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Q1. (a) The diagrams in List A show three electrical appliances.

Each appliance is designed


to transfer electrical energy.

Draw one straight line from each appliance in List A to the useful output energy produced
by that appliance in List B.

Draw only three lines.

List A List B
Appliance Useful energy output

(3)

(b) The diagram shows the energy transformations produced by a TV.

(i) Which are the useful energy outputs?

..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................
(1)

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(ii) Use the information in the diagram to calculate the efficiency of the TV.

Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your
answer.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

Efficiency = ................................
(2)

(iii) What eventually happens to the useful energy transferred by the TV?

..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

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Q2. A battery powered electric fan is used to move air around a room.

Photograph supplied by Comstock/Thinkstock

(a) Use words from the box to complete each sentence.

chemical light kinetic electrical sound

In the batteries, ......................................................... energy is transferred to

............................................................................. energy in the wires.

The fan has ............................................................... energy as it rotates.


(3)

(b) The Sankey diagram shows how much energy is usefully transferred when the fan is being
used.

(i) What is the efficiency of the fan?

........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(ii) Draw a ring around the correct answer in the box to complete the sentence.

All of the energy from the fan is eventually transferred to the surroundings.

increase.

This makes the temperature of the surroundings decrease.

stay the same.


(1)
(Total 5 marks)

Q3. (a) A girl dries her hair using a hairdryer.

The hairdryer is supplied with 1000 J of energy every second.

miro kovacevic

(i) What type of energy is supplied to the hairdryer?

...............................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) The hairdryer wastes some energy heating the surroundings.

What other form of energy is wasted by the hairdryer?

...............................................................................................................
(1)

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(b) The Sankey diagram shows the amount of energy the hairdryer transfers.

600 J wasted energy

What is the percentage efficiency of the hairdryer?

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = .................................................. %
(2)

(c) Hot air from the hairdryer is used to dry the girls hair.

Draw a ring around each correct answer to complete the sentences to show why the
hairdryer is used.

Energy from the hot air is transferred to the water on the girls head.

decreases.

(i) The temperature of the water increases.

stays the same.


(1)

(ii) The water particles gain energy and move faster.

kinetic

The water particles with the most light energy leave the surface of the liquid.

sound
(1)

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decreases

(iii) The hot air from the hairdryer increases the time it takes the hair to dry.

does not affect


(1)
(Total 7 marks)

Q4. The cost of electricity is increasing. People want to use devices that are more energy
efficient.

(a) What does energy efficient mean?

Tick ( ) one box.

Statements Tick ( )

Energy efficient means a low energy input.

Energy efficient means a small proportion of wasted energy.

Energy efficient means a small proportion of useful energy.


(1)

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(b) A householder is trying to decide which TV to buy. The choice is between an LCD TV, a
Plasma TV and an LED TV. The TVs had the same sized screens.

The Sankey diagrams show the proportion of the input energy that is transferred to
different energy forms by the three TVs.

Energy heating the


surroundings

Energy heating the


surroundings

Energy heating the


surroundings

Which TV wastes the largest proportion of the input energy?

........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(c) The power rating of a TV when in use is 0.3 kW.

Calculate the energy used by the TV when in use for 6 hours.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

Draw a ring around the correct unit.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

kW

Energy used = ................................................. kWh

W
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

Q5. Laptop computers can get very hot when they are left on for a long time. This decreases the
energy efficiency of a laptop computer.

(a) Which statement best describes what decreased efficiency means?

Tick ( ) one box.

Statement Tick ( )

The energy output is increased.

A greater proportion of the energy is wasted.

The energy input is decreased.


(1)

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(b) To prevent a laptop computer from overheating, it can be placed on a Chill mat.

Figure 1 shows a Chill mat.

Figure 1

Complete the following sentences to describe three ways in which a Chill mat is
designed to increase the rate of energy transfer from a laptop computer.

The metal is good at transferring energy because metal is a good ........................ .

The black colour means that the mesh is good at

radiating ................................ radiation to the surroundings.

The mesh increases the rate of convection because it has a large

surface ................................ .
(3)

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(c) The total energy input to a laptop computer is 10 J each second.

Figure 2 shows the energy transfers in a laptop computer each second.

Figure 2

Wasted
energy output

(i) Use Figure 2 to calculate the useful energy output each second for the laptop
computer.

Useful energy output each second = ........................................................................ J


(1)

(ii) Calculate the efficiency of the laptop computer.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

Efficiency = ........................................
(2)

(iii) What effect does the wasted energy have on the surroundings?

...............................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

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Q6. Electrical appliances transfer energy in different ways. Figure 1 shows a television.

Figure 1

(a) Use the correct answer from the box to complete the sentence.

less than more than the same as

Energy is conserved by the television.

Energy is conserved, means that the energy input is .................... the total energy output.
(1)

(b) The power input to the television is 120 W.

Calculate the total energy transferred by the television when it is switched on for 300
seconds.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Energy = ........................................ J
(2)

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(c) Figure 2 shows a torch that does not need batteries.

Figure 2

Shaking the torch up and down for 5 minutes generates enough electricity to light the torch
bulb for 20 minutes.

Use the correct answer from the box to complete each sentence about the energy
transfers.

elastic potential kinetic light sound

When the torch is shaken up and down, the torch transfers .............................................
energy to electrical energy.

When the torch is turned on, the bulb usefully transfers electrical energy to

.................................... energy.
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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Q7. Power stations are usually not very efficient. A lot of energy is wasted as thermal energy.
The diagrams show the percentage of energy transferred by two coal-burning power stations.

(a) Write the two missing figures in the boxes on the diagrams.
(2)

(b) Which power station is the most efficient overall, the normal power station or the
combined heat and power station? Give reasons for your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

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(c) Some heat energy released from burning coal on an open fire is emitted by radiation. Tick (
) the main type of electromagnetic radiation emitted by hot coal.

Type of Tick
electromagnetic radiation ( )

gamma

infra red

ultraviolet

X-ray
(1)

(d) Radiation can be reflected or absorbed when it strikes a surface. What type of surface is a
poor reflector but a good absorber of radiation?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q8. Complete the following sentences.

