A PROJECT REPORT ON

INFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRY OF MUMBAI

SUBMITTED TO

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

BY

AMI.M.DAVE
T. Y. B.M.S.

YEAR 2005-2006

THROUGH

TOLANI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
ANDHERI (EAST), MUMBAI – 400 093

CERTIFICATE

I, Dr. A. A. Rashid hereby certify that Ms. Ami.M.Dave of Tolani College of Commerce, T.Y. B.M.S. (Semester V) has completed her project titled INFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRY OF MUMBAI in the academic year 2005-2006. The information submitted herein is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Dr. A. A. Rashid (Project Guide)

Dr. Sheela Purohit (Principal)

DECLARATION

I, Ami M. Dave, of Tolani College of Commerce, T.Y. B.M.S. (Semester V) hereby declare that I have completed my project titled INFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRY OF MUMBAI in the academic year 2005-2006. The information submitted herein is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Place: MUMBAI Date:

Ami M. Dave

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset I take the privilege to convey my gratitude to those who have co-operated, supported, helped and suggested me to accomplish the project work. This project work bear’s imprint, of many persons who are either directly or indirectly involved in the completion of it.

I am also desirous of placing on record profound indebt ness to my guide Prof. Dr. A. A. Rashid, Tolani College of Commerce, Andheri for the valuable advice, guidance, precious time and support that he offered.

There is one person who has been a constant source of encouragement and help, Mrs. Akshata Kadam, I hereby acknowledge all her efforts.

Objectives
1. To analyse Mumbai’s current infrastructure steps towards improving it.

2. To analyse mishap of 26th July 2005 with Mumbai’s infrastructure.

3. To analyse Mumbai’s infrastructure plan and its pitfalls.

4. To study Mumbai’s disaster management in contrast to New Orleans.

Table of Contents
Topic No. TOPICS Page No.

SECTION 1
1. 2.

Executive Summary Introduction Section 2 Mumbai infrastructure Section 3 But will the plan be successful after 26th July 2005 Introduction What happened What is Offshore vertex The day after math Section 4

2-4 5

3.

7-9

4. 5. 6. 7.

11-12 13-14 15 16-17

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Mumbai disaster management plan or Mumbai’s proposed infrastructure Disaster of disaster management plan What disaster management plan told and what they did? Why Deshmukh Government failed Effect on tourism Statistics Section 5 New Orleans and Mumbai: A study in contrast. They did it but we didn’t- but still why we are the Best.

19-24 25 26-28 29-30 31 32-33

14. 15.

35-37 38-40

Section 6
16.

Survey analysis Section 7

42-52

17. 18. 19.

Recommendations for the next floods Conclusion Bibliography

54-55 56 57

Section 1

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Executive summary
Name Land area Population Languages Mumbai 437.71 sq km 12m (Mumbai municipality); 17.7m (Greater Mumbai) Hindi (the local variant is called Bambaiya Hindi), Marathi, Gujarati and many other Indian languages. English is widely spoken. Currency The Indian currency is the rupee, which is divided into 100 paise. Notes are available in denominations of 5 rupees (no longer printed), 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 rupees, coins in 1, 2 and 5 rupees and in 25 and 50 paise. Economic profile Commerce determined Mumbai’s history. As India's largest trading port, it has long served as the country's gateway: open and welcoming to foreigners, and offering the promise of opportunity to fortune-seekers from the country’s hinterland. Rudyard Kipling, who was born in Mumbai, wrote of the city “she lent me worth, and gave me right to pride”.

Mumbai's economy took off in the 19th century, when the British annexed western India and the British East India Company was losing its monopoly over trade between Britain and India. Merchants flowed in as restrictions on immigration were loosened. Ships were built to export raw cotton, silk, opium and ivory. In 1854, the city's first cotton textile mill opened, and the boom in cotton trade, sparked in part by the American Civil War which cut off American supplies to Europe, earned Mumbai its reputation as the “Manchester of the East”.

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By 1865, Mumbai had 31 banks, 20 insurance companies, and 62 joint stock companies. The first stock exchange was established in 1875. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 consolidated the port’s status. Cotton remained an economic bedrock well into the 20th century, which also saw the arrival of an eclectic mix of creative people, leading to the creation of Mumbai’s cosmopolitan culture, and the profusion of the Hindi (so-called “Bollywood”) film industry, the largest in the world.

Today, Mumbai has the buzz of a city on the move. It is the base for India’s leading companies, such as Reliance, Tata and Air India, and its largest banks and financial institutions, such as ICICI Bank, Housing Development and Finance Corporation and Life Insurance Corporation. The Bombay Stock Exchange, which moved from open-outcry to computerised trading in 1995, and the National Stock Exchange, which opened in 1994 are India's top trading floors. The textile industry has given way to the new economy of financial services; call centres and other business process outsourcing services, information technology and entertainment companies. A construction boom has created a new skyline of shopping malls, hotels and office complexes. As the city’s cheerleaders position Mumbai for Asian-tiger status, three concerns override all others: the groaning infrastructure, lack of space and a chronic housing shortage.

Mumbai is an island and restrictions on both new building and rent levels have combined to send real-estate prices to levels rivaling those of Tokyo and Hong Kong, and discussion of whether to increase the city’s floor-space dominates local media. Housing shortages as immigrants flow in from all over the subcontinent (population is predicted to reach 27m by 2010) have led to the growth of slums: Dharavi, Asia's biggest slum, sits alongside Bandra, the city’s new centre of business. Poverty afflicts millions. A symbiotic relationship has developed between the city’s elite and the slum-dwellers, many of who are employed in the domestic sector and in the huge informal economy (which is estimated to contribute between 25% and 40% to

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Mumbai’s output). In 2005, the biggest debate about the city’s future concerned how to develop 600 acres of land left vacant by former textile mills at midtown.

