objects are available here. The public services may be
BRCB, URCB and GSE control blocks and similar global defines for the whole device; the
common settings include all the setting items of communication settings, system settings and
some of the protection setting items, which can be configured to two or more protection elements
(logical nodes). In LLN0, the item Loc is a device control object, this Do item indicates the local
operation for complete logical device, when it is true, all the remote control commands to the IED
will be blocked and those commands make effective until the item Loc is changed to false. In
PCS-985G relays, besides the logical nodes we describe above, there are some other logical
nodes below in the IEDs:

MMXU: This LN shall be used to acquire values from CTs and VTs and calculate measurands
such as r.m.s. values for current and voltage or power flows out of the acquired voltage and

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current samples. These values are normally used for operational purposes such as power flow
supervision and management, screen displays, state estimation, etc. The requested accuracy for
these functions has to be provided.

LPHD: Physical device information, the logical node to model common issues for physical
device.

PTRC: Protection trip conditioning, it shall be used to connect the operate outputs of one or
more protection functions to a common trip to be transmitted to XCBR. In addition or alternatively,
any combination of operate outputs of protection functions may be combined to a new operate
of PTRC.

RDRE: Disturbance recorder function. It triggers the fault wave recorder and its output refers
to the IEEE Standard Format for Transient Data Exchange (COMTRADE) for Power System (IEC
60255-24). All enabled channels are included in the recording, independently of the trigger mode.

9.4.5 Server Features and Configuration

9.4.5.1 Buffered/unbuffered Reporting

IEC61850 buffered and unbuffered reporting control blocks locate in LLN0, they can be configured
to transmit information of protection trip information (in the Protection logical nodes), binary status
values (in GGIO) and analog measured/calculated values (in MMXU, MMTR and MSQI). The
reporting control blocks can be configured in CID files, and then be sent to the IED via an
IEC61850 client. The following items can be configured.

TrgOps: Trigger options. The following bits are supported by the PCS-985G relays:

Bit 1: Data-change

Bit 4: Integrity

Bit 5: General interrogation

OptFlds: Option Fields. The following bits are supported by the PCS-985G relays:

Bit 1: Sequence-number

Bit 2: Report-time-stamp

Bit 3: Reason-for-inclusion

Bit 4: Data-set-name

Bit 5: Data-reference

Bit 6: Buffer-overflow (for buffered reports only)

Bit 7: EntryID (for buffered reports only)

Bit 8: Conf-revision

Bit 9: Segmentation

IntgPd: Integrity period.

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BufTm: Buffer time.

9.4.5.2 File Transfer

MMS file services are supported to allow transfer of oscillography, event record or other files from
a PCS-985G device.

9.4.5.3 Timestamps

The Universal Time Coordinated (UTC for short) timestamp associated with all IEC61850 data
items represents the latest change time of either the value or quality flags of the data item

9.4.5.4 Logical Node Name Prefixes

IEC61850 specifies that each logical node can have a name with a total length of 11 characters.
The name is composed of:

A five or six-character name prefix.

A four-character standard name (for example, MMXU, GGIO, PIOC, etc.).

A one or two-character instantiation index.

Complete names are of the form xxxxxxPTOC1, where the xxxxxx character string is configurable.
Details regarding the logical node naming rules are given in IEC61850 parts 6 and 7-2. It is
recommended that a consistent naming convention be used for an entire substation project.

9.4.5.5 GOOSE Services

IEC61850 specifies the type of broadcast data transfer services: Generic Object Oriented
Substation Events (GOOSE). IEC61850 GOOSE services provide virtual LAN (VLAN) support,
Ethernet priority tagging, and Ether-type Application ID configuration. The support for VLANs and
priority tagging allows for the optimization of Ethernet network traffic. GOOSE messages can be
given a higher priority than standard Ethernet traffic, and they can be separated onto specific
VLANs. Devices that transmit GOOSE messages also function as servers. Each GOOSE
publisher contains a GOOSE control block to configure and control the transmission.

The GOOSE transmission (including subscribing and publishing) is controlled by GOOSE logic link
settings in device.

The PCS-985G relays support IEC61850 Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE)
communication. All GOOSE messages contain IEC61850 data collected into a dataset. It is this
dataset that is transferred using GOOSE message services. The GOOSE related dataset is
configured in the CID file and it is recommended that the fixed GOOSE be used for
implementations that require GOOSE data transfer between PCS-985G relays.

IEC61850 GOOSE messaging contains a number of configurable parameters, all of which must be
correct to achieve the successful transfer of data. It is critical that the configured datasets at the
transmission and reception devices are an exact match in terms of data structure, and that the
GOOSE addresses and name strings match exactly.

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9.4.6 ACSI Conformance

9.4.6.1 ACSI Basic Conformance Statement

Services Client Server PCS-985G

Client-Server Roles

B11 Server side (of Two-party Application-Association) C1 Y

B12 Client side (of Two-party Application-Association) C1 N

SCSMS Supported

B21 SCSM: IEC 61850-8-1 used Y Y Y

B22 SCSM: IEC 61850-9-1 used N N N

B23 SCSM: IEC 61850-9-2 used Y N Y

B24 SCSM: other N N N

Generic Substation Event Model (GSE)

B31 Publisher side O Y

B32 Subscriber side O Y

Transmission Of Sampled Value Model (SVC)

B41 Publisher side O N

B42 Subscriber side O N

Where:

C1: Shall be "M" if support for LOGICAL-DEVICE model has been declared

O: Optional

M: Mandatory

Y: Supported by PCS-985G relay

N: Currently not supported by PCS-985G relay

9.4.6.2 ACSI Models Conformance Statement

Services Client Server PCS-900 Series


M1 Logical device C2 C2 Y
M2 Logical node C3 C3 Y
M3 Data C4 C4 Y
M4 Data set C5 C5 Y
M5 Substitution O O Y
M6 Setting group control O O Y
Reporting
M7 Buffered report control O O Y
M7-1 sequence-number Y Y Y
M7-2 report-time-stamp Y Y Y

