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Accounting Clerks

Accounting Clerks work under the direction of others to maintain financial and other
records necessary to the proper functioning of nearly every kind of public or private
organization. They may post entries directly to journals or ledgers, or they may prepare
data for input to computers, which produce the records electronically. Their duties may
include responsibility for records of accounts receivable, accounts payable, payrolls, bank
deposits, purchase orders, expense reports, and sales commissions. In large organizations
such as manufacturing companies or banks, there may be separate departments
responsible for each of these functions, with Accounting Clerks specializing in a single
procedure. In a small business a single clerk may have all of these duties.
Tasks include: Accounting clerks may also perform special tasks found only in the
industry in which they work. Some clerks duties are limited to certain tasks. Some may
be responsible for billing and collections.


Actors interpret the range of human emotions in an artistic form for entertainment of an
audience. They create and give life to a character through the use of speech, gestures,
and body movements. A serious or comic role is portrayed for stage, motions pictures,
television, radio, or other media. Lines and cues are memorized through rehearsals.
Tasks include: Actors might be called upon to dance, sing, write or adapt their own
material, and direct self or others in production.


Actuaries design and evaluate insurance, annuity, and pension plans. They may work in
general management, investments, research, long-range planning and accounting,
marketing, and underwriting. They analyze and interpret data on death, accident,
sickness, disability, and retirement rates; perform financial analyses; and use knowledge
of mathematics and statistics when performing their job. They may specialize, calculate
insurance risks, and determine insurance premium rates and policy contract provisions for
each type of insurance offered. The rates and provisions must be profitable to the
company and yet be competitive with other insurance companies. Many specialize in
employee benefits, life and health insurance or in property and liability (casualty)
insurance. Actuaries may also be called on to be expert witnesses court. Some may work
as actuarial consultants.

Acupressurists examine patients who are in pain, stress or tension to diagnose and treat
physical problems. They may use one method of acupressure, such as Shiatsu, or
combine several methods. The client lies on a table as they are being examined.
Tasks include: Some specialize in a specific method or combination of methods.


Acupuncturists use holistic techniques to diagnose, prescribe, and give therapeutic

treatment. During diagnosis they look for patterns of disharmony. They attempt to
restore the free flow of energy in patients to prevent or modify their perception of pain.
They select insertion points using oriental acupuncture theories. They insert various
length needles at acupuncture points on or near the surface of the body and leave them for
a prescribed length of time. Sometimes they use electrical currents to enhance the
treatment. Only those who are licensed and physicians may practice acupuncture.
Dentists and podiatrists may practice acupuncture within the scope of their licenses.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may use oriental medicine, which include s natural herbs, Moxibustion (heat
therapy), Chinese diet therapy, massage and movement, nutrition and exercise.
Marketing skills are needed to be successful.

Administrative Assistants

Administrative Assistants work with Executives, taking over some of their routine
tasks. They may be given any task, which the Executive does not want to do. They will
usually be given tasks, which do not require executive level decisions. They will often be
asked to see that a decision is carried out. Their tasks may require clerical duties,
including typing, but usually require defining and interpreting policies and procedures.
They may train others to follow the procedures or write instructions for others to follow.
Tasks include: They may administer contracts, screen and interview job applicants,
orient new employees to the office, plan training programs, represent the department at
meetings, or maintain and procure office supplies. They may supervise other staff.

Administrative Hearing Interpreters

Administrative Hearing Interpreters perform consecutive interpretation and prepare

written translation in hearings of state and county medical, welfare, unemployment, and
other regulatory agencies. They interpret terminology used during hearings and may
have to interpret written material.
Adult Education Teachers

Adult Education Teachers instruct out-of-school adults in a variety of vocational and

leisure time subjects. They usually teach basic education courses for school dropouts,
help students prepare for the general educational development exam (GED), teach
English to non-English speaking people, and teach popular courses. Many teach job-
related skills.

Advertising Account Executives

Advertising Account Executives represent the agency to the client. They are
responsible for promotional activities for one or more clients. Duties combine
managerial, creative, marketing, sales, and media activities. They confer with clients to
determine their advertising needs and budget limitations. They analyze clients, products
or services, markets and competitors. They make recommendations about how to market
and advertise a product or service. They confer with artistic and market research staff
and develop plans tailored to the clients needs. They coordinate the activities of artists,
copywriters, photographers and other specialists to produce promotional materials. They
also solicit new accounts.

Advertising Directors

Advertising Directors plan and administer advertising programs for an organization.

They are responsible for the quality of service given. They may be involved in the
development of the marketing strategy of a company. They confer with department
heads to develop goals and policies and to identify products which are to be promoted.
They develop budgets for advertising and plan advertising campaigns. They also meet
with representatives of the media such as radio and television stations, newspapers,
magazines, and advertising agencies to negotiate contracts. They also monitor these
contracts to ensure that work is done satisfactorily.

Advertising Salespeople

Advertising Salespeople sell classified and display advertising space in papers,

periodicals, journals, radio and television stations, displays, direct mail, and billboards.
They contact prospects, collect information and visit with advertisers. They show them
layouts they have prepared.
Tasks include: They make a list of prospects. They check old accounts and other papers
for leads. They may collect payments.
Aerospace Assembly Workers

Aerospace Assembly Workers assemble and install surfaces, engines, and electrical and
mechanical components of aircraft and space vehicles. Some workers follow blueprints
and other specifications, use measuring instruments and had tools to prepare units for
fitting and fastening.
Tasks also include: Other workers join sections such as wings and fuselages, and install
engines and other components of the aircraft.

Aerospace Engineers

Aerospace Engineers specialize in propulsion, aerodynamics, fluids or celestial

mechanics of aircraft and spacecraft. The term aerospace often includes Aeronautical
State Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Astronautical Engineers.
Aeronautical Engineers design, develop and test aircraft and missiles. Astronautical
Engineers specialize in spacecraft and astronautics. Mechanical engineers or electrical
and electronic engineers may also specialize in aircraft or spacecraft. Some aerospace
engineers design airplanes and seaplanes for military or transportation purposes.
Aerospace engineers also test models to study and evaluate operations. Some investigate
aircraft accidents.
Tasks include: They prepare written reports. They may submit safety

Agricultural Engineers

Agricultural Engineers use scientific principles to design machinery and equipment and
to develop methods to improve farming and the production, processing, and distribution
of farm products. Some design and test specialized farm equipment, such as tractors and
mechanical pickers, while others plan and develop entire food processing plants. Still
others design farm buildings and structures. Agricultural engineers also develop methods
to conserve and manage energy, soil and water resources efficiently, such as irrigation
and drainage systems. They research the theories, simulate and test the findings, develop
alternatives and new applications.
Agricultural Inspectors

Agricultural Inspectors work to enforce compliance with county, state and federal
government laws and regulations or industry standards by examining agricultural
commodities, horticultural products, live animals, and procedures and equipment at food
processing plants. They also quarantine and inspect incoming nursery stock and
household shipments. Their purpose is the control of plant pests, worker safety, and
regulation of pesticide storage, sale and usage or to determine grade and condition of
agricultural commodities. They examine, weigh, and measure commodities, compare
brands with registry to identify owners, advise grower or processor of corrective action,
and write reports of their findings. They may specialize and be assigned work according
to a type of commodity or animal to be inspected. They may also be required to testify at
legal proceedings.

Agricultural Products Sales Representatives

Agricultural Products Sales Representatives sell bulk shipments of farm products,

such as grains, vegetables, fruits, poultry, livestock, cut flowers, raw wool, animal hides
and skins, and milled products (flour, meal cereal) to wholesalers and other buyers. They
may sell many kinds of farm products for growers and shippers. They provide
information about their product to potential customers. They may also sell to restaurants
and other food service institutions and supermarket chains and grocery stores. They
promote sales, develop new market areas, take orders, prepare contracts, and arrange for
delivery of their products. They keep records of sales and write regular sales reports.

Agricultural Scientists

Agricultural Scientists apply principles of both physical and life sciences to improve
agricultural products and to conserve agricultural resources. They may write computer
programs for specific users.
Tasks include: Nearly all Agricultural Scientists specialize in the application of
scientific techniques to a particular product or problem.


Agronomists experiment and develop methods of growing crops with more efficient
production, higher yield, adapt to soils and climates, resistance to diseases and pests, and
improved characteristics.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may specialize in a specific plant or crop, in disease control, pests, or weeds,
or in environmental management.
Air Safety Inspectors

Air Safety Inspectors are government employees (FAA) who make sure aircraft and
maintenance facilities conform to federal standards of quality, performance and safety.
They see that laws and regulations are obeyed. They may inspect the manufacturing,
maintenance and repair, flight and operations procedures.
Tasks include: They may specialize in either commercial or general aviation aircraft.
They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, repair
stations, schools, and instructional materials.

Air Traffic Controllers

Air Traffic Controllers are responsible for directing air traffic in to and out of airports.
They coordinate the movement of aircraft to prevent accidents and delays while taking
off, flying, and landing. Controllers use two-way radios to issue clearances, effect
aircraft separation, give traffic and weather information, monitor electronic landing and
navigational aids and airport lights. They use radar to monitor aircraft, determine traffic
information, and issue radar vectors.

Aircraft Mechanics

Aircraft Mechanics service, repair, and overhaul aircraft bodies and engines to insure
safety and dependability. They also inspect and test aircraft surfaces and structures.
Licensed Mechanics may work on any part of the aircrafts engines and airframe systems.
Unlicensed Mechanics and apprentices work under the supervision of licensed Mechanics
on various parts of the plane.
Tasks include: Mechanics may also perform cabin maintenance duties.

Airline Ground Crew

Airline Ground Crew provides services to aircraft between flights. They fill airplane
tanks with gas and oil, load and unload baggage and cargo (Airline cargo service), direct
the plane to taxi position, operate portable stairs, and clean the interior and exterior and
replenish cabin supplies (Airline Cabin Service Workers) of the plane. They use a
variety of equipment such as forklifts and other industrial trucks; hydraulic lifts; dollies;
conveyor systems; trucks and pallet transporters.
Airport Managers

Airport Managers are in charge of the operation of an airport. They are responsible for
personnel, maintenance, enforcing rules and regulations, budgeting, promoting airport
use, and negotiations with airlines. Airport Managers must work closely with public

Alcohol and Drug Treatment Counselors

Alcohol and Drug Treatment Counselors help people deal with chemical abuse and
dependency. They use a variety of therapies from behavior modification to interpersonal
techniques. They may administer and evaluate initial tests to help in diagnosis and the
progress of the client. They maintain records and oversee living arrangements for clients.
They work closely with other professionals, such as Medical Social Workers and
Psychologists and may make referrals.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may supervise lay counselors and other workers.


Anesthesiologists administer anesthetic drugs during surgical procedures and for

diagnosis. They consult with patients before surgery to determine the surgical risk and
the type of anesthesia to use. They monitor the patient during surgery to determine their
physical state. They must always be prepared to counteract adverse reactions.

Animal Caretakers and Keepers

Animal Caretakers and Keepers are responsible for the welfare of animals in kennels,
zoos, animal hospitals, aquariums, veterinary facilities and laboratories. They feed,
water, bathe, groom, and exercise the animals. They move animals to other quarters
when necessary. They record information about the animals, such as diet, weight,
medication, food intake, and any visible signs of illness. They may treat minor ailments.
They may work under the direction of Veterinary technicians, animal health technicians,
veterinarians or facilities supervisors.
Tasks include: Animal caretakers repair, clean, and disinfect animal cages and pens.
They adjust controls to regulate temperature and humidity in the area where animals are
Animal Health Technicians

Animal Health Technicians are responsible for the welfare of animals in an animal
hospital setting or in an animal control setting. Uncertified workers are called Veterinary
Assistants. Certified workers in an animal hospital setting assist with surgery, and give
treatment and administer medications, immunizations, and blood plasma as prescribed by
the Veterinarian. They may also perform emergency aid and treatment to animal patients
including suturing skin incisions, administering anesthesia, casting broken bones, and
bandaging wounds. They may also take radiographs, perform laboratory duties, dental
extractions, and repair equipment and cages. Responsibilities also include feeding,
watering, bathing, grooming and exercising animals as well as sweeping and cleaning
animal quarters.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some workers may also perform receptionist/secretarial duties. These workers may
sometimes be referred to as Veterinary Technicians or Veterinary Nurses.

Animal Scientists

Animal Scientists work with methods of production of a variety of animals (dairy and
beef animals, sheep, horses, pigs, and poultry) and management of range and feed crops.
They examine the animals to detect and treat illness or injury. They keep records of the
animals. They adjust environmental controls. Some Animal Scientists specialize in
horse management or horse husbandry.
Tasks include: They may feed and water animals.

Animal Trainers

Animal Trainers teach animals to obey commands, compete in shows, or perform for
audiences. They evaluate each animal in order to determine temperament, ability, and
aptitude for training and they conduct the training programs. They may organize,
conduct or cue animals during performances. They may feed, exercise and give general
care to animals they train.
Tasks include: Animal trainers often work with animals and their owners.

Animators create moving images and special effects for feature films, television
commercials, short features computer games and videos. They draw by hand. They use
computers to create the large series of pictures (sequential drawings) which, when
photographed and transferred to film or tape, then projected at a specific speed, form the
animated cartoons seen in movies and on television. They produce a series of sketches,
may make a model and do layout for animated films. In addition, they may create
background layouts, moods and color patterns. Animators usually begin by doing 2-D
drawings, which are scanned into the computer, edited, colored, textured and motion
Tasks include: They may also prepare successive drawings of special effects, such as
wind, rain and fire. Animation also has applications in marketing and advertising.


Anthropologists is a general term for those who study human societies, both present and
past. They may study languages, values, customs, and social patterns. Practicing
anthropologists apply their skills to a variety of occupations and professions. They may
work in jobs titled other than anthropologists.
Paleanthropologists are scholars from several different sciences studying human
biological and cultural evolution.
Physical Anthropologists measure and study differences in human physical types, some
apply the knowledge and techniques of anthropology to such problems as health
education or improving agricultural methods in third-world countries.
Tasks include: Anthropologists conduct field studies of such social groupings as pre-
literature cultures, urban immigrants or farm communities. Typically, they live among
the people that they are studying, learning the languages, interviewing informants, and
observing customs and social interactions. Anthropologists are working with people in
groups found all over the world. In business, they provide information that helps in sales
and marketing and product development.

Antique Dealers

Antique Dealers buy and sell antiques and collectible items such as furniture, glass
postcards, books and clothes.
Apartment House Managers

Apartment House Managers maintain residential properties for absentee owners. They
reside on the premises of the complex they manage and may also be called Resident
Managers. They resolve building and tenant problems daily. They advertise and show
vacancies and select tenants after verifying their applications. They complete rental
agreements and clearly explain the terms to prevent misunderstandings. They collect
rental payments and, when necessary, serve late-rent or eviction notices.

Apparel Sales Representatives

Apparel Sales Representatives sell garments and accessories such as footwear, hats,
wigs, belts, neckties, yard goods and other textile products to wholesale and retail stores
for manufacturers. Some work for international manufacturers. They may specialize in
one kind of product, like womens and girls apparel and according to price range. Some
may sell many kinds of products. They solicit orders from regular customers and call on
prospective customers usually in an assigned area. They show samples or catalog
illustrations of their product or line and help determine the needs of the customer. They
quote prices and credit and discount terms and prepare contracts and then arrange
delivery. They also may help solve problems the customer may have with their product.

Appliance Repairers

Appliance Repairers service and repair large and small gas and home appliances. These
range from relatively uncomplicated appliances, such as food mixers and toasters to
stoves, refrigerators, washing machines, dryers and dishwashers which have complex
control systems. They consult manuals and wiring diagrams and use testing equipment to
determine the cause of failure. They may disassemble the appliance, test components,
replace or repair defective parts and then reassemble it or they may refer the customer to
the part or equipment company service department for repair. They keep records of calls
and parts.
Tasks include: Some repair home power tools.

Appraisers examine property such as real estate (land, building, and natural resources),
machinery and equipment, works of art, crops, securities, and patents for buyers, sellers,
loan companies, insurance companies, and taxing authorities. They may estimate the cost
of replacing the property, or the price it will bring if sold (its value) or they may forecast
its earning power. They view the property, take measurements and sometimes
photographs, and review documents on similar properties. They prepare written reports
for their clients, may make oral reports to be backed up with file data or limited reports
for specific purposes, to substantiate their appraisal. They may be required to give expert
witness testimony in court. Appraisers almost always specialize in particular types of
property such as residential, commercial, industrial, or special purpose property. By far
the largest portion appraises real estate.


Apprentices learn their craft through a formal apprenticeship from skilled and
experienced workers. Apprenticeship is a practical way to learn a system of structured
employment based training. It is a partnership between industry, education and
government. This training provides industry with highly skilled, competent workers with
marketable skills. Apprentices learn by doing, through on-the-job training, and in
supplemental classroom instruction. Apprenticeship continues to be a cost effective and
efficient system of training. A formal apprenticeship is recognized throughout an
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job: Formal apprenticeship training is the major way to prepare for some occupations,
Informal Apprenticeship training is one of several ways to gain training for entry-level
journeywork positions for many other occupations.