A TV set is designed to transfer electrical energy into .......................................................

energy and ......................................................... energy.

A hair dryer is designed to transfer electrical energy into ..................................................

energy and ................................................ energy.


(Total 4 marks)

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Q9. A castle is a long way from the nearest town. Batteries power the car park ticket machine.
Solar cells are used to keep the batteries charged.

(a) Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct words from the box.
Each word may be used once or not at all.

chemical electrical heat light sound

(i) The energy input to the solar cells is ................................................ energy.


(1)

(ii) The useful energy output from the solar cells is ........................................ energy.
(1)

(b) For every 500 J of energy absorbed by the solar cells, 75 J of energy are transferred to the
batteries.

Use the following equation to calculate the efficiency of the solar cells. Show clearly how
you work out your answer.

Efficiency =

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

Efficiency =
(2)

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(c) Which one of the following statements gives the main reason for using solar cells to
charge the batteries?

Tick ( ) the box next to your choice.

Solar cells give a constant supply of electricity.

A few solar cells can provide a large amount of electricity.

The ticket machine is a long way from other electricity supplies.


(1)

(d) The graph shows how the cost of producing electricity using solar cells has changed.

Use the graph to predict the cost of one Unit of electricity in 2010.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

##

(a) In Britain most power stations burn fuel to produce heat. The diagram shows the stages
by which the heat is transferred into electrical energy.
Complete the diagram by filling in the missing word.

Turbine turns a
Water heated to Steam turns Electricity is
coil in a
produce steam a turbine produced
..........................
(1)

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(b) A fuel burning power station uses 2000 joules of fuel energy to generate 600 joules of
electrical energy. The rest of the fuel energy is wasted as heat.

(i) For every 600 joules of electrical energy generated, how much fuel energy is wasted
as heat?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Use the following equation to calculate the efficiency of the power station.
Show clearly how you work out your answer.

efficiency =

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

efficiency = ......................................................................
(2)

(c) List A gives three energy resources used to generate electricity. List B gives
environmental problems that may be caused by using different energy resources. Draw a
straight line from each energy resource in List A to the environmental problem it may
cause in List B. Draw three lines only.

(3)

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(d) A small wind generator is used to charge a battery. The graph shows the power output of
the generator at different wind speeds.

(i) What is the maximum power produced by the generator?

................................................................................................................. watts
(1)

(ii) The generator is designed to stop if the wind speed is too high.

At what wind speed does the generator stop working?

.................................................................................................................... m/s
(1)

(iii) Give one disadvantage of using a wind generator to charge a battery.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

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Q11. (a) The drawing shows the energy transferred each second by a television set.

(i) What form of energy is transferred as waste energy by the television set?

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What effect will the waste energy have on the air around the television set?

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Use the following equation to calculate the efficiency of the television set.

efficiency =

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = .............................................................
(2)

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(b) The diagrams show the energy transferred each second for three different types of lamp.
For each lamp the electrical energy input each second is 100 joules.

Which type of lamp is the most efficient?

.....................................................................................................................................

Give a reason for your choice.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

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Q12. (a) The graph shows the temperature inside a flat between 5 pm and 9 pm. The central
heating was on at 5 pm.

(i) What time did the central heating switch off?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Closing the curtains reduces heat loss from the flat.

What time do you think the curtains were closed?

...........................................................................................................................

Give a reason for your answer.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

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(b) Less heat is lost through double-glazed windows than through single-glazed windows.

Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct words from the box. Each word
may be used once or not at all.

conduction conductor convection evaporation insulator radiation

Air is a good ........................................... . When trapped between two sheets of glass it

reduces heat loss by .......................................... and ....................................................


(3)

(c) The table gives information about three types of house insulation.

Money save each


Cost to
Type of insulation year on heating Payback time
install
bills

Double glazing 4000 200 20 years

Loft insulation 300 100 3 years

Cavity wall insulation 600 150

(i) Use the information in the table to calculate the payback time for cavity wall
insulation.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(ii) Explain why people often install loft insulation before installing double glazing or cavity
wall insulation.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

Q13. (a) The picture shows a new washing machine.

Complete the following sentence using one of the words in the box.

kinetic light sound

A washing machine is designed to transform electrical energy into heat and

......................................................... energy
(1)

(b) The instruction booklet for the washing machine contains the following information.

Average power Time taken to


Wash cycle
during cycle run cycle

HOT 1.5 kW 2 hours

COOL 1.1 kW 1 hours

FAST 1.0 kW hour

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(i) Use the following equation to calculate the energy transferred, in kilowatt-hours, to
the washing machine during the HOT wash cycle. Show how you work out your
answer.

energy transferred = power time

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Energy transferred = .................................... kWh


(2)

(ii) Why does it cost more to use the washing machine on the HOT cycle than on the
COOL or FAST cycle?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Before buying a washing machine, a householder researched several makes to find
out which washing machine was the most energy efficient.

Write down one way that he could have done this research.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

Q14. The pictures show six different household appliances.

(a) Four of the appliances, including the fan heater, are designed to transform electrical
energy into heat.

Name the other three appliances designed to transform electrical energy into heat.

1 .................................................................................................................................

2 .................................................................................................................................

3 .................................................................................................................................
(3)

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(b) Complete the following sentence using one of the words from the box.

chemical heat kinetic sound

Energy that is not usefully transformed by the fan heater is wasted as

................................................. energy.
(1)

(c) The table gives information about two different fan heaters.

Useful energy Wasted energy


transferred each transferred each
second in joules second in joules

Fan heater L 1200 10

Fan heater M 1200 20

Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the line in the box that is
correct.

is more efficient than


Fan heater L has the same efficiency as fan heater M.
is less efficient than
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

Q15. The diagram shows the energy transformations produced by a TV.

(a) Use words from the diagram to complete the following sentence.

The TV is designed to transform ............................................................ energy into

light and ................................................................... energy.


(2)

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(b) Which one of the following statements is false?

Put a tick ( ) in the box next to the false statement.

The energy transformed by the TV makes the surroundings warmer.