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M7-3 reason-for-inclusion Y Y Y
M7-4 data-set-name Y Y Y
M7-5 data-reference Y Y Y
M7-6 buffer-overflow Y Y N
M7-7 entryID Y Y Y
M7-8 BufTm N N N
M7-9 IntgPd Y Y Y
M7-10 GI Y Y Y
M8 Unbuffered report control M M Y
M8-1 sequence-number Y Y Y
M8-2 report-time-stamp Y Y Y
M8-3 reason-for-inclusion Y Y Y
M8-4 data-set-name Y Y Y
M8-5 data-reference Y Y Y
M8-6 BufTm N N N
M8-7 IntgPd N Y Y
Logging
M9 Log control O O N
M9-1 IntgPd N N N
M10 Log O O N
GSE
M12 GOOSE O O Y
M13 GSSE O O N
M14 Multicast SVC O O N
M15 Unicast SVC O O N
M16 Time M M Y
M17 File transfer O O Y

Where:

C2: Shall be "M" if support for LOGICAL-NODE model has been declared

C3: Shall be "M" if support for DATA model has been declared

C4: Shall be "M" if support for DATA-SET, Substitution, Report, Log Control, or Time models has
been declared

C5: Shall be "M" if support for Report, GSE, or SMV models has been declared

M: Mandatory

Y: Supported by PCS-900 series relay

N: Currently not supported by PCS-900 series relay

9.4.6.3 ACSI Services Conformance Statement

Service Server/Publisher PCS-985G

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9 Communication

Service Server/Publisher PCS-985G

Server

S1 ServerDirectory M Y

Application association

S2 Associate M Y

S3 Abort M Y

S4 Release M Y

Logical device

S5 LogicalDeviceDirectory M Y

Logical node

S6 LogicalNodeDirectory M Y

S7 GetAllDataValues M Y

Data

S8 GetDataValues M Y

S9 SetDataValues M Y

S10 GetDataDirectory M Y

S11 GetDataDefinition M Y

Data set

S12 GetDataSetValues M Y

S13 SetDataSetValues O

S14 CreateDataSet O

S15 DeleteDataSet O

S16 GetDataSetDirectory M Y

Substitution

S17 SetDataValues M Y

Setting group control

S18 SelectActiveSG M/O Y

S19 SelectEditSG M/O Y

S20 SetSGValuess M/O Y

S21 ConfirmEditSGValues M/O Y

S22 GetSGValues M/O Y

S23 GetSGCBValues M/O Y

Reporting

Buffered report control block

S24 Report M Y

S24-1 data-change M Y

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Service Server/Publisher PCS-985G

S24-2 qchg-change M Y

S24-3 data-update M Y

S25 GetBRCBValues M Y

S26 SetBRCBValues M Y

Unbuffered report control block

S27 Report M Y

S27-1 data-change M Y

S27-2 qchg-change M Y

S27-3 data-update M Y

S28 GetURCBValues M Y

S29 SetURCBValues M Y

Logging

Log control block

S30 GetLCBValues O

S31 SetLCBValues O

Log

S32 QueryLogByTime O

S33 QueryLogAfter O

S34 GetLogStatusValues O

Generic substation event model (GSE)

GOOSE control block

S35 SendGOOSEMessage M Y

S36 GetGoReference O

S37 GetGOOSEElementNumber O Y

S38 GetGoCBValues M Y

S39 SetGoCBValuess M Y

Control

S51 Select O

S52 SelectWithValue M Y

S53 Cancel M Y

S54 Operate M Y

S55 Command-Termination O Y

S56 TimeActivated-Operate O

File transfer

S57 GetFile M/O Y

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Service Server/Publisher PCS-985G

S58 SetFile O Y

S59 DeleteFile O

S60 GetFileAttributeValues M/O Y

Time

SNTP M Y

9.4.7 Logical Nodes

9.4.7.1 Logical Nodes Table

The PCS-985G relay supports IEC61850 logical nodes as indicated in the following table. Note
that the actual instantiation of each logical node is determined by the product order code.

Nodes PCS-985G
L: System Logical Nodes
LPHD: Physical device information YES
LLN0: Logical node zero YES
P: Logical Nodes For Protection Functions
PDIF: Differential
PDIR: Direction comparison
PDIS: Distance
PDOP: Directional overpower
PDUP: Directional underpower
PFRC: Rate of change of frequency
PHAR: Harmonic restraint
PHIZ: Ground detector
PIOC: Instantaneous overcurrent
PMRI: Motor restart inhibition
PMSS: Motor starting time supervision
POPF: Over power factor
PPAM: Phase angle measuring
PSCH: Protection scheme YES
PSDE: Sensitive directional earth fault
PTEF: Transient earth fault
PTOC: Time overcurrent
PTOF: Overfrequency
PTOV: Overvoltage
PTRC: Protection trip conditioning
PTTR: Thermal overload
PTUC: Undercurrent
PTUV: Undervoltage
PUPF: Underpower factor

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PTUF: Underfrequency
PVOC: Voltage controlled time overcurrent
PVPH: Volts per Hz
PZSU: Zero speed or underspeed
R: Logical Nodes For Protection Related Functions
RDRE: Disturbance recorder function YES
RADR: Disturbance recorder channel analogue
RBDR: Disturbance recorder channel binary
RDRS: Disturbance record handling
RBRF: Breaker failure
RDIR: Directional element
RFLO: Fault locator
RPSB: Power swing detection/blocking
RREC: Autoreclosing
RSYN: Synchronism-check or synchronizing
C: Logical Nodes For Control
CALH: Alarm handling
CCGR: Cooling group control
CILO: Interlocking
CPOW: Point-on-wave switching
CSWI: Switch controller
G: Logical Nodes For Generic References
GAPC: Generic automatic process control YES
GGIO: Generic process I/O YES
GSAL: Generic security application
I: Logical Nodes For Interfacing And Archiving
IARC: Archiving
IHMI: Human machine interface
ITCI: Telecontrol interface
ITMI: Telemonitoring interface
A: Logical Nodes For Automatic Control
ANCR: Neutral current regulator
ARCO: Reactive power control
ATCC: Automatic tap changer controller
AVCO: Voltage control
M: Logical Nodes For Metering And Measurement
MDIF: Differential measurements
MHAI: Harmonics or interharmonics
MHAN: Non phase related harmonics or interharmonic
MMTR: Metering
MMXN: Non phase related measurement
MMXU: Measurement YES

