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19 April 2017

Dozers

Dozers

DOZERS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

General Introduction How it is made up? Where it is used ? Typical applications Productivity Calculation

19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 2

19 April 2017

DOZERS: General Introduction

tractor

A

equipped

with

a

front-mounted

earthmoving

blade

known

is

as

a

Dozer

or

Bulldozer.

Bulldozer.

Earlier,

the

Dozers were

built based

farm

on

tractors by an American company (Holt Manufacturing Company) around in 1904 which is

later became Caterpillar Inc.

Today,

a Dozer

is

known as

one

of

the most

representative strong construction machine.

Dozer is a self-propelled unit that are designed to provide high TRACTIVE power for drawbar work.

They are low cg machine that gives better stability for work.

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 3

How a Bulldozer got its name ?

Slide No. 4 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha 19 April 2017
Slide No. 4
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017

19 April 2017

TRACTOR

Dozers: Main Parts / Location (Track Dozer)

Hull / Body Frame 19 April 2017 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K.
Hull / Body Frame
19 April 2017
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
Slide No. 5
Blade
Body Frame
– Track Frame
– Sprocket/ Idler
– Track Chain
– Track Roller
– Carrier Roller
Work Equipment/ Blade
Train
• Undercarriage
• Upper Parts
– Engine
– Transmission Power train
– Cabin / Control Panel
Undercarriage
Engine
Cabin
Power

Dozers: Main Parts / Systems (Track Dozer) WORK EQUIPMENT Blade / Implement Unit Attachments

Front mounted (Blades, etc.) Rear mounted (Ripper, Winch etc.)

SYSTEMS Hydraulic System

(Pump/Lift & Tilt Cylinder/Hose pipes

Electrical System

Dozers: Main Parts / Systems (Track Dozer) WORK EQUIPMENT • Blade / Implement Unit • Attachments
Dozers: Main Parts / Systems (Track Dozer) WORK EQUIPMENT • Blade / Implement Unit • Attachments

(Battery/ Starter/Dynamo/Lighting)

Breaking and Steering system Control System

Dozers: Main Parts / Systems (Track Dozer) WORK EQUIPMENT • Blade / Implement Unit • Attachments

(Control valves, Control panel, Gauges/Sensors)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 6

19 April 2017

Dozer: Major Components / Functions

Cabin

Ripper the machine. provide power to run/ work Undercarriage that use to move / turn machine
Ripper
the machine.
provide power to run/ work
Undercarriage
that use to move / turn machine
Power Train
Engine
of the machine
primover
the
Blade
the feet
This is
that
Slide No. 7
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017
an
This
is working
use to push
cutting and
tools
earth
leveling the ground
This transmit the Engine
power to final drive / feet
of the machine
This
is
This consist operator’s seat
and control panel and control
joysticks from where machine
is operated.
attachment tools
that use
to
dig
hard surfaces
This
is

DOZER USES

Typical Applications are:

Dozing / Pushing materials Land clearing Ripping

Towing other piece of construction equipment

Assisting scraper in loading

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 8

19 April 2017

MATERIALS DOZING/ LEVELING PUSHING
MATERIALS
DOZING/
LEVELING
PUSHING
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 9

LAND CLEARING

LAND CLEARING 19 April 2017 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha Slide
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

LAND CLEARING 19 April 2017 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha Slide

Slide No. 10

19 April 2017

ASSITING SCAPERS

ASSITING SCAPERS RIPPING ROCKS 19 April 2017 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K.

RIPPING ROCKS

ASSITING SCAPERS RIPPING ROCKS 19 April 2017 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K.
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 11

DOZERS TYPES

How they classified ?