The energy transformed by the TV becomes spread out.

The energy transformed by the TV will be destroyed.


(1)

(c) Two different makes of television, A and B, transform energy at the same rate.
Television A wastes less energy than television B.

Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box.

a higher efficiency than


Television A has the same efficiency as television B.
a lower efficiency than
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q16. The picture shows a solar-powered aircraft. The aircraft has no pilot.

Photo by NASA.

Page 26 of 73
(a) Use words from the box to complete the following sentence.

electrical heat light sound

Solar cells are designed to transform .............................................................. energy into

.............................................................. energy.
(2)

(b) On a summer day, 175 000 joules of energy are supplied to the aircrafts solar cells every
second. The useful energy transferred by the solar cells is 35 000 joules every second.

(i) Use the equation in the box to calculate the efficiency of the solar cells.

Show clearly how you work out your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ..............................................................
(2)

(ii) What happens to the energy that is not usefully transferred by the solar cells?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) The aircraft propellers are driven by electric motors. As well as the solar cells, there are
fuel cells that provide additional power to the electric motors.

(i) Suggest one advantage of the aircraft having fuel cells as well as the solar cells.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Give one environmental advantage of using electric motors to drive the aircraft
propellers rather than motors that burn a fuel.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(iii) Eventually, the designers want to produce an unmanned aircraft that can fly at twice
the height of a passenger jet for up to six months.

Suggest one possible use for an aircraft such as this.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

Q17. (a) The block diagram shows the important parts of a coal burning power station.

Use words from the box to complete the block diagram

boiler condenser furnace generator


(2)

(b) The diagram shows the energy transformations in a coal burning power station.

Calculate the efficiency of the power station.


Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ............................................
(2)

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(c) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following sentence.

If fewer coal burning power stations are used to generate electricity the amount of

decrease.

carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere will not change.


increase.

(1)

(d) Some types of power station generate electricity by burning a biofuel.

Give one example of a biofuel.

........................................................................................................................
(1)

(e) Nuclear power stations generate electricity without burning a fuel.

Name the process by which a nuclear fuel provides the energy needed to generate
electricity.

........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

Page 29 of 73
Q18. A person uses a stairlift to go upstairs. The stairlift is powered by an electric motor.

The Sankey diagram shows the energy transfers for the electric motor.

(a) Complete the following sentence.

The electric motor wastes energy as .............................................. energy.


(1)

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(b) Use the equation in the box to calculate the efficiency of the electric motor.

Show clearly how you work out your answer.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = .............................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

Q19. (a) The diagram shows the energy transformations produced by a television.

When the television is working, 1200 joules of energy are supplied to the television every
second. The useful energy transferred by the television is 720 joules every second.

(i) Use the equation in the box to calculate the efficiency of the television.

Show clearly how you work out your answer.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

Efficiency = ..................................................
(2)

(ii) Use one word from the diagram to complete the following sentence.

The electrical energy that is not usefully transformed by the television is wasted as

............................................................ .
(1)

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(b) Drawn below are the Sankey diagrams for three televisions, J, K and L.
The diagrams are drawn to the same scale.

Which one of the televisions, J, K or L, is the most efficient?

Write your answer in the box.

Give a reason for your answer.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(2)

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(c) A homeowner is sent an electricity bill every 3 months. The total amount of electrical
energy used during one 3-month period was 800 kilowatt-hours.
Electrical energy costs 15p per kilowatt-hour.

Use the equation in the box to calculate the cost of the energy transferred from the mains
electricity supply.

total cost = number of kilowatt-hours cost per kilowatt-hour

Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Cost = ..................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

Page 33 of 73
Q20. The appliances shown below transfer electrical energy to other types of energy.

(a) The vacuum cleaner is designed to transfer electrical energy to kinetic energy.

Three more of the appliances are also designed to transfer electrical energy to kinetic
energy. Which three?

Draw a ring around each correct appliance.


3

Page 34 of 73
(b) Which two of the following statements are true?

Tick ( ) two boxes.

Appliances only transfer part of the energy usefully.

The energy transferred by appliances will be destroyed.

The energy transferred by appliances makes the surroundings warmer.

The energy output from an appliance is bigger than the energy input.

(2)
(Total 5 marks)

Q21. (a) The Sankey diagram for a low energy light bulb, known as a CFL, is shown below.

(i) What is the useful energy output that the CFL is designed to produce?

........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What effect does the waste energy output have on the surrounding air?

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(iii) Use the information in the diagram to calculate the efficiency of the CFL.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

Show clearly how you work out your answer.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ..................................................
(2)

(iv) CFLs contain mercury. Mercury is a poisonous substance.

It is important that old CFLs are sent for recycling and not thrown into a rubbish bin.

Suggest one reason why.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) A new type of low energy bulb uses light emitting diodes (LEDs).

Draw a ring around the correct answer in the box to complete the sentence.

LED bulbs are more efficient than CFLs. This means that LED bulbs

a smaller

waste the same proportion of the input energy compared to CFLs.

a bigger
(1)

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(c) The graph shows how the outside surface temperatures of a CFL and an LED bulb
change after they are switched on.

Apart from a higher efficiency, suggest one advantage of using an LED bulb rather than a
CFL.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) At the moment, LED bulbs are much more expensive to buy than CFLs.

Which two of the following would a homeowner need to know to decide whether it would
be cost-effective to replace a CFL with an equally bright LED bulb?

Tick ( ) two box.

The number of hours each bulb lasts before needing to be replaced

The power of each bulb in watts

The voltage of the mains electricity supply

(1)
(Total 8 marks)

Page 37 of 73
Q22. (a) A student used the apparatus drawn below to investigate the heating effect of an
electric heater.

(i) Before starting the experiment, the student drew Graph A.

Graph A shows how the student expected the temperature of the metal block to
change after the heater was switched on.

Describe the pattern shown in Graph A.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)

Page 38 of 73
(ii) The student measured the room temperature. He then switched the heater on and
measured the temperature of the metal block every 50 seconds.

The student calculated the increase in temperature of the metal block and plotted
Graph B.