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9 Communication

MSQI: Sequence and imbalance


MSTA: Metering statistics
S: Logical Nodes For Sensors And Monitoring
SARC: Monitoring and diagnostics for arcs
SIMG: Insulation medium supervision (gas)
SIML: Insulation medium supervision (liquid)
SPDC: Monitoring and diagnostics for partial discharges
X: Logical Nodes For Switchgear
TCTR: Current transformer
TVTR: Voltage transformer
Y: Logical Nodes For Power Transformers
YEFN: Earth fault neutralizer (Peterson coil)
YLTC: Tap changer
YPSH: Power shunt
YPTR: Power transformer
Z: Logical Nodes For Further Power System Equipment
ZAXN: Auxiliary network
ZBAT: Battery
ZBSH: Bushing
ZCAB: Power cable
ZCAP: Capacitor bank
ZCON: Converter
ZGEN: Generator
ZGIL: Gas insulated line
ZLIN: Power overhead line
ZMOT: Motor
ZREA: Reactor
ZRRC: Rotating reactive component
ZSAR: Surge arrestor
ZTCF: Thyristor controlled frequency converter
ZTRC: Thyristor controlled reactive component

9.5 DNP3.0 Interface

9.5.1 Overview
The descriptions given here are intended to accompany this relay. The DNP3.0 protocol is not
described here; please refer to the DNP3.0 protocol standard for the details about the DNP3.0
implementation. This manual only specifies which objects, variations and qualifiers are supported
in this relay, and also specifies what data is available from this relay via DNP3.0.

The relay operates as a DNP3.0 slave and supports subset level 2 of the protocol, plus some of
the features from level 3. The DNP3.0 communication uses the Ethernet ports at the rear of this

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relay.

9.5.2 Link Layer Functions


Please see the DNP3.0 protocol standard for the details about the linker layer functions.

9.5.3 Transport Functions


Please see the DNP3.0 protocol standard for the details about the transport functions.

9.5.4 Application Layer Functions

9.5.4.1 Time Synchronization

1. Time delay measurement

Master/Slave Function Code Object Variation Qualifier


Master 0x17
Slave 0x81 0x34 0x02 0x07

2. Read time of device

Master/Slave Function Code Object Variation Qualifier


Master 0x01 0x34 0x00, 0x01 0x07
Slave 0x81 0x32 0x01 0x07

3. Write time of device

Master/Slave Function Code Object Variation Qualifier


Master 0x02 0x32 0x01 0x00,0x01,0x07,0x08
Slave 0x81

9.5.4.2 Supported Writing Functions

1. Write time of device

See Section 9.5.4.1 for the details.

2. Reset the CU (Reset IIN bit7)

Master/Slave Function Code Object Variation Qualifier


Master 0x02 0x50 0x01 0x00, 0x01
Slave 0x81

9.5.4.3 Supported Reading Functions

1. Supported qualifiers

Master Qualifier 0x00 0x01 0x06 0x07 0x08


Slave Qualifier 0x00 0x01 0x01 0x07 0x08

2. Supported objects and variations

Object 1, Binary inputs

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9 Communication

Master Variation 0x00 0x01 0x02


Slave Variation 0x02 0x01 0x02

The protection operation signals, alarm signals and binary input state change signals are
transported respectively according to the variation sequence in above table.

Object 2, SOE

Master Variation 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x03


Slave Variation 0x02 0x01 0x02 0x03

If the master qualifier is 0x07, the slave responsive qualifier is 0x27; and if the master
qualifier is 0x01, 0x06 or 0x08, the slave responsive qualifier is 0x28.

Object 30, Analog inputs

Master Variation 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x04


Slave Variation 0x01 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x04

The measurement values are transported firstly, and then the relay measurement values are
transported.

Object 40, Analog outputs

Master Variation 0x00 0x01 0x02


Slave Variation 0x01 0x01 0x02

The protection settings are transported in this object.

Object 50, Time Synchronization

See Section 9.5.4.1 for the details.

3. Class 0 data request

The master adopts the Object 60 for the Class 0 data request and the variation is 0x01.

The slave responds with the above mentioned Object 1, Object 30 and Object 40 (see
Supported objects and variations in Section 9.5.4.3).

4. Class 1 data request

The master adopts the Object 60 for the Class 1 data request and the variation is 0x02.

The slave responds with the above mentioned Object 2 (see Supported objects and
variations in Section 9.5.4.3).

5. Multiple object request

The master adopts the Object 60 for the multiple object request and the variation is 0x01,
0x02, 0x03 and 0x04.

The slave responds with the above mentioned Object 1, Object 2, Object 30 and Object 40
see Supported objects and variations in Section 9.5.4.3.

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10 Installation

10 Installation

Table of Contents
10 Installation ................................................................................... 10-a
10.1 Overview ...................................................................................................... 10-1
10.2 Safety Information....................................................................................... 10-1
10.3 Checking Shipment..................................................................................... 10-2
10.4 Material and Tools Required ...................................................................... 10-2
10.5 Device Location and Ambient Conditions ................................................ 10-2
10.6 Mechanical Installation ............................................................................... 10-3
10.7 Electrical Installation and Wiring ............................................................... 10-4
10.7.1 Grounding Guidelines ...................................................................................................... 10-4

10.7.2 Cubicle Grounding ........................................................................................................... 10-4

10.7.3 Ground Connection on the Device .................................................................................. 10-5

10.7.4 Grounding Strips and their Installation ............................................................................ 10-6

10.7.5 Guidelines for Wiring ....................................................................................................... 10-6

10.7.6 Wiring for Electrical Cables ............................................................................................. 10-7

List of Figures
Figure 10.6-1 Dimensions of PCS-985G.................................................................................. 10-3

Figure 10.6-2 Demonstration of plugging a board into its corresponding slot .................. 10-4

Figure 10.7-1 Cubicle grounding system................................................................................ 10-5

Figure 10.7-2 Ground terminal of this relay............................................................................ 10-6

Figure 10.7-3 Ground strip and termination ........................................................................... 10-6

Figure 10.7-4 Glancing demo about the wiring for electrical cables ................................... 10-7

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10.1 Overview
The device must be shipped, stored and installed with the greatest care.

