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KISS Resources for the NSW Syllabus.

keep it simple science


Answer Section
4.
hydrogen + zinc sulfate Zn + H2SO4 H2
Worksheet 1 + ZnSO4
a) stone or wood/bone b) gold
c) decoration/jewellery d) copper hydrogen + calcium chloride Ca + 2HCl
e) roasted by fire f) copper and tin H2 + CaCl2
g) bronze h) hard and strong
i) brittle j) a saw blade Barium + nitric acid
k) iron l) harder and stronger Ba + 2HNO3 H2 + Ba(NO3)2
m) temperature/energy n) coal
o) steel p) carbon Iron + hydrochloric acid
q) aluminium r) energy Fe + 2HCl H2 + FeCl2
s) ores t) iron 5.
u) steel v) cheap/economical a) the metals: Zn, Ca, Ba, Fe
w) hard and strong x) mild b) hydrogen ions (from the acid)
y) stainless z) copper and zinc c) sulfate, chloride and nitrate ions.
aa) solder ab) tin and lead
ac) plumbing and electronics Worksheet 4
ad) lightweight ae) corrosion 1. B 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. A 6. B
af) drink cans/window frames/aircraft construction
ag) copper ah) conductivity 7.
ai) ductile aj) decomposition a) Copper. Used for electrical wiring, due to its excellent
ak) endothermic al) copper conductivity and high ductility.
am) aluminium an) electricity b) Solder, an alloy of tin & lead. Used for joining pipes in
ao) metal ap) energy plumbing, and joining wires in electronics, because of its
very low melting point.

Worksheet 2 8.
a) oxide b) METAL OXIDE a) not brittle/ can be re-sharpened/shape possiblities (e.g.
c) hydrogen d) hydroxide (or oxide) saw)
e) hydrogen f) salt b) Iron is stronger and harder... tools are superior.
g) different h) activity c) Needs electricity for smelting.
i) potassium and sodium j) left
k) copper and gold l) iron and tin/lead/zinc 9.
m) slowly n) electrons Mild Steel (0.2% carbon). Used for car bodies & sheet
o) lose p) hydrogen metal, because it is strong but very malleable.
q) covalent r) hydrogen Tool Steel (1.5% carbon). Used for hammers, drills, etc
s) H2 t) loss of electrons because it is very hard and strong.
u) Reduction v) oxidized Stainless Steel (20% nickel & chromium). Used for food
w) hydrogen x) reduced utensils and medical equipment because it resists
y) Ionisation z) remove one electron corrosion and is very hygenic.
aa) gas ab) low
ac) higher 10. (example answer)
ad) gold used in electronics, because it will not Small pieces of metal added to dilute acid in test tubes.
corrode. (To keep expt. fair, the acid must be same strength, and
metal pieces same size.)
Observe the rate of gas production to assess reactivity.
Worksheet 3 Conclusion: order of activity: Mg > Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu
1.
11.
a) Pb + O2 PbO2
a) Mg + 2HCl H2 + MgCl2
b) 2Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3
b) Ca + 2H2O H2 + Ca(OH)2
c) 4Li + O2 2Li2O 2.
c) 4K + O2 2K2O 12.
a) Li, Fe, Pb
b) Lithium

Chemistry 8.3 Metals PhotoMaster 1 Usage & copying is permitted


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KISS Resources for the NSW Syllabus.
2+
- Ba
+ - Ba +
2e 2H + 2e H 2
3. (Barium lost, hydrogen ions gained)
a) calcium + water hydrogen + calcium
hydroxide 13. + -
Ca + 2H2O H2 + Ca(OH)2 a) i) Mg(g) Mg (g) + e
+ -
ii)O(g) O (g)+ e
b)Tin + water hydrogen + tin(II) oxide
Sn + H2O H2 + SnO b) The lower the ist Ionisation Energy the more active the
metal, because the metal readily loses electron(s) to
enter a reaction.

Chemistry 8.3 Metals PhotoMaster 2 Usage & copying is permitted


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keep it simple science Worksheet 5 2. Moles in a Given Mass use n = m/MM

a) n= 100.0/207.2 = 0.4826 mol b)