Mumbai's infrastructure is another problem. Roads are inadequate and the rail system clogged. East-west linkages (current corridors have a north-south bias) are sorely needed. Traffic congestion is especially bad between the airport and the downtown business area. Lobby groups such as Bombay First are trying to encourage companies to relocate to suburbs such as Bandra, and calling for development of satellite towns on the mainland. There are signs that both the state and national governments are prepared to address the problem. Some lobby groups argue that a unified city government is what is needed. Governance and infrastructure problems were both starkly underlined by the lack of readiness for and the aftermath of particularly devastating monsoon floods in July 2005 Despite its problems, Mumbai remains India’s biggest business center and has plenty of potential: the influx of air routes to and from Europe and America is itself evidence of its growing importance as both a tourist destination and a site of investment.

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Introduction
There is nothing wrong if you want to dream. Dream you must to attain even the seemingly impossible. And if you want your dreams to come true, you must preserve and create the right congenial conditions. You have to take a total picture without giving any room for lapses in one way or the other.

Mumbai, a city with more than 14 million people, has seen unplanned construction of its physical infrastructure in recent years. An editorial in a national newspaper blamed the greed of builders and their nexus to politicians for what the editor called as the ‘rape of the city’. Mumbai is the commercial and financial capital of India, generating about 5% of India’s GDP and contributes over one third of the country’s tax revenues.

In addition, it handles major part of the port traffic of the country. With rapid urbanisation and industrialisation during the last three decades, the population growth has been mainly in the suburbs i.e. north of Mahim and Sion while the population growth in the island city has remained more or less stagnant. The population in the suburbs increased from 5 million in 1981 to 8.8 million in 2001, while the population in the island city increased from 3.28 million to 3.30 million during the same period.

The city of Mumbai with its present population of over 12 million generates more than 10 million daily passenger trips catered by suburban railway and public transport bus services provided by BEST. The ever growing vehicular and passenger demands, coupled with constraints on capacity augmentation of the existing network, have resulted in chaotic conditions during peak hours.

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Section 2

6

Mumbai infrastructure
Geographically Mumbai lies at a prime location between London and Tokyo. Mumbai should not only be a financial capital of the country, but should be an important financial center even for South-East Asian and gulf countries.

Mumbai current infrastructure
Economic infrastructure Airport
Mumbai has two airports. One domestic and the other international. Both airports are located inside the city and are easily accessible.

Railway Mumbai is the hub of the railway network in Maharashtra having three major railway stations and the headquarters of two Railway Zones in India. Most of the important places in India are connected by rail to Mumbai. Many important tourist spots in the state are directly connected to Mumbai by regular trains.

Port
The state of Maharashtra is the Primary Hinterland for Mumbai Port. Nearly 44 % of its traffic originates within the state. Mumbai city itself accounts for nearly 28 % of the total traffic of Mumbai Port.

Port of Mumbai is situated almost midway along the west coast of India and is gifted with a natural harbour providing ample shelter for shipping throughout the year. There are three enclosed wet docks namely Indira, Prince's and Victoria Docks. For handling Crude and Petroleum products, there are four jetties at Jawahar Dweep an Island in the Mumbai harbour. Chemicals and Products are also handled at Pir Pau. The port, during its long chequered history of over 130 years, has been called

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upon to handle all types of cargo handling up to approximately one sixth of the total sea-borne trade of the country.
An extensive network of roads of over 126 kilometers serves the entire Port area. The Port of Mumbai owns and operates its own Railway, which is connected to the broad guage main lines of the Central and Western Railway at its Interchange Railway Yard at Wadala. The Railway runs about 11 kilometers of straight route between Ballard Pier and Wadala and has an extensive network of track of about 130 kilometers. It serves the Docks as well as the important installations and factories on the Port Trust estates. It has its own fleet of 9 diesel locomotives. The Railway handled around 1.58 million tonnes of traffic during 1997-98 Roads Mumbai has the best road connection in India and all the places of importance are conveniently connected to each other. BEST buses services as well as private operators provide good services connecting all the major centers in the city.

Future plans
In order to accelerate the financial development of Mumbai and to improve the living conditions of people, the State Government has prepared a comprehensive plan to improve infrastructure are as follows

1. The project of Bandra-Kurla Sea Bridge costing Rs.1,306 crore will be completed in the year 2007.

2. The works, costing Rs.1,113 crore under the Mumbai Urban Transport Project, which has been initiated with the help of the World Bank, have been completed. Under this project 101 new suburban trains will be introduced by the year 2007. Due to this, suburban railway travellers will get substantial relief.

3. Under the Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project (MUIP) costing Rs.2,600 crore, 462-kilometer roads, 41 flyover bridges, 66 subways and 300-kilometer

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footpaths will be constructed. This will be helpful in improving the quality of the main roads as well as to speed up East-West transport in the Mumbai. 4.The Mumbai Trans Harbour Link Project is taking concrete shape. The link will be a 22 kilometers six lane road bridge on the sea connecting Mumbai Island to the mainland. The project is estimated to cost Rs. 4,000 crore.

3. To relieve traffic pressure on Mumbai roads and railways, Government has taken development of passenger water transport on the western and eastern coast of Mumbai.

4. The scheme for modernisation of the State Police force is being implemented since the year 2000-01. Up till now, an expenditure of Rs.556 crore has been incurred on this scheme. Since 2000-01, under this scheme, 4,452 new vehicles have been provided for the police force. For the year 2005-06, a provision of Rs.184.20 crore is proposed for the modernisation of the police force.

5. In order to increase collection of Tax and Fines from Motor vehicles on the 22 border check posts of the State, it is necessary to create infrastructure facilities including buildings, weight bridges, Road lanes and Computers which would be linked to all the border check posts and office of Transport Commissioner, RTO, or Dy.RTO. The approximate cost of the work would be Rs.50 crore for the year 2005-06. It is proposed to make a provision of Rs.50 lakh in the budget for the year 2005-06.

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Section 3
But will the plan be successful after 26th July 2005?