Choose the place of installation such that the communication interface and the controls on the
front of the device are easily accessible.

Air must circulate freely around the equipment. Observe all the requirements regarding place of
installation and ambient conditions given in this instruction manual.

Take care that the external wiring is properly brought into the equipment and terminated correctly
and pay special attention to grounding. Strictly observe the corresponding guidelines contained in
this section.

10.2 Safety Information


Modules and units may only be replaced by correspondingly trained personnel. Always observe
the basic precautions to avoid damage due to electrostatic discharge when handling the
equipment.

In certain cases, the settings have to be configured according to the demands of the engineering
configuration after replacement. It is therefore assumed that the personnel who replace modules
and units are familiar with the use of the operator program on the service PC.

DANGER! Only insert or withdraw the PWR module while the power supply is switched

off. To this end, disconnect the power supply cable that connects with the PWR module.

WARNING! Only insert or withdraw other modules while the power supply is switched off.

WARNING! The modules may only be inserted in the slots designated in Section 6.2.

Components can be damaged or destroyed by inserting boards in the wrong slots.

DANGER! Improper handling of the equipment can cause damage or an incorrect

response of the equipment itself or the primary plant.

WARNING! Industry packs and ribbon cables may only be replaced or the positions of

jumpers be changed on a workbench appropriately designed for working on electronic


equipment. The modules, bus backplanes are sensitive to electrostatic discharge when
not in the unit's housing.

The basic precautions to guard against electrostatic discharge are as follows:

Should boards have to be removed from this relay installed in a grounded cubicle in an HV
switchgear installation, please discharge yourself by touching station ground (the cubicle)
beforehand.

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10 Installation

Only hold electronic boards at the edges, taking care not to touch the components.

Only works on boards that have been removed from the cubicle on a workbench designed for
electronic equipment and wear a grounded wristband. Do not wear a grounded wristband,
however, while inserting or withdrawing units.

Always store and ship the electronic boards in their original packing. Place electronic parts in
electrostatic screened packing materials.

10.3 Checking Shipment


Check that the consignment is complete immediately upon receipt. Notify the nearest NR
Company or agent, should departures from the delivery note, the shipping papers or the order be
found.

Visually inspect all the material when unpacking it. When there is evidence of transport damage,
lodge a claim immediately in writing with the last carrier and notify the nearest NR Company or
agent.

If the equipment is not going to be installed immediately, store all the parts in their original packing
in a clean dry place at a moderate temperature. The humidity at a maximum temperature and the
permissible storage temperature range in dry air are listed in Chapter Technical Data.

10.4 Material and Tools Required


The necessary mounting kits will be provided, including screws, pincers and assembly
instructions.

A suitable drill and spanners are required to secure the cubicles to the floor using the plugs
provided (if this relay is mounted in cubicles).

10.5 Device Location and Ambient Conditions


The place of installation should permit easy access especially to front of the device, i.e. to the
human machine interface of the equipment.

There should also be free access at the rear of the equipment for additions and replacement of
electronic boards.

Since every piece of technical equipment can be damaged or destroyed by inadmissible ambient
conditions, such as:

1. The location should not be exposed to excessive air pollution (dust, aggressive substances).

2. Severe vibration, extreme changes of temperature, high levels of humidity, surge voltages of
high amplitude and short rise time and strong induced magnetic fields should be avoided as
far as possible.

3. Air must not be allowed to circulate freely around the equipment.

The equipment can in principle be mounted in any attitude, but it is normally mounted vertically

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(visibility of markings).

WARNING! Excessively high temperature can appreciably reduce the operating life of

this relay.

10.6 Mechanical Installation


The device adopts IEC standard chassis and is rack with modular structure. It uses an integral
faceplate and plug terminal block on backboard for external connections. PCS-985G is IEC 8U
high and 19 wide. Figure 10.6-1 shows its dimensions.

482.6 (290)
465
101.6

354.8
76.2
101.6

4650.2
+0.4
451-0
8-6.8
76.20.1 101.60.1

+0.4
356.8 -0
101.60.1

Figure 10.6-1 Dimensions of PCS-985G

NOTE! It is necessary to leave enough space top and bottom of the cut-out in the cubicle

for heat emission of this relay.

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10 Installation

The safety instructions must be abided by when installing the boards, please see Section 10.2 for
the details.

Following figure shows the installation way of a module being plugged into a corresponding slot.

Figure 10.6-2 Demonstration of plugging a board into its corresponding slot

In the case of equipment supplied in cubicles, place the cubicles on the foundations that have
been prepared. Take care while doing so not to jam or otherwise damage any of the cables that
have already been installed. Secure the cubicles to the foundations.

10.7 Electrical Installation and Wiring


10.7.1 Grounding Guidelines
Switching operations in HV installations generate transient over voltages on control signal cables.
There is also a background of electromagnetic RF fields in electrical installations that can induce
spurious currents in the devices themselves or the leads connected to them.

All these influences can influence the operation of electronic apparatus.

On the other hand, electronic apparatus can transmit interference that can disrupt the operation of
other apparatus.

In order to minimize these influences as far as possible, certain standards have to be observed
with respect to grounding, wiring and screening.

NOTE! All these precautions can only be effective if the station ground is of good quality.