Basic Features? Performance Characteristics Specification/ Performance data

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 12

19 April 2017

TYPES OF DOZERS 1. Crawler / Track Type 2. Wheel Type Wheel Dozer Track Dozer -
TYPES OF DOZERS
1. Crawler / Track Type
2. Wheel Type
Wheel Dozer
Track Dozer
-
Can work on variety of soil surface
-
Good on firm soil and concrete surface
-
Can work over almost all terrain
-
Best for level and downhill work
-
Can work on soft ground and mud-stick
surfaces.
-
Can not work on soft ground and mud-
stick surfaces.
-
Exert low ground pressure
-
Exert high ground pressure
-
Good for short working distance
-
Good for long working distance
-
Slow return speed
-
Fast return speed
-
Can push large blade load
-
Can only push moderate blade load
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
Slide No. 13
19 April 2017

1. Crawler or Track Dozer

Have

continuous

TRACK

a

of

linked shoes that moves

in

the

horizontal

across

plane

fixed

rollers. Track passes over the vertically

mounted SPROKET at rear and

IDLER WHEEL at front.

The SPROKET (mounted on final drive), pass on the power to the track chain that impart the forward or backward motion.

ROLLERS

(Track

and

Carrier)

support the Track chain.

The IDLER WHEEL is mounted on a recoil device (Mostly Recoil Spring) for adjusting track tension and absorbing shock.

1. Crawler or Track Dozer • • Have continuous TRACK a of linked shoes that moves

Applying equal pressure on both sides steering clutch moves machine straight forward of reverse direction.

Steering clutch used to turn one track and stop other-side track assisting machine to steer effectively.

Breaking & Steering Actions are combined

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 14

19 April 2017

2. Wheel Dozers

The front frame and rear frame is connected by the vertical central pivot.

Wheels are mounted on front and rear axles.

Power from final drive exert rimpull

force that turns

the wheels

and

moves machine in forward or

reverse direction.

Traction force can be improved by proper tyre selection. Wider tyres provide greater contact area and increase flotation.

Larger

sized

tyre

will

reduce

developed

rimpull,

increase

torque.

2. Wheel Dozers • The front frame and rear frame is connected by the vertical central

Have

all

powered

four

Wheel Drive.

 

Breaking action on wheels as in Vehicle.

Steering

achieved

by

Articulation

between

Front

Rear

and

portion

of

the

Equipment

 
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 15

Performance Characteristics

Track type dozer is suitable for jobs that require high tractive efforts and Wheel type is for high speed operation.

The usable force available to perform work is often limited by traction.

This limitation is dependent on the coefficient of traction of surface being traversed; and The weight carried by the drive wheels.

 

Coefficient

Weight

Tractive Effort =

of

x

on drive

Traction

Wheel

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 16

19 April 2017

Performance Characteristics

Operating weight is important for usable drawbar pull/ rimpull. Required traction pull can be improved using ballast load.

Coefficient of Traction depend on ground surface. Rubber tyre is better on dry hard surfaces and Track type is better on soft and wet clay surface.

Direct drive system is better efficient for constant load/ speed operation

Power shift transmission works better on variable load / speed condition. They allow automatic selection of speed best suited for the load.

The performance chart for rimpull/ drawbar pull are based on standard equipment including tire.

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 17

Performance Characteristics

Coefficient of Traction for Various Surfaces

Surface

Rubber tire

Crawler / Track

Dry, rough concrete

0.80

- 1.00

0.45

Dry, clay

0.50

- 0.70

0.90

Wet, clay

0.40

- 0.50

0.70

Wet sand and gravel

0.30

- 0.40

0.35

Loose, dry sand

0.20

- 0.30

0.30

Dry snow

0.20

  • 0.15 - 0.35

Ice

0.10

  • 0.10 - 0.25

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 18

19 April 2017

Dozer Specifications

Machine (Make/ Model/ Sr. No., overall dimension)

Operating Weight (kN) (with operator, cabin and all standard items accessories)

Engine (Make/ Model/ Sr. No./Type, Cly. No./stroke, CI/SI, Torque/ RPM/ Cooling type

Flywheel Power (kW)

Undercarriage (Track shoe size type, roller no., track length,

ground pressure etc.) “OR” Wheel (Tire size: dia. Width, type)

Transmission (make/model/ type)

Hydraulic System

Bucket (Type, Length, height, SAE capacity)

Cabin (ROPS, FOPS)

• Dozer Specifications Machine (Make/ Model/ Sr. No., overall dimension) • Operating Weight (kN) (with operator,

Performance Data / Chart (Gear/ Speed/Rimpull)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 19