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Introduction
“When misfortune strikes it never strikes single handed but in battalions”
Perhaps, this phrase would suit to what happened on 26th July 2005. Mumbai has many records mane and many historical events are dated until now, but the event that took on 26th July was neither expected nor wanted. It was a wetty Tuesday, which left lots of memories in the mind of mumbiates, some bad some good, yet the chances of the second one are minimal. This was the first major event of this type, yet mumbiates are said to lucky because they were saved from former two natural havoc:

1. Cyclone, which destroyed kandla port 2. Earthquake which shook Gujarat

The unexpected event has opened the loopholes of the government administration as well all the government departments in front of public. This majorly relates to the issue of the management done by government. The results are out and the government is uncovered in fact totally exposed that how it is working, how it has worked and would be likely to know that how it will work in future.

The whole system is corrupted. Take any of the department water; power telecom (MTNL) from top to bottom every one is corrupted but, when such a natural disaster occurred it seems like each and every individual was helping each other not in the terms of food, shelter but also monetary.

The natural disaster has opened all the loopholes, for e.g. government said that the roads were made pucca and will be able to withhold this monsoon, but we can look

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at the situation that the roads have been cracked down. BMC and MMRDA have spent Rs. 315 crores on road construction but the situation remains same. Government is saying to privatize all the sectors to the public parties but in reality it has never helped government to develop India infact it has ruined India for e.g. why public sector company jessop worth about Rs. 2400 crores was sold for Rs. 18 crores when it had Rs. 14 crores in its bank account. Why the VSNL stakes sold to Tata’s for Rs. 1500 crores when the cash assets they get in return itself is worth Rs. 1100 crores The economic situation in our country today, is one of zero credibility and shame.

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What happened?

The deluge came unannounced. There were warnings of a higher rainfall, but when it hit, the rain wrecked havoc. On 26 July, Mumbai received a record- breaking rain of 94 cm. Thousands of Mumbaikairs were stranded. Streets turned rivers and transport networks ground to a complete halt. Mumbai’s suburban rail system transports over eight million commuters a day, with 3500 buses chipping in to the effort. But both lurched to a dead stop and people could not hope to leave their places of work. Air services were also affected. Massive water logging and congestion paralysed telephone lines and cell phone systems. Electricity was shut off in many places for several days, prompting the Government to order electricity supply companies to resume operations forthwith.

The Bombay Stock Exchange suspended trading. The armed forces were called in for rescue and food distribution work. Government authorities urged people to remain indoors.

According to India’s Union Home Minister, Mr. Shivaraj Patil, 942 people were killed by drowning, landslides or by electrocution in Maharashtra; 429 of them in Mumbai itself, by the second of August. 300 cases of cholera, gastroenteritis and dysentery have been reported in the state. 1200 buffaloes and 15,000 goats and

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sheep died in the floods in Mumbai. The United Nations report (OCHA situation report No. 3 dated 2 August 2005) said that 10,000 houses have collapsed and 225,000 ha of crops have been damaged. The psychosocial dimensions of this disaster are manifold. “Children scream during sleep and we feel helpless,” said Rajubhai Sampat Sawant, a resident of Shivashakthi Nagar of South Mumbai. The children were stranded for several hours in the deluge. “We saw bodies floating around. We are scared,” said Kavita. A caring administration and appropriate relief can go a long way in ensuring a sense of security. However, this is far from reality. For example, residents of Shivshakthi Nagar complained that they are being cut off from relief channels. “We got nothing during the past 4 days as we are not on the main road side,” said Rajan Ubalaya Yogi, a youth leader of this Bhimwadi slum in South Mumbai.

News reports quoting senior government official pegged the financial losses at around one billion dollars. The Economist (issue dated August 4th, 2005) reported financial losses to the tune of US$110 million in Maharashtra. The flood is sending its ripples outside Maharashtra too. It is painful, especially for the millions of poor people like the unorganised workers whose survival depends on daily wages. The plight of disadvantaged groups like the rag pickers and millions of homeless people are critical. The union home minister informed the parliament that half of Maharashtra’s 35 districts and more than 300 villages have been affected. More than 52,000 people, majority living near the reservoirs, have been evacuated.

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What is offshore vertex?

Offshore Vortex is a rare phenomenon that is characterised by a heavy downpour, but extremely localized, spread as little as 30 sq kms. Scientists say that in Mumbai, firstly there were high winds in the Arabian Sea. The winds then took a turn to form a trough. When it took 360 degrees, a vortex was formed. Then there was formation of low pressure, strong winds shot up high in the atmosphere resulting in heavy rain.

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The day after math
The blame game in Mumbai begins. The State Govt., the BMC, the MMRDA, the builders, and others are blaming each other for the disaster in Mumbai. But, it is the corrupt corporators, MLAs, MPs, and bureaucrats who have brought about the horrific situation. They have neither basic knowledge nor education in town planning or disaster management. Slums are allowed to proliferate on low-lying areas and footpaths for enhancing vote banks. Political leaders had droll out promises and assurances to take strict action against the corrupt. But, how can the corrupt take action against themselves? And to rub salt on the wounds, the PM has praised the State Govt. for efficiently handling the disaster. The PM should be reminded that it was not disaster management but disastrous management in Mumbai. The residents of the Mithi River were not been evacuated and still the thousands of people flow into Bombay every day. Over 157 people have died from water-borne illnesses in India's financial capital Mumbai and surrounding regions following a weeklong deluge of rain. The death toll in Mumbai rose to 89 The number of deaths in the northern outskirts neighbouring Mumbai, India's financial and entertainment capital, had risen to 68. A major worry was an outbreak of leptospirosis that officials believed was responsible for many deaths. Leptospirosis is caused by exposure to water contaminated with animal urine and symptoms include high fever and vomiting. Many people had waded through neck deep water to reach safety or get supplies during the floods.