Aquaculturists breed and raise aquatic life, such as shrimp, lobster, clams, catfish, trout
or oysters. They focus on fish culture, growth, rearing, stocking and harvesting for
human consumption or recreational stocking.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Their duties may span the day-to-day culture of the fish, maintenance of the system,
and all spawning and hatchery work. They may manage an aqua farm, monitor water
quality and the environment, identify common diseases in fish and shellfish, maintain live
feed cultures, and carry out experiments.

Archaeologists study extinct and past cultures principally by examining remnants such
as utensils, weapons, architecture or artwork uncovered by excavation. They attempt to
reconstruct the society by studying the context of the history and customs of the group.
They may be involved at the site or dig in finding artifacts.
Tasks include: They may specialize or teach.


Architects translate the needs of clients into structures and environments that satisfy both
functional and esthetic requirements. They design and monitor the construction of a wide
variety of structures, houses, office buildings, schools, industrial parks, and shopping
centers. They hold discussions with clients, visit building sites, review local zoning laws
and building codes, estimate building costs, prepare designs, contract documents and
specifications for the proposed building and observe work in progress to make certain
that plans are being followed.


Archivists receive, collect, organize, inventory, catalogue or categorize, analyze and

appraise, maintain and preserve and treat collections and historical valuable records and
documents and make them available for reference. They research and appraise documents
like government and business records, manuscripts, books, diaries, letters from famous
persons, and minutes of corporate board meetings. They may also work with electronic
files, slides and film, photographs, videos, sound recordings, maps, engineering
drawings, artwork, posters and ephemera. They investigate the materials time period
and its source. They prepare or direct preparation of document descriptions. In private
industry they work in records centers and research corporate history and keep track of
their product memorabilia.
Tasks include: In federal government they may work for the National Archives and
Records Administration. They may also: direct catalogers, prepare archive reference
aids, request materials from libraries, private collections, and other archives, choose
documents for publication and display, be responsible for their storage, edit, file and
cross index selected documents, keep these records and documents safe, Dispose of
materials not archived, offer advice to others, arrange meetings to educate the public,
staff and clients, many also do research or write, develop policies and procedures,
research funding sources and write grant proposals.
Arson Investigators

Arson Investigators specialize and conduct investigations of suspected arson. If arson is

evident they interrogate suspects, make arrests and testify in court. They must confer
with police officers and witnesses during their investigation.

Art Directors

Art Directors develop a visual concept that will sell a product. They determine the
design, art work, photography, type style and other artistic material that go into published
materials or television advertisements. They may perform some writing tasks, too. They
consult with clients, copywriters, and artistic staff to develop promotional materials.
They also choose and supervise the art and photographic staff on the layouts which are
used in various media such as magazines, television, packaging and outdoor signs. In
television, they may choose film techniques, type of music and performers.

Art Gallery Owners

Art Gallery Owners operate art galleries. They meet with artists, evaluate their work
and display their work. They meet with private and business art buyers to help them add
to their collections. Each gallery may focus on a particular kind of art.


Artists express their own thoughts and feelings by creating fine art works, which are
primarily intended for aesthetic enjoyment. Fine art differs from commercial art in that
the artist retains responsibility for the selection of subject matter, medium, and method of
Painters use oil, watercolors, acrylics and other media to produce visual images on
surfaces ranging from canvases to the sides of buildings.
Asbestos Workers

Asbestos workers install and remove asbestos insulating materials that are considered
hazardous materials. The major disease caused by asbestos is lung cancer.
Installers cover the material (exposed hot and cold surfaces of equipment such as ducts,
pipes, boilers, and tanks), bind it to hold it in place, apply coats of plastic insulating
material with a trowel, and wrap and tie tar paper, felt, cloth or canvas by sewing or
stapling. They use a pointing trowel to apply asbestos cement. They may work in a new
industrial construction or in alteration and maintenance of insulated pipe in existing
Removers take asbestos, pack transport or dispose of asbestos hazardous materials from
ceiling, wall, beams, boilers and other structures. They connect a walkway between a
mobile unit and the inside work area so that material is contained. They soften asbestos
with a chemical solution. Then, they bag the asbestos and clean the work area.
Tasks include: They dismantle scaffolding and temporary walkways. They load sealed
bags onto a truck. They shower to remove asbestos fibers from their hair and skin.

Association Executives

Association Executives direct and coordinate the activities of trade and professional
organizations in accordance with established policies to further achievement of goals,
objectives, and standards of profession or association. At entry-level you may plan
conventions and meetings, promote membership and services, or work in public relations.
As an executive you organize efforts to conduct industry research, collect statistical
information, represent the organization before legislative bodies and government
agencies, and publish newsletters giving information about trends in the industry.


Astronauts travel into space. Each astronaut on board a space shuttle is a specialist with
specific job duties to perform. Some conduct research for NASA or for private
companies. Astronauts must be prepared to perform maintenance and repairs of the space
vehicle while in space. Many astronauts work in ground control and in communications.

Astronomers study the solar system, stars, galaxies and space using principles of physics
and mathematics. Their work adds to the basic scientific knowledge about the nature of
the universe and also provides a basis for improvement in such areas as aircraft
navigation and satellite communication. They study planets, stars, novas, and colliding
gases between stars in an attempt to find out how they were formed, what they are made
of and how they change. They measure light, radio and x-ray emissions from space
sources and plot paths for man mad satellites and space probes. Some may teach.

Athletic Instructors

Athletic Instructors work with people to develop their ability to perform a sport and to
remain free from injury. They may work with professional, collegiate, or school teams,
such as football, baseball, hockey, basketball, soccer, or with amateur or professional
individuals in boxing, wrestling, golf, skiing, swimming, gymnastics, skating, sailing,
mountain climbing, tennis. They may also work with small groups in these sports. They
analyze and evaluate the performance and the physical condition of athletes. They may
monitor weight conditions and recommend special diets to build health. They also plan
daily practice sessions. They may also use blackboards or movies, as well as verbal
descriptions to demonstrate techniques. They tape ankles, fingers, and wrists to provide
support for muscles during training and play. They may also devise special equipment,
such as brace or pad and develop a rehabilitation program. They may also give first aid
to injured players and may massage parts of a players body to relieve soreness and
strain. Trainers also check equipment.
Tasks include: They keep daily records of performance and plan and supervise routine
strength and conditioning programs and corrective exercises. Coaches with small schools
may teach several sports, as well as do the purchasing, recordkeeping, scheduling of
games, and arranging for travel.

Auctioneers sell articles at auction to the highest bidder. They may appraise, catalog,
advertise, and ultimately arrange merchandise in preparation for the event. They conduct
the bidding for each item, acknowledge each incoming bid, and then award the item to
the highest bidder. The unique rapid dialogue (referred to as the chant) usually ensures
audience attention and keeps the pace quick and productive. The auctioneer must
maintain a sharp eye and tongue to accomplish the goal; a successful and profitable
auction. Sometimes auctioneers work in pairs to achieve this. Their role is much like
that of a salesperson. They describe items to be auctioned and give a history of the items
to potential bidders. A thorough knowledge of they type of merchandise at hand is
required in some cases (i.e. real estate or antique artwork) and certainly advantageous in
all cases to encourage higher bids and increase buyer awareness.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may specialize in a certain item like personal property (Furniture, household
items and jewelry), art objects automobiles, charity auctions, commercial and industrial
auctions (Business liquidations and manufacturers inventory), farm equipment, and
other kinds of equipment, livestock, real estate, and furniture.


Auditors determine if established accounting and record keeping procedures are being
followed. They analyze records by inspecting and verifying journal and ledger entries
and counting cash. They prepare reports for management and administration and may
make recommendations for improving the operation and financial position of a company
or agency. In some cases they investigate the purpose for which money is being spent.
The complexity of an audit depends on size and business activity.

Auto Body and Fender Repairers

Auto Body and Fender Repairers fix or replace the damaged portions of automobile
bodies and frames. Auto Body Repairers remove dents and scratches from fenders and
body panels, weld torn metal, replace body parts, and straighten bent frames. Sometimes
specialists do the straightening of frames. In small shops, repairers estimate repairs, sand
and mask the vehicle, mix and match the paint, and paint the repaired area.
Auto Muffler Installers

Auto muffler installers work for specialty repair shops and chain retail outlets. They
may install, replace or repair mufflers by welding, bending, and shaping pipes. They
replace defective mufflers and pipes on automobiles, buses, trucks and other automotive
vehicles according to factory or customer specifications. Many tasks are similar to auto
mechanics. They may estimate the cost and length of a job.
Tasks include: They may also perform other repairs such as brakes, wheel alignment,
shock absorbers, suspension work, simple tune-ups, or smog checks. They may also
replace struts, brakes, and shocks.

Auto Stereo and Alarm Installers

Auto Stereo and Alarm Installers set up an install motor vehicle stereo systems and
alarms. They may also install cellular phones or cruise controls.

Automobile Assemblers

Automobile Assemblers fit together small parts to make subassemblies and put
subassemblies together to make a complete vehicle. They work closely with other
assemblers, technicians and engineers.
Tasks Include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may assemble a wide range of products or sections of a vehicle from
manufactured parts or subassemblies. They may tighten several nuts. They may install
prefabricated fabric lining.
Recreational Vehicle Assemblers perform a variety of task and material such as wood,
aluminum, steel, plastics, floor covering and cloth.
Bus and Bus Component Assemblers perform a variety of task and material such as
wood, aluminum, steel, plastics, floor covering and cloth.

Automobile Contract Clerks

Automobile Contract Clerks process the paperwork to complete a sale of an automobile

according to state regulations.
Automobile Designers

Automobile Designers use artistic talent to create functional and appealing designs for
the whole or parts (exterior and interior) of an automobile. Usually they work in a small
design group. The group may receive a specification package provided by the parent
company at the beginning of the design process, which lists any manufacturing restraints.
The pre-production process may include designing wheels, trim (including color), and
interior parts (upholstery, seat covers carpets, and door trim). The design group will
attempt to meet the needs of their employer, keeping in mind the tastes and needs of
potential product users and consumer trends. Designers also consider other factors (fuel
efficiency, use of space, style, safety, how the car will be used, and other thoughtful
details for comfort and aesthetics). They create sketches, illustrations, a model or
prototype, and present it to their employer for exhibit and approval. Automobile
Designers is a specialization in Industrial Design. This occupation is closely related to
Industrial Designers because they do product design. It is also closely related to
Mechanical Engineers because they too design engines, machines, machines and
mechanical equipment. All these workers use ideas and creative talent to create, design,
plan, install, and operate. Mechanical engineers plan, design engines, machines, and
other mechanically functioning equipment. They oversee installation, operation, and
maintenance and repair of such equipment.

Automobile Detailers and Vehicle Cleaners

Automobile Detailers and Vehicle Cleaners work primarily with a vehicles

appearance. The vehicles may include automobiles, trucks, trailers, vans, buses, heavy
equipment, including caterpillars and cement trucks. They may steam clean vehicle
engines. They typically clean the interior and exterior of the vehicle.
Tasks include: They may make cloth or vinyl repairs to the interior. They prepare a
washing solution. Then they clean, polish and apply wax to the exterior. They may also
clean tires and rims.

Automobile Mechanics

Automobile Mechanics repair and maintain automotive equipment. They make tests,
diagnose mechanical problems, make adjustments, and repair or replace defective parts.
They may also do preventive maintenance, following a standard checklist. In small
shops, mechanics often do all types of repair and service from tune-ups to complete
engine rebuilding.
Tasks include: In large shops they may specialize in working on transmissions, brakes,
carburetors, or front-end wheel alignment.
Automobile Racers

Automobile racers drive automobiles and compete in races for a cash prize. While
racing they must analyze their position, observe gages, and operate the car efficiently.
Tasks include: The driver must watch for warning signs of accidents in the race and
drive accordingly.

Automobile Salespeople

Automobile Salespeople assist customers in selecting new or used cars and trucks from
dealers showrooms and car lots. After discussions with customers concerning type of
auto desired, salespeople often quote tentative prices and trade-in allowances, which are
usually subject to sales managers approval. They may also arrange financing and
insurance and obtain license plates and registrations for cars they sell.

Automotive Engineers

Automotive Engineers research, design and test automotive engines, transmissions and
equipment. They apply mechanical engineering to internal combustion engines and

Automotive Painters

Automotive Painters repaint automobiles, trucks, and buses. Some paint new motor
vehicles in a production line. They prepare the bare metal, mask the vehicle, use fillers
and apply prime coats, mix colors, and blend new paint into the old paint. They must be
able to use a viscosity meter to determine consistency, a spray gun, drying machines, and
to operate automatic painting machinery.

Avionics Technicians

Avionics technicians repair and install airplane radios radar, electrical, navigation and
directional equipment. They inspect and document their work according to procedures
acceptable to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), which regulates all aircraft
maintenance and operations.

Bailiffs are responsible for maintaining courtroom security and protecting the Judge, jury
and other participants during hearings and trials. They perform errands inside and
outside the court and usually attend to the personal needs of the Judge.


Bakers mix dough according to recipes and bake breads, pastries, and other bakery
goods. In large industrial bakeries they supervise the activities of production workers.
Duties include measuring, sifting and mixing ingredients, rolling, cutting, and setting
oven temperatures. They may specialize in production as dough mixers, dividers, dough
brake operators, molding machines operators, bench hands, oven tenders, or as pizza
bakers, bread bakers, pastry cooks, and pie makers. They may use mixers and ovens and
also decorate certain baked products by hand.

Bank Operations Officers

Operations officers supervise tellers and clerical workers in the operations area of the
bank. They train new tellers and review personnel performance and wages. They write
reports and schedule work hours and breaks. Some may prepare an office budget and
control expenses. They are responsible for coordinating the banks routine to run
smoothly and for handling upset customers. They must understand bank procedures from
experience and manuals. In small banks, some may do staff hiring. This position is
responsible to the branch manager.

Bank Tellers

Bank tellers handle money for commercial, personal, and savings accounts, prepare
cashiers checks, take loan payments, open new accounts, and sell and cash savings
bonds. They cash checks, accept deposits, and pay out withdrawals and prepare related
reports. After banking hours, tellers balance the days accounts, sort check and deposit
slips, and wrap money. Their tasks vary with the individual employer and the size and
type of institution. They must provide prompt, efficient, courteous and personalized
service to customers.

Barbers cut hair and provide a variety of personal services to help people improve their
personal appearance. They shampoo hair and massage the scalp, cut, shape and style
hair, color and bleach hair, shave or trim mustaches and beards, give manicures and scalp
and facial treatments, and may contour hair using a razor. They make appointments,
clean instruments, sell various lotions and tonics, and sell and fit hairpieces as an
additional service. Those who own or manage a shop have additional responsibilities
such as ordering supplies, paying bills, keeping records, and hiring employees.


Bartenders prepare and serve alcoholic and other beverages to customers in bars and
restaurants. Duties include mixing drinks, collecting tabs, selling food and appetizers,
ordering liquors and supplies, washing glasses, operating cash registers, and keeping the
bar clean. In food service establishments they fill orders for waiters and waitresses.
They must see that state and local laws about serving alcoholic beverages are observed.

Bath Attendants

Bath attendants assist people in bathhouses as attendants. They stock and give out
towels to customers. They may rub a clients body after a bath or a massage. They may
adjust temperature valves and switches.


Beekeepers raise bees to produce honey and to pollinate crops. They assemble hives and
confine the bees. To pollinate orchards they must transport the hives to the orchard.
They may use smoke to force the bees from the hives.

Bicycle Repairers

Bicycle repairers assemble, repair, and service bicycles. They disassemble, adjust,
install parts, paint frames, and may weld frames. They tighten and loosen spokes to align
wheels. They repair handbrakes gears and accessories, such as handle bars, stands, lights
and seats. They may paint the frame and repair tires.
Tasks include: Many also sell and assemble new bicycles and accessories.
Bilingual School Teachers

Bilingual schoolteachers work with limited and non-English proficient students. They
typically provide classroom instruction to their students. Bilingual schoolteachers keep
attendance records, administer tests, and evaluate students progress. In addition, they
participate in faculty and professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher
training workshops.
Tasks include: They may be asked to sponsor special activities or student organizations.

Bindery Workers

Bindery Workers use machines to put together books, magazines, pamphlets and
business forms. They feed paper into machines and put pages and illustrations in the
right order. The machines gather, staple, collate, cut, fold, press, sew, and punch. In a
large shop you might run one machine all the time. In a small shop you might run


Biochemists conduct basic research on the chemical processes of living organisms. They
also work in applied research. They may work in one of these specialties: Inorganic
Biochemistry, Physical Biochemistry,, Biochemical and Molecular Genetics, Biomedical
Pharmacology, and Immunochemistry. They may teach or conduct research in a
university setting.
Tasks include: They may isolate, analyze and identify hormones, vitamins and enzymes.
They may study the mechanism of normal and abnormal cell development.