a) Dobereiner b)
n = 100.0/ 65.39 = 1.529 mol
Newlands
c) Octaves d) Mendeleev c) n = 100.0 / 18.016 = 5.551 mol
e) Periodic Table f) been discovered
g) left gaps h) predict d) n= 100.0 / 187.6 = 0.5330 mol
i) almost identical to the predictions e) n = 38.55 / 62.31 = 0.6187 mol
j) decreases k) semi-metals & non-metals f) n = 60.00 / 44.01 = 1.363 mol
l) increase m) decrease g) n = 1.000/ 81.39 = 0.01229 mol
n) Transition o) semi-metal h) n = 500.0 / 180.2 = 2.775 mol
-3 -5
p) inert q) right i) n = 3.258x10 / 58.44 = 5.575 x 10 mol
r) identical s) metals j) n = 128.6 / 96.094 = 1.338 mol
t) ionic u) positive
v) covalent w) covalently 3. Moles & Particles
x) gain y) negative a) use n = N/NA and23
N= n x N24A
i) N = 3 x 6.022x10 = 1.807x10 molecules
z) bottom aa) upwards 23 24
ab) right ac) top ii) N = 2.478 x 6.022x10
23 = 1.492x10
24 molecules
ad) down and left ae) decreases iii) N = 5 x 6.022x10 = 3.011x10
23 sets21of ions.
iv) N = 0.007862 x 6.022x10 = 4.734x10 atoms
af) more ag) nucleus 23 20
v) N = 1/1000 x 6.022x10 = 6.022x10 atoms
ah) increases ai) Ionisation 25 23
aj) increase ak) remove
al) decrease am) less b) i) n = N/NA = 8.800x10 / = 146.1 mol
6.022x10
m = n x MM = 146.1x118.7 = 17,340g (=17.34kg)
an) remove ao) higher 24 23
ap) increases aq) Electronegativity ii) n = N/NA = 2.575x10 / = 4.276 mol
6.022x10
ar) attract as) fluorine m = n x MM = 4.276 x 18.016 = 77.04g
at) left au) down iii) n = m/MM = 400.0/ 18.016 =2322.20 mol 25

Worksheet 6 N = n x NA = 22.20 x 6.022x10 = 1.337x10


molecules
1. D 2. C 3. B 4. A iv) n = m/MM = 2.569/58.69 = 0.04377
23
mol 22
N = n x NA = 0.04377 x 6.022x10 = 2.636x10
atoms
5. 23 23
+ -
a) 1st Ca(g) Ca (g) + e v) n = N/NA = 2.500x10 / = 0.4151 mol
6.022x10
m = n x MM = 0.4151 x 32.07 = 13.31g
+ 2+ -
+ e
2nd Ca2+(g)
3rd Ca
Ca
3+
(g)
-
Worksheet 8
1. Mole ratios in Equations
Ca + e
3+(g) (g) a) i) 0.5 mol ii) 1 mol
4th Ca 4+ - b) i) 0.25 mol ii) 0.125 mol
(g)
Ca (g)
+ e
c) i) 1.5 mol ii) 1.5 mol
b) Between 2nd and 3rd, because 3rd ionisation d) i) 0.25 mol ii) 0.375 mol
takes an electron from an inner orbit. e) i) 0.2 mol ii) 0.15 mol
Melting Point

6. 2. Mass Quantities in Reactions


a) graph a) n(Ca) = m/MM = 8.50/40.08 = 0.212 mol
b) At the beginning of a \ n(CaO) = 0.212 mol
period (left) the elements m(CaO) = n x MM = 0.212 x 56.08 = 11.9g
are soft metals with
moderate to low mps. b) n(Ag2CO3) = m/MM = 20.0/275.81 = 0.0725 mol
i) \n(Ag) = 0.0725 x 2 = 0.145 mol
Moving right, the mps rise to a maximum at a m(Ag) = n x MM = 0.145 x 107.9 = 15.6g
transition metal, or semi-metal. Then mps fall ii) \ n(CO2) = 0.0725 mol
rapidly at the non-metals. Lowest values are the m(CO2) = n x MM = 0.0725 x 44.01 =
inert gases on far right. 3.19g iii) \ n(O2) = 0.0725 / 2 = 0.03625 mol
m(O2) = n x MM = 0.03625 x 32.00 = 1.16g
7.
a) i) decreasing ii) increasing c) n(Al) = m / MM = 6.50/26.98 = 0.241 mol
b) i) increasing ii) decreasing i) \ n(HCl) = 0.241 x 3 = 0.723 mol
H= fluorine L= francium m(HCl) = n x MM = 0.723 x 36.458 = 26.4g
c) i) increasing ii) decreasing ii) \ n(H2) = 0.241 x 3/2 = 0.3615 mol
H = helium L = francium m(H2) = n x MM = 0.3615 x 2.016 = 0.729g
iii) \ n(AlCl3) = 0.241 mol
Worksheet 7 m(AlCl3) = n x MM = 0.241 x 133.33 = 32.1g

1. Molar Masses d) n(Sn) = m / MM = 14.8 / 118.7 = 0.125 mol


a) 39.10g b) 83.80g c) 118.7g i) \ n(SnO2) = 0.125 mol
d) 159.8g e) N = 28.02g f) MgO = 40.31g m(SnO2) = n x MM = 0.125 x 150.7 = 18.8g
g) NaI= 149.9 h)
2 S =207.9g i) NH
=17.03g Fe2 3 ii) \ n(H2O) = 0.125 x 2 = 0.250 mol
3
j) CuSO =159.6g k) Al O =102.0g l) 180.2g m(H2O) = n x MM = 0.250 x 18.016 = 4.50g
4 2 3
iii) \ n(H2) = 0.125 x 2 = 0.250 mol
m(H2) = n x MM = 0.250 x 2.016 = 0.504g