10.7.2 Cubicle Grounding


The cubicle must be designed and fitted out such that the impedance for RF interference of the
ground path from the electronic device to the cubicle ground terminal is as low as possible.

Metal accessories such as side plates, blanking plates etc., must be effectively connected
surface-to-surface to the grounded frame to ensure a low-impedance path to ground for RF
interference. The contact surfaces must not only conduct well, they must also be non-corroding.

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NOTE! If the above conditions are not fulfilled, there is a possibility of the cubicle or parts

of it forming a resonant circuit at certain frequencies that would amplify the transmission
of interference by the devices installed and also reduce their immunity to induced
interference.

Movable parts of the cubicle such as doors (front and back) or hinged equipment frames must be
effectively grounded to the frame by three braided copper strips (see Figure 10.7-1).

The metal parts of the cubicle housing and the ground rail are interconnected electrically
conducting and corrosion proof. The contact surfaces shall be as large as possible.

NOTE! For metallic connections please observe the voltage difference of both materials

according to the electrochemical code.

The cubicle ground rail must be effectively connected to the station ground rail by a grounding strip
(braided copper).

Door or hinged
equipment frame

Cubicle ground
rail close to floor

Braided
copper strip
Station
ground

Conducting
connection

Figure 10.7-1 Cubicle grounding system

10.7.3 Ground Connection on the Device


There is a ground terminal on the rear panel, and the ground braided copper strip can be
connected with it. Take care that the grounding strip is always as short as possible. The main thing
is that the device is only grounded at one point. Grounding loops from unit to unit are not allowed.

There are some ground terminals on some connectors of this relay, and the sign is GND. All the
ground terminals are connected in the cabinet of this relay. So, the ground terminal on the rear
panel (see Figure 10.7-2) is the only ground terminal of this device.

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10 Installation

Figure 10.7-2 Ground terminal of this relay

10.7.4 Grounding Strips and their Installation


High frequency currents are produced by interference in the ground connections and because of
skin effect at these frequencies, only the surface region of the grounding strips is of consequence.

The grounding strips must therefore be of (preferably tinned) braided copper and not round copper
conductors, as the cross-section of round copper would have to be too large.

Proper terminations must be fitted to both ends (press/pinch fit and tinned) with a hole for bolting
them firmly to the items to be connected.

The surfaces to which the grounding strips are bolted must be electrically conducting and
non-corroding.

The following figure shows the ground strip and termination.

Press/pinch fit
cable terminal

Braided
copper strip Terminal bolt

Contact surface

Figure 10.7-3 Ground strip and termination

10.7.5 Guidelines for Wiring


There are several types of cables that are used in the connection of this relay: braided copper
cable, serial communication cable etc. Recommendation of each cable:

Grounding: braided copper cable, 2.5mm2 ~ 6.0mm2

Power supply, binary inputs & outputs: brained copper cable, 1.0mm2 ~ 2.5mm2

AC voltage inputs: brained copper cable, 1.0mm2 ~ 2.5mm2

AC current inputs: brained copper cable, 1.5mm2 ~ 4.0mm2

Serial communication: 4-core shielded braided cable

Ethernet communication: 4-pair screened twisted category 5E cable

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10.7.6 Wiring for Electrical Cables


A female connector is used for connecting the wires with it, and then a female connector plugs into
a corresponding male connector that is in the front of one board. See Chapter Hardware for
further details about the pin defines of these connectors.

The following figure shows the glancing demo about the wiring for the electrical cables.

01 02

03 04

Tighten 05 06

07 08

09 10

11 12
01

13 14

15 16

17 18

19 20

21 22

23 24

Figure 10.7-4 Glancing demo about the wiring for electrical cables

DANGER! Never allow the current transformer (CT) secondary circuit connected to this

equipment to be opened while the primary system is live. Opening the CT circuit will
produce a dangerously high voltage.

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11 Commissioning

11 Commissioning

Table of Contents
11 Commissioning ........................................................................... 11-a
11.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 11-1
11.2 Safety Instructions ....................................................................................... 11-1
11.3 Commission Tools ....................................................................................... 11-2
11.4 Setting Familiarization ................................................................................. 11-2
11.5 Product Checks ............................................................................................ 11-3
11.5.1 With the Relay De-energized ............................................................................................11-3

11.5.2 With the Relay Energized .................................................................................................11-5

11.5.3 Print Fault Report ..............................................................................................................11-8

11.5.4 On-load Checks ................................................................................................................11-8

11.6 Final Checks ................................................................................................. 11-9

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11.1 Overview
This relay is fully numerical in their design, implementing all protection and non-protection
functions in software. The relay employs a high degree of self-checking and in the unlikely event of
a failure, will give an alarm. As a result of this, the commissioning test does not need to be as
extensive as with non-numeric electronic or electro-mechanical relays.

To commission numerical relays, it is only necessary to verify that the hardware is functioning
correctly and the application-specific software settings have been applied to the relay.

Blank commissioning test and setting records are provided at the end of this manual for
completion as required.

Before carrying out any work on the equipment, the user should be familiar with the contents of the
safety and technical data sections and the ratings on the equipments rating label.

11.2 Safety Instructions

WARNING! Hazardous voltages are present in this electrical equipment during operation.

Non-observance of the safety rules can result in severe personal injury or property
damage.

WARNING! Only the qualified personnel shall work on and around this equipment after

becoming thoroughly familiar with all warnings and safety notices of this manual as well
as with the applicable safety regulations.

Particular attention must be drawn to the following:

The earthing screw of the device must be connected solidly to the protective earth conductor
before any other electrical connection is made.

Hazardous voltages can be present on all circuits and components connected to the supply
voltage or to the measuring and test quantities.

Hazardous voltages can be present in the device even after disconnection of the supply
voltage (storage capacitors!)

The limit values stated in the Chapter Technical Data must not be exceeded at all, not even
during testing and commissioning.