Biologists study the origin, development, anatomy, function, distribution and other basic
principles of plan and animal life. Biologists differ from chemists and physicists who are
concerned with non-living substance matter. Biologists are usually are usually classified
according to a specialty (Fisheries Biologist, Marine Biologist, Wildlife Biologist, etc.).
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Biologists may work in research, manufacturi8ng, teaching, administration, natural
resource management, consulting, or a combination of these, and some work in the
laboratory as well as in the classroom.
Biomedical Engineers

Biomedical Engineers use engineering science and technology to solve problems in both
animal and human biology or medicine. Most specialize. Many tasks involve working
on an on call basis. Sometimes projects inhibit time off.
Bioengineers or Bioenvironmental Engineers work to understand biological systems.
They are concerned with the structure, function, and performance of the human body in
health and disease. They work to improve the environment and to protect human, animal,
and plant life.
Research Bioengineers work in laboratories. They do mathematical analysis and
computer simulation of a biological system.
Clinical Engineers, a new area of Bioengineers, work with health care teams to improve
health care delivery systems. They use computers to monitor patients. They also
maintain and repair their instruments and develop ways to analyze data. They may help
design special purpose equipment.
Medical Engineers design, develop, and build medical instruments and devices, such as
artificial kidneys, hears, heart valves, blood vessels, cardiac pacemakers, and ventilators,
and artificial joints, arms, and legs. They use computers to monitor hospital patients,
astronauts in space, or divers under the sea. They also design and build systems for the
controlled delivery of drugs to patients. Other Biomedical Engineers design modern
clinical laboratories or hospitals.

Biomedical Equipment Technicians

Biomedical Equipment Technicians assemble, maintain, repair, calibrate and modify

many types of medical instruments and devices.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may work with pacemakers, heart-lung machines, CAT scanners and

Biotechnical Researchers

Biotechnical Researchers isolate, analyze, and identify chemicals of biological origin,

use these living organisms as factories to make products such as drugs, fertilizers and
other chemicals. These products have applications in medicine, food processing,
chemical, and energy production. These workers may specialize. They may culture or
grow these chemicals under laboratory conditions outside of their usual biological
environment. They may work to cure cancer, the common cold, and many other diseases.
Some do research and some teach in colleges and universities.
Blacksmiths and Forge Shop Workers

Blacksmiths and Forge Shop Workers make metal objects that are exceptionally strong
by heating and hammering or squeezing the metal into shapes. This technique is forging
and is used to make tool and machine parts. All use a special furnace known as a forge.
Blacksmiths use hand tools, anvils, presses and power hammers. Modern forge shops
substitute heavy power equipment and precision die blocks to do the work more rapidly
and accurately. Related jobs are Die Sinkers, Die Setters, Heaters, Hammersmiths,
Hammer Operators, Press Operators, Coiners, and Trimmers, Grinders, Shot blasters,
Sandblasters, Picklers, Hardeners or Heat Treaters.

Blood Bank Specialists

Blood Bank Specialists are medical technologists or technicians who select donors, draw
blood, type it and run pre-transfusion tests to ensure patient safety.

Boat Builders

Boat Builders make boats (houseboats, canoes, paddleboats) and other things like
dinghies, life rafts, and satellite dishes. They may work with wood and fiberglass.


Boilermakers build steam generating equipment, storage tanks, and other vessels that
hold liquids and gases made of heavy steel plates. Boilers supply steam for heating,
running engines, and many other uses. Boilermakers read blueprints that show the
location and relationship of boiler parts. Then they mark reference points on boiler
foundations. After they cut and shape the metal, they bolt on and weld the sections
together. At construction sites, boilermakers assemble and erect boilers or tanks using
hoists and jacks to lift the sections in place. They bolt on fans, valves and other auxiliary
equipment. Finally they test for leaks. Boilermakers also repair boilers and keep them
working. They specialize to some degree in layout, fabrication, welding, rigging or
fitting. Some install heavy steel in the construction of ships and are called ship fitters.
Some work as blacksmiths.

Book Illustrators

Book Illustrators design, paint or draw illustrations for books and book covers and
magazines. They may be hired by publishers or work as self-employed illustrators.
Tasks include: Some work may be done electronically with computers.
Booking or Theatrical Agents

Booking or Theatrical Agents arrange and book entertainers in theater, motion pictures,
with television shows, in variety or nightclub acts, concerts, lectures, trade shows, clubs,
halls or in theatrical or ballet productions. They promote their clients interests. They
negotiate arrangements with employers, which include date, contracts and fees. They
audition and interview talented people in order to select clients. They schedule
attractions, arrange for billing and inspect facilities, equipment and accommodations.
Tasks include: They may advise on wardrobe or acting methods. They may make travel
and lodging arrangements.


Bookkeepers record day-to-day business transactions (billing, accounts payable and

receivables, payroll, general ledger) on various accounting forms which are needed for
effective management. From source documents, such as invoices check stubs, sales slips,
and inventory reports, they record transactions in journals and ledgers, by hand, or by
putting the data into a computer. Full charge or general bookkeepers balance the books at
the end of accounting periods, and compile summary reports and statements to show the
financial condition of the organization. They may file quarterly tax returns and financial
statements. In small offices duties may include preparing payroll, preparing customers
bills, answering the telephone and general office tasks.

Border Patrol Agents

Border Patrol Agents patrol the California land borders (Mexico and Canada) and the
California water border seacoast as well as of the United States. They try to detect
persons attempting to enter illegally and to prevent smuggling.


Botanists study the growth, reproduction, evolution, and use of plants from microscopic
plants to giant trees. They identify and classify plants. They also study related bacteria,
fungi and algae.
Tasks include: They teach, and conduct research.

Brand Managers

Brand Managers are responsible for promoting and selling a particular product.

Brewmasters oversee the production of beer, either at a large manufacturing plant or on

a smaller scale, at a microbrewery, brewpub, or regional specialty brewery. They
develop recipes, adding various flavors (Like fruits, wheat, rice, and corn) to the basic
ingredients: barley, malt, hops, yeast, and water. They add these ingredients into
brewing vats in accordance with their style of beer and recipes. There are as many beer
styles and flavors as there are wines. They create their own masterpiece as chefs do with
food. They also refine and modify the processing techniques.
Tasks include: They tend the machinery, monitor gauges and meters, turn valves, and
occasionally stir, or they supervise a crew of workers that tend to these tasks. They test
and inspect the final product. If they are also the owners of the company, their duties
would probably expand into business management, advertising, personnel, sales, and
other facets of a business operation.


Bricklayers use masonry materials and mortar to build walls, fireplaces, chimneys,
arches and piers. Working from blueprints, they assemble brick, stone, terra cotta tile,
glass and cement blocks, and pre-cast concrete panels. They may also restore, clean,
caulk, and repair older brick and block buildings.

Broadcast Technicians

Broadcast Technicians install, operate, and maintain electronic equipment used to

produce, record and transmit radio and television programs. They use a variety of
equipment, like microphones, sound recorders, sound recorders, videotape records, light
and sound effects equipment, television cameras and other equipment. In small stations,
they perform a variety of tasks. In larger stations, they may specialize in one task.
Building Contractors

Building Contractors undertake construction work clients under specified terms and
price. Some are General Building Contractors who contract to build entire houses, office
buildings, or light industrial buildings. General engineering contractors construct
projects, which require special engineering skills such as dams and highways. A third
group are specialty contractors in areas such as cabinet and millwork, plumbing, or
structural steel. They usually subcontract to general contractors. Sometimes a contractor
is a corporation or a partnership, usually it is an individual and these individuals are the
heads of their companies. As heads of companies, most of their effort is spent on
obtaining business for the firm at prices and terms, which will permit a profit. Ina small
company, the contractor will also use blueprints to estimate costs of materials and labor
and prepare bids, obtain bids from subcontractors, purchase materials for construction,
and supervise workers. In large firms, other workers perform these tasks.

Building Maintenance Workers

Building maintenance workers repair and maintain plumbing and electrical fixtures,
machinery, and structures in office and commercial buildings, industrial plants and
factories and public buildings. They do regular inspections to be sure the machines are
working right. They determine the cause of problems, do repairs and replace worn or
broken parts. They use plumbers electricians or carpenters tools.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may also do routine custodial jobs such as oiling equipment, cleaning out
clogged drains, and painting walls.

Building and Construction Inspectors

Building and Construction Inspectors inspect and insure that structural quality of
buildings meet recognized standards. Before and after construction, they may determine
whether or not the plans for the building comply with local zoning regulations, building
codes and ordinances, and contract specifications. They also investigate reported
incidents of construction or alteration that are being made without proper permits and
direct violators to comply with requirements.
Bus Drivers

Bus Drivers operate school buses, charter buses, or common carriers within a local area
and between cities.
Local Drivers transport passengers and goods over designated routes. They handle
transfers, observe passengers giving fares and check passes. They answer passenger
questions and call out names of major streets along their route.
Inter-City Drivers transport passengers between cities, collect fares and answer
questions about fares, routes and schedules.
School bus drivers transport school children as passengers to and from school. They
must keep order while driving and help passengers cross streets. They are responsible for
checking the safe operation of their vehicle.
Tasks include: All drivers must keep good records and may be required to perform
minor repairs on the road.

Business Education Teachers

Business Education Teachers instruct their students in basic business practices such as
typing, filing, secretarial procedures, business mathematics, office equipment operations,
bookkeeping and office routine. Some teach word processing courses. Business
education teachers intend to prepare their students for employment. They plan lessons,
lecture, perform demonstrations, assign lessons and correct homework. They administer
tests to evaluate student progress and prepare report cards. They must maintain discipline
in the classroom. They may also advise students.

Business Executives

Business Executives are the higher-level management staff of large organizations,

directing the activities of that organization or a major division within it. They develop
and administer policies to maximize profits and make their organization run smoothly.
They work with other key people, reviewing and establishing goals Coordinating plans
and making necessary procedural changes for optimum operation and efficiency of the
organization. They also direct major financial programs and develop policies aimed at
maintaining good relations with the public, stockholders, employees and customers.
Business Managers coordinate business activities in both private industry and public
agencies. Duties vary according to the size of the business. Some may manage several
enterprises. They are responsible for operations, maintenance, purchasing supplies and
equipment, planning, organizing and directing the work of the employees, and budgeting.
They have frequent contact with the company heads on policy and procedures.
Business Planners

Business Planners gather and analyze information relevant to the current and potential
products, services and markets of a business enterprise. They also gather information
about competitors products, services and plans and general social economic and
technological trends. They provide strategic, financial and tactical business analysis.
They identify opportunities for corporate growth and change. They may look into
targets for takeover, (other businesses that could complement the firms operations).

Business Programmers

Business Programmers develop and maintain computer programs which are used in
business for accounting, payroll, and information management. When automating
existing office practices, they observe the rules and procedures currently in use and write
detailed instructions telling the computer to follow the same procedures. For new
problems, business people must define the procedures they want to be followed, then the
programmers write the code (computer instructions) to follow those procedures. They
then maintain the programs by making changes as the business grows or procedures
change and by fixing bugs if they occur. They prepare flow charts of the activities. Job
duties may require programming in one or more appropriate languages intended for
Tasks include: Programmers are also responsible for writing instructions for Computer
Operators to follow. Adapting existing programs or combining programs, which already
solve a specific problem well, creates many programs.

Business Services Managers

Business Services Managers direct the activities of companies that provide various
kinds of services to other business. These companies may provide services like
accounting and bookkeeping, advertising, armored truck, building maintenance,
collection, computer, development and testing, employment agency, equipment rental
and leasing, financial report preparation, graphics, linen supply, mailing, management
and consulting, office machine maintenance, photo finishing, printing, public relations
consulting, research, and temporary help. These managers make policy and prepare
budgets. They plan and work to promote sales of services. They hire and supervise
Tasks include: In small companies they may have a great deal of contact with
Business Services Salespeople

Business Services Salespeople sell a variety of services to businesses, from routine

services to services, which help increase efficiency. The types of services include:
collection, development and testing, employment agency and temporary help, printing,
mailing, office machine maintenance and repair, equipment rental and leasing,
management and consultant, computer services, photofinishing, public relations, food
vending, telephone answering, cleaning, laundry and linen supply, building maintenance,
and detective and armored truck services. They explain to potential customers the
features of the service, the cost, and advantages. They write orders and sometimes take
payments. They may also resolve complaints.

Buyers and Purchasing Agents

Buyers and Purchasing Agents secure the merchandise, supplies, and equipment needed
for companies to carry on their business. Those who work for small businesses may do
all the buying, while those who work for large chains, department stores, or businesses
may specialize in a single line of goods.
Buyers select and order, from manufacturers and wholesalers, merchandise and
commodities, which are offered, for resale in retail stores. They anticipate the types and
quantities of items that customers and employers will want to purchase. They maintain
and adequate inventory. They maintain close contact with advertising staff and managers
and may train or direct salespeople.
Purchasing Agents arrange for the purchase of the materials, supplies, services, and
equipment needed for the internal operations of private and public organizations. Their
duties include conferring with sales people, examining estimates, writing specifications,
requesting bids and negotiating contracts.

CAT Technologists

CAT Technologists operate a special computerized scanner that produces cross-sectional

images that are used in diagnosis of an illness in a patients internal organs and head.
They position the patient on an examining table and use supportive devices. They will
work according to instructions from the Radiologist. They stand behind a control room
window. They view the patient on a video display screen and then start the camera.
They determine the quality or the radiograph and may retake the images.
Tasks include: They talk to the patient to make them comfortable.

Cabinetmakers build, install and repair cabinets, shelving and fixtures for homes and
businesses. They work from blueprints or drawing specifications, marking outlines or
dimensions of parts on paper or lumber stock. Cabinetmakers use hand or power tools to
cut parts from stock and then join these parts together to form complete units.

CalWorks Counselors

CalWorks counselors implement the federal temporary assistance for needy families
(TANF) welfare reform program. CalWorks counselors provide CalWorks (California
Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids) participants (referred to the program by
the Department of Social Services) with academic advising and educational planning,
orientation services, administer math and vocabulary and reading comprehension tests to
assess their aptitudes, interests, temperaments, learning styles and work attitudes. They
conduct career exploration workshops and individual counseling. They make evaluation
reports to recommend appropriate placement based on the participants skills and
abilities. They monitor their progress, provide periodic follow-up services. They provide
intervention and referral services to those when special needs such as domestic violence,
mental health problems and chemical dependency are identified. They work under the
direction of a coordinator.
CalWorks Assessment Counselors work to enable CalWorks participants to move from
unemployed to gainful employment. They help them acquire the knowledge and
understanding of their abilities, life skills and interests. They are different from
CalWorks Counselors because they provide vocational assessment to f help them get
vocational training, placement and employment based on their own competencies and
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
Job. They work to make resources available to the participants. They may be a liaison
between the counseling center and district programs. They may develop special
programs for students.

Calibration Technicians

Calibration Technicians test, calibrate, maintain, repair and certify to the precision
accuracy of instruments used in laboratories and manufacturing processes to measure
temperature, pressure, light, electrical and other physical phenomena. They work
primarily with electronic devices such as oscilloscopes, signal sources, analog and digital
test and process control equipment. They may also be required to work on electrical and
mechanical system.
Camera Repairers

Camera Repairers disassemble and determine damage to cameras, and they then repair
and reassemble them. They also adjust, synchronize, and test photographic equipment.
The camera repairer uses specialized handballs, precision gauges, and timing instruments.
They may fabricate or modify parts of photographic equipment, using a bench lathe,
grinder and drill press.
Tasks include: They work on a variety of equipment, such as shutters, sorters, lenses,
electronic flashes, slide and movie projectors, still and motion picture cameras, and
television cameras. They may also work on tape recorders, dictation equipment, and
videotape systems.

Cannery and Frozen Food Workers

Cannery and Frozen Food Workers sort and prepare fresh foods (fruit, vegetables, and
seafood) for canning, bottling or jarring, drying, freezing and packing. They feed food
products into equipment such as washers, peelers, cleaners, or trimmers. They may dump
food onto sorter tables or conveyor belts. Others may trim, peel, clean, or slice food by
hand with a knife. Some put filled food containers in cartoons or clean returned jars.
They may also sort food products by size and quality and label the container by quality of
the product.


Canvassers to door to door in target area to solicit funds, solicit membership in an

organization, and to circulate leaflets about openings of businesses. They may also try to
gain support for a particular issue. Issues might include clean water, air pollution,
environmental issues, and other issues of public interest. Some employers require
canvassers to sell things.
Tasks include: Working at a bus terminal. Some work county areas to get people to
purchase a dog license and to give them information. Some will verify addresses on a
Car Rental Agents

Car Rental Agents rent cars to people at airline terminals, in hotel and motel lobbies, at
marinas, in business districts and recreational areas. They interview the customer to
determine the type of car they want to rent. They explain about the return date and
location. They explain about automobile insurance and company policy. They verify
identification and credit to determine eligibility for rental. They quote a price and take
cash or credit card deposits before releasing the car to a customer. They inspect the car to
determine any marks or existing damage to the car before releasing it to a customer.
They complete the rental contract. They accept the returned car and compute charges.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may be required to deliver the car to the customer. Later, they may pick up the
car or deliver the customer to a specific place. They work closely with the service
department to learn which automobiles are available. They may keep records for
management. They may check fluid levels to maintain an automobile.