Specification and Performance Data

(Crawler Type Dozer: Typical examples)

Drawbar pulling force decreases as speed increases
Drawbar pulling force decreases as speed increases
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 20

19 April 2017

Performance Chart: Crawler Dozer

(Drawbar Pull vs Speed)

kN

lb

(x1000)

Performance Chart: Crawler Dozer (Drawbar Pull vs Speed) kN lb (x1000) (Performance Chart for a (CAT-

(Performance Chart for a (CAT- D7G), 150 kW, 203 kN Track type dozer with a Power-shift.)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 2

Specification and Performance Data

(Wheel Type Dozer: Typical Examples)

Rimpull force decreases as speed increases
Rimpull force decreases as speed increases
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 22

19 April 2017

Performance Chart: Wheel Dozer

(Rimpull vs Speed)

Performance Chart: Wheel Dozer (Rimpull vs Speed) (Performance Chart for a CAT, 161 kW, 202 kN,

(Performance Chart for a CAT, 161 kW, 202 kN, Wheel type dozer with Power- shift.)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 23

Performance Comparison

Usable drawbar pull/ rimpull depend on the weight and traction of fully equipped dozer

Even

though,

the

engine

can

develop

a certain

drawbar pull or rimpull force all the pull may not be

available to do the work.

Example-1:

Consider a Track-type and a Wheel-type dozers with power- shift transmission having same drawbar and rimpull of 200 kN

and 202 kN respectively. If the working surface is dry clay

loam, what are the usable pull for each Dozer.

Track Dozer:

Coefficient of Traction = 0.90 (From the table) Usable Drawbar Pull = 200 x 0.9 = 180 kN

Wheel Dozer:

Coefficient of Traction = 0.60 (From the table) Usable Drawbar Pull = 202 x 0.6 = 121.2 kN

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 24

19 April 2017

Dozer Power Train

Power developed by Engine is transmitted to the feet of the Dozer through power train. Commonly used transmission system are:

Hydrostatic system Employed only for small less than 100 hp dozers Better Operational Efficiency Direct Drive systems Power Transmitted through the shaft directly coupled Good for constant load conditions Torque Converter with Power Shift Transmissions Transmissions that can be shifted while transmitting full engine power are known as POWER SHIFT. These are coupled with Torque Converter Which absorb Drive Train Shock Loads Good for Variable load Applications

  • 19 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

April 2017

Slide No. 25

BLADES of the Dozer

The main working TOOL Blade types Operational feature

  • 19 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

April 2017

Slide No. 26

19 April 2017

Dozer’s BLADE

Dozer’s BLADE • BLADE is the main working tools (Implements) mounted on “C” frame in front

BLADE is the main working tools (Implements) mounted on “C” frame in front of the machine perpendicular to direction of travel which PUSH (cut/ shear/ rolls) earth cutting in forward direction.

In

the

case

of

ANGLE

DOZER blade is mounted on

“C” frame at a set angle with

direction

of travel

and push

BLADE C-Frame
BLADE
C-Frame

materials forward at one side.

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 27

BLADES: Types

The blade attached to the machine must be matched to expected work. They are classified base on geometrical shape.The most commonly used STANDARD blades are:

 

Straight (S-blade) Angle (A-blade) Universal (U-blade) Cushioned (C-blade)

(C-Blade) (U-Blade) (A-Blade) (S-Blade)
(C-Blade)
(U-Blade)
(A-Blade)
(S-Blade)

earth-moving blades are curved in the

Basic

vertical plane in the shape of “C”.

Along the bottom length a hard steel plate and corner bit is bolted which make up the cutting edge of blade.

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 28

19 April 2017

BLADE Adjustments: Tilting

TILTING:

Either end of the Blade is raised or lowered in the Vertical Plane of the blade.

Enables the concentration of dozer driving

power on the limited portion of the blade’s

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha length 19 April 2017
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
length
19 April 2017

Slide No. 29

BLADE Adjustments: Pitching

PITCHING:

The movement of the top of the blade toward and away from the Dozer.

Allow operator to varies the angle of attack of the cutting edge as per cutting materials

requirement.