When testing the device with secondary test equipment, make sure that no other
measurement quantities are connected. Take also into consideration that the trip circuits and
maybe also close commands to the circuit breakers and other primary switches are
disconnected from the device unless expressly stated.

DANGER! Current transformer secondary circuits must have been short-circuited before

the current leads to the device are disconnected.

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11 Commissioning

WARNING! Primary test may only be carried out by qualified personnel, who are familiar

with the commissioning of protection system, the operation of the plant and safety rules
and regulations (switching, earthing, etc.).

11.3 Commission Tools


Minimum equipment required:

Multifunctional dynamic current and voltage injection test set with interval timer.

Multimeter with suitable AC current range and AC/DC voltage ranges of 0~440V and 0~250V
respectively.

Continuity tester (if not included in the multimeter).

Phase angle meter.

Phase rotation meter.

NOTE! Modern test set may contain many of the above features in one unit.

Optional equipment:

An electronic or brushless insulation tester with a DC output not exceeding 500V (for
insulation resistance test when required).

A portable PC, with appropriate software (this enables the rear communications port to be
tested, if this is to be used, and will also save considerable time during commissioning).

EIA RS-485 to EIA RS-232 converter (if EIA RS-485 IEC60870-5-103 port is being tested).

PCS-900 serials dedicated protection tester HELP-2000.

11.4 Setting Familiarization


When commissioning this device for the first time, sufficient time should be allowed to become
familiar with the method by which the settings are applied. A detailed description of the menu
structure of this relay is contained in Chapter Operation Theory and Chapter Settings.

With the front cover in place all keys are accessible. All menu cells can be read. The LED
indicators and alarms can be reset. Protection or configuration settings can be changed, or fault
and event records cleared. However, menu cells will require the appropriate password to be
entered before changes can be made.

Alternatively, if a portable PC is available together with suitable setting software (such as


PCS-9700 SAS software), the menu can be viewed one page at a time to display a full column of
data and text. This PC software also allows settings to be entered more easily, saved to a file on
disk for future reference or printed to produce a setting record. Refer to the PC software user
manual for details. If the software is being used for the first time, allow sufficient time to become
familiar with its operation.

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11.5 Product Checks

These product checks cover all aspects of the relay which should be checked to ensure that it has
not been physically damaged prior to commissioning, is functioning correctly and all input quantity
measurements are within the stated tolerances.

If the application-specific settings have been applied to the relay prior to commissioning, it is
advisable to make a copy of the settings so as to allow them restoration later. This could be done
by extracting the settings from the relay itself via printer or manually creating a setting record.

11.5.1 With the Relay De-energized


This relay is fully numerical and the hardware is continuously monitored. Commissioning tests can
be kept to a minimum and need only include hardware tests and conjunctive tests. The function
tests are carried out according to users correlative regulations.

The following tests are necessary to ensure the normal operation of the equipment before it is first
put into service.

Hardware tests

These tests are performed for the following hardware to ensure that there is no hardware
defect. Defects of hardware circuits other than the following can be detected by
self-monitoring when the DC power is supplied.

User interfaces test

Binary input circuits and output circuits test

AC input circuits test

Function tests

These tests are performed for the following functions that are fully software-based. Tests of
the protection schemes and fault locator require a dynamic test set.

Measuring elements test

Timers test

Measurement and recording test

Conjunctive tests

The tests are performed after the relay is connected with the primary equipment and other
external equipment.

On load test.

Phase sequence check and polarity check.

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11 Commissioning

11.5.1.1 Visual Inspection

After unpacking the product, check for any damage to the relay case. If there is any damage, the
internal module might also have been affected, contact the vendor. The following items listed is
necessary.

Protection panel

Carefully examine the protection panel, protection equipment inside and other parts inside to
see that no physical damage has occurred since installation.

The rated information of other auxiliary protections should be checked to ensure it is correct
for the particular installation.

Panel wiring

Check the conducting wire which is used in the panel to assure that their cross section
meeting the requirement.

Carefully examine the wiring to see that they are no connection failure exists.

Label

Check all the isolator binary inputs, terminal blocks, indicators, switches and push buttons to
make sure that their labels meet the requirements of this project.

Device plug-in modules

Check each plug-in module of the equipments on the panel to make sure that they are well
installed into the equipment without any screw loosened.

Earthing cable

Check whether the earthing cable from the panel terminal block is safely screwed to the panel
steel sheet.

Switch, keypad, isolator binary inputs and push button

Check whether all the switches, equipment keypad, isolator binary inputs and push buttons
work normally and smoothly.

11.5.1.2 Insulation Test (if required)

Insulation resistance tests are only necessary during commissioning if it is required for them to be
done and they have not been performed during installation.

Isolate all wiring from the earth and test the isolation with an electronic or brushless insulation
tester at a DC voltage not exceeding 500V, The circuits need to be tested should include:

Voltage transformer circuits

Current transformer circuits

DC power supply

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Optic-isolated control inputs

Output contacts

Communication ports

The insulation resistance should be greater than 100M at 500V.

Test method:

To unplug all the terminals sockets of this relay, and do the Insulation resistance test for each
circuit above with an electronic or brushless insulation tester.

On completion of the insulation resistance tests, ensure all external wiring is correctly reconnected
to the protection.

11.5.1.3 External Wiring

Check that the external wiring is correct to the relevant relay diagram and scheme diagram.
Ensure as far as practical that phasing/phase rotation appears to be as expected.

Check the wiring against the schematic diagram for the installation to ensure compliance with the
customers normal practice.

11.5.1.4 Auxiliary Power Supply

The relay only can be operated under the auxiliary power supply depending on the relays nominal
power supply rating.

The incoming voltage must be within the operating range specified in Chapter Technical Data,
before energizing the relay, measure the auxiliary supply to ensure it within the operating range.

Other requirements to the auxiliary power supply are specified in Chapter Technical Data. See
this section for further details about the parameters of the power supply.

WARNING! Energize this relay only if the power supply is within the specified operating

ranges in Chapter Technical Data.