Cardiologists work with patients to treat diseases of the heart. They are physicians with
additional training in the heart and its functions. Cardiologists examine patients,
diagnose disease or injuries, prescribe medicine, and recommend physical activities.
Their work activities are to: listen to a patients heart with a stethoscope, diagnose
recordings of heart activity with an electrocardiograph, study x-ray photographs to
determine the existence or extent of a hear disorder, prescribe suitable treatment, carry
out and supervise medical treatments, may advise and counsel patients on exercise and
diet, supervise medical records for accuracy supervise other staff, may refer patient to a
surgeon of surgery is needed.
Career Counselors

Career Counselors help people to define their life style, identify skills and aptitudes,
develop job-hunting skills, and select satisfying work and leisure activities. Career
counselors use discussion, exercises, and tests to determine the clients personality,
abilities, interests and values. Then they assist the client in gathering information about
career options, evaluating the options, selecting a goal, and defining the steps to be taken
to reach the goal. They may work with clients individually, in groups, or in classes. They
may keep records of the clients they work with and they must continually keep up with
changes in the labor market and be aware of new counseling techniques. They may also
help clients write resumes, prepare for job interviews, and coach them through the job
search process. In large companies they may explain career paths or company transfer
policies and procedures.

Career Information Technicians

Career information technicians plan, organize, and supervise a career information

center. They collect, organize, review, classify, and update career-planning materials,
such as occupational data and reference books. They order materials, catalog them and
maintain files. They interview and assist students and teachers in locating materials.
They may conduct orientations in the career center to demonstrate the use of the files of
written materials, shelf collections, and other audio-visual equipment, such as videotape
recorders and players, televisions, microfiche readers and projectors, radios and computer
terminals. They may set up and score career vocational interest and aptitude tests and
arrange for their interpretation by counselors. They also may refer students to other on-
campus services. They publicize and promote the use of the career center and may
schedule special presentations and speakers. They prepare forms and maintain records
and may supervise and train student assistants.
Tasks include: Some may assist students filling out forms such as financial aid, and
applications for colleges and tests.


Carpenters build and maintain wood structures ranging from rough scaffolds and
concrete forms to buildings that require exact finish work. They also work with metal,
plastic and concrete. Using both hand and power tools, carpenters erect wood
frameworks in buildings, install window frames, apply exterior siding and install
moldings, cabinets, doors and hardware finish.
Tasks include: Some carpenters may specialize and install metal stud framing and T-bar

Cartographers compile, evaluate, design, draft and construct and oversee the production
of new or revised maps and charts to show the spatial properties of the earths features.
They use information from field surveys, aerial photographs, existing maps, and other
resources to make charts and maps. Cartographers determine map scale and the height
from which aerial photographs should be taken. They check the names and location of
streams, rivers, major buildings and roads. They survey data conduct map research,
investigate topics such as how people use maps. Cartographers may also conduct
research in mapping techniques and procedures. Cartography involves many unique
processes and requires the skills of a wide range of specialists. Some workers in
cartographic occupations perform routine work while others have very technical jobs
requiring many years of training and experience.
Tasks include: In large organizations, some workers may specialize in one function,
such as compiling, negative scribing or editing. In smaller organizations, job duties may
be combined in various ways depending upon the kinds of maps being made.

Cashiers handle money received from their employers customers to transact business.
They receive payments, handle credit transactions, make change, issue receipts, and
account for amounts received.

Casino Dealers

Casino Dealers work in gambling casinos, card rooms, private clubs and other gaming
establishments. They handle cards, deal them to customers, exchange money or chips
and distribute winnings.


Caterers coordinate food service at weddings, office parties, fund raising events,
meetings, banquets, private parties and other special events. They estimate costs and
order supplies. They work with food preparers to plan menus.
Cement Masons

Cement Masons smooth out fresh concrete surfaces on construction projects such as
sidewalks, commercial buildings and concrete highways. They build forms into which
concrete is poured, level the surface with a straight-edge, work the concrete with a float
and finally finish it with a hand trowel.
Terrazzo Installers and Finishers work with terrazzo, which is a flooring material,
made of stone chips that are set in concrete and smoothly finished.

Cemetery Brokers

Cemetery Brokers operate a cemetery or mausoleum. They may specialize and sell or
resell cemetery lots, crypts, niches or other resting places for deceased persons.
Tasks include: They may offer internment services.

Census Enumerators

Census Enumerators collect statistics and demographic information in a specific

geographical area usually in their own neighborhoods or communities. They work under
the supervision of a crew leader. They will locate households, verify addresses by
blocks, canvas an area and list and conduct interviews with people (respondents). They
explain the purpose of the census; ask questions that are on the census forms and record
data on these forms. They use maps and address registers that they will update. They
meet with their crew leader daily to discuss their progress and to turn in their

Central Intelligence Agents

Central Intelligence Agents work on both domestic and foreign assignments to gather
and analyze economic, political and societal data for the U.S. government. They may
work in one of four groups called directorates: Administration, Science and Technology,
Intelligence, Operations. The job duties and tasks differ in each of the directorates.

Central Office Installers/Repairs

Central Office Installers and Repairers work on equipment that connects and
disconnects telephone lines, test the operation of equipment after installation, and connect
outgoing and incoming telephone trunk lines. They work at telephone central offices.
Ceramic Engineers

Ceramic Engineers develop methods for processing ceramic materials into such
products as glassware, atomic fuel elements, electronic components, and heat resistant
materials for space vehicles. Ceramics are non-metallic, inorganic materials, which
require high temperatures in their processing. Some ceramic engineers are engaged
directly in processing activities such as testing raw materials, monitoring, firing, and
inspecting finished products. Others design or supervise the construction of processing
systems. Most ceramic engineers specialize in a particular product field such as
structural materials (brick and tile), electronic ceramics, or atomic fuel elements. They
also design products with computers. Research and develop new lasers to accurately cut
metals. They use computer-aided design for precision-engineered configurations.

Certified Public Accountants

Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) provide accounting and tax services to other
businesses and to the general public on a fee basis. The services they provide include
financial and operational audits, management consulting (including advising on
accounting systems), and tax preparation and representation. The audit function is a
unique service the CPA renders. They plan the audit, select procedures to use, examine
the books and financial records, and give an opinion whether the business statements
fairly represent the financial situation of the company or business. Some specialize in
preparing tax returns while others design accounting systems. Still others evaluate
computer systems and others specialize in security controls.


Chauffeurs drive private cars under the direction of owners or other passengers. They
may also be responsible for keeping their vehicle clean polished, and in operating
condition. They may also run errands.
Tasks include: Some work as airport limousine, chauffeur messengers or van drivers.
Some drive a mortuary hearse or limousine and assist as pallbearers.

Cheesemakers use advanced scientific equipment to reproduce natural cheeses in

quantity. They tend to specialize in making a certain type of cheese. They pasteurize and
separate the milk. They cook the milk and other ingredients according to a formula.
They test samples to achieve the desired firmness and texture of specific cheeses. They
also adjust measures of ingredients to measure time and temperatures. They observe
equipment and make adjustments. They keep detailed logs.
Tasks include: They may supervise cheese maker helpers. They stack the cheese and
clean the work area.

Chefs and Dinner Cooks

Chefs and Dinner Cooks are responsible for the preparation, seasoning and cooking of
various soups, meats, vegetables, desserts and other foodstuffs for the public. They must
be able to prepare every item on their menu. Cooks generally have less formal training or
experience. Specific tasks include estimating and ordering food purchases, regulating
cooking temperatures, measuring and mixing ingredients and preparing serving plates.
Chefs direct the activities of all kitchen personnel and do menu development. In large
kitchens, an executive Chef directs activities of other chefs. They may also be
responsible for training of their assistants.
Tasks include: Chefs and dinner cooks in large restaurants may supervise other staff or
may be assigned a Station or to one cooking operation.

Chemical Engineers

Chemical Engineers apply principles and technology of chemistry, physics, mechanical

and electrical engineering to develop new or improved chemical manufacturing processes
and products. They design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for
manufacturing drugs, chemicals and products, such as plastics, synthetic rubber,
detergents and textiles. They also design, plan layouts, and oversee the workers engaged
in construction, controlling and improving equipment for carrying out chemical
processes. Chemical engineers often specialize in a particular operation such as
polymerization or oxidation; others specialize ion a particular area such as environmental
control or specific products such as plastics, rubber, or textile fibers. Other specialties
include research, development, design, plant operation, sales and teaching.
Chemical Laboratory Technicians

Chemical Laboratory Technicians work under the supervision of chemists and

chemical engineers in industry and government to develop new products and materials,
analyze materials, liquids and gases, and conduct routine tests on materials, products, and
processes. For example, they may analyze water, sewage, soil, cement, foods, dairy
products, drugs, plastics, dyes, paints, detergents, pollutants and hazardous waste, paper,
petroleum, textiles, and fillers to determine the strength, stability, purity and chemical
content. They may help install, maintain, operate, and repair laboratory equipment and
instruments. This is a broad field and most specialize in one kind of product. In large
laboratories the specialty may be one particular material or task.
Tasks include: Technicians must keep accurate records and write reports on their

Chemical Processing Workers

Chemical Processing Workers work with raw materials that are used in the production
of chemicals such as paints, fertilizers, explosives, plastic materials, and objects made of
rubber stock. They prepare the raw materials by crushing, liquefying, milling or
pulverizing them. They may fill or empty equipment, weigh materials, and fasten covers.
They may use a hand truck to move the materials and load materials on trucks or railroad
cars. They are also responsible for cleaning the work area.
Tasks include: Since the processing and manufacture of these items is highly
mechanized, typical production jobs may involve observing, tending, and adjusting

Chemical Sales Representatives

Chemical Sales Representatives sell chemical and chemical products to manufacturers

and retailers. They generally specialize in certain line or product such as industrial
chemicals, petrochemicals, fuel and lube oil products, fertilizers, pesticides or plastics.
They must be well versed in their product line and its applications, plus know the
operations of their customers and prospects well enough to recognize their needs. They
show samples, pictures and catalogs that list their products, and demonstrate how a
product can save money, improve productivity or satisfy a special need. They offer
prompt, dependable service so that the buyers become regular customers. They usually
work a specified sales territory, its size depending upon projected sales. They generally
handle any complaints that occur in their territory. They keep a record of their sales,
forward orders to factories, prepare reports and expense accounts, plan work schedules,
draw up lists of prospects, make appointments and study the literature describing their
products and the industries they sell to.

Chemists study the properties of matter and make qualitative and quantitative analysis of
many substances. They conduct a variety of experiments and tests in laboratories to
develop new knowledge or maintain control over the quality of existing products and
Physical Chemists study the physical characteristics and investigate the reactions of
atoms and molecules; they seek quantitative explanations stated in precise mathematical
Analytical Chemists determine the composition of substances, measure trace
contaminants, and separate complicated mixtures into their components.
Forensic Scientists is one type of chemist. See the specialties of this occupation.
Organic Chemists deal with the preparation, reactions, and properties of both natural
and synthetic carbon compounds.
Inorganic Chemists are concerned with the broad range of compounds that form from
the 105 know elements.
Biochemists study the chemistry of living systems the reactions and processes that
occur in the cells of plants and animals. Almost any chemist can be involved in research

Child Care Workers

Child Care Workers help supervise and provide care and learning experiences for
infants and young children who attend private, community, or government programs and
schools. They may also care for children before or after school. They work under the
supervision of teachers or directors. Workers provide recreation and teach basic concepts
such as colors, shapes, numbers, and phonetics. They help children to learn health, eating
and cleanliness habits. They must also maintain discipline and supervise eating and rest

Chimney Sweeps

Chimney Sweeps clean soot from chimneys and connecting pipes, repair fireplaces and
chimneys and install equipment like dampers and screens.
Tasks include: They also perform safety inspections and prepare reports. On customer
request, they prepare estimates of work to be done. They may clean boilers and furnaces.

Chiropractors diagnose and treat spinal and other health disorders to help their patients
regain and maintain good health. They work to prevent disability and to correct
abnormalities caused by interference with the nervous system. They manually adjust the
spinal column and other parts of the body. They may also use water (Hydrotherapy),
light, heat, ultrasound, nutritional and electric therapy. They use physical examinations,
laboratory studies, and x-rays to aid in their diagnosis.

Choral Directors

Choral Directors conduct singing groups. They plan, organize and direct music
programs. They interpret music. They audition choir singers. They audition and select
members of the group from professional and amateur singers. They may also select the
music to be performed and schedule performances. They give directions and cues to
singers. They lead the group during actual performance. They help others improve their
Tasks include: Some may teach in a variety of settings. They may work closely with a
band or orchestra conductor. There are frequent practice sessions.


Choreographers create, design, and teach original dance steps and moves for dancers.
They study the story line and music. They interpret emotion. They coordinate dance
with music. They demonstrate their original dances and help others learn the dances.
They may work in a variety of types of dance such as motion picture, television, stage
performance, musical shows, dance revues, in nightclubs and in the ballet.
Choreographers are present during rehearsals.
Tasks include: Some choreographers are also performers and teachers. Some audition
performers for dance parts. Some expand their responsibilities by directing.


Cinematographers direct the operation of motion picture or video cameras. On large

productions they may supervise several camera operators, while on small productions
they may operate the camera themselves. They must work closely with the director to
understand exactly what visual effects are desired. They determine the lighting and
photographic techniques needed. After they shoot, they review the film or videotape with
the director to be sure it was done correctly.
City Managers

City Managers supervise city finances and the services provided by the city. They are
hired by elected officials to carry out their decisions. City managers are usually
responsible for budget planning tax collection, and coordination of city services including
law enforcement, housing, transportation, welfare, and other public works. They analyze
the problems in the city and listen to the concerns of civic groups. Then they develop
solutions and budgets, which they present to the city council.

Civil Engineering Technicians

Civil Engineering Technicians perform a variety of tasks to assist Civil Engineers.

They work under the direction of Civil Engineers or other engineering staff. They
frequently specialize in one area, such as structural technology; road construction, water
control projects or other pubic works projects. During construction they may schedule
construction activities and inspect work. They make recommendations for solutions to
problems. They prepare plans and specifications.
Task include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may estimate cost, prepare specifications, and perform surveying, drafting or
designing duties. They make evaluation reports. They conduct tests on materials. They
may survey project sites. They may train others.

Civil Engineers

Civil Engineers design and oversee the construction of major structures, such as roads,
harbors, airfields, tunnels, bridges, transit systems, buildings, water supply, or water
pollution treatment systems, and sewage systems. During the planning stages of a project
they may study the sites or routes, draw up layouts or make models of proposed
construction. They may also estimate costs, prepare reports, and inspect sites during
construction. They may also assist with urban or environmental planning. They are
involved in community development and improvement and are considered to be problem

Clergy provide spiritual leadership for their congregations through worship services and
other spiritual functions associated with their religious faith. They interpret religious
doctrine. Their work also includes preparing and delivering sermons, conducting
wedding and funeral services, giving religious instruction, counseling individuals or
groups, visiting the sick, and overseeing social activities. Many are greatly involved with
community-affiliated organizations.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some members of the clergy are involved in inter-denominational or ecumenical
work, such as in hospital or prison ministry. Some serve in the armed forces. Some work
in institutions such as universities. Some carry their religious message as missionaries to
other countries to obtain converts.

Clerk Typists

Clerk Typists produce typed copies and undertake a variety of other clerical tasks. It is
one of the most common office occupations and duties vary depending on the employer.
Some clerk typists mainly type final copy, such as letters, reports or memorandums, from
handwritten or typed drafts.
Tasks include: Others may spend more time answering the telephone, filing, sorting and
distributing the mail, posting records, keeping track of cost or operating a duplicating

Clothes Designers

Clothes Designers create new apparel and accessory designs. They analyze fashion
trends and work closely with production, sales, and marketing departments in order to
produce a finished ready-to-wear salable product. They may coordinate activities of
production workers. They may sketch the garment, cut the pattern, select the fabric and
materials and in some cases construct the sample garment. They may arrange for the
showing of a line at sales meetings or fashion shows. They may specialize in designing
certain types of apparel, such as mens or womens clothing, childrens clothing,
swimsuits, lingerie, uniforms, formal attire, handbags, shoes, and other accessories.
Tasks Include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some design custom apparel and accessories. Others may specialize in costume or
theatrical designing.
Clothing Patternmakers

Clothing Patternmakers make full-size paper or fiberboard patterns for clothing. They
follow the designers sketches, samples and written orders. Patternmakers may mark
pattern parts. They may draw details on patterns. They may also cut a master pattern to
different sizes. In small shops, the designer may also do this work.


Clowns dress in bright, colorful, often humorous costumes. They entertain and amuse
audiences. Usually they have their faces painted and are performing various tricks, stunts
or routines to arouse laughter from the audience. There are three categories of clowns:
Whiteface, Auguste and Character. Their performances may be carefully planned and
practiced or totally improvised. Improvisation is said to be the heart and soul of
clowning. Clowning is an ancient and international art form offering a legacy of joy and
goodwill to be shared with audiences worldwide.
Tasks include: Performing magic, contortion, juggling, acrobatics, storytelling,
puppetry, tightrope walking, exhibiting trained animals, comedic improvisation,
pantomime, makeup, costume construction, prop construction.