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Another concern was dengue fever. There has been an increase in deaths from dengue fever in the Kalyan-Dombivli region. Many cases of viral fever, gastroenteritis and other illnesses were also reported in Mumbai, a city of 15 million where over half the population are slumdwellers, and neighbouring districts. The illnesses have been incubating since the incessant rains ended August 2. The rains were the worst in living memory. They turned streets into rivers and left piles of garbage and rotting animal carcasses. Hospitals and medical centres in Mumbai and neighbouring districts were jammed with at least 5,500 so-called fever cases and there are at least 2,300 doctors treating patients across 16 civic hospitals Microbiologists from the Andaman-based National Leptospirosis Reference Centre, and from India's top research body for treating the illness -- the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in New Delhi -- were also in Mumbai to help fight the illness. The deaths from disease come after some 1,070 people lost their lives in the rains across Maharashtra, known as India's industrial powerhouse state.

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Section 4

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Mumbai disaster management plan Or Mumbai’s proposed infrastructure
Plan focuses
Plans focuses to respond to a disaster threat or occurrence. It takes into account an estimation of emergency needs and identifies the resources to meet these needs. It also says the type of infrastructure needed for Mumbai.

Several changes stated by plan
Transport infrastructure
Widening the roads for free flow of vehicular traffic and also to adopt the traffic management system as adopted in London city i.e. vehicles numbering last digit as 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 are not allowed on roads on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and vice versa of vehicles are not allowed on road on certain days. This will allow free flow of traffic and will increase the speed of vehicle by 20 %.

Expansion of rail services
1. Optimisation on Western Railway (including 12 car rakes on through line) 2. Optimisation on Central Railway (including 12 car rakes on through line) 3. 12 Car rake operation on local line of Central Railway 4. Borivli-Bhayander additional pair of line. 5. Bhayander-Virar additional pair of line. 6. 5th line on Western Railway from Santacruz to Borivli 7. Kurla-Thane additional pair of line 8. 2 Car rake operation on local line of Western Railway 9. 6th line on Western Railway from Santacruz to Borivli 10. East-West line: Bandra-Kurla 11. Optimisation on Harbour line

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12. 5th line: Kurla-Dadar-CST

Additional roads
For clearing the heavy vehicle traffic between Sion and the city, the proposed truck terminus at Wadala should be made operational and the access to the terminal via Anik-Panjarapole section needs to be provided. Other roads that need construction include Santacruz-Chembur link road and Western Relief road from Juhu to Dahisar.

Provision of special corridors for Fire Brigade, Ambulances, Police
Keeping in view, the location of municipal and government hospitals, fire stations and police stations, special corridors for the movement of fire brigade, ambulances and police can be identified and reserved for these services. Plan should be evolved to ensure that no other traffic is allowed to block the movement of these emergency service units. This provision of reserved corridors requires identification of interconnecting small lanes and by-lanes so as to ensure complete north-south and eastwest mobility. No parking or any other encroachments should be permitted on such identified corridors. No additional roads are envisaged in this proposal. The traffic police in consultation with fire services and hospitals should be in a position to identify such special corridors. Under this proposal, additional entrances for casualty may be required in some hospitals.

Provision of special corridors for BEST
In order to ensure that BEST buses do not slow down the traffic movement and also get a required priority being a mass transport, lanes can be reserved on the main roads for these buses. On such roads with reserved lanes, the left-turn for other traffic should only be permitted at the signals.

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Non-parking roads
Roads with high vehicular density and the major arterial roads should be nonparking zones. Also, the areas having concentration of chemical storages and processing have a high-risk to fires. Many of these units have settlements in their vicinity, which may require evacuation. Roads connecting to these locations should be kept free from parking. This would allow for easy evacuation if necessary. For example, Kurla-Mahul road through Vashi naka in the vicinity of the refineries, section of Reay Road at Sewri etc., Sion-Mahim link road through Dharavi, can be declared as no-parking roads to facilitate evacuations during emergencies. Main access to all railway stations should also be declared as non-parking.

Sanitation facilities
Although there has been no serious outbreak of any epidemic in the city during the last thirty years, and there has been a daily quality monitoring of water supply, sanitation facilities are inadequate. It is estimated that more than 40,000 toilets are required to achieve a ratio of 1:25 families. The Slum Sanitation Programme of the BMC may provide some relief, but is has serious limitations to reach out to all the population. Innovative and non-conventional approach to sanitation is required with sufficient financial allocations and political back up. Sewer treatment and disposal facilities at Lovegrove, Bandra, Ghatkopar, Bhandup, Malad and Versova need to be put on high priority and the bottlenecks need to be sorted out at the earliest.

Nallah training, soling and cleaning
The settlements along the nallahs are vulnerable to floods. Also, in the absence of training, soling and regular de-silting (cleaning), most of these nallahs have a tendency of flooding and choking. It is necessary that a programme of nallah training, soling and cleaning be undertaken rigourously through the Storm-water drainage department of the BMC. This may require shifting of some of the settlements along the nallahs. For instance, Adarsh Nagar, Janata colony at Worli,

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Hanuman Nagar at Malad, Devi pada at Borivali, Gawan Pada at Mulund (E), Slums along Patel wadi Nalla, Chain of slums along the bank of Mithi river at Kurla (W).

Increasing capacity of storm water drainage
The present capacity of the storm-water drains needs to be augmented to a higher capacity, which is under serious consideration with the Government of Maharashtra/BMC. In keeping with this present concern, care should be taken to ensure that no natural storm-water holding ponds are allowed to be encroached upon and reclaimed. The proposal of delinking sewer and storm water drainage system would further increase the capacity of storm water drainage and reduce the coastal pollution.

Upgrading Emergency Services
The response operations of the emergency services of police, fire brigade and hospitals are often hampered due to inadequate equipments and facilities. These departments are currently engaged in identifying specific items that will help them in their response operations.

Wireless communication
For efficient co-ordination and effective response, communication amongst line departments such as BMC, police, fire brigade, municipal/government hospitals, meteorological centre and BEST is essential. Upgrading the present communication system with a more efficient wireless system can ensure this. The wireless system should be full-duplex and also enable communication with different line departments.