After 300 seconds, Graph B shows the increase in temperature of the metal block is
lower than the increase in temperature expected from Graph A.

Suggest one reason why.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) The power of the electric heater is 50 watts.

Calculate the energy transferred to the heater from the electricity supply in
300 seconds.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

Energy transferred = ........................................... J


(2)

Page 39 of 73
(b) The student uses the same heater to heat blocks of different metals. Each time the heater
is switched on for 300 seconds.

Each block of metal has the same mass but a different specific heat capacity.

Metal Specific heat capacity in J/kgC

Aluminium 900

Iron 450

Lead 130

Which one of the metals will heat up the most?

Draw a ring around the correct answer.

aluminium iron lead

Give, in terms of the amount of energy needed to heat the metal blocks, a reason for your
answer.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(2)

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(c) A homeowner uses an electric immersion heater to heat the water in his hot water tank.
The hot water tank has no insulation.

(i) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence.

conduction.

Energy is transferred through the water by convection.

evaporation.

conduction.

Energy is transferred through the copper wall of the hot water tank by convection.

evaporation.
(2)

(ii) To keep the water in the tank hot for longer, the homeowner fits an insulating jacket
around the tank. The insulating jacket costs 12 to buy.

The homeowner expects to save 16 each year from reduced energy bills.

Calculate the pay-back time for the insulating jacket.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

Pay-back time = ........................................... years


(2)
(Total 11 marks)

Page 41 of 73
Q23. The picture shows a solar-powered aircraft. The aircraft has no pilot.

By NASA/Nick Galante [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

(a) Use words from the box to complete the following sentence.

electrical heat light sound

Solar cells are designed to transform ............................................................. energy

into ............................................................. energy.


(2)

(b) On a summer day, 175 000 joules of energy are supplied to the aircrafts solar cells every
second. The useful energy transferred by the solar cells is 35 000 joules every second.

Use the equation in the box to calculate the efficiency of the solar cells.

Show clearly how you work out your answer.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = .............................................................
(2)

Page 42 of 73
(c) The aircraft propellers are driven by electric motors.

Give one environmental advantage of using electric motors to drive the aircraft propellers
rather than motors that burn a fuel.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

Q24. The pictures show six different household appliances.

(a) Four of the appliances, including the fan heater, are designed to transform electrical energy
into heat.

Name the other three appliances designed to transform electrical energy into heat.

1 ........................................................................................................................

2 ........................................................................................................................

3 ........................................................................................................................
(3)

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(b) The bar chart shows the power of three electric kettles, X, Y and Z.

Kettle

(i) In one week, each kettle is used for a total of 30 minutes.

Which kettle costs the most to use?

Put a tick ( ) next to your answer.

(1)

(ii) A new express boil kettle boils water faster than any other kettle.

Draw a fourth bar on the chart to show the possible power of an express boil kettle.
(1)

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(c) The graph shows how the time to boil water in an electric kettle depends on the volume of
water in the kettle.

Volume of water in litres

A householder always fills the electric kettle to the top, even when only enough boiling
water for one small cup of coffee is wanted.

Explain how the householder is wasting money.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

Page 45 of 73
Q25. The picture shows a temporary road traffic information board.

The batteries power the LEDs used in the information board.


The solar cells keep the batteries charged.

(a) Use words from the box to complete each of the following sentences.

chemical electrical light sound

The solar cells transfer light energy to ............................................................. energy.

The batteries transfer ............................................................. energy to electrical energy.

The LEDs transfer electrical energy to ............................................................. energy.


(3)

(b) When the total energy input to the solar cells is 200 joules, the useful energy output from
the solar cells to the batteries is 50 joules.

Calculate the efficiency of the solar cells.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ......................................................
(2)

Page 46 of 73
(c) Which one of the following statements gives the reason for using solar cells to charge the
batteries?

Tick ( ) one box.

Solar cells will charge the batteries day and night.

The information board can be used anywhere it is needed.

A small number of solar cells produce a lot of electricity.

(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q26. The figure below shows a car with an electric motor.

The car is moving along a flat road.

(a) (i) Use the correct answers from the box to complete each sentence.

light electrical kinetic potential sound

The cars motor transfers ............................................. energy

into useful ............................................. energy as the car moves.

Some energy is wasted as ............................................. energy.


(3)

(ii) What happens to the wasted energy?

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(1)

Page 47 of 73
(b) The electric motor has an input energy of 50 000 joules each second.

The motor transfers 35 000 joules of useful energy each second.

Calculate the efficiency of the electric motor.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ...............................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Page 48 of 73
M1. (a) 3 lines correct

allow 1 mark for each correct line


more than 1 line drawn from any appliance and all those lines are
incorrect
3

(b) (i) light and sound


must have both for the mark
1

(ii) 0.6 or 60 %
for correct answer only
NB answer 0.6 with any unit or 60 without % gains 1 mark only
if answer is incorrect allow 1 mark for useful energy
= 480
2

(iii) transferred to surroundings


accept goes into the air
accept heats the surroundings up
accept gets spread out
1
[7]

Page 49 of 73
M2. (a) chemical
1

electrical
1

kinetic
1
must be in correct order

(b) (i) 70(%)


allow 0.7

allow or

ignore units
1

(ii) increase
1
[5]

M3. (a) (i) electrical


ignore electricity
1

(ii) sound (energy)


allow light
ignore heat / noise / thermal / movement
allow kinetic energy if qualified (ie of air not hitting hair)
1

(b) 40(%)
allow 1 mark for correct substitution
( 100)

or

or
(100)

or
(100)

provided no subsequent step shown


or
allow 1 mark for an answer of 0.4
2

(c) (i) increases


1

(ii) kinetic
1

Page 50 of 73
(iii) decreases
1
[7]

M4. (a) energy efficient means a small proportion of wasted energy


1

(b) plasma (TV)


1

(c) 1.8
allow 1 mark for correct substitution eg 0.3 x 6
2

kWh
box takes precedent
1
[5]

M5. (a) A greater proportion of the energy is wasted


1

(b) conductor
correct order only
1

infrared / IR
1

area
1

(c) (i) 6(J)