Coin Machine Collectors

Coin Machine Collectors remove coins from parking meters, public telephones,
jukeboxes, vending machines, and game machines. They report malfunctioning
machines and may make minor repairs.

Coin and Vending Machine Repairers

Coin and Vending Machine Repairers install, service, adjust, maintain and repair
vending, amusement and other coin-operated machines. These machines are placed in a
variety of places on a concession basis. They assemble machines, fill them with products
or ingredients and test the machines. They examine the machines for malfunctions and
adjust and repair them. Coin and vending machines include jukeboxes, pinball machines,
ice making machines drink and food dispensing machines, refrigeration and coin
handling machines, coin sorters and current handling equipment.
Tasks include: Collecting coins from machines and settling with concessionaires. Some
perform preventative maintenance. Some deliver and setup new machines. Some may be
required to paint vending machines.
Collection Workers

Collection Workers try to convince people to pay their overdue bills. The approach they
use may vary with the nature of the business they work for or the reason for the
delinquent account. Contact with the customer is made by mail, telephone or even
personal visits. Bill collectors, skip tracers, or debt counselors duties may include
reading, answering and filing correspondence, reviewing terms of sales or credit
contracts, arranging new payment schedules, receiving payments, and granting extensions
of credit.
Tasks include: When collection of the unpaid bill has been unsuccessful, collection
workers may start the repossession or service disconnection procedures or turn the files
over to an attorney for legal action.

Color Consultants

Color Consultants help people and companies to express themselves through the correct
use of color. Color is about lifestyle and fashion. Color tells the story of a product and
shows the connection between the consumer and a product or experience. Color
consultants give workshops, seminars, presentations, classes, and lectures. Color
consultants help people by trying colors on them, demonstrating makeup techniques, or
shopping for clothing.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They help put on fashion shows. They determine your color preferences and make
recommendations. They help build an overall color scheme. They may conduct classes
to give specialized training about color. They may work with individuals, designers,
engineers and marketing personnel. Some work on color research. Some color
consultants are also Image Consultants.
Commercial Fishers

Commercial Fishers use nets, hooks, and other devices to catch a variety of ocean fish
and marine life. Principal summer catches in California are salmon, tuna, halibut and
other bottom fish, and shrimp, while crab is the main winter catch. Ways used to catch
fish include: 1) purse seiners which encircle schools of fish with a large cylindrical net,
draw the bottom of the net together and pull the net and trapped fish onto their boat 2)
trollers who tow lines with lures and baited hooks through the water to catch salmon 3)
long liners which lay lines (up to eight miles in length) with baited hooks along the ocean
floor to catch halibut and other bottom fish 4) gill-netters which set straight nets that hang
vertically in the water and entrap fish by their gills 5) crabbers which use bait to lure crab
through the narrow openings in large circular or rectangle mesh cages or pots on the
bottom the ocean.
Tasks include: Commercial Fishers may own their own boat and be responsible for the
maintenance and repair of their boat.

Community Affairs Representatives

Community Affairs Representatives assist organizations in meeting their social

responsibility objectives by representing the organization and working with a variety of
community groups. These organizations range from large manufacturing and retailing
firms to banks, hospitals and government agencies. They meet with local groups to
explain the organizations policies on matters of interest to the group. They also arrange
conferences, receptions, exhibitions and tours. They may be responsible for corporate
awards programs for local high school or college students. Or, thy may coordinate or
direct the activities of volunteers such as candy stripers or adult volunteers in hospitals.
Tasks include: In some cases they may be involved with fund raising.

Community Organization Workers

Community Organization Workers provide professional assistance in the development

and continuation of programs such as community service centers, counseling, tutorial
programs, writing grant proposals and fund raising activities. They are often responsible
for determining the needs and providing appropriate services to clients in such areas as
public housing, employment, or health services, such as health care, emergency aid, or
food, family services. They may also serve as spokesperson or advocate for special
groups, projects or needs.
Compensation Analysts

Compensation Analysts gather and analyze information about job duties and
requirements, and prepare job descriptions, which are used in setting salaries and pay
grades, recruitment, training and promotion by businesses and government agencies.
They conduct surveys, interview employees and observe them at work and review
narrative and statistical information on jobs. Some may administer tests. They may
prepare organization charts, descriptions of lines of promotion or career advancement, or
statistical reports. They may prepare proposals for compensation levels for specific
positions or groups of positions. They perform development of salary grad structures.
Several tasks are performed using computers such as word processing, spread sheets and
graphs. They may take part in labor negotiations.


Compositors work from a manuscript and determine the size and style of type and
spacing and arrangement of the lines. They determine the formatting, page layout,
location of illustrations, may scan in text, place graphics and make corrections. After the
type has been set, the compositor does the paste-up and creates a camera-ready copy.
They work with writers and editors and technical staff. They also prepare proof copy.
Computers are increasingly being used to set type. These workers are considered
Prepress Workers.
Tasks included: In small companies one person may be both Typesetters and
Compositor. Some will take orders from customers. Some will perform custom
compositing for clients.

Computer Engineers

Computer Engineers specialize in the design, manufacture, testing, installation,

operation and application of computers, computer systems, and their components. They
invent new and efficient ways to solve problems. Computer engineers work ideas into
specific products. They may prepare layouts, drawings, and schematics of a product.
They may direct production. They develop test programs and analyze the data and
reports. They also design modifications for customers. They work closely with research
and other engineering personnel. T hey may specialize in design and development, test
and evaluation, applied research, or technical representation and sales.
Computer Graphics Specialists

Computer Graphics Specialists use a computer to design, redesign, and produce visual
images and to present and display data. They may design software programs and
computer hardware, or maintain computer systems. Others use software to create or
design images. They may also use other mechanized methods to produce their works or
do some layout and paste-up work by hand.
Scientific Computer Graphics Specialists may create three-dimensional models.
Business Computer Graphics Specialists may create graphic designs for letterheads,
brochures, posters and corporate logos.
Media Computer Graphics Specialists create film, television, video, and animated
imagery, special effects and background scenery for mo vie production, and program
announcements for television. In publishing they create lettering, layout and production
art. In editorial art, they produce graphs, charts, and drawings. This is an excellent field
in which to freelance or work on your own.
Freelance work is available, but you must be willing to hustle, as competition is strong.
In the industry, these workers may be called Industrial Designers who create packaging
and models of products. They usually work with Art directors, Assistants, Illustrators,
Photographers, Typesetters, Engravers and Printers to produce their work.

Computer Maintenance Technicians

Computer Maintenance Technicians maintain and repair a variety of computers and

other electronic computer equipment from business machines to assembly-line
production and control systems. They may also help install the equipment. Routine
service includes cleaning and oiling mechanical parts and checking electronic equipment.
When equipment breaks down, they must determine the cause and then replace or repair
faulty mechanical or electronic parts. They often answer customers questions and give
technical advice on ways to keep equipment in good operating condition. The largest
part of the work is on equipment such as terminals and tape drives rather than on the
computer itself.
Computer Maintenance Technicians

Computer Maintenance Technicians are responsible for the daily operation and
maintenance of a computer system, including peripheral equipment and off-line auxiliary
equipment. Their goal is to maximize computer efficiency. They supervise and
coordinate the activities of computer operators, assistants, key-entry specialists, data
control clerks, computer schedulers, and tape librarians. They confer with programmers
and analysts to insure the flow of information needed. They schedule all jobs to be run.
There is constant interaction with data center users, supervisors and other management
personnel. They are also responsible for the operations and control of facilities
management, (air conditioning, etc.).

Computer Operations Managers

Computer Operations Managers are responsible for the daily operation and
maintenance of a computer system, including peripheral equipment and off-line auxiliary
equipment. Their goal is to maximize computer efficiency. They supervise and
coordinate the activities of computer operators, assistants, key-entry specialists, data
control clerks, computer schedulers and tape librarians. They confer with programmers
and analysts to insure the flow of information needed. They schedule all jobs to be run.
There is constant interaction with data center users, supervisors and other management
personnel. They are also responsible for the operations and control of facilities
management, (air conditioning, etc).

Computer Operators

Computer Operators monitor and control computers to process data according to

operating instructions. Duties include selecting and loading input and output units with
materials such as tapes or printout forms and observing the machines for stoppage or
faulty output.

Computer Programmer Aides

Computer Programmer Aides assist computer programmers or systems analysts with

computer programming tasks. They may write simple programs or parts of programs.
They may evaluate and modify programs. They may enter completed programs for
conversion to machine instruction.
Tasks include: Some computer programming. Aides may monitor programs controlling
industrial processes.
Computer Programmers

Computer Programmers write and maintain computer programs. They follow

programming procedures to write detailed instructions to the computer to solve storage,
processing, retrieval, mathematical, business, engineering, and scientific problems. They
determine the best use of the computer to achieve the desired output. They write
programs using a computer language. They test these programs for bugs and correct
errors. To maintain programs and make changes to these programs. They document the
process, prepare information about the computer and write instructions for the computer
Operator and computer user. Basically there are three types of programmers: Business,
Scientific, and Systems programmers.
Web Programmers are responsible for program design, coding, testing, debugging and
documentation. They devise or modify procedures to solve complex problems
concerning equipment capacity and limitations.

Computer Sales Representatives

Computer Sales Representatives sell computer systems, computer equipment, products,

service and supplies to businesses, schools and industries. They represent the
manufacturers of the products and are the primary technical resource. They visit
customers in offices in an assigned territory or display and demonstrate products at trade
shows. They market and sell computer software and hardware, set prices, prepare
contracts, provide orientation and customer education, arrange delivery and installation,
maintain customer contact and handle customer complaints.

Computer Security Specialists

Computer Security Specialists plan, coordinate, implement and test security measures
for computer networks. They try to circumvent new security measures to test the system.
They regulate access to computer data files and prevent unauthorized modification,
destruction or disclosure of information. They monitor data file use. They update and
modify computer security. They install and configure security software in computer
networks. They work with the computer user department staff and computer or systems
programmer to request programming changes. They plan data security for new or
modified software; discuss issues such as employee data access needs and risk of data
loss or disclosure. They may assign computer access passwords to employees. They
may assist forgetful employees to get them into the system. They add new employees and
delete passwords of former employees. They prepare data use records for administration.
They answer questions about computer security.
Tasks include: They review the plan to ensure compatibility of planned security
measures with company computer security system software; they review employee
violations of computer security and report violations to company manager or department
head. They may discuss violations with the employee or other violator.
Computer Services Sales Representatives

Computer Services Sales Representatives show, promote and sell a variety of computer
services, software, and products. They explain to potential customers the features of the
service, the cost, and advantages. Services may include maintenance and training
services. They may sell network services, such as LAN, WAN, and IntraNet solutions.
They respond to customer inquiries about services and pricing. They may provide pre-
and post-sales support. They are typically hired to build and expand a company as part of
a sales department. They may be assigned to a sales territory. They work to meet the
needs of a particular customer, plan and design computer systems that integrate computer
hardware, software and communication technologies. They may provide desk-side
support and maintenance, Help Desk, Remote Network Management, Asset
Management, Project management. They may offer professional and technical computer-
related advice and services. They market and sell computer software and hardware, set
prices, prepare contracts, provide orientation and customer education, arrange delivery
and installation, maintain customer contact, and handle customer complaints.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Computer Services Sales Representatives may develop a prospect list, write orders
and sometimes take payments, may also resolve complaints, may prr9vide on-site
management, installation and operation of a product and give training to their customers,
may work in inside and outside sales.

Computer Software Training Specialists

Computer Software Training Specialists provide instruction in the use of specific

software. They may work at one of a variety of levels such as the administrative, user, or
system administration level. They conduct training sessions for new employees, for
employees who are changing jobs within the company, and for employees who must
learn to use new software. They develop new in-house job-related training programs, as
they are needed. They assess the training needs of employees and set up a timetable for
developing skills. Training may include individual coaching, group instruction, lectures,
demonstrations, conferences, meetings and workshops. In small companies, supervisors
do much of this work by Human Resources Managers or informally.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Examples of the types of software they may work with are mail merge, word
processing, spreadsheets, and desktop publishing. They may also develop training
videos, and author training guides, books and manuals.
Computer Support Specialists

Computer Support Specialists install, test, and/or modify computer hardware and
software. They may be responsible for stand-alone computers, networks or both. They
recommend or perform actions to correct problems and replace defective or inadequate
software packages. Most also trouble shoot printer and peripheral equipment problems.
However, these specialists generally refer more complex problems to service personnel.
They also provide instruction and training to clients about computer and software use.
Tasks include: In businesses, computer support specialists provide on-going training to
computer users and establish standards and procedures for using their computer systems.
They may install computer hardware and load software. They develop written guides for
users. They may make presentations to groups.

Conservation Workers

Conservation Workers are involved in conservation activities and/or improvement of

natural resources. They perform the manual work that is necessary to develop, maintain,
and protect forest areas. Depending on the agency they work for, they may build fences,
control soil erosion, landscape, prepare harvested lands for replanting and plant tree
seedlings, work on energy conservation, post signs and maintain buildings, vehicles and
equipment. They may also build firebreaks, cut brush, and maintain campgrounds. The
duties of conservation workers are similar to other forestry workers and aides.

Construction Laborers

Construction Laborers do some of the work that does not require special skills on
buildings, dams, highways and pipelines. They load and unload materials, move tools
and equipment, lift and move heavy objects, stack lumber, clean used lumber, help mix,
pour, and spread concrete, dig and level ground, and clean up. They may also dismantle
and build scaffolds.

Consultants market their expertise to all levels and sizes of business and industry, both
in the private and public sectors and locally, nationally and internationally. They may
examine the present structure of a business or organization, evaluate, and then make
recommendations to enhance profitability or efficiency. They may offer specialized
abilities, services and knowledge such as engineering, management, finance, human
relations, science, the environment, health, technology, accounting, computer science. Or
their task may be to guide, motivate, educate or assist workers in organizations, which are
experiencing some type of transition. Profound economic and business changes now
under way are radically altering the world of work. Outsourcing or contracting with a
consultant to perform a specific assignment will become more integrated into
organizational operations. Consultants will present their solutions in an oral presentation
or written report.
Consulting Engineers research or use applied research when advising or consulting
individuals, businesses or organizations about engineering problems or plans.
Technical Consultants provide database expertise. They assist in creating data models,
perform database development, and work with a client server.
Tasks include: They may conduct seminars for on-site workers or teams. Topics span
many disciplines and may include information systems, organizational restructuring,
production management, employee performance, downsizing and transition. One goal of
consultants may be to work to help their client to remain or become internationally

Consumer Products Dealers

Consumer Products Dealers display and sell directly to people in their homes or at
home shows. They make plans with the party host or sponsor. They greet guests, discuss
and demonstrate products, write orders, and take payment. They may also deliver orders.
Items they sell include: cosmetics, jewelry, clothes household items and toys. They
arrange future parties with guests.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may canvas a neighborhood to introduce a new product. Some dealers have
commercial customers.
Contract Administrators

Contract Administrators are responsible for the administration and legal aspects during
a companys contractual process. They review and analyze proposals and bids and
negotiate contracts for purchase or sale of products, services or materials with
organizations outside their parent firms. They ensure that contracts are acceptable to
planning, production and other departments and that they meet all legal requirements.
They negotiate changes in contract terms. They have extensive outside contact with
specialists. They may monitor work in progress to ensure that contract terms are being
met and certify when work is completed. They may also coordinate subcontracts.

Copy Editors

Copy Editors examine material to be printed in newspaper to make sure it is accurate in

content, grammar and style. They read the piece and check the accuracy of dates and
factual information. They may also write headlines for stories written by reporters.
Duties vary depending on the size of employer.


Copywriters create headlines, advertising text, slogans and jingles for publication or
broadcast to promote sales of goods or services. Their copy must communicate in a
persuasive way. They also gather facts about products and services and people who
might buy them. They usually discuss ideas with account executives, art directors and
other members of the advertising team. Some specialize in particular products or type of


Coroners determine the cause and means of death when it involves homicide, suicide
and accident. They routinely consult with other pathologists, toxicologists and
specialists. Coroners may hold inquests, which are public inquiries to determine cause of
Corporate Accountants

Corporate Accountants set up and design accounting-bookkeeping systems and

procedures, risk management programs, tax law and finance methods, record financial
transactions, and analyze and evaluate financial records for businesses. Titles frequently
vary from organization to organization. Their duties include interpreting financial
information and preparing reports for business executives and government regulatory
agencies. They may work in General Accounting, Tax Accounting, Cost Accounting,
Financial Planning/Analysis, Internal Auditing and EDP (electronic data processing)
Auditing. Trainees who work under the direction of a senior accountant or a manager
often rotate duties in order to learn all segments of accounting.

Correctional Officers

Correctional Officers supervise and control residents in correctional facilities, jails, and
halfway houses to maintain security and enforce discipline. They observe the conduct of
inmates to prevent disturbances and escapes. They inspect prison facilities and cells for
evidence of forbidden activities or articles. Correctional officers supervise inmates and
maintain discipline and order among them during work assignments and in recreation
areas. They keep records of the work progress and behavior of inmates and report these
observations to the Superintendent or warden of the correctional institution.