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Display Boards
Electronic information display boards should be installed which could be monitored from BMC control room. The messages displayed are essentially instructional during the time of disasters. The information displayed will direct public response and help the administration in localising the impact. In the normal times, the same display boards can be used for community education on social issues and disaster preparedness messages.

Public address systems in local trains
In order to keep the passengers informed about the movement of rail services, especially during monsoon and other contingencies, public address systems needs to be installed in all the rakes. This would also require a wireless contact between the guard and the railway stations. Such a system would allow the passengers to take timely decisions with respect to their travel.

Public address systems at railway stations and bus stations
All railway stations, BEST bus stations, MSRTC bus stations within MMR region, should have the facility of public address system to keep the passengers updated on traffic situation.

Cable TV networks
Information put on the cable TV networks may help the citizens to take decisions with respect to their travel. Since cable TV operators have local coverage, a ward wise arrangement will have to be made for information inputs.

Control on land reclamation
All existing water bodies and storm water holding ponds will have to be protected under strict development control rules. Clauses providing for any exceptions should be deleted from the development control rules.

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Conclusion

“This is what it meant by the term, “SANGHAI”

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Disaster of disaster management plan
For the metropolis the biggest disaster was the disaster management plan itself as an estimated ten-lakh people were stranded in government offices, suburban stations and bus stands for well over 24 hours.

The ambitious disaster management plan provided comprehensive guidelines for management of crisis in the event of floods, earthquake or communal disturbances. The main emphasis of the plan was effective coordination with the officials of the home department, transport, railways, civil aviation, health and voluntary organisations.

Chief Secretary Arun Bongirwar, Central Railway Chief Public Relations Officer Mukul Marwah, his Western Railway Countet Party Vinod Asthana and BEST General Manager Rahul Asthana took initiative to tackle the situation, but the results were not visible. Apparently, every one ignored the warning of heavy rainfall issued by the weather bureau.

One of the most important highlights of the disaster management plan was release of information to the people on the steps to be taken to tackle the crisis and efforts being made by the government for the purpose. ``No doubt, we took certain steps, but there was absolutely no coordination between the government agencies, as a result, more than a million passengers were virtually stranded on the roads,'' a senior official said.

The official said though the Central as well as the Western Railway cancelled its suburban as well as long distance trains and asked the BEST to deploy additional buses for the commuters stranded on the railway stations, the government was in the dark on the steps being taken by other agencies to tackle the situation.

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What the disaster management plan told and what they have done?
1. Disaster management plan emphasizes:
To improve transport infrastructure by adopting London method of traffic controlling.

Fact:
Official were not aware of disaster management plan how can they be aware of London method of traffic controlling?

2. Disaster management plan emphasizes:
It said that for a free flow of traffic there should be additional roads and all the traffic of sion junction should be to divert through anik – panjrapole.

Fact:
There was no additional road made and the traffic could not be diverted through Anik – panjrapole road, as there was 5000 slums were staying along the roadside, which make road to congest for traffic to flow.

3. Disaster management plan emphasizes:
DMP told for special corridors for flow of fire brigade, BEST buses, Police vans, Ambulance and other necessary services. Thus during time of emergencies services can be reached to people.

Fact:
Until now no special corridor are made for any of the above services except for BEST buses at king circle but there also private vehicles rush in. the fact

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can be seen that around 3000 best buses were jammed in traffic during flood and many of them were damaged.

4. Disaster management plan emphasizes:
DMP says that there should be No parking zones along the highways especially during the peak hours.

Fact:
The fact is that every day Traffic van picks up around 500 – 700 vehicles around the roadside. The measures are taken to pick up van and the victim can release it by paying fine but measures are not taken to demolish it totally. Hence the story repeats again and again.

5. Disaster management plan emphasizes: DMP says that there is an urgent need of sanitation facilities i.e. MAHADA latrines.

Fact:
The ration is 1:25 people and the sufferers are railway tracks where every day people release their waste.

6. Disaster management plan emphasizes: DMP emphasizes on cleaning the Nallah and gutters before monsoon.

Fact:
The water flooding actually shows that the drainage system was not properly cleaned which results into block of water.

7. Disaster management plan emphasizes: It emphasizes on upgradation of emergency service system

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Fact:
The emergency service system has never been upgraded or never put to an implementation. Our officials also would not know that last when it was upgraded.

8. Disaster management plan emphasizes: It emphasizes on having the wireless communication between the times of emergencies.

Fact:
The fact is that there was no coordination among the department forget about wireless.

9. Disaster management plan emphasizes: It emphasizes on putting up the display boards at the highways and junction in order to divert the traffic.

Fact:
The fact is that none of the display boards has been setup at any of the junction.

10. Disaster management plan emphasizes: It emphasizes at public address system in the trains, railway stations and the BEST bus stops.

Fact:
The fact is that the normal indicators at stations were not running forget about PAS

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Why Deshmukh government failed?
The Vilasrao Deshmukh government failed to decide its priorities in rendering relief to hundreds of thousands of Mumbai and Maharashtra residents devastated by the torrential rain. Although it was engaged in relief work soon after the crisis began on Tuesday, July 26, lack of smart planning in the crucial initial hours of the calamity failed the Congress-led government.

On July 26, as the magnitude of the crisis increased alarmingly in Mumbai, instead of concentrating on what it wanted to do, political leaders instructed the administration to do a bit of everything. The administration failed to accord priority to the relief/rescue work and the areas of operation.

As the rain submerged Mumbai, the government was challenged to put its resources behind the rescue of marooned citizens in low-lying areas, restoring power, draining water out of waterlogged areas, supplying essential commodities, restoring communication and maintaining law and order.

The administration behaved as a fire fighter; instead of concentrating on saving people's lives on the first day of the crisis, its energies and efforts were scattered. The situation worsened when Reliance Energy, which supplies electricity to many of Mumbai's suburbs, shut down its transformers in many areas. According to the company its transformers were flooded with rainwater and continuing operations could have created a risk. Bureaucrats also failed to decide what kind of relief work they wanted to handle in the crucial first hours

Deshmukh has been given total access to central resources. Congress party president Sonia Gandhi called Deshmukh thrice, asking him to show quick results. She also recommended that people get milk free of cost and that essential items be made available in the open market at cheaper prices.