1

(ii) 60 % or 0.6
allow ecf from (c)(i) for 2 marks
allow 1 mark for correct substitution,
i.e. (100)
allow for 1 mark:

(100)
allow for 1 mark an answer of 60 or 0.6 with unit
2

(iii) heats them / increases the temperature


1
[8]

M6. (a) the same as


1

Page 51 of 73
(b) 36 000 (J)
allow correct substitution for 1 mark: E = 120 x 300 provided no
subsequent step
Allow 1 mark for an answer of 600 (watt-minutes) or an answer of
10 (watt-hours).
If unit on answer line is crossed out and a correct unit is given with
answer award 2 marks:
e.g. 600 watt-minutes
or
10 watt-hours
2

(c) kinetic
correct order only
1

light
1
[5]

M7. (a) 30(%)


1

50(%)
1

(b) combined heat and power station as waste less energy


1

correct reference to 20 % or 70 %
accept some energy (50%) is used for heating
1

(c) infra red ticked


1

(d) dark surfaces


accept matt / dull / black surfaces
1
[6]

M8. light;
sound;
heat;
kinetic/movement
for 1 mark each
[4]

Page 52 of 73
M9. (a) light
1

electrical
1

(b) 15% or 0.15


correct substitution gains 1 mark only an answer of 15 with no unit
or an incorrect unit gains 1 mark an answer of 0.15 given with a
unit gains 1 mark
2

(c) the ticket machine is a long way from other electricity supplies
1

(d) any figure between 5 and 10 inclusive


unit not required but if given must match numerical answer
1
[6]

M10. (a) generator


accept dynamo
accept alternator
1

(b) (i) 1400


ignore units
1

(ii) 0.3 or 30%


any incorrect unit penalise 1 mark
allow 1 mark for the correct use of 600
or 0.3% or 30
2

Page 53 of 73
(c) 1 mark for each correct link

if more than 3 lines are drawn, mark only


3 lines starting with those that are incorrect
3

(d) (i) 110


no tolerance
1

(ii) 12
no tolerance
1

(iii) wind speed may be too low to operate the generator


accept wind may not always blow
accept power depends on wind speed
accept does not generate if wind speed is too high
accept does not generate if wind speed is above 12 (m/s)
accept does not generate if wind speed is below 1.6 (m/s)
accept it is unreliable
do not accept answers referring to cost only
1
[10]

M11. (a) (i) heat


1

(ii) temperature increases or (cause) convection (currents)


accept gets warmer
accept gets hotter
1

(iii) 60% or 0.6


60 without % scores 1 mark
0.6 with a unit scores 1 mark
60 with incorrect unit scores
1 mark

or correct substitution
for 1 mark
2

Page 54 of 73
(b) street
1

more (energy transferred as) light or less (energy transferred as) heat or useful
energy output the highest
can only score this mark if first mark scored
all efficiencies calculated correctly score 2nd mark point
1
[6]

M12. (a) (i) 7pm


accept 19.00 / 1900
1

(ii) 8pm
accept 20.00 / 2000
1

temperature drops more slowly


accept heat for temperature accept line is less steep
1

(b) insulator
1

conduction *
1

convection *
* answers can be either way around
1

(c) (i) 4 (years)


1

(ii) it is the cheapest / cheaper / cheap


do not accept answers in terms of heat rising or DIY
1

has the shortest / shorter payback time


do not accept short payback time
1
[9]

M13. (a) kinetic


accept movement
1

Page 55 of 73
(b) (i) 3 (kWh)
allow 1 mark for selecting the correct information
1

(ii) transfers more energy


accept transform or use for transfer
accept electricity for energy
allow higher (average) power and switched on for more time
2

(iii) any one from:

use the internet

brochures

reading adverts

visiting shops

recommendation from friends / plumbers


1
[5]

M14. (a) iron


1

hairdryer
1

kettle
answers can be in any order
1

(b) sound
1

(c) is more efficient than


1
[5]

M15. (a) electrical


1

sound
correct order only
1

Page 56 of 73
(b) the energy transformed by the TV will be destroyed
1

(c) a higher efficiency than


1
[4]

M16. (a) light


1

electrical
correct order only
1

(b) (i) 0.2 or 1/5


accept 20% for both marks
allow 1 mark for correct substitution answer of 0.2%
or 20 gains 1 mark
ignore units
2

(ii) wasted
accept transformed to heat / other forms
accept transferred to the air / surroundings sound = neutral
1

(c) (i) any one from:

can fly at night


accept can fly when it is cloudy
accept as a back-up

can stay in the air for longer

can fly in the winter

can fly faster


increases power is neutral
1

Page 57 of 73
(ii) any one from:

produces no (pollutant) gases

or no greenhouse gases
accept named gas
accept no air pollution
do not accept no pollution
accept less global warming
accept harmful for pollutant
accept produces no carbon
do not accept environmentally friendly

produces no / less noise

less demand for fuels


accept any other sensible environmental advantage
1

(iii) accept any sensible suggestion eg, map the Earths surface / weather forecasting /
spying / monitoring changes to the Earths atmosphere, etc
do not accept ideas in terms of transporting
accept use as a satellite
1
[8]

M17. (a) boiler


1

generator
1

(b) 0.3 or 30%


allow 1 mark for substitution of 2 correct values taken from the
Sankey diagram into correct equation
2

(c) decrease
1

(d) any named biofuel eg wood, ethanol, straw


1

(e) (nuclear) fission


1
[7]

Page 58 of 73
M18. (a) heat / thermal
or / and
sound
do not accept noise
other forms of energy eg light negates answer
1

(b) 0.4
or
40 %

allow 1 mark for

or
equivalent fraction
an answer 0.4 % gains 1 mark
answers 0.4 or 40 given with any unit gains 1 mark
40 without % gains 1 mark
2
[3]

M19. (a) (i) 0.6


or
60%

an answer of 0.6 / 60 with a unit gains 1 mark only


an answer of 60 gains 1 mark only
2

(ii) heat
allow thermal
1

(b) K
reason only scores if K is chosen
1

smallest amount of wasted energy


reasons must be comparative
accept waste arrow is narrowest
or
largest amount of useful energy
accept useful arrow is widest
waste arrow is smallest is insufficient
1