11.5.2 With the Relay Energized


The following groups of checks verify that the relay hardware and software is functioning correctly
and should be carried out with the auxiliary supply applied to the relay.

The current and voltage transformer connections must remain isolated from the relay for these
checks. The trip circuit should also remain isolated to prevent accidental operation of the
associated circuit breaker.

11.5.2.1 Front Panel LCD Display

Connect the relay to DC power supply correctly and turn the relay on. Check program version and
forming time displayed in command menu to ensure that are corresponding to what ordered.

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11.5.2.2 Date and Time

If the time and date is not being maintained by substation automation system, the date and time
should be set manually.

Set the date and time to the correct local time and date using menu item Clock.

In the event of the auxiliary supply failing, with a battery fitted on CPU board, the time and date will
be maintained. Therefore when the auxiliary supply is restored the time and date will be correct
and not need to set again.

To test this, remove the auxiliary supply from the relay for approximately 30s. After being
re-energized, the time and date should be correct.

11.5.2.3 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

On power up, the green LED HEALTHY should have illuminated and stayed on indicating that
the relay is healthy.

The relay has latched signal relays which remember the state of the trip, auto-reclose when the
relay was last energized from an auxiliary supply. Therefore these indicators may also illuminate
when the auxiliary supply is applied. If any of these LEDs are on then they should be reset before
proceeding with further testing. If the LED successfully reset, the LED goes out. There is no testing
required for that that LED because it is known to be operational.

It is likely that alarms related to voltage transformer supervision will not reset at this stage.

11.5.2.4 Testing HEALTHY and ALARM LEDs

Apply the rated DC power supply and check that the HEALTHY LED is lighting in green. We
need to emphasize that the HEALTHY LED is always lighting in operation course except that the
equipment find serious errors in it.

Produce one of the abnormal conditions listed in Chapter Supervision, the ALARM LED will
light in yellow. When abnormal condition reset, the ALARM LED extinguishes.

11.5.2.5 Testing AC Current Inputs

This test verified that the accuracy of current measurement is within the acceptable tolerances.

Apply rated current to each current transformer input in turn; checking its magnitude using a
multimeter/test set readout. The corresponding reading can then be checked in the relays menu.

The measurement accuracy of the protection is 2.5% or 0.02In. However, an additional allowance
must be made for the accuracy of the test equipment being used.

NOTE! The closing circuit should remain isolated during these checks to prevent

accidental operation of the associated circuit breaker.

Group No. Item Input Value Input Angle Display Value Display Angle

Three-phase current 1 Ia

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Group No. Item Input Value Input Angle Display Value Display Angle

Ib

Ic

Ia

Three-phase current 2 Ib

Ic

Ia

Three-phase current 3 Ib

Ic

Ia

Three-phase current Ib

Ic

11.5.2.6 Testing AC Voltage Inputs

This test verified that the accuracy of voltage measurement is within the acceptable tolerances.

Apply rated voltage to each voltage transformer input in turn; checking its magnitude using a
multimeter/test set readout. The corresponding reading can then be checked in the relays menu.

The measurement accuracy of the relay is 2.5% or 0.1V. However an additional allowance must be
made for the accuracy of the test equipment being used.

NOTE! The closing circuit should remain isolated during these checks to prevent

accidental operation of the associated circuit breaker.

Group No. Item Input Value Input Angle Display Value Display Angle
Ua
Three-phase voltage 1 Ub
Uc
Ua
Three-phase voltage 2 Ub
Uc
Ua
Three-phase voltage 3 Ub
Uc
Ua
Three-phase voltage Ub
Uc

11.5.2.7 Testing Binary Inputs

This test checks that all the binary inputs on the equipment are functioning correctly.

The binary inputs should be energized one at a time, see external connection diagrams for

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terminal numbers.

Ensure that the voltage applied on the binary input must be within the operating range.

The status of each binary input can be viewed using relay menu. Sign 1 denotes an energized
input and sign 0 denotes a de-energized input.

Terminal No. Signal Name BI Status on LCD Correct?

Test method:

To unplug all the terminals sockets of this protective device, and do the Insulation resistance test
for each circuit above with an electronic or brushless insulation tester.

On completion of the insulation resistance tests, ensure all external wiring is correctly reconnected
to the protection.

11.5.3 Print Fault Report


In order to acquire the details of protection operation, it is convenient to print the fault report of
protection device. The printing work can be easily finished when operator presses the print button
on panel of protection device to energize binary input [BI_Print] or operate control menu. What
should be noticed is that only the latest fault report can be printed if operator presses the print
button. A complete fault report includes the content shown as follows.

1) Trip event report

2) Binary input when protection devices start

3) Self-check and the transition of binary input in the process of devices start

4) Fault wave forms compatible with COMTRADE

5) The setting value when the protection device trips

11.5.4 On-load Checks


The objectives of the on-load checks are:

Confirm the external wiring to the current and voltage inputs is correct.

Measure the magnitude of on-load current and voltage (if applicable).

Check the polarity of each current transformer.

However, these checks can only be carried out if there are no restrictions preventing the
tenderization of the plant being protected.

Remove all test leads, temporary shorting leads, etc. and replace any external wiring that has

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been removed to allow testing.

If it has been necessary to disconnect any of the external wiring from the protection in order to
perform any of the foregoing tests, it should be ensured that all connections are replaced in
accordance with the relevant external connection or scheme diagram. Confirm current and voltage
transformer wiring.

11.6 Final Checks

After the above tests are completed, remove all test or temporary shorting leads, etc. If it has been
necessary to disconnect any of the external wiring from the protection in order to perform the
wiring verification tests, it should be ensured that all connections are replaced in accordance with
the relevant external connection or scheme diagram.

Ensure that the protection has been restored to service.

If the protection is in a new installation or the circuit breaker has just been maintained, the circuit
breaker maintenance and current counters should be zero. If a test block is installed, remove the
test plug and replace the cover so that the protection is put into service.

Ensure that all event records, fault records, disturbance records and alarms have been cleared
and LEDs has been reset before leaving the protection.