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One of the official says, “that the Center has a limited role to play in natural calamities like floods and heavy rain. It can only provide some financial assistance; it is the state's responsibility to do most of the relief work.”

During his visit to Maharashtra, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh offered Rs 5 billion or Rs 500 crores of central assistance to Maharashtra to manage relief work. Maharashtra asked for army and navy personnel, some help from the Central Reserve Police Force and a few helicopters. These were promptly dispatched. Medical teams and additional supplies were also been sent to Maharashtra.

Thus Deshmukh government lacks political acumen. The Indian administrative machinery needs an iron hand to deal with a crisis, else, nothing works.

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Effect on Tourism sector
The unprecedented deluge in Mumbai has hit the earnings of the tourism industry. Tourist inflow into India in August decelerated sharply to the year’s low of 6.9%, against a robust growth of 28.6% during the corresponding month last year. The earnings in dollar also slipped to 10.6%, against 40% in August 2004. Tourist arrivals during August 2004 were very high, recording a growth of 28.6%. Foreign tourists have started moving in large numbers to Asian destinations after the Far East got rid of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Sars) scare. As far as the current year is concerned the Mumbai rain had a bearing on inflow of tourists. However, the comforting feature is that the growth rate did not turn negative in the aftermath of the rain and flood in Mumbai. Mumbai suffered the worst rain and flood in living memory during July. Even Mumbai airport, which caters to the bulk of foreign tourist arrivals in India, remained inoperative for days as a result of flooding. In July itself, the tourist arrival growth rate slipped to 7.3%, compared with 19.4% in the corresponding month last year. The growth in tourist inflow was 16% a month earlier in May 2005. During January-August period, around 2.38 million foreign tourists arrived in the country, recording a growth of 15.6% over the corresponding period in the last year. As far as foreign exchange earnings are concerned, tourism yielded about $3.74 billion during January-August 2005. This means Bombay not only occurred financial loss from property but also lossed large amount of foreign exchange.

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Statistics
BMC Burden
Mumbai area Population Employees 1 employee serves Budget Salaries 438 sq Km 1.5 crores 1.19 Lakhs 96 persons 7000 crores 4,200 crores which is 70 % of budget

Loss statistics
Mumbai
Population affected Deaths Power Garbage Fever related deaths 15 million Above 415 Restored the next day in the city but took up to 12 days in some suburbs. 2.80 Lakhs tones of garbage cleared in 12 days 212

Kalyan
Population affected Deaths Power Water supply Fever related deaths 12 Lakhs 63 Took 5 days to restore Restored in 3 days 41

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Thane
Population affected Deaths Power Water supply Fever related deaths 15 Lakhs 31 Took 5 days to restore 70 % Restored in 3 days 31

Ulhasnagar
Population affected Deaths Power Water supply Fever related deaths 6 Lakhs 16 Took 3 days to restore Restored in 3 days 3

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Section 5

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New Orleans and Mumbai: A study in contrast
It is not only the shocking incompetence of the US authorities in dealing with the disastrous aftermath of Hurricane Katrina that has surprised people in India. What is no less disturbing is the complete collapse of law and order over vast areas in America's Gulf Coast region. The contrast between what happens in India during such a time of trouble is too stark to be missed.

America
The promptness with which the looters began ransacking shops and indulging in rape even as the victims of the natural calamity struggled without the basic necessities of life raised nightmarish visions of a lawless society.

The apocalyptic scenes raised questions not only about the breakdown of legal authority but also of the social order that normally regulates human conduct. That the reversion to the laws of the jungle was taking place in the worlds richest and most powerful country seemed to reveal hitherto unsuspected aspects of American administrative and social life.

Indian
What is amazing is that such scenes are unimaginable in India although this country too has experienced the wrath of nature on countless occasions, the most recent of which was the floods caused by incessant rains that paralysed India's commercial capital Mumbai for the better part of a week.

Yet, even as citizens, including school children, remained marooned in their cars or buses for hours, or had to walk through miles of flooded streets to get to their homes, there was not a single case of molestation or rape or of shops being looted. It was the same in the tsunami-hit areas last year in Chennai and other towns of southern India.

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There might have been a partial failure of the administrative machinery in India in the sense that efforts to rescue the affected and provide relief were initially rather slow. But the social order did not break down even though few police personnel were on the streets. Nor any 'shoot at sight' orders had to be issued, as was done in New Orleans.

It is not that Mumbai or Chennai are crime-free cities. Like all metropolitan towns, they also have their underworld. Mumbai especially is known for its 'dons' and their murderous gangs, who not infrequently engage in armed warfare between themselves and with the police. Rapes are also not unknown, even by delinquent policemen.

But somehow, in the face of a natural disaster, the human instincts of survival and compassion seem to have prevailed in the Indian towns over the criminality of the underclass that has been so much in evidence in America.

America
It is possible that the blacks, which have long been among the most dispossessed in social and economic terms in the American Deep South, have never felt as alienated as in the aftermath of the havoc wrought by the hurricane.

1.If they failed to leave the towns to get away from the oncoming storm, it was because they didn't have the resources in terms of money or other homes or the homes of relatives in safer areas. It is obvious to anyone watching the horrifying scenes on television that the blacks constitute the overwhelming majority of the sufferers.

2.If the official response to the disaster was shockingly slow, it might have been because the blacks, and not the whites, had been hit the most. Rev. Jesse Jackson

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had this sense of discrimination in mind when he said that the African Americans were regarded as 'foreigners'.

It is no secret that the blacks are not a well-integrated part of American society. What is more, their sense of exclusion is even greater in the south, the land of the confederates and the Ku Klux Klan and the burning crosses.