Page 59 of 73
(c) 12 000 p
or
120
to score both marks the unit must be consistent with the numerical
answer
answers 12 000 and 120 gain 1 mark only
allow 1 mark for correct substitution ie 800 15 or 800 0.15
provided no subsequent step shown
2
[7]

M20. (a) fan


1

drill
1

washing machine
four circled including correct three scores 1 mark
five circled scores zero
1

(b) Appliances only transfer part of the energy usefully


1

The energy transferred by appliances makes the surroundings warmer


1
[5]

M21. (a) (i) light (energy)


this answer only
1

(ii) raises its temperature


accept warms / heats it
accept air molecules / particles gain energy / move faster
do not accept heat
do not accept pollution
1

(iii)

20% or 0.2

allow 1 mark for correct substitution ie provided that no


subsequent step is shown

20 without % scores 1 mark, 20 or 0.2 with a unit scores 1 mark


2

Page 60 of 73
(iv) mercury can be recovered /reused / recycled
or
mercury (vapour) does not get into the atmosphere / environment / air
accept to stop mercury poisoning the land / getting into the food
chain / water supply
accept poisonous gas for mercury (vapour)
do not accept general poisoning
cause harm to the environment is insufficient
1

(b) a smaller
1

(c) reaches full brightness faster


accept brighter / switches on faster accept it does not get as hot
accept it will not burn someone who touches it
accept stays cool
accept temperature does not increase as much
accept temperature only goes to 24 (C)
accept contains no mercury
do not accept wastes less energy
1

(d) top two boxes both ticked

The number of hours each bulb lasts before needing to be replaced.

The power of each bulb in watts.


1
[8]

M22. (a) (i) temperature (increase) and time switched on are directly proportional
accept the idea of equal increases in time giving equal increases in
temperature
answers such as:
as time increases, temperature increases
positive correlation
linear relationship
temperature and time are proportional
score 1 mark
2

Page 61 of 73
(ii) any one from:
it refers to the metal block

energy transfer (from the block) to the surroundings


accept lost for transfer
accept air for surroundings

(some) energy used to warm the heater / thermometer (itself)


accept takes time for heater to warm up

(metal) block is not insulated


1

(iii) 15 000
allow 1 mark for correct substitution, ie 50 300 provided no
subsequent step shown
2

(b) lead
reason only scores if lead is chosen
1

needs least energy to raise temperature by 1C


accept needs less energy to heat it (by the same amount)
lowest specific heat capacity is insufficient
1

(c) (i) convection


correct order only
1

conduction
1

(ii) 3 / 4 (year)

or

allow 1 mark for correct method, ie shown

0.75

or

9 months

or

274 days
2
[11]

M23. (a) light


correct order only
1

Page 62 of 73
electrical
1

(b) 0.2 or 1/5


accept 20% for both marks

allow 1 mark for correct substitution ie

answers of 0.2% or 20 gain 1 mark only


2

(c) any one from:

produces no (pollutant) gases


or
no greenhouse gases
accept named gas
accept no air pollution
do not accept no pollution
accept less global warming
accept harmful for pollutant
accept produces no carbon
do not accept environmentally friendly

produces no / less noise

less demand for fuels


accept any other sensible environmental advantage
1
[5]

M24. (a) iron


1

hairdryer
1

kettle
1
answers can be in any order

(b) (i) Y
1

(ii) bar drawn with any height greater than Y


ignore width of bar
1

(c) (bigger volume) takes more time (to boil)


accept explanation using data from graph
1

(so) more energy transferred


do not accept electricity for energy
1

Page 63 of 73
(and) this costs more money
ignore reference to cost of water
wasting more money because heating more water than needed is
insufficient
1
[8]

M25. (a) electrical


1

chemical
1

light
1

(b) 25% or 0.25


allow 1 mark for correct substitution, ie 50 200 provided no
subsequent step shown
or
answers of 25 with a unit or 0.25 with a unit gain 1 mark
answers of 25 without a unit or 0.25% gain 1 mark
2

(c) the information board can be used anywhere it is needed


1
[6]

M26. (a) (i) electrical


correct order only
1

kinetic
1

sound
1

(ii) transferred into surroundings / atmosphere


accept warms the surroundings
allow released into the environment
becomes heat or sound is insufficient
1

(b) 0.7 / 70 %
an answer of 70 without % or with the wrong unit or 0.7 with a unit
gains 1 mark
2
[6]

Page 64 of 73
E2. (a) Almost two-thirds of students gained three marks. Of the incorrect responses, many
students named electrical energy in the batteries, rather than chemical, and chemical
energy in the wires instead of electrical.

(b) (i) Many students carried out a calculation to work out the efficiency of the fan, even
though this was not necessary given the figures on the diagram. Quite a few added
all three numbers up to give an answer of 200, or described the efficiency as being
good rather than giving a figure. Some quoted that 30% of the energy was wasted,
which did not answer the question.

(ii) By far the most common answer was that the energy transferred from the fan
decreases the temperature of the surroundings. Less than a third of students
selected increase.

E3. (a) (i) Around a third of the students said the type of energy supplied to a hairdryer is
electrical energy. Electricity was insufficient to gain the mark, although electric
energy was allowed.

(ii) Just over half of the students gave sound as a form of energy that is wasted by the
hairdryer; noise was insufficient to gain the mark. Kinetic was often seen, but rarely
gained a mark because it had not been qualified, e.g. of air not hitting the hair.

(b) Just over half of the students gained full marks for this question, whilst a few others wrote
0.4 to gain 1 mark. Several answers demonstrated that students do not understand what a
percentage is and gave values over 100. Some students gained a mark by showing their
working, but highlighted a misunderstanding of what equations mean mathematically.
Many wrote 400 1000 x 100. It would help students to be taught how to set out
calculations logically.

(c) Many students completed the sentences correctly to explain why a hairdryer is used to dry
the girls hair. In part (c)(iii) some students incorrectly said the hot air would increase the
time it takes to dry hair.