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11 Commissioning

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12 Maintenance

12 Maintenance

Table of Contents
12 Maintenance ................................................................................ 12-a
12.1 Appearance Check ...................................................................................... 12-1
12.2 Failure Tracing and Repair ......................................................................... 12-1
12.3 Replace Failed Modules ............................................................................. 12-1
12.4 Cleaning ....................................................................................................... 12-3
12.5 Storage ......................................................................................................... 12-3

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12 Maintenance

12.1 Appearance Check


1. The relay case should be clean without any dust stratification. Case cover should be sealed
well. No component has any mechanical damage and distortion, and they should be firmly fixed in
the case. Relay terminals should be in good condition. The keys on the front panel with very good
feeling can be operated flexibly.

2. It is only allowed to plug or withdraw relay board when the supply is reliably switched off.
Never allow the CT secondary circuit connected to this equipment to be opened while the primary
system is live when withdrawing an AC module. Never try to insert or withdraw the relay board
when it is unnecessary.

3. Check weld spots on PCB whether they are well soldered without any rosin joint. All dual
inline components must be well plugged.

12.2 Failure Tracing and Repair


Failures will be detected by automatic supervision or regular testing.

When a failure is detected by supervision, a remote alarm is issued and the failure is indicated on
the front panel with LED indicators and LCD display. It is also recorded in the event record.
Failures detected by supervision are traced by checking the Superv Events screen on the LCD.

When a failure is detected during regular testing, confirm the following:

Test circuit connections are correct

Modules are securely inserted in position

Correct DC power voltage is applied

Correct AC inputs are applied

Test procedures comply with those stated in the manual

12.3 Replace Failed Modules


If the failure is identified to be in the relay module and the user has spare modules, the user can
recover the protection by replacing the failed modules.

Repair at the site should be limited to module replacement. Maintenance at the component level is
not recommended.

Check that the replacement module has an identical module name (AI, PWR, CPU, SIG, BI, BO,
etc.) and hardware type-form as the removed module. Furthermore, the CPU module replaced
should have the same software version. In addition, the AI and PWR module replaced should have
the same ratings.

The module name is indicated on the top front of the module. The software version is indicated in
LCD menu Version Info.

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12 Maintenance

Caution!

When handling a module, take anti-static measures such as wearing an earthed wrist band
and placing modules on an earthed conductive mat. Otherwise, many of the electronic
components could suffer damage. After replacing the CPU module, check the settings.

1) Replacing a module

Switch off the DC power supply

Disconnect the trip outputs

Short circuit all AC current inputs and disconnect all AC voltage inputs

Unscrew the module.

Warning!

Hazardous voltage can be present in the DC circuit just after switching off the DC power
supply. It takes approximately 30 seconds for the voltage to discharge.

2) Replacing the Human Machine Interface Module (front panel)

Open the relay front panel

Unplug the ribbon cable on the front panel by pushing the catch outside.

Detach the HMI module from the relay

Attach the replacement module in the reverse procedure.

3) Replacing the AI, PWR, CPU, BI or BO module

Unscrew the module connector

Unplug the connector from the target module.

Unscrew the module.

Pull out the module

Inset the replacement module in the reverser procedure.

After replacing the CPU module, input the application-specific setting values again.

Warning!

Units and modules may only be replaced while the supply is switched off and only by
appropriately trained and qualified personnel. Strictly observe the basic precautions to
guard against electrostatic discharge.

Warning!

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12 Maintenance

When handling a module, take anti-static measures such as wearing an earthed wrist band
and placing modules on an earthed conductive mat. Otherwise, many of the electronic
components could suffer damage. After replacing the CPU module, check the settings.

Danger!

After replacing modules, be sure to check that the same configuration is set as before the
replacement. If this is not the case, there is a danger of the unintended operation of
switchgear taking place or of protections not functioning correctly. Persons may also be
put in danger.

12.4 Cleaning
Before cleaning the relay, ensure that all AC/DC supplies, current transformer connections are
isolated to prevent any chance of an electric shock whilst cleaning. Use a smooth cloth to clean
the front panel. Do not use abrasive material or detergent chemicals.

12.5 Storage
The spare relay or module should be stored in a dry and clean room. Based on IEC standard
60255-1 the storage temperature should be from -40oC to +70oC, but the temperature of from 0oC
to +40oC is recommended for long-term storage.

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12 Maintenance

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13 Decommissioning and Disposal

13 Decommissioning and Disposal

Table of Contents
13 Decommissioning and Disposal ................................................ 13-a
13.1 Decommissioning ....................................................................................... 13-1
13.2 Disposal ....................................................................................................... 13-1

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13 Decommissioning and Disposal

13.1 Decommissioning
1. Switching off

To switch off the PCS-985G, switch off the external miniature circuit breaker of the power supply.

2. Disconnecting Cables

Disconnect the cables in accordance with the rules and recommendations made by relational
department.

Danger!

Before disconnecting the power supply cables that connected with the PWR module of the
PCS-985G, make sure that the external miniature circuit breaker of the power supply is
switched off.

Danger!

Before disconnecting the cables that are used to connect analog input module with the
primary CTs and VTs, make sure that the circuit breaker for the primary CTs and VTs is
switched off.

3. Dismantling

The PCS-985G rack may now be removed from the system cubicle, after which the cubicles may
also be removed.

Danger!

When the station is in operation, make sure that there is an adequate safety distance to
live parts, especially as dismantling is often performed by unskilled personnel.

13.2 Disposal
In every country there are companies specialized in the proper disposal of electronic waste.

Note!

Strictly observe all local and national regulations when disposing of the device.

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13 Decommissioning and Disposal

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14 Manual Version History

14 Manual Version History


In the latest version of the instruction manual, several descriptions on existing features have been
modified.

Manual version and modification history records

Manual Version Software


Date Description of change
Source New Version
R1.00 R2.11 2013-07-10 Form the original manual.

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14 Manual Version History

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