Corrosion Engineers

Corrosion Engineers work primarily with the corrosion behavior of metals and their
reaction to surrounding materials. They work to protect metals from corrosion. Their
main applications are with water, gas and oil mains, industrial piping systems, bridges
and other large metallic structures that might involve dissimilar metals that will corrode.
They may design, develop, test or supervise the manufacture of materials and metals.
Tasks include: They make recommendations for preventative and corrective measures.
They use maps, graphs and diagrams.


Cosmeticians apply make-up and skin care products to the face, neck, arms and upper
parts of the body. They also remove body hair by tweezing, depilatory or waxing. Many
cosmeticians are also manicurists. They may massage the skin and recommend cosmetic
preparations and lotions.
Tasks include: They may fill orders, place orders for inventory, sell cosmetics and act as

Cosmetologists provide beauty services to their customers. A majority of time is spent

shampooing, tinting, bleaching, cutting, perming and styling hair. Cosmetologists may
also give manicures and scalp and facial treatments, provide makeup analysis and shape
eyebrows. Other duties may include making appointments, cleaning equipment, and
sterilizing instruments. Those who own or manage a shop have additional
responsibilities such as ordering supplies, paying bills, keeping records and hiring

Counter Attendants

Counter Attendants serve customers in eating places that specialize in fast service and
inexpensive food. They take orders, serve food and drinks and take payment. They may
fill cups and glasses with beverages and do limited cooking and food preparation such as
preparing sandwiches, serving salads, and preparing dessert dishes. In cafeterias, they
may fill trays of food.
Tasks include: They also do jobs such as cleaning kitchen equipment, sweeping and
mopping floors, carrying out trash, cleaning bathrooms, and washing garbage containers.

Court Clerks

Court Clerks perform their duties in a court of law. Duties include general clerical or
secretarial duties related to various court functions such as case processing. They prepare
a docket of cases to be called. They get information from judges. They contact
witnesses, attorneys and litigants to obtain information for the court.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Duties may include filing legal papers, reviewing them for completeness, maintain
files using data entry skills, attending court, assisting the court, answering telephones and
performing customer service activities. Some collect court fees or fines and keep records
of the amount collected.

Court Interpreters

Court Interpreters perform simultaneous and consecutive oral interpretations of legal

proceedings. They prepare written translations. They may work in a courtroom in a
jail, in a probation office or in another office setting.
Courtesy Grocery Clerks

Courtesy Grocery Clerks bag merchandise and assist customers. They collect shopping
carts from parking areas and do clean up. They may be asked to confirm prices and to
work with displays.

Credit Analysts

Credit Analysts evaluate the financial condition of individuals and businesses and make
recommendations on their applications for loans or credit. They gather information from
a variety of sources. They contact banks, credit bureaus and trade groups of professional
associations to obtain information on the credit worthiness of applicants. They review
financial reports, cash flow statements, and plans of new ventures. They may also
conduct studies of economic trends in the area or industry where the credit applicant is
doing business. They prepare reports on credit risks for consideration by lending staff.
They may also analyze loan portfolios. They usually make recommendations in banks,
while in business they make decisions within their scope of responsibility.

Credit Managers

Collection and Credit Managers usually develop and implement financial standards and
policies relating to the evaluation and acceptance of credit applications. They may set
credit limits on accounts. They review credit reports. They coordinate the activities of
their staff (Credit Authorizers and Other Credit Workers) with workers in other
departments like accounting, collections, and marketing. In small firms, they may
perform all the duties of other credit workers.
Tasks include: Conducting credit investigations, recommending rejection or approval of
applications, reviewing collection policy and procedures submitting delinquent accounts
for collection and compiling and analyzing data on fraudulent use of credit cards.

Credit Workers

Credit Workers collect and review information on individuals and businesses applying
for credit and approve credit applications where appropriate. They study the financial
condition and credit rating of the applicant; they may correspond or talk with the
applicant to resolve questions about the credit application. Then they analyze these
factors to determine whether to give final approval to the request. In small
establishments, one person, usually called the Credit Managers, may perform all of the
tasks. In large establishments, the Credit Manager usually supervises a staff of credit
clerks who perform many of these tasks.
Crime Laboratory Technicians

Crime Laboratory Technicians use scientific methods to collect, identify, test and
analyze physical evidence found at the scenes of crimes. They reconstruct crimes, collect,
photograph and preserve evidence. They may make plaster casts and analyze body
fluids, paper, ink, fabric, hair and paint using microscopes, infrared and ultraviolet
spectrometry, mass spectrometry, gas and liquid chromatography and other laboratory
equipment. Crime lab technicians in all specialties must prepare reports of their findings
for inquiries and trials. They may be asked to testify in court as expert witnesses.
Ballistics technicians analyze firearms, bullets, explosives, etc. to find out whether and
what types of such things were used in crimes.
Chemical technicians identify hair, skin, tissue, blood, bones, or human organs. They
also analyze paint, glass and other types of evidence. They interpret laboratory findings
related to drugs, poisons, narcotics, alcohol and other compounds.


Criminologists study the nature, causes and prevention of crime and criminal behavior.

Crossing Guards

Crossing Guards guide vehicular traffic and pedestrians at intersections, construction

sites and railroad crossings. They control vehicles so that pedestrians can cross safely.
School Crossing Guards work when children are coming from or going to school. They
direct or escort children across intersections safely. They may be required to record
license numbers of drivers who drive through signals and disregard their directions. They
make reports to the police. They sometimes stop and warn drivers.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Crossing guards may place caution signs on the road and remove them at the end of
their shift.

Cryptanalysts examine, analyze and break secret coding or disguised messages or

systems for military, political, social service or law enforcement agencies or
organizations. They may create the cryptosystem or cipher system. By encryption they
make plain text into cipher text. They make decryption into plain text. They may break a
single message. They recognize patterns in order to develop decryption algorithms.
They find weaknesses in encryption algorithms.
Tasks include: Some conduct training sessions. These workers must prepare reports and
documentation of their work. Some may be hired to help find hidden treasures.


Curators direct and coordinate activities, involving protection, care, and maintenance of
institutional collections in places, such as museums, botanical gardens, art galleries and
zoos. They collect, catalog, preserve and restore, maintain and protect, exhibit and
research collections of historical, artistic, scientific or technological importance. They
direct instructional, research, and public service activities of an institution. They may
prepare slide presentations, motion pictures, and other multimedia programs to show to
the public.
Tasks include: Additional tasks can involve making special research project plans,
bargaining with other institutions to exchange collections and information, keeping
inventories, handling loans, preparing budgets and hiring workers. Often, curators must
discuss institution business with a board of directors.
Customer Service Representatives

Customer Service Representatives find solutions to customers problems. Some may

be required to take orders for a service or product. They may work at a professional or
clerical level.
Clerical Customer Service Representatives: They deal with complaints about
products, billing or service. They may interpret policies for customers. They need the
ability to work quickly under pressure. They are in frequent telephone communication
and have some brief contact. They must be able to make decisions using facts. They
must also perform clerical duties including typing, filing and keeping records.
Professional Customer Service Representatives: Some companies selling complex
products, such as computer software or word processing machines, employ customer
service representatives or marketing support representatives at the professional level to
train customers in the use of the product. They may also interpret or explain the
customers needs to technical staff, develop materials explaining new products, and
suggest changes in the product to better meet customer needs. They must understand their
product thoroughly, communicate clearly with customers, visit customers, and
periodically check on the customers satisfaction with the product. Professional positions
may involve long term, warm relationships with customers.

Customs Canine Specialists

Customs Canine Specialists train and utilize dogs in the enforcement of U.S. customs
laws and regulations.
Tasks include: Making seizures, apprehending and searching, detaining and arresting
suspects. They may also appear in court as a government witness.
Customs Inspectors

Customs Inspectors enforce United States import laws and regulations. They inspect
cargo, baggage, clothing articles, vessels, vehicles, and aircraft, and clear incoming
passengers. They also examine and appraise merchandise and shipping documents at the
point of entry into the U.S. The Inspector also performs personal searches, seizes
contraband and apprehends violators.
Tasks include: They detect violations of immigration laws and regulations. They
interpret and explain laws and regulations to others. They may issue or deny permits.

Dairy Workers

Dairy Workers operate machines and handle materials used in the manufacture of milk,
cream, butter, cheese, ice cream, and other dairy products. They connect pipes between
vats and processing equipment. They turn valves to pump solutions and water through
pipes. They start the pumps; observe the gauges and open valves to have a continuous
flow of milk. They pour ingredients into the vat. They test the product at various stages.
They keep records of readings. They follow specific methods and formulas.
Tasks include: They may perform only parts of the processing. They may inspect and
evaluate the quality of products.


Dancers dance for the enjoyment of others. They use their bodies in dance movements
to create an art form that can interpret an idea or a story or be purely physical expressions
of rhythm and sound. Dancing alone, with a partner or in a group, the dancer entertains
an audience in either classical, modern or acrobatic dances. Body movements are
coordinated to musical accompaniment, either developed by someone else, called a
choreographer or by the individual dancer. Dancers may also sing and provide other
entertainment. Dancing is often used to supplement and other types of entertainment,
such as opera, musical comedy and television.
Tasks include: Dancers often combine performing with teaching or turn to teaching
after their careers as professional dancers are over. Some dancers combine their skills
with knowledge of health care and work as health therapists (Dance Therapists), or may
work to rehabilitate patients.
Data Base Managers

Data Base Managers decide how the company uses the data stored in a computer
information system. They coordinate changes to computer databases. They respond to
the needs of a group of users such as management or department heads. Examples of the
type of reports they may produce are mailing lists, research projects, tax reports, budgets
and financial projections.
Tasks include: Duties vary depending on the size of the system and the type of data.
They may design data structures, plan, develop, coordinate and implement procedures for
security and data recovery, modify existing data base systems for the companys use, and
may design new programs to solve the problems. They may have user contacts. They
may specialize.

Data Entry Operators

Data Entry Operators use special keyboard machines, similar to electric typewriters, to
transcribe data from source material (Paychecks and bills, records of transactions) into
computers. They may work at computer terminals as terminal operators or at other
locations, which are connected, to a central computer.

Day Traders

Day Traders work to control their own trading risks and to increase their income and
wealth through trading and investing. They may access the stock market through
specialized brokerage firms, electronic systems, or remote access, such as ECNs
(Electronic Communications Networks), SOES (Small Order Execution System)
NASDAQ or NYSE and other ECNs such as Archipelago, Instinet and others. As Day
Traders they avoid the middle broker or brokerage house and other overhead costs. Some
use online trading firms such as E-Trade and Schwab. Day trading takes place in active
markets. It has come about through reform by the S.E.C. (Securities and Exchange
Commission). They may use a variety of methods to be effective in the market. Day
Traders know that how well you trade is the key. They control their own risk by
exposing themselves to limited participation in the stock market. They buy and sell all
and take their profit and loss all in one day. They have few concerns about receiving bad
overnight news. The differences between Day Traders and other traders is the time frame
in which the individual operates. A day order to buy or sell expires at the end of the
trading day and Day Traders begin anew each day.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Day Traders make money by being in and out of the market in minutes. They make
profits from small fractions.
Delivery Truck Drivers

Delivery Truck Drivers drive light trucks, vans or other vehicles to transport small
shipments to consumers. They maneuver their vehicles into tight parking spaces, through
narrow alleys and driveways, and up to loading platforms. They may perform some
record-keeping duties, such as verifying load against shipping papers, maintaining a truck
log, and securing signatures upon delivery. Drivers may be required to load and unload
the merchandise and, at times perform emergency repairs on the road.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some may collect C.O.D. charges. They may be responsible for inspecting the
vehicle and equipment to determine the need for maintenance.


Demonstrators create buying interest by demonstrating merchandise and answering

questions, usually in retail and grocery stores, although many are self-employed. They
may introduce new products and sell the merchandise or product they demonstrate.

Dental Assistants

Dental Assistants receive and prepare dental patients and assist dentists during
examinations, treatment, or dental surgery. They hand dentists proper instruments and
medication and sterilize instruments, take and process x-rays, and prepare dental
compounds. They may keep medical, appointment, and payment records.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Depending on the size of the office, they may also order supplies. A few registered
dental assistants in extended function (RDAEF) are permitted to perform more
specialized tasks.
Dental Hygienists

Dental Hygienists help people improve their dental health. They work under the general
supervision of a Dentist, cleaning and polishing teeth, noting conditions of decay and
disease for diagnosis by dentists, and taking and developing x-rays. They may administer
anesthesia and perform other procedures as directed by a dentist. They also teach
patients proper dental care and may sterilize instruments and keep records. Recently,
hygienists have been allowed to examine patients who are unable to come into the
dentists office for checkups. Registered dental hygienists in extended function
(RDHEF) are permitted to perform a few more skilled tasks.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks they may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some hygienists teach in public schools and colleges and universities. Others do
research or work in public health administration.

Dental Laboratory Technicians

Dental Laboratory Technicians make and repair dentures, crowns, bridges and other
dental appliances according to dentists prescriptions. Some technicians perform all
facets of the work studying the dentists prescription, designing, constructing and
repairing the dental appliance. Most specialize in a particular phase-crown, bridge,
denture work, ceramics, metal work or orthodontics. Technicians work with a variety of
materials including waxes, plastics, alloy stainless steel and porcelain.


Dentists diagnose and treat tooth and gum problems to prevent tooth decay and gum
deterioration. Of the dentists who deal with a wide variety of dental problems, such as
disease prevention, tooth fillings, extraction and oral surgery, ninety percent are general
practitioners. More dentists are delegating duties to hygienists and dental assistants and
concentrating on complex dental procedures.

Deportation Officers

Deportation Officers provide for the control and removal of persons who have been
ordered deported or otherwise required to depart from the U.S.. They monitor
deportation proceedings, work closely with foreign consulates and embassies, and
respond to congressional inquiries.

Dermatologists diagnose and treat diseases of the skin, hair, nails and mucous
membranes. They examine patients to determine their medical condition. They use
observation and laboratory tests to diagnose physical conditions. They prescribe
medications, radiotherapy and other localized treatments.
Tasks include: They may perform surgery to remove cysts and other growths. They
monitor the condition of the patient. They explain procedures and test results with the
patient. They prepare and maintain patient records.

Derrick Operators

Derrick Operators rig derrick equipment and operate and maintain pumps to circulate
drilling mud through the well. They monitor the equipment to make sure it is running
properly. They perform repairs when necessary.

Design Engineers

Design Engineers use the most modern techniques to develop and integrate the design of
products, systems and manufacturing plants. They may be on a company staff or work as
consultants. They may design to meet customer specifications and requirements.
Tasks may include: designing microcomputer components; structural, mechanical,
power and fluid subsystems; flight simulation systems; or electronic packaging design.

Desktop Publishers

Desktop Publishers use computer software programs, such as Ventura, PageMaker and
Quark or database such as Excel to create camera-ready copy for large volume projects
for printers to publish. They combine text created with word processing software with
pictures from computer-aided drawing software. The desktop publisher then uses a style
sheet specifying the type, style, size of type, spacing, and other style elements such as
italics, bold type, underlining etc. to format the copy. When these pages are printed on a
high-quality laser printer or laser image setter, they can produce copy similar to that
prepared by typesetters. Some word processing packages have features, which let the
user produce such copy without using specific desktop publishing programs.
Specialties: Some people use desktop publishing extensively on the job but have job
titles such as art director, publications specialist, editor, electronic publishing specialist,
graphic designer, and technical writer.
Tasks include: They create diagrams using Mac Illustrator and MS Word and
Detectives and Investigators

Detectives and Investigators conduct investigations once a crime has been investigated
by police officers and no arrests have been made. They conduct civil, criminal, and
narcotics investigations to prevent, detect and solve crimes, verify suspected violations of
laws, rules, regulations or statutes. They gather facts and evidence, prepare complete and
concise reports about a criminal case, and present their findings by testifying in court or
at hearings. They locate and interview suspects and witnesses. They may also work
undercover and do surveillance work. They may also arrest suspects. Those working at
the federal level may provide technical assistance and training to local law enforcement

Diagnostic Medical Sonographers

Diagnostic Medical Sonographers use high frequency sound waves to get a two-
dimensional picture recording of the human body. The sound waves produce reflected
echoes on a screen, which is photographed for a permanent record. They observe the
sound wave display screen and monitor the audibility. They photograph the results.
Physicians use these recordings to diagnose disease and malfunction of organs. They
may also work as Echo, Cardiac, Nuclear Medicine, Neurosonographers, Abdominal in
Obstetrics and Gynecology and Radiology Technologists. Other workers who may
operate ultrasound equipment are Physical Therapists.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Using this equipment they may scan the brain, heart and eyes, detect vascular
problems and evaluate the blood flow during pregnancy and labor. They discuss the
results with a supervisor or physician.