When there is a collapse of the civic machinery, therefore, they do not feel any responsibility towards society, no inner urge to stand together with fellow citizens till help is available. Instead, as 'foreigners' they wreak vengeance on a land that hasn't treated them well for decades and whose ill treatment has made so many of them become hardened law-breakers.

India
Indian society is far more cohesive. There are differences between the rich and the poor and between castes and communities. But no one feels totally excluded. The Indian belief in destiny and the prevailing social norms in respect of the castes ensure a certain amount of acceptability of the system in which everyone is deemed to have his allotted place.

Even as these traditional customs have given a special sanctity to social relations, democracy has eliminated the rough edges, with the result that society is perhaps even more integrated today than before. It is because everyone has a stake in the system that no outrageous incidents of murder and mayhem take place in India at a time of trouble.

It may be concluded that the difference between New Orleans and Mumbai at a time of disaster is that the former is less cohesive in social terms.

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They did it we didn’t
Hurricane, Katrina, US Torrential, Mumbai, India
Emergency response teams with hitech The state government ignored the MET equipment track hurricane Katrina as departments warning that a cloud over it heads towards the east coast the suburbs could burst and bring extremely heavy rain People are quickly evacuated in from Office – goers were not asked to leave areas likely to be in the line of from home later that day though water hurricane Active help lines are setup levels were rising fast in Mobile phones services crashed and

Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and landlines were blocked making BMC and Florida railway emergency help lines redundant police were wondering in

Detailed information is relayed on Traffic

local radio and television stations hindsight whether they could have used about how to deal with the situation the city’s FM stations to relay news about which roads to avoid and other traffic diversions The US military is pressed into service The military and naval corps, both of along with naval maritime rescue which have stations in Mumbai, were not teams alerted till two days later.

Helicopters and hovercrafts are used BEST says they should have fiber boats to rescue stranded citizen in the event bus depots get flooded the way they did on July 26 Federal emergency management The BMC could do nothing better than

agency puts people in cruise ships, tent open up a few municipal schools for cities, mobile home parks and floating stranded people to stay the night. dormitories

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President G. W. Bush monitors the Chief minister Vilasrao Deshmukh is situation despite the presence of blamed by his rivals for not being hands respective state governors. – on enough during the floods and leaving the situations to agencies like BMC, railways, and Mumbai police One city mayor actually appears on Mumbai mayor Datta Dalvi was actually television and urges citizen to get out touring the Konkan on July 26 and was of the city as quickly as possible. not in the city the next day either.

“But still we are the best, because?”

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Because:
Recently GOD gave tough time to both people of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina and Mumbai due to very rains. People suffered both the side. But there is a difference. USA...World's most developed nation and India...Third world country. Just look at the comparisons and know yourself who is better...

The Disaster
Inches of rain Population Deaths within 48 hours of disaster Number of people evacuated Cases of shooting, Rape Status after 48 hours

Mumbai
37.1 (27 July) 1.5 crores 37 10,000 None

New Orleans
18 4,84,674 100 Entire city countless

Mumbai is on It is still waiting feet for relief, electricity

What will happen to US then a bigger disaster hits them and their useless workforce is not able to save the citizens. They should consider training themselves for the disasters and terrorist attacks rather than just sleeping in comfort. Learn from Indians...

But do not be in an impression that what Mumbai has left behind is totally because of government, no, not at all it is because of the peoples who showed their resilience, fortitude, courage and patience in dealing with this calamity.

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Section 6

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Survey analysis
Objective:

To analyze the several questions as given below:
1. What are the problems you faced? 2. Did you get any facilities? 3. Are you satisfied with what government has done? 4. What are the facilities that should be initiated at the time of floods? 5. Is Mumbai still good place to live? 6. Can Mumbai still become sanghai? 7. Has government failed to serve the purpose? 8. Where do you think the government has to do reforms? 9. Where do you think that the government has to improve? 10. Which of the following do you feel to rejuvenate?

Survey methodology
The survey was conducted among 100 respondents from suburbs, western and the harbour lines. The ration of male female was not taken into consideration and it was asked to all the 100 people who suffered from the deluge.

The set of 10 questions were accompanied with options, since they were allowed to express their opinions freely, which has been listed out with their respective sections.

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What are the problems you faced?
1. Transportation and jammed traffic. 2. Food and water problems. 3. Overnight stay problem. 81 % Transportation / traffic jammed Food and water Overnight stay problems

16 % 3%

81 % of the people say that they faced transportation and jammed traffic problems because there were no vehicles available to reach home and if so they used to get stuck in traffic because of flooded street.

Mr. Nagesh one of the interviewer says, “hum log barah ghante sadak par gadi ke saath the, humein naa koi khana dene aya aur naa hi koi pani, hum gaadi chood ke bhi jaaye kaha.”

16 % of the people say that they did not get food and water as they were in the middle of the roads i.e. on highways and also most of the shops were closed and which were opened ran shortage of food.

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Did you get any facilities?
97 %

No

Yes

3%

97 % of the people say that they did not get any of the facilities whereas 3 % of the people say that they got some help on their way.

Mrs. Rama, who is working with an MNC, said that one of the local residents gave them food to eat, as all the hotels were running out of food.

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Are you satisfied with what government has done?

100 %

No

100 % of the respondent said that they were not satisfied with what the government has done.

Mr. Pravin one of the respondent said, “we are totally not satisfied with Mumbai administration, this is how the commercial head of our country runs, we were struck in traffic for 16 hours with our cars, without food and water and there seems no government officer or police official on the road, we were not knowing what is the position and how to move from here.”

Mr. Jalan one of the respondent says, “I had to go to virar and I was at churchgate for last 2 days, and when the trains started there was so much rush that it was practically impossible for the senior citizens like us to move.”

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What are the facilities that should be initiated at the time of floods?
1. Disaster warning equipments. 2. Display boards. 3. Separate corridors for emergency services.