E4. (a) Most students knew that energy efficient means a small proportion of energy is wasted.

(b) Around 80 per cent of the students correctly identified from the Sankey diagrams that the
plasma TV wastes the largest proportion of input energy.

(c) Students could generally substitute correctly into the equation, but then often carried out an
incorrect calculation, obtaining 0.18 or 18 instead of 1.8. A common mistake was to
change hours into minutes. An incorrect unit was often given.

Page 65 of 73
E5. (a) Decreased efficiency was understood by most students.

(b) Most students obtained 2 marks, but only a small proportion knew that it was infrared
radiation that was radiated. The majority of students gave heat as their answer.

(c) (i) Just over half of the students were able to interpret the Sankey diagram to give the
correct useful energy output.

(ii) Most students calculated the percentage efficiency, but many forgot to give the %
symbol, so only gained 1 mark for an answer of 60. A few students made an error in
part (i), but if they used this value to calculate the efficiency they could still gain 2
marks, although very few did this. Students should be reminded to always show their
working, as this may gain them a mark even if their final answer is incorrect.

(iii) Just under half of the students could describe the effect of the wasted energy on the
surroundings. Others had not read the question carefully and gave a description of
wasted energy. Global warming, noise and pollution were all ignored.

E6. (a) Students did not appear to understand the term conserved, with many responding
that energy input was less than the output.

(b) The question was well answered with two thirds of the students gaining full marks. A
common error was to write 3 600 or 36 0000, but 1 mark could still be gained for the
correct substitution if students had shown their working. Some converted the time into
minutes and were awarded 1 mark for an answer of 600. A few students attempted the
calculation using the equation for efficiency.

E7. (a) Most candidates understood Sankey diagrams.

(b) A few candidates did not gain full credit because they did not give reasons that referred to
the information given on the Sankey diagrams.

(c) The word radiation led far too many candidates to choose gamma or ultraviolet rather than
infra red as the type emitted by hot coal.

(d) This was generally well answered, although some candidates appeared to confuse
surface with material, giving answers such as skin, concrete or lead.

E8. An easy start to the paper. Almost all candidates gained at least some marks, most gaining
3/4 marks.

Page 66 of 73
E9. In part (a) most candidates identified the correct energy form. In part (b) although there were
many correct substitutions into the given equation there were few correct evaluations. A
significant number of candidates did however give an incorrect answer of 500 / 75. The answers
to part (c) seemed equally split between the three possible responses. In part (d) most
candidates were able to extrapolate the graph line to give an acceptable answer.

E10. Parts (a) and (b)(i) were well answered.

(ii) Many candidates inverted the figures before calculation or gave a unit to their final
numerical answer.

(c) The noise problem of wind was usually given correctly but many candidates transposed
the problems of hydro-electricity and tides.

(d) Most candidates identified the maximum power from the graph but many went on to state
that the generator stopped working at 8 m/s because the graph line became horizontal at
that point. The unreliability of wind generators was widely known.

E11. Many candidates excellently completed this question. Efficiency can be a difficult concept
but the format of the question allowed candidates to demonstrate their understanding.

(a) In part (iii) the main errors involved either 400 being used as the total energy supplied or
the correct numerical answer being offered but with the unit J added.

(b) Only a few candidates lost one of the marks by not making their answer comparative.

E12. The better candidates were able to score all 3 marks in part (a). The weaker candidates
failed to relate the question to the data in the graph, and were therefore putting down answers
such as The curtains were closed at 5 oclock because that is when it gets dark.

In part (b) most candidates were able to score at least 2 out of the 3 marks, however many
candidates thought that double glazing reduced heat lost by radiation.

A pleasing number of candidates were able to carry out the calculation in part (c)(i) successfully.
In part (c)(ii) candidates again tended to ignore the data in the table. This led to many answers
along the lines of either Hot air rises or If you dont insulate the loft first you are wasting your
money on double glazing and cavity wall insulation because of all the draughts in the loft.

Page 67 of 73
E13. In part (a) the vast majority of the candidates showed an understanding of energy transfer
and many successfully achieved maximum marks for the calculation in part (b)(i). However, the
cost implications of using different power cycles for the washing machine were not widely
understood and many candidates were unable to describe how they would undertake research
to compare the energy efficiency of domestic appliances. The candidates that were successful
generally stated using the Internet.

E14. (a) Most candidates could correctly name the other three appliances designed to
transform electrical energy into heat. A few included the fan heater amongst their choices
which was given in the question and a very small number wrote down the names of
appliances that were not shown in the pictures.

(b) Most candidates correctly chose sound energy as being the form in which the fan heater
wasted energy. A few however selected heat, perhaps thinking that this is always the
answer to a wasted energy question.

(c) The majority of candidates correctly identified that fan heater L was more efficient than fan
heater M.

E15. (a) The vast majority of candidates knew that a television is designed to transform
electrical energy into light and sound energy.

(b) Most candidates could identify the false statement from the list.

(c) Most candidates realised that wasting less energy leads to a higher efficiency.

E16. (a) Most candidates correctly stated that solar cells are designed to transform light
energy into electrical energy. The most common mistake was to state that they transform
heat energy into electrical energy.

(b) (i) The majority of candidates could substitute the correct numbers into the correct
places in the equation. However, some candidates then found that they could not
cope with a fraction where the denominator was larger than the numerator; they
therefore inverted the fraction and ended up with the answer 5 instead of 0.2. It is
possible that some candidates did not use a calculator in the examination.

Some candidates tried, unnecessarily, to express the answer as a percentage.


Those who correctly answered 20% gained both marks; those who erroneously
stated it to be 0.2% were only awarded one mark.

(ii) Most candidates correctly stated that the energy that is not usefully transferred is
wasted.

Page 68 of 73
(c) (i) Most candidates correctly stated that either the fuel cells were to act as a backup for
the solar cells, or that this enabled the aircraft to fly at night or when there was
insufficient light.

(ii) Most candidates were able to state that burning fuels releases gases such as carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere. Candidates whose answers were very vague such as
it reduces pollution were not awarded a mark.