Dialysis Technicians

Dialysis Technicians operate artificial kidney dialysis machines to cleanse the blood of
patients with kidney failure. They work primarily in outpatient clinics. They set up and
monitor the Hemodialysis equipment during treatment. They mix the formula, prepare
the machine for use, seat the patient near the Hemodialysis machine, take and record
patient statistics, explain the procedure, connect the machine and monitor the patient.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the

Diet Technicians

Diet Technicians plan menus, test recipes and supervise food production and service.
They may take and evaluate a dietary history of a person to help formulate a nutritional
program. They work under the direction of a dietitian.
Dietitians and Nutritionists

Dietitians and Nutritionists plan nutritious meals to help people maintain or recover
good health. Work includes planning menus and diets for therapeutic treatment,
supervising the production of food, and management personnel and food purchases.
They may work as management, in research, in the community, as a consultant or in
private practice, or in education.
Management Dietitians and Nutritionists administer food systems and plan and
supervise meals in hospitals, schools and other institutions.
Therapeutic Dietitians and Nutritionists deal with persons with special diet needs.
Dietitian or Clinical Educators are responsible for the nutrition education of Nurses,
Dentists and other health personnel. Research or Business Dietitians and Nutritionists
conduct, evaluate and interpret research to improve the food and pharmaceutical
products. They write articles for trade press.
Community Dietitians and Nutritionists also called Public Health Nutritionists, work
with community groups and other organizations.
Consultant Dietitians and Nutritionists advise and assist and make recommendations to
personnel of both public and private hospitals, health facilities, child-care centers and

Dining Room Attendants

Dining Room Attendants clear tables and counter areas in eating places to prepare for
the next customers. Duties may include: general cleanup, setting tables by replenishing
linens, setting silverware, glassware and dishes and serving water and coffee.


Directors coordinate the artistic efforts of the staff in the production of a movie, stage
play, video, or radio or television production. They work with the Script Writer in
interpreting and refining the script. They may help the producer select the actors. They
work with the Actors, Cinematographers, Motion Picture and TV Camera Operators,
Videographers, Lighting Directors, and Scenery Designers in interpreting the script an
making the parts fit together through planning, rehearsing and editing the film or video
tape. They may select the script and Actors and they must work well with the Producers.
Their responsibilities vary greatly depending on the political structure of the project.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may choose guests to be included on the set. Directors may specialize in
feature films, TV movies, TV serials, documentaries, educational films, business
productions, or commercials. They may also work on the finishing process.

Dispatchers operate radiotelephone transmitting and receiving equipment to direct

emergency mobile units, such as police, highway patrol, fire fighting, paramedic
ambulance, ranger, and tow truck units. They receive messages by teletypewriter and
telephone and type all messages received. They dispatch vehicles to the scene, direct
additional vehicles if needed, and handle requests for information from the dispatched
vehicle, such as for drivers license information and calls for ambulance service.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may also disseminate road information to government agencies, the public,
and the media. They keep a communication log of all calls and perform various other
types of clerical work, such as typing, filing and billing.

Dispensing Opticians

Dispensing Opticians fit, adapt, and sell eyeglass lenses and frames according to
prescriptions of Ophthalmologists and Optometrists. They recommend types of lenses
and frames and make measurements of the clients bridge and eye size, temple length,
vertex distance, papillary distance and optical centers of the eyes. They adjust frames
and lens position to fit clients by heating and shaping plastic and bending metal frames.
They instruct clients in adapting to caring for eyeglasses.
Tasks include: Some Opticians also make and fit contact lenses.


Divers perform land skills while working underwater. They dive from a boat or from
shore to the underwater work site. Some work in Law Enforcement, Construction or
Salvage. Some assist in research, work in the fishing industry and inspect and clean
ships hulls. Some Divers teach others.
Law Enforcement Divers typically are not Law Enforcement Officers, but may work for
law enforcement agencies in areas that are near a body of water like a river, lake pond or
ocean. They may search for evidence and find missing persons. They may perform
Construction Divers (also called Commercial Divers) work in construction on welding
projects. They construct, inspect, maintain, repair, remove or install equipment and
structures. They may photograph equipment or structures. They guide the placement of
structural pilings and lay or repair underwater pipelines. They may work on bridges,
highways, dams power plants and other heavy industrial projects.
Salvage Divers salvage lost items or boats.
Documentation Specialists

Documentation Specialists write documentation for computer programs and computer

systems. They gather, analyze and compose technical information. They work with
engineers and other technical workers. They may write documentation for retail sale or
for in-house use.
Tasks include: They may write the user manuals, marketing brochures and other
informational documents.

Dog Groomers
Dog Groomers bathe, cut and trim hair and nails, brush and comb the coats of dogs and
perform other grooming tasks according to owners instructions.
Dog Grooming Assistants and Trainees: They may bathe dogs and trim nails and
prepare the dog for the groomer. Trainees and Assistants work under the supervision and
guidance of a Dog Groomer.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some give medications.

Domestic Service Workers

Domestic Service Workers perform household tasks such as cleaning, cooking,

laundering and babysitting for individuals or families. Often they receive little or no
Tasks include: Many specialize in either cleaning, cooking, babysitting or care of
elderly people.
Door to Door Salespeople

Door to Door Salespeople sell goods and services directly to people by calling on them
at their homes or offices. Typically they do not make previous arrangements. They
make a sales presentation. They discuss and demonstrate their products. They try to
convince others to buy their merchandise. They explain the products or services, quote
prices and demonstrate the use of the products. They write orders, compute sales prices,
take payment and deliver orders. They may sell services, building materials and
equipment, telecommunications equipment, books, magazines, notions, hardware, rubber,
plastic and glass products, metal products, clothing and brushes, cosmetics, jewelry,
clothes, household supplies and toys.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may be assigned to designated households in specific areas. They may
develop a prospect list. They may set appointments. They may canvas a neighborhood
to introduce a new product and distribute materials. They may leave samples. They may
keep stock to sell.


Drafters translate the ideas and rough sketches of Professional Engineers and Architects
into detailed drawings. These drawings enable other workers to manufacture the product
according to the designers concept. The analyze plans for cost and consideration.
Drafters utilize various machines, drafting tools, engineering practices and math to
complete drawings.
Tasks include: Most drafters specialize in a particular field. Drafters may perform a
variety of tasks such as using computers to do their work and word processing to produce

Drawbridge Operators

Drawbridge Operators control drawbridges over waterways to permit the passage of

vessels. They respond to ships that signal to let the drawbridge operator know it wants to
pass. The operator must safely halt automotive, pedestrian and rail traffic and then raise
the drawbridge to allow passage of the vessel.

Drilling Representatives

Drilling Representatives represent the oil company at the drill site and are responsible
for completion of the drilling program. They work with the drilling contractor.
Driving Instructors

Driving Instructors teach driving skills to adults and teens. They sit in the passenger
seat; give verbal instructions, often referring to the State Department of Motor Vehicles
rules of driving. They may demonstrate correct driving features. Some teach in a
classroom. Driving instructors may also teach driver education at traffic violators school
where classroom instruction is usually given by certified teachers or by retired police

Drywall Finishers

Drywall Finishers prepare drywall surfaces for finishing by sanding, scraping, taping or

EDP Auditors

EDP (Electronic Data Processing) Auditors evaluate computer systems and programs
to ensure that the systems are efficient and produce accurate results.


Economists study how society can best use scarce resources such as land, raw materials,
capital and labor. They analyze the relationship between the supply of goods and
services and the demand for them, as well as how these goods and services are produced,
distributed and consumed. Some Economists work on public issues such as the control of
inflation, business cycles, unemployment, wage, tax and tariff policies.
Tasks include: Other Economists collect, analyze, and interpret data on a wide variety
of economic problems and develop theories to explain causes of these problems and
possible solutions.


Editors direct and coordinate the communications of news and ideas accurately and
clearly to specific audiences. They select and review material that is to be published or
produced. They may supervise the work of writers and others who work for book
publishers, newspapers, magazines, corporate publishing departments and radio and TV
stations. They may also negotiate with unions, arrange contracts with printers, publishers
and suppliers of services to the agency they represent. In broadcasting, program directors
have responsibilities comparable to those of editors.
Education Administrators

Education Administrators direct and coordinate the activities of elementary and

secondary schools, colleges, and educational systems. They formulate and administer
policies designed to promote satisfactory business and academic operations for staff
members and students. They recruit and hire personnel, negotiate with employees and
student organizations, prepare and present budgets and new programs to their boards and
develop guidelines for evaluating teaching staff and non-teaching staff. They may work
as Presidents of either private or public colleges and universities or as Principals or Vice
Principals and deans of primary or secondary schools. They may also work as
Superintendents of school systems who work closely with school boards to formulate
plans and policies for the educational program.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the

Education Program Specialists

Education Program Specialists provide professional assistance in specialized areas of

education and training. These services may be testing programs, curriculum planning,
advising classroom teachers and coordination of outside activities for classroom teachers.
They develop teaching materials and help teachers solve problems in subject areas.
Audio-Visual Specialists select and distribute equipment and materials and help teachers
and students learn to use them.
Educational Specialists also work in areas such as art, music, special education and
instructional technology.

Elected Officials

Elected Officials are elected or appointed. They plan and administer policies and
activities of federal, state, and local governments. They work to promote public welfare
in an administrative, legislative, judicial or regulatory capacity and they may serve on
city council, county boards and commissions, in state government or legislatures or in the
United States congress. They may also serve in other elective posts such as county clerk,
sheriff prosecutor, coroner or treasurer. They determine public wants or needs, write bills
proposing changes in the law or regulations and vote to pass bills into law. They review
and approve budgets. They also supervise the activities of departments that collect taxes,
enforce laws, provide health and other services.
Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Electrical and Electronic Engineers design, and evaluate the manufacture, testing,
installation, operation and maintenance of electrical and electronic components,
equipment and systems. They also plan and supervise their development and
construction. These engineers usually specialize in one particular area.
Electrical Engineers work with power and light systems equipment and machinery, with
electric motors and generators, converters and rectifiers, transformers, relays, switches,
welding equipment, electrical appliances and power generation or distribution. In
addition they may design, construct and assist in operating facilities for generating and
distributing electrical power for domestic, commercial and industrial consumption.
Electronic Engineers work with electronic equipment, systems, and machinery and
develop application of these products for business, industry, medicine, military, and
scientific uses. They may work in communications, telemetry, aerospace guidance,
missile guidance systems, radar, counter measures, instrumentation, lasers, industrial
controls and measurements, high frequency heating, laboratory techniques, computers,
electronic data processing systems, teaching aids and techniques, radiation detection,
encephalography and other medical devices, electron optics and biomedical research.

Electrical and Electronic Technicians

Electrical and Electronic Technicians assist Electronic Engineers to develop,

manufacture and service electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They
troubleshoot, calibrate, test, and repair electronic components and circuit boards used in
products such as computers, office machines, musical equipment and components, solar
energy devices, and industrial and medical measuring and controlling devices. When
working in design, production or customer service, they use complex measuring and
diagnostic devices to analyze and test equipment. They may make necessary repairs.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some electronic technicians work with radio, television, and other communication
equipment. These may work as Broadcast Technicians and must be licensed by the
Federal Communications Commission. Some work in research development.

Electricians install wiring and maintain electrical equipment such as generators and
lighting systems.
Construction Electricians primarily install wiring and electrical equipment in new
buildings or buildings being remodeled.
Maintenance Electricians perform preventative maintenance and emergency repairs on
lighting systems and equipment such as transformers and generators and on production
machinery having electrical parts such as motors or electronic controls.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some electricians employed by electrical contractors specialize in construction but
also have opportunity to do some maintenance work.

Electro-Mechanical Technicians

Electro-Mechanical Technicians assemble, test, and repair devices that have both
electrical and mechanical components such as products for satellite communications,
documentation, assembly and other manufacturing processes. In production they
assemble wires, insulation, and electrical components. They follow layouts and use a
variety of tools (fixtures, binocular microscope, soldering tools, tweezers, and hand
tools). To verify dimensions they use a micrometer and calipers. They may also
fabricate housings by using metalworking machines.
Tasks include: They also test instruments and analyze test results. They may test and
troubleshoot equipment by repairing, adjusting or calibrating it at customer locations.
They must write reports indicating the methods used. In research and development, they
may specialize in assembling prototypes and may assist in designing and modifying

Electro-Optical Engineers

Electro-Optical Engineers design, conduct research on, and test, hardware and systems
that combine light-emitting or light-sensitive components with electronic circuits. They
may develop gas, liquid, semiconductor or solid-state lasers for medical, industrial or
military applications. They may devise methods for transmitting information over long
distances by sending light through fiber-optic cables. Others design systems such as
videodisk recorders and optical scanners that use light to store and recover data. Still
others are engaged in developing light-sensitive components and circuitry that perform
logical operations within computers.
Electrocardiograph Technicians

Electrocardiograph (EKG) Technicians use a machine to record the action of a

patients heart. The machine traces a graph on paper of the electrical changes that take
place with each heartbeat. Physicians use these tracings to diagnose heart ailments. To
make tracings, technicians attach electrodes to specified parts of the patients body, move
electrodes across the patients chest, and work switches on the electrocardiograph
Tasks include: Technicians also edit and mount tracings for use by physicians, take
portable equipment to the bedside of hospitalized patients, maintain patient EKG files,
perform routine maintenance on equipment, and recognize any problems in the
equipment that would prevent an accurate reading.

Electroencephalograph (EEG) Technicians

Electroencephalograph Technicians are now referred to as Electroneurodiagnostic

Technicians. They make graphic tracings of the brains electrical impulses, using a
machine called an electroencephalograph. Physicians to diagnose various types of brain
disease use these tracings.
EEG Technicians review the patients medical record and the physicians request to take
a brief medical history. They apply electrodes to designated spots on the patients head
and operate controls on the machine to produce the type of record needed. The
Technicians must recognize any problems in the recording and correct them if possible or
have the machine repaired. They also help to transport hospitalized patients to the
equipment, help the patient to feel comfortable about the test, mark sections of the tracing
for special review by the physician, maintain and file records, an make simple repairs to
the machinery.


Electrologists are specialists who remove body hair from their clients. They use
electrolysis (galvanic generator) and thermology (high frequency generator) procedures.

Electron Microscopists

Electron Microscopists use an electron microscope and other scientific equipment to

process and examine tissue. They work under supervision in a biological research
laboratory setting.
Tasks include: Duties are similar to Microbiologist except that they use special
Electronics Maintenance Technicians

Electronics Maintenance Technicians align, adjust, calibrate and repair automated

assembly line systems in manufacturing plants.
Tasks include: They also maintain production, measuring and testing equipment.

Electronic Production Workers

Electronic Production Workers are employed in two areas: 1) the assembly of internal
electronic components, and 2) the assembly of control panels and console housing.
Those in the production of internal components may mount, wire and solder components
onto modules, etch conductive patterns on copper faced plastic or fiberglass, wind coils
for electronic motors, or grow and prepare crystals for use in semiconductors. Many of
the components are very small and binocular microscopes must be used to do the job.
Those who work on control panels and console assemblies fit wired chassis and other
subunits into housings to make up a finished unit.

Electronics Products Sales Representatives

Electronics Products Sales Representatives sell electronic components such as

semiconductors, connectors, capacitors, printed circuit boards, and subassembly/packages
to business and industry or to manufacturers and distributors. They may sell one or many
products. They may sell in an assigned territory (a small area in a city or a large less
populated area) and visit customers or solicit new sales. They consult with customers to
determine their needs. They quote prices and credit terms, compute discounts, prepare
sales contracts, and estimate delivery dates. They sometimes demonstrate products.
They must keep accurate records and prepare regular reports.


Electroplaters coat objects with protective and decorative metal. They use drawings and
specifications to determine the time it takes to coat to the proper thickness. They mask
parts to be unplated, calculate electrical current and immersion time, and test and adjust
bath current. They mix and test solutions. They operate electrolytic plating or coating
machines. They watch gauges, dials and indicators. They clean and rinse the objects.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. In large shops, electroplaters may perform only one step of a process. In small
shops they may perform the whole process.
Elementary School Teachers

Elementary School Teachers introduce children to basic concepts of mathematics,

language, science, and social studies. They develop and plan teaching materials and
provide classroom instruction. They keep attendance records, administer tests, and
evaluate student progress. They attend faculty and professional meetings, educational
conferences, and teacher training workshops. They also may participate in school-related
activities outside the classroom and may supervise after-school activities. Normally they
work with one group of children at one grade level, but some work with several
consecutive grades grouped together. The elementary school level includes kindergarten
through eighth grade. Some teach special subjects, such as art, music or physical
education. Others specialize in the education of children with special needs, such as non-
English speaking children or children with mental, physical, or emotional handicaps.