76 %

Disaster warning systems Display boards Separate corridors 15 % 9%

76 % of the respondents said that there should be implementation of the disaster warning systems so that the public can be alerted as early as possible. The system should not be only for floods but also for other natural calamities.

15 % of the respondents replied to place display boards so that the traffic positions can be known.

9 % of the people say that there should be special corridors for emergency services.

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Is Mumbai still good place to live?
89 % Yes

No

11 %

These were the shocking results, which were found in the survey, as 89 % of the people say that Mumbai is still a place to live where as 11 % of the people says that it is not.

Mr. Ravi Kadam, says, “there is place for every one in Mumbai, you can food but you can’t shelter over here.”

Ms. Archana one of the respondent says, that, “Mumbai is the commercial Hub of India, how can we shun it and more over it has been a beautiful lifestyle from allover country, every thing is at your hand’s tip and accessible, there is no comfort in any part of the country as India has.”

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Can Mumbai still become Shanghai?

96 %

Yes

No

4 %

96 % of respondent said that Mumbai could still become sanghai, where as only 4 % said that it had lost its lure.

Mr. Aakash, one of the respondents said, “if Mumbai can stand on its feet within 48 hours why can’t it can become Shanghai.”

Mr. Archana said, “Mumbai has the potential, it contributes more than half of the country economy, the main failure is our political system, its totally corrupted.”

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Has government failed to serve the purpose?

100 %

Yes

100 % of the respondents said that the government has failed to serve the purpose of the public.

Mr. Rajiv Sharma one of the respondent says, “We are contributing more than half of the country’s economy and look what are we getting in returns.”

Ms. Archana says, “Mumbai is the commercial head and it should be treated like that but, the thing is going a way around.”

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Where do you think the government has to do reforms?
1. Technology 2. Infrastructure

59 % Infrastructure Technology 41 %

59 % of our respondent said that infrastructure should be improved where as other 41 % of the respondent said that technology should be improved.

Mr. Pravin says, “ Mumbai is the commercial hub of the country and look at the basic amenities, we get water adulterated milk, look at the roads etc. infrastructure needs drastic change.”

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Where do you think that the government has to improve?
1. Disaster management plan. 2. Implementation of disaster management plan.

94 % Implementation Disaster management plan Don’t know 1%

5%

94 % of the respondents said that there should be implementation of an disaster management plan where as 5 % said that there should be proper disaster management plan and 1 % don’t know what is disaster management plan.

Mr. Aurojit Gupta, one of the respondents said, “we had not heard of disaster management plan before floods, its after floods we are hearing about it that Mumbai has disaster management plan. The officials had not declared it before to masses nor it had been implemented. This shows how lazy our old government was and new government is.”

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Which of the following do you feel to rejuvenate?
1. Infrastructure 2. Sewage and garbage disposal system

78 % Infrastructure

Sewage and disposal system

22 %

Mr. Amar one of our respondents says that the whole infrastructure should be rejuvenate and not only sewage and disposal system as it the part of our infrastructure.

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Section 7

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Recommendations for next flood
1. To set up Disaster cell at each stations i.e. from CST to Karjat / Kasara and from churchgate to virar. And each of the cell should be connected with disaster management cell (head quarters) with wireless connections so that the coordination can be maintained and also that they can take action according to the situation of their areas.

The cell should be equipped with
Food materials – dry ration like rice, wheat, oil, sugar and other essential. Cooking fuel (kerosene and LPG gas) and utensils. Potable water and water purification materials like halogen tablets and chlorine. Equipment for Immediate disposal of carcasses. Mechanism to track the missing Clothes, especially for women and children Beddings and sheets Medical assistance and hygiene promotion measures

2. To implement the GPS system at bus depots and Railway stations 3. Next monsoon is a long way to go but, “Rome was not build in one day” so the clean up of gutters should be started from now itself.
4. Put up the display boards at crucial junctions so that jammed traffic can be acknowledged. 5. To setup special corridors for BEST buses and other emergency services. 6. To lower down the traffic the London system of traffic management should be adopted. 7. Complete the construction of roads and flyovers as soon as possible. 54

8. Completion of 5th railway line between Ghatkoper – Thane. 9. Digging up gutters at Santacruz, between Sion Matunga as these were the areas where tracks were submerged into water, as there were no gutters. 10. Set up for disaster warning system.

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Conclusion
Bombay is stinking, sinking and going to dogs and what are we mumbiates upto? Are we not turning to nelsons eye and a deaf ear to please for our Mumbai development? It is just Nero fiddling while Rome was burning. The Bhopal gas tragedy which struck havoc on 3rd, December 1984 create a rich h harvest of precious human lives. The MIC gas in the early hours of the dawn when whole of Bhopal was in bed, the MIC was on the prow. When the news of the leak riched out the reach of Bhopal spares as fast as their wheels could carry their bed gasping and fainting, fretting and fuming they dropped down dead like dogs. It was black chutter in the white mans rule.

Remember the tsunami. Many of us have never heard of that before when it struck south. It caused a lot of losses in the terms of human as well as financial. The days are not far when such havoc will struck Bombay in coming days as the torrential rain was just an trailer and remember picture has to be released.

Remember, “Rome was not built in a day.” If we want to make our life safe than the steps have to taken from now since the past has gone which has made us learn from our mistakes and the future is unknown.

It’s high time that we welcome back to our senses in at incites to curve the menace of torrential. A ball is in mans court it is for man to decide whether to convert or destroy this Bombay. It’s time that we mean what we say i.e. “Aamchi Mumbai, swach Mumbai”

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Bibliography
Books
1. 2.
Reintegrating India with world economy Globalizing cities T N Srinivasan Ronald Van Kempen

Newspapers
1. Mumbai mirror 2. DNA 3. TOI 4. Hindustan times

Magazines
1. India today 2. Outlook 3. Business & economy

Internet
1. Goole.com 2. Statedisastercell.com 3. Mah.gov.in

Places visited
1. Indian Merchant Chambers, churchgate. 2. British council library, Mittal chambers, Nariman point.

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