BLADE Adjustments: Pitching PITCHING: • The movement of the top of the blade toward and away
BLADE Adjustments: Pitching PITCHING: • The movement of the top of the blade toward and away
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 30

19 April 2017

BLADE Adjustments: Angling

Turning

the

blade

so

that

it

is

not

perpendicular to the direction of the dozer’s

travel.

Angling causes the pushed material to roll of the TRAILING END of the blade called side casting.

Slide No. 31 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha 19 April 2017
Slide No. 31
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017

Blade Performance

A Dozer’s pushing potential is measured by two standards

Power per unit length of cutting edge (kW/m)

Power

per

unit

volume

(loose)

of

material

retained in front of Blade (kW/lcm)

kW/m provide the indication of the ability to blade to penetrate and obtain load. The higher the ratio, more aggressive the blade

kW/lcm measure the ability of blade to push load. The higher the ratio can push material at greater speed.

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 32

19 April 2017

Dozer Productivity

How dozer productivity estimated ?

Slide No. 33 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha 19 April 2017
Slide No. 33
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017

Dozer Production: Estimating

A Dozer has no set volumetric capacity

There is no bowl or hopper to load.

The amount

of material

that the

Dozer

moves

depends

on

quantity

the

which

remain

front of

in

the blade

during

the

push.

The factor that control Dozer production rates are:

Blade type Type and condition of materials Cycle time

Dozer Production: Estimating • A Dozer has no set volumetric capacity • There is no bowl
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 34

19 April 2017

The Dozing Operations

The Dozing Operations 19 April 2017 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 35

The Dozing Operations…

The Dozing Operations… 19 April 2017 Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 36

19 April 2017

Dozer Production: Estimating • The load that a blade will carry can be estimated by various
Dozer Production: Estimating
The
load
that
a blade
will
carry can
be
estimated by various methods.
– Manufacturer’s blade rating
– Previous
experience
or
data
obtained
for
similar, materials, equipment and working
condition. If any ?
– Field measurement
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
Slide No. 37
19 April 2017

Manufacturer’s rating

Equipment

may

provide

blade

rating

based on SAE recommendation (J1265):

Manufacturer’s rating • Equipment may provide blade rating based on SAE recommendation (J1265): Vs = 0.8*W*H

Vs = 0.8*W*H 2 Vu = Vs + Z*H*(W-Z)*tan(α)

Manufacturer’s rating • Equipment may provide blade rating based on SAE recommendation (J1265): Vs = 0.8*W*H

Where:

Vs = Capacity of straight blade or angling blade (lcm) Vu = Capacity of universal blade (lcm) W = Blade width (m), exclusive of end bits H = Effective blade height (m) Z = Wing length measured parallel to the blade width (m) Α = Wing angle

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 38

19 April 2017

Field Measurement

/….contd.

Take Measurement

Measure height (H) pile at inside edge of each track

Measure the width (W) of the pile at the inside edge of each track

Measure the greatest length (L) of the pile

Computation:

Field Measurement /….contd. • Take Measurement – Measure height (H) pile at inside edge of each

Find average of both the two height and two-width measurements.

Blade Load (lcm) = 0.375 *(H*W*L)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 39

Field Measurement

Obtain a normal load:

The dozer pushes a normal blade load onto to a level area.

Create a symmetrical pile shape as possible.

Field Measurement • Obtain a normal load: – The dozer pushes a normal blade load onto

1

1

2

2

W W

2

2

H

H

H  

W  

Blade Load (lcm) = 0.375 *(H*W*L)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 40

19 April 2017

Example-2:

What is the blade capacity in loose cubic

meters for the tested materials ? If the

measurement taken from a blade-load test were as follow:

H 1 = 1.5m;

H 2 = 1.6m; W 1 = 2m;

L = 3.8 m H = (1.5+1.6)/2 =1.55m W = (2+2.1)/2 = 2.05m

W 2 = 2.1m

Blade Load (lcm) = 0.375 *(H*W*L) = 0.375*1.55*2.05*3.8 = 4.53 (lcm)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 41

Cycle Time: / .... contd. • The sum of the time required to push, backtrack, and
Cycle Time: /
....
contd.
The
sum
of
the
time
required
to push,
backtrack, and maneuver into position,
cycle time represents the complete Dozer
cycle (= Forward + Reverse + Maneuver).
• Dozing
is
generally
performed
at slow
speed 2.5 kmph to 3.5 kmph.
• Return speed is usually the maximum that
can be attained in the distance available.
For
the
distance
less
than
30m
the
operator cannot get the machine pass on
second gear.
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
Slide No. 42
19 April 2017

19 April 2017

Cycle Time:

The formula to calculate Dozer production in loose cubic meters per a 60-min hour is given by:

60* B.L. M.T.   P.T. P   R.T.     
60* B.L.
M.T. 
 P.T.
P  
R.T.

Where:

P = Production rate (lcm/hr.)

B.L = Blade Load (lcm)

P.T. = Push time (minute) R.T. = Return time (minute) M.T. = Maneuver time (minute)

Maneuver time (M.T.) Power-shift = 0.05 min Direct drive = 0.1 min

Cycle Time: The formula to calculate Dozer production in loose cubic meters per a 60-min hour
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 43

Example: 3 Considering that the blade load calculated in above (example-2) was for a track-type dozer
Example: 3
Considering that the blade load calculated in
above (example-2) was for a track-type dozer
equipped with a power shift transmission. The
dozer will be used to push a distance of 30m what
production can be expected in loose cubic meter.
Assume pushing speed is 3 kmph.
Blade load = 4.53 lcm (taken from above example)
Distance
30(
m
)
60
P T
.
. 
*
 0.6min
PushVelocity
3(
km
/
hr
)
1000
For return time the maximum speed that can attained is 6 km/h from the
performance chart (as it is only 30m distance gear can not go beyond
second speed).
Distance
30(
m
)
60
RT
.
. 
*
 0.3min
Return Velocity
6(
km
/
hr
)
1000
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
Slide No. 44
19 April 2017

19 April 2017

Example: 3 3 6 60*  0.3 4.53  0.05     286 (lcm/hr)
Example: 3
3
6
60*  0.3 4.53  0.05     286 (lcm/hr)
Production     0.6
M.T.= 0.05
(for power shift)
  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 45

Example: 4

Assume a percent swell of 25% for the silty sand of the previous example (Example-3) and that job efficiency will equal a 50-min hour. What is the actual production that can be expected in bank cubic meter? If the machine has owning and operating cost of Rs.3000 per hour and operator cost Rs. 500 per hour. What is the cost of pushing the silty sand?.

t

loosevolume

 

lcm

/

hr

1 Swell

Rs

./

bcm

)

 

bank volume

*100

bcm  

 

Efficiency(E)

50

0.833

60

* E

286(

lcm

hr

/

)

*0.833

190(

bcm

1.25

 

cos

(3000

190

 

t

500)

 

bcm

18.4(

 

./

 

lcm

1 swell

 

/

hr

)

Rs

bcm

)

Swell (%)  

bank volume

Pr

oduction  

cos (

total

Unit

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 46

19 April 2017

Production Formula

The following production formula is developed by International Harvest (IH) and can be used as a Rule-of Thumb formula for power shift transmission.

Where:

oduction lcm    P (kW) *103  D  15 Pr  ( )
oduction lcm  
 P (kW) *103 
D  15
Pr
(
)

P= Net flywheel power (kW) (Power-shift track Dozer) D = One way distance (m)

Example-5:

A power-shift track-type Dozer with 150 kW will be used to push

materials 27m. Use the IH formula to calculate the lcm production which can be expected for this operation.

Note:

oduction lcm    150*103    367.8 27 Pr 15   
oduction lcm  
 150*103 
  367.8
27
Pr
15
(
)

The actual production will be less than 367.8 lcm because there are some other factors

that can effect the production such as: efficiency, material factor, weather condition etc.)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 47

Production Curve

Production

curves

for

estimating

the

amount of

material that can push are usually provided by manufacturer. Example of such curve can be seen on Caterpillar Performance Handbook.

These curves are produced based on a set of ideal conditions as follows:

100% Efficiency (60-min hour) Power-shift machine with 0.05 min fixed time Soil density 1370 kg/lcm Coefficient of Traction

Track machine 0.5 or better Wheel machine 0.4 or better

Hydraulic-control blades (Pitching/Tilting/Angling)

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 48

19 April 2017

Production Curve

Slide No. 49 NOTE: This chart is based on numerous field studies made under varying job
Slide No. 49
NOTE: This chart is based on numerous field studies made under varying job conditions.
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017
130

Production Curve

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha 19 April 2017
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017

Slide No. 50

19 April 2017

Correction Factors For angling and cushion blade take 50% - 75% of straight blade BAF GCF
Correction Factors
For angling and cushion blade take 50% - 75% of straight blade
BAF
GCF
MTCF
VCF
OTCF
OSCF
ECF
MTCF
Slide No. 51
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017
Grade Correction Factors Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha 19 April 2017
Grade Correction Factors
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
19 April 2017
1.24
Grade Correction Factors Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha 19 April 2017

Slide No. 52

19 April 2017

 

Calculation of Production Rate

 

The production (lcm) is directly obtained from the chart, based on average distance the dozing material to be moved.

The

production

so

obtained

is

corrected

by

 

multiplying the suitable factors.

 
 

Production (

lcm

/

hr

)

P

Max .

T C F

.

.

 
 

Where:

 

P(max.) = Ideal Production rate obtained from chart (lcm/hr)

 

T.C.F.

= Product of all Correction Factors = (MWCF*OSCF*MTCF*OTCF*VCF*ECF*MTF*BAF*GCF)

 
 

MWCF Material weight correction factor OSCF Operator skill correction factor MTCF Material type correction factor OTCF Operation technique correction factor VCF Visibility correction factor

ECF Efficient correction factor MTCF Machine transmission factor BAF Blade adjustment factor GCFGrade correction factor

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 53

Example-6 ……/contd.

A D7G track dozer with straight blade is to be used in a slot-dozing operation. The material is dry non- cohesive silty sand and is to be moved a distance of 90m from the beginning of the cut. Dozing is downhill on 10% grade. The operator has average skill, dozer

has power-shift transmission, and both visibility and

traction are satisfactory. The material weight 1730 kg/m 3 in bank state and is estimated swell 12% in the loose state. Job efficiency is estimated to be 50-min. hour.

Calculate

direct

the

cost

of

the

proposed

earth-

moving

operation

in

Rs.

/

bcm. Assume that

the

owning and operating cost Rs. 3000/hr. and operator’s wage Rs. 500/hr.

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 54

19 April 2017

Solution:

Example-6

P(max.)/hr = 130 (lcm) from the chart for (90m dozing distance, D7G model) MWCF = 1730(kg/bcm)/1.12 = 1545 (kg/lcm) (For 12% Swell) = 1370/1545 = 0.88 (As standard condition 1370 kg/lcm) OSCF = 0.75 (from the table for average skill) MTCF = 0.80 (from the table for dry, non cohesive material) OTCF = 1.20 (from the table for slot dozing operation) VCF = 1 (Satisfactory visibility, as being standard condition) ECF = 0.83 (from the table for 50-min hour) MTF = 1 (for power-shift transmission, as being standard condition) BAF = 1 (as STRAIGHT type blade being used) GCF = 1.24 (from the grade correction chart for (-10% ) grade)

T.C.F.0.88*0.75*0.8*1.2*1*0.83*1*1*1.240.652

Pr oduction (lcm / hr) 130*0.652 84.76

  • 19 April 2017

84.76

Production (bcm / hr) Direct productcost (Rs./bcm)

1.12

75.68

Total cost (Rs./hr) (3000500) 3500

  • 3500

75.68

46.24

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 55

DOZERS PRODUCTIVITY: OTHER METHODS

Productivity of Dozer can also be estimated using following Formulae.

 

 

 

Cm

60

 

E

 

Where:

Q

q

*

Q

q

= production per cycle (lcm )

Cm= cycle time (minutes )

= Production (lcm/hr)

E = job efficiency

Note: E=0.83 for ideal conditions. (Excellent operating and machine conditions).