Elevator Mechanics

Elevator Mechanics assemble, install, maintain and repair passenger and freight
elevators, escalators and dumbwaiters. Some work primarily on the installation of new
equipment. They use blueprints to layout and wire; lay a cement base; use an electric
drill to install rails; use handballs to install steel cables, electric switches and controls,
motor hoists, counterweights, cars, and safety devices. Others specialize in replacement,
maintenance, and repair of equipment. : They may also install new equipment to update
an older elevator.
Tasks include: Duties include troubleshooting which requires a variety of skills and
Emergency Medical Technicians

Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) provide immediate care to the critically ill
and injured, and psychological patients. Some drive ambulances. EMTs determine the
nature and extent of illness or injury, provide first aid, lift and carry patients on stretchers
to ambulances, and radio the patients condition to medical personnel at the hospital.
Most must inspect and maintain medical equipment to insure efficient operating
condition. Some may also inspect and maintain an ambulance. When not on call they
spend their time at the station where they wait, sleep, and eat. Duties vary depending on
the certified level. The levels of certified activities include:
*EMT I-A (trainee)
*EMT I-a Ambulance Attendant
*EMT I-a driver, ambulance or emergency vehicle
*Paramedic trainee
*EMT II Paramedic
*EMT-paramedic/mobile intensive care
*Emergency Room Care Physician Assistant training

Employee Development Specialists

Employee Development Specialists work in private industry and help employees to

clarify career goals and plan for advancement within the company. They may train
supervisors to perform these services for their staff. They may also help employees find
other jobs after being laid off.

Employment Interviewers

Employment Interviewers recruit and interview applicants for jobs in public and private
employment agencies and in the human resources or personnel departments of large
firms. They evaluate applicants based upon interviews and application forms. They
determine the type and level of jobs for which the applicant is best suited. In some cases
they administer tests, interpret the results and refer qualified applicants for appropriate
job openings. They may also conduct follow-up or exit interviews with applicants.
Interviewers may locate appropriate openings for applicants by calling or visiting
employers, as well as arranging transfers and promotions for employees in private
companies. Employment interviewers in private agencies may collect fees for successful
job placement.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some interviewers compile statistical reports and assist in personnel research
Energy Auditors

Energy Auditors find heat loss in buildings, homes and machinery. They measure
energy use. They check connections to make sure everything is hooked up right. They
calculate and estimate cost of improvement to conserve energy. They often have direct
contact with customers, construction workers and building owners.

Engineering Technicians

Engineering Technicians assist Engineers in the planning, research, design and

development of engineering projects. They may also work in manufacturing and sales of
products. They may test and troubleshoot electrical, computer and electronics systems.
Others may work on a survey party, calculate land areas, prepare drawings, search
records, and inspect construction projects for satisfactory quality an adherence to
specifications. They may specialize in a certain type of engineering. Engineers
recognize and define problems and adapt scientific knowledge to solve them.
Technologists work at a higher level of duties than Technicians.
Engineering and Science Managers

Engineering Managers plan, organize, direct and coordinate activities of engineers in an

engineering department working on a project. Their department may research, develop,
design, manufacture and test products and systems. They spend most of their time
managing work consistent with that described for most engineers. Engineering Managers
may modify existing designs, improve production techniques and develop test
procedures. They must present ideas to management, the financial department,
production and marketing staff when seeking funds. They also confer with contractors
and equipment and materials suppliers. They make plans to accomplish goals. They may
estimate operating costs that include cost of equipment and personnel needed and direct
the preparation of budget request for the department. Engineering Managers may analyze
technology trends; human resource needs and market demand when planning projects.
They work to determine engineering feasibility, cost effectiveness and customer demand
for products. Engineering Managers work with machinery, products, systems and
Electronics Engineering Managers may plan, organize, direct and coordinate computer
related activities such as programming, computer operations and data processing of
engineers in an electronics-engineering department. They work on the design,
manufacture and testing of electronic components. They may also coordinate the
development of computer hardware, systems design and software. They may also be
called Computer Systems Managers. Personnel they work with may include engineers,
scientists, technicians, computer specialists, information technology workers and support
Science Managers plan, organize, direct and coordinate activities of workers in
agricultural science, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology or physics. They manage
research and development projects and may direct and coordinate experimentation,
testing, quality control and production. They may also be involved in their own research
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. When they work in human resources they may be involved in recruitment, hiring,
performance evaluations and salary adjustments. They may direct field-testing of
products and systems.


Enologists direct and coordinate wine production activities. They order the grapes when
they are purchased from vineyards or determine when the grapes are ready to pick from
their own vineyards. They sample for sugar content and acidity of the grapes. Their
duties vary depending on the size of the winery. They may supervise workers in the
crushing and fermentation processes and oversee the aging, clarifying and blending of the
wine by the Cellar Supervisors. They oversee the bottling methods and techniques.

Entomologists study insects, including their relation to plan and animal life, life cycle,
morphology, physiology, ecology, taxonomy, population dynamics, genetics and
ecosystem relations. They work to control and eliminate harmful insects. They collect
insects in their natural habitat. They may also work in the development of biological or
chemical controls such as pesticides and non-chemical pest control products. They may
research new techniques to control insects like using infrared light, lasers, light, sound
waves, and atomic radiation. They may test products in the laboratory and in the field.
They may work to stop the spread of insect-borne disease.
Tasks include: They use various control techniques including using beneficial insects,
using insecticides, developing hormones to control maturing. Entomologists may
specialize in research, veterinary and entomology, and environmental health, product
development, agricultural, structural and forest pests, and commodity protection.

Environmental Analysts

Environmental Analysts study the relationships between living organisms and their
environment and develop plans for dealing with problems arising from their interaction.
These include air and water pollution, waste disposal, and protection of endangered
species and natural resources. Some persons in this field do technical work, conducting
tests, analyzing data, preparing reports. A variety of job titles are used, depending on the
employing agency.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some are engaged in research.
Environmental Engineers

Environmental Engineers study, design and plan projects and programs to prevent,
manage, control, reduce, correct and solve environmental pollution problems. They use
various engineering disciplines to perform their duties. They may operate or manage
facilities and systems for the protection of the environment. They may be involved in air
quality, wastewater treatment, hazardous waste management, municipal and industrial
solid waste management site re-mediation, storm water management, and pollution
control. They plan to identify and evaluate hazardous conditions and practices. They
determine the possible problems associated with a pollutant and design ways of dealing
with the problem. They develop hazard control methods, procedures, and programs to
correct the threat to the environment. They may design and test equipment. They then
set up methods to measure the effectiveness of the corrective processes or procedures.
They write interpretations of technical material to instruct, inform or support a specific
course of action. Environmental Engineers discuss hazards and their control with the
general public, governmental officials, and industry representatives. More so than other
engineering specialties, environmental engineers frequently interact with the public at
meetings and hearings. They answer questions, explain environmental laws, and deliver
oral reports on environmental matters.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may:
-apply mathematical and scientific principles to solve environmental problems
-visit work sites (plants and buildings) to inspect and assess current practices and
to confer with other workers. They may inspect sites during
-prepare and write reports of what they find
-conduct field or laboratory tests to analyze air, soil and water samples
-use computers to draw up layouts of sites, make models, and design
mathematical models of how a large-scale pollution project should work
-estimate costs of implementing projects and programs
-work within specified time frames and budgets
-manage grants
-supervising and overseeing the work of other workers


Epidemiologists plan, develop, and conduct original epidemiologic research. They

analyze and interpret the findings. They are concerned with the nature of epidemics and
with disease prevention and transmission. They are involved in surveillance of a disease
in a population.
Tasks include: They investigate the origins of a disease by interviewing people to obtain
Escrow Officers

Escrow Officers are employees of brokers and facilitate the sale of property by
receiving, holding and transferring funds, deeds and other legal papers in accordance with
agreements made between buyers and sellers. Escrow Officers function as neutral third
parties in property sales, acting to safeguard the interests of both seller and buyer. Their
job typically includes such tasks as reviewing title search and pest inspection reports,
insurance policies and loan applications, checking for liens, unpaid taxes and other
encumbrances. They record all such expenses and credits for buyers and sellers and
calculate amount owed to each. : They pay off debs as required and send closing
statements to sellers and buyers.


Estimators determine how much it will cost to do a proposed job, such as to manufacture
a product, build a house, or fix a damaged car. They help managers decide if a job will
be profitable. Their duties vary depending on the type and size of employer. They study
and interpret plans or blueprints, visit the job site, make lists of types of materials and
labor needed, and calculate the costs involved. They may prepare a bid proposal;
negotiate for better prices and estimate cost of changes to advertising layouts. They may
specialize in a particular phase of work, a particular type of service or product or in a
particular industry.

Executive Housekeepers

Executive Housekeepers direct the housekeeping and cleaning programs of large

multiple room establishments. It is their responsibility to keep the institution clean and
attractive. They supervise the activities of cleaning personnel. They investigate
complaints, purchase supplies, take inventory screen applicants and train new employees.
They make daily inspections.
Tasks include: They work closely with the manager, desk clerks or admitting personnel.
They demonstrate the use of equipment. Some are self-employed in housekeeping
Executive Secretaries

Executive Secretaries assist managerial level staff or a board of directors and facilitate
their work by undertaking a variety of clerical and administrative tasks. They open
personal and confidential mail, review correspondence, and make replies. They may
obtain confidential information from corporate officials or businesses associates and
maintain confidential files, minutes of board meetings or official documents and records.
They submit reports and documents required by the board of by public agencies. They
set up board meetings and plan conferences. They may type reports, correspondence or
memoranda, using a typewriter or word processor and may direct others. In some case
they may act as representative of their department or organization with the media, other
organizations or members of the public.


Expediters arrange for shipment of goods and products by contacting vendors and
shippers. Some expediters arrange for the movement of materials and parts between
plant work areas.
Extreme Sports Athletes

Extreme Sports Athletes participate in exhibition and competition. Extreme Sports has
changed the way people look at sports in general. Each extreme sport has a unique place
in which competition takes place; and some extreme sports involve more than one place.
Where it is possible to watch each extreme sport has an audience or spectators. Every
extreme sport has rules and regulations that competitors follow. Extreme sports almost
always involve going at high speeds and performing dangerous tricks and maneuvers.
Some require going downhill or falling vertically. People who become professional
participants while others participate for recreational purposes perform many extreme
sports. Competitions of extreme sports are referred to as events, competitions,
exhibitions or X Games. Some competitions may be for medals, some for prizes of
products and some for purse or money. Extreme sports may take place on earth on or
near the water, in the snow, on concrete, on prepared parks, in the mountains, and in the
sky. There may be summer and winter competitions. Extreme sports in clued airplane,
bicycle, blade, board vehicle and water sports. The following are definitions of extreme
sports that are included in competition:
BASE JUMPERS: Building, Antennae, Span and Earth are the fixed objects from
which you will make BASE jumps. This extreme sport is very dangerous. Your
equipment will include a round canopy, pilot chutes and sliders, and toggles. To learn
about it you should learn as much as you can from other BASE jumpers. In BASE
Jumping you will also learn how to tie a static line knot and to use delay-altitude-
equipment charts.
Bungee Jumpers: Also called Bungee Stunt Jumpers. Bungee Jumping requires athletes
to leave the jump platform or structure with a bungee cord attached. Bungee jumping
equipment includes sheathed and all-rubber bungee jumping cords, chest and waist
harnesses, and ankle harnesses. Some bungee jumping is performed indoors. They
perform a variety of acrobatic stunts and assume difficult positions during rebound flips.
Men and women compete. There are competitions all over the world. Bungee jumpers
may jump over the edge of a bridge, over a river, off a crane, off airplanes for high
altitude jumps. They may also be working for film, TV, photos or live audiences.
Bicycle Stunt Riders (Vertical and Flatland): Also called Bicycle Stunt Performers.
These athletes perform difficult and dangerous tricks and aerials while riding a bicycle.
They are judged on the fluidity of their routine, flawless tricks and innovation, creativity
and originality. This sport is growing in popularity, nationally and internationally. More
competitive events are expected. Ability determines how a rider performs. Riders may
wear skate helmets or full-face helmets.
Eco-Challenge Athletes: (Also called Endurance Racers, Expedition Racers) These
athletes form coed teams that race through hundreds of miles of challenging terrain such
as bush, canyon, coast, desert, forest, rainforest, waterfalls, whitewater river, sea, open
gorge and towering waterfall. They are exposed to all kinds of weather. They deal with
exhaustion, dehydration, hypothermia and altitude sickness. They have little time for
food or sleep. They may use only a map, a compass and each other to complete the
competition. They may canoe, climb, hike, horseback or camel ride, mountain bike, raft,
rappel, river and ocean kayak, or run their way to the finish line. They may even be
required to carry a teammate over the finish line. Most beginning Eco-Challenge athletes
learn from the experts. Before each race experts about the terrain debrief them. They
must possess endurance, perseverance and be willing to suffer pain from muscle strains
and pulls.
Endurance Racers: Endurance Racing includes many types of sports including biking
and mountain biking endurance racing, endurance horse racing, endurance motorcycle
racing and multi-sport endurance racing.
Hang Gliders and Paragliders: Hang gliders have a rigid frame and need a vehicle to
transport. Hang Gliders have the pilot in a prone position. Hang Gliders must know
meteorology. They must have a good attitude and use good judgment. They must have
planned emergency procedures. Paragliders can fold down and be carried easily. A
paraglidders shape is maintained by air pressure with the pilot in a sitting position. A
paraglidder is foot-launched with no other energy requirements. They must also have
planned emergency procedures. The paraglidder and equipment are tested and certified
by manufacturers. Pilots may compete as teams or as individuals. Training and
equipment can cost up to $6,250.
Heliskiers: Heliskiers are dropped by helicopter in remote mountain locations onto snow
that has never been skied upon. Heliskiers must be excellent skiers to begin with. There
are competitions for teams and individuals. These take place internationally in around
eight countries. This hobby is very expensive. There may be disappointments because
when weather is bad, it is not possible to heliski. There is danger from avalanches, snow
instability and sliding snow. Equipment includes power skis of mid width. Women also
In-line Skaters (Aggressive, Downhill): These athletes perform grind and spin tricks.
Downhill in-line skating is done on a steep hill. It is important that you skate for
yourself. Events are sponsored by the USA In-line Racing, an official national governing
board. There are competitive events around the world. Competitions have preliminaries
and final events. Competitions are based on performance. In-line skaters may advance
from local contests to regional and then on to national contests.
Jousters: Jousting tournament takes place on horseback with participants showing their
skill with weapons and other medieval games. Jousting is a competitive sport known
throughout the world. Sponsorship is one way to compete. Employers may include
jousting troops that are available for hire.
Kayakers: Kayaking may take place on rivers, seas, or oceans. Typically, kayakers
enter the water at beaches. They are exposed to extreme weather conditions, such as
storms, rain, rough waters and fog.
Kiteboarders: Kiteboarding takes place on water. These athletes perform maneuvers
such as freeriding, waveboaring, and surface to air boarding. Some perform on specially
designed boards that can sail upwind. The extreme sport of kiteboarding is expected to
grow in the future.
Luge Racers (Street): Also called Street Luge Pilots. Street Luge Racers compete on a
variety of courses with difficult challenges and crowds watching. The object is to race or
drop down a street or course in special equipment at fast speeds. Equipment includes a
board on wheels, leathers, and helmets. Each rider develops their own riding style. The
National Luge Association establishes rules for competitions. The number of
competitions is growing. They recommend you keep a logbook, keeping track of your
practice and race drops.
Motocross Athletes: Motocross Athletes race motorcycles and minicycles in off-road
competition. These motorcycles can be modified according to competition rules. Men
and women compete. To compete you must first qualify. There are local, regional and
national competitions, but legal riding areas are not common. Competitions often require
staying at campgrounds, in all kinds of weather. They are judged on speed, endurance,
jumps, form and tricks. Many motorcycle dealers sponsor racers.
Mountain Bikers: Mountain Biker (Snow): Snow Mountain Bikers ride specially
made bicycles in competition. They race according to rules of the trail defined by the
International Mountain Biking Association. Their bicycles are fitted with a black box
system mounted on the bicycle that records the tuning and adjustments that may be
needed. These riders must run obstacles, down hills, through the snow. Each bicycle
must have excellent braking power and wide tires for riding in the snow. Riders must
have special race suits and shoes with cleats, and supplies for changes in weather or
conditions. They must be able to make repairs and administer first aid. They must be in
excellent physical condition.
Mountain Bikers (All-terrain): Requirements are similar to Snow Mountain Bikers.
They must be versatile, racing downhill and cross-country.
Rock Climbers: Rock Climbing takes place out-of-doors. They have events and
competitions. Some climbing skills are learned and practiced using an indoors training
wall. Rock climbers climb sandstone, limestone, granite, high peaks, and low boulders.
Some rock climbers are also sport climbers.
Sport Climbers may climb the sides of buildings and artificial walls, boulders, bridges,
and other structures. Those who climb close to the ground have different skills compared
to those who rope climb.
Skateboarders (Vertical): Vertical skateboarding takes place on a special skate area
(Skate park) depending on the availability of local facilities. They perform difficult
stunts while on the skateboard. While there are skate parks in some areas, many practice
on the streets. There are competitions with money prizes. You will be judged for your
individualism and uniqueness, the difficulty of your maneuvers, your creativity and your
Skateboarders (Street): Street skateboarding takes place on streets chosen for a
competition. Athletes perform board flipping tricks and powerful skating for judges.
They are judged on their technical run, including tricks. There are competitive events for
medals, cash prizes and invitation to other events.
Skiboarding Athletes, Skiboarders or Riders: Skiboarding involves