(iii) Many candidates believed that such an aircraft would be able to fly into space or be
used to visit the moon. Another common mistake was to misread the question and
instead of suggesting a possible use for the aircraft, some candidates were giving an
advantage of this aircraft over conventional passenger jets.

E18. (a) Just under a half of the candidates wrote a correct response of either heat (thermal)
or sound energy as the form of wasted energy. However, many candidates opted for
kinetic or electrical energy.
A few candidates read the word as to mean because and wrote a sentence in the gap to
try to explain why energy is wasted.

(b) There was a pleasing response to this question, with about half of the candidates obtaining
the correct answer to the calculation. The most common mistake was to invert the fraction
and hence arrive at an answer of 2.5 rather than 0.4.

E19. (a) (i) There were many correct answers here. Use of J as a unit for the answer was
the most common error.

(ii) Most students correctly identified heat as the wasted energy.

(b) Most students correctly gave K as the most efficient TV. Of those students, nearly three
quarters then went on to supply a correct reason for their choice. Students who simply
quoted values from the Sankey diagrams and attempted no comparison did not score the
second mark.

(c) Most students were able to multiply the number of kWh by the cost per kWh to get 120 or
12 000. However less than a half of those students were able to give the appropriate unit to
match their numerical answer.

Page 69 of 73
E20. (a) Surprisingly, less than two-thirds of students could identify the fan, the drill and the
washing machine as being the devices that were designed to transfer electrical energy to
kinetic energy.

(b) Just over half of students scored both marks, and just under half scored one mark.

E21. (a) (i) Only about half of the students realised that the question required them to
name a type of energy, ie light. Many students wrote 4 joules.

(ii) Fewer than half of the students realised that the waste energy would warm the air.
Many said that the waste energy would cause pollution.

(iii) About one-third of the students obtained the correct answer of 20 % or 0.2. Some
students only scored one mark, either because the failed to show the percentage
sign after the number 20, or because they added a unit after the number. Many
students showed the correct substitution but could not then correctly complete the
arithmetic.

(iv) This was a poor scoring question, mainly because of the very vague nature of most
of the answers. Many students simply repeated the information in the question and
stated that mercury is poisonous. Others used phrases such as foxes could eat
them.

(b) Most students realised that the LED bulbs would waste a smaller proportion of the input
energy.

(c) Some students misread the graph, and thought that the CFL would be brighter than the
LED. Others ignored the part of the question that stated Apart from a higher efficiency and
talked about energy losses. However, about half of the students gave a correct response.

(d) The most common mistake in this question was the failure to spot the requirement that
two boxes should be ticked.

Page 70 of 73
E22. (a) (i) Although most students could describe the pattern as being linear, very few
referred to the fact that the graph showed direct proportionality.

(ii) There were very few correct answers to this question. A few suggested it took time
for the heater to warm up but other acceptable answers were rarely seen. Many
stated that the difference was because the first graph was a guess and the second
was a real result. There was a lot of discussion about the original room
temperature and some thought that since the student was reading the temperature
every 50s, they had to switch off the heater whilst they were doing this.

(iii) The majority of students could correctly complete the calculation to find the energy
transferred.

(b) The majority of students chose aluminium rather than lead, presumably because it had the
highest specific heat capacity. Of those who did select lead, very few were able to provide
an adequate reason.

(c) (i) Most students were able to score both marks in this question.

(ii) There were few correct answers to this question. The most common method was to
multiply the two numbers and thereby end up with a figure of 192 years for the pay-
back time.

E23. (a) A majority of students were able to answer this question correctly. Nearly every
response indicated that the student realised that the end product of this energy
transformation would be 'electrical', but some thought that it was the Sun's 'heat' that was
transformed.

(b) A good proportion managed the calculation and scored both marks. A minority used the
data the wrong way round and got '5' as the efficiency. Some students were penalised for
missing the percentage sign when it was appropriate or for adding spurious units to their
answer.

(c) Many students realised that using electric motors meant no release of polluting or harmful
gases into the atmosphere. However, it must be emphasised again that vague terms like
'environmentally friendly' or 'eco friendly' will not gain any credit. A small proportion of
answers indicated that some thought electric motors were powered by wind energy rather
than solar.

E24. (a) A straightforward question that allowed many students to gain all 3 marks available.
Some did choose 'fan heater', even after they were told in the question stem to 'name the
other three appliances designed to transform electrical energy into heat'. A small minority
named devices that were not on the list provided.

(b) (i) The vast majority of students were able to identify Y as the costliest kettle.

(ii) Most students were able to draw an acceptable bar on the chart, gaining the mark.

(c) Most students were able to gain some credit for their answer and there were some very
good and clear responses that scored full marks. Many realised that it would take longer to
boil the water if the kettle was filled and then they went on to suggest that it would cost the
householder more money. The third marking point, that more energy would be used, was
seen less often. The use of 'electricity' rather than 'energy' meant that some students did
not gain this mark.

Page 71 of 73
E25. (a) This was another well-answered question, with the majority of students gaining all
three marks.

(b) Although the majority of students selected the correct equation and successfully
completed the arithmetic, many of these added a unit, usually joules, after the number. Of
those who calculated the answer as a percentage, many forgot to add the % sign. Many
weaker students ended up with a figure of 4 even if they had correctly written down 50/200.

(c) Only about one third of the students chose the correct answer to this question. More than
half of the students believed that a small number of solar cells produce a lot of electricity.

E26. (a) (i) Just over a half of all students correctly identified the energy transfers for an
electric car.

(ii) Just under two fifths of the students were able to state that waste energy is
transferred into the surroundings. Weaker students forgot that the question was
about an electric car and confused the wasted energy with exhaust gases. Others
thought the waste energy is recycled and used again.

(b) The majority of students were able to substitute the energy values given in the question
into a correct equation. Most tried to express the answer as a percentage, but about one
third of students failed to gain maximum marks because they either neglected to insert the
% sign after the number 70 or they quoted the efficiency as 0.7 but then put either a % sign
or a unit after the number.

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