Where:

 

a

= Blade Factor

H = Blade height (m)

L

= Blade width (m)

Where:

D

= Hauling Distance (m)

F= Forward speed (m/min)

R = Reverse speed (m/min)

Z = Maneuver time (min)

Z = 0.1 min for direct drive

 

= 0.05 min for power-shift

q  aH 2 L
q  aH
2 L
 

Cm  

D

F

D

R

Z

 

Forward speed = 3 5 km/ hr Reverse speed = 5 7 km/hr

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 56

19 April 2017

0.69 0.54 0.42 0.47 0.50 0.52 POOR 0.45 0.52 0.57 0.61 0.63 RATHER POOR EARTH VOLUME
0.69
0.54
0.42
0.47
0.50
0.52
POOR
0.45
0.52
0.57
0.61
0.63
RATHER POOR
EARTH VOLUME CONVERSION FACTOR
0.60
0.65
1.2
0.72
NORMAL
0.60
0.65
0.71
0.75
0.78
GOOD
April 2017
19
Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha
Note: Assume appropriate factors from the corresponding tables, if not given.
0.05 min
Slide No. 57
POOR
GEAR SHIFTING TIME (Z)
0.1 min
Direct drive
Time
Transmission type`
JOB EFFICIENCY FACTOR (E)
0.32
CONDITIONS
0.70
0.76
0.81
0.83
EXCELLENT
POOR
Power shift
RATHER
NORMAL
GOOD
EXCELLENT
MAINTAINANCE OF MACHINE
0.63
OPERATING
`
FACTOR
Compacted
0.90
On banks
1.0
Loosened

BLADE FACTOR (a)

Dozing operation

Blade factor

 

Completely

  • 1.1 - 0.9

Easy dozing

loosened soil

 

Loose soil but

 

Average dozing

impossible to doze

  • 0.9 0.7

full blade

Rather difficult

High water content

 

dozing

or sticky clay sand

  • 0.7 0.6

Difficult dozing

Blasted rocks etc

  • 0.6 0.4

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 58
Slide No. 58

19 April 2017

Example-7 … /contd.

..

Estimate the approximate output of a bulldozer for the following conditions:

Materials: completely loosened soil Swell = 25% Haul distance : 30m, over level ground

Blade Size: Height = 0.9m, Width = 2.9 m Operation factor: 50-min hr Pushing speed @ 2.4 kmpr Reverse @ 5.6 kmph

Loading and gear shifting time = 0.32 min

Cycle time (Cm)  

D

F

Z

D

R

 
 

   

30*60

30*60

 

Cm

0.32

1.39min

 
 

(2.4*1000)

(5.64*1000)

 

   

  • 19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 59

Example-7

Production per cycle (q)

   

q aH

2

L

0.9*0.9 *2.9

2

2.11 (

lcm

)

Assuming Blade factor (a) = 0.9 from the table

Production per Hour (Q)

60 * Cm E    Q q     
60 *
Cm
E 
 
Q
q
75.59 60.47 ( 1.39  60 *0.83 75.59 ( 2.11 bcm 1.25 lcm hr hr 
75.59 60.47 (
1.39 
60 *0.83
75.59 (
2.11
bcm
1.25
lcm
hr
hr
 
 
Q
/
/
)
)
  • 19 April 2017

Assuming Job Efficiency; E=0.83

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Example-7 Production per cycle (q) q  a  H  2  L  

Slide No. 60

19 April 2017

Ripping Production Estimate

Estimating Ripping production is best accomplished by conducting field test study. However, following method can be used for rough estimation.

- Quick Method (Find average time hour by running the machine at measured distance and volume (bcy).

Ripping production (bcm/hr)     Measured Volume (bcm)   

1.2*Average time

-Seismic velocity method (Manufacturer develop the production chart (production vs seismic velocity, which can be used with proper judgment)

Ripping Production Estimate Estimating Ripping production is best accomplished by conducting field test study. However, following

19 April 2017

Management of Construction Plant and Equipment: By Ashok K. Shrestha

Slide No. 64