keep it simple science Worksheet 9 Worksheet 11


1. a) number b) carbon (carbon-12)
i) Copper : Chlorine c) particles d) formula mass
masses = 12.84g : 7.16g e) Avogadros f) 6.022 x 10
23
No moles = 12.84/63.55 : 7.16/35.45 g) ratio of moles h) mass
= 0.2020 : 0.2019 i) moles (particles) j) reactions
ratio = 1 : 1 k) empirical l) Gay-Lussac
\ emp. formula is CuCl m) volume n) whole-number
ii) Copper(I) chloride o) Avogadro p) volumes
q) equal r) molecules/particles
2. i) Carbon : Hydrogen s) temperature & pressure
masses = 1.5g : 0.5g t) 100 kPa u) 25
No moles = 1.5/12.01 : 0.5/1.008
= 0.125 : 0.496 Worksheet 12
= 0.125/0.125 : 0.496/0.125 1. C 2. A 3. A 4. C 5. B
= 1 : 3.96
ratio @ 1 : 4 6.
\ emp. formula is CH4
ii) methane a) 2Al + 6HCl 3H2 + 2AlCl3
b) n(Al) = m / MM = 6.58 / 26.98 = 0.244
2 mol 23
i) N(Al)= n x NA=0.244x6.022x10 = 1.47x10 atoms
3. i) Nitrogen : Oxygen
masses = 30% : 70% ii) n(AlCl3) = 0.244 mol
No moles = 30/14.01 : 70/16 m(AlCl3) = n x MM = 0.244 x 133.33 = 32.5g
= 2.14 : 4.375
= 2.14/2.14 : 4.375/2.14 iii) n(H2) = 0.244 x 3/2 = 0.366 mol
ratio = 1 : 2.04 V(H2) = 0.366 x 24.8 = 9.08 L
@ 1 : 2 7.
\ emp. formula is NO2 Tin : Oxygen
ii) 2 x (NO2) = N2O4
% mass 88 : 12
iii) dinitrogen tetra-oxide moles = 88/118.7 : 12/16.00
= 0.74 : 0.75
Worksheet 10 @ 1 : 1
1. \ empirical formula is SnO. Tin(II) oxide
a) i) 2.5L ii) 5L
b) i) 0.5 L ii) 0.5 L 8.a) N2 + 3H2 2NH3
c) i) 20 L ii) 10 L
d) i) 13.5 L ii) 4.5 L b) volumes = 100mL 300mL 200mL
e) i) 0.4 L ii) 0.2 L Vol. ratio = 1 : 3 : 2
The volumes of the gases are in a simple, whole
2. number ratio to each other. This is Gay-Lussacs
a) i) n(Li2O) = m/MM = 5,000/29.882 = 167 mol Law.

ii) n(CO2) = 167 mol


3
iii) v(CO2) = 167 x 24.8 = 4.14x10 L (>4,000L !) Worksheet 13
a) compounds b) mineral
b) i) n(O2) = 10.0/24.8 = 0.403 mol c) economically d) metal
\ n(Fe2O3) = 0.403 x2/3 = 0.269 mol e) commercial price f) production cost
m(Fe2O3) = n x MM = 0.269 x 159.7 = 42.9g g) extracting (smelting) h) Chemical
i) yield j) non-renewable
ii) n(Fe) = m/MM = 100/55.85 = 1.79 mol k) be replaced l) geological
\ n( O2) = 1.79 x 3/4 = 1.34 mol m) copper(I) sulfide & copper carbonate/hydroxide
V(O2) = 1.34 x 24.8 = 33.2 L n) Froth-flotation o) lower
p) silicate q) decomposition
c) i) n(H2O) = m /MM = 1.00/ 18.016 = 0.0555 mol r) oxygen s) copper
\ n(H2) = 0.0555, v(H2) = 0.0555 x 24.8 = 1.38 t) sulfur dioxide u) purify
L and n(O2) = 0.0555/2, v(O2) = (0.0555/2) v) electrolysis w) recycle
x24.8=0.688L
x) aluminium y) electrical
ii) use Gay-Lussacs Law: v(H2) = 100mL (0.10 L) z) fossil aa) coal
ab) Greenhouse
iii) n(H2) = 0.10 / 24.8 = 0.00403 mol
\ n(H2O) = 0.00403 mol
m(H2O) = n x MM = 0.00403 x 18.016 = 0.073g

keep it simple science Worksheet 14


1. B 2.
a) A mineral is a naturally-occurring crystalline
compound.
An ore is a mineral which is economically worth
mining to extract a metal from. All ores are minerals; FOR MAXIMUM MARKS SHOW
not all minerals are ores. FORMULAS & WORKING,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION & UNITS
b) Chemical analysis allows an ore body to be IN ALL CHEMICAL PROBLEMS
analysed to predict the yield of metal.

c) Ores are non-renewable resources, and once used


cannot be replaced. Therefore, it is wise to conserve
these resources by recycling metals wherever
possible.

3.
a) Copper(I) sulfide, Cu2S.

b) Crushed ore is separated by froth flotation. Low


density ore is carried in a detergent froth, while
silicates fall to the bottom.

c) Cu2S + O2 2Cu + SO2

d) Electrolysis. Copper needs to be very pure for its


main use in electrical wires. If impure, conductivity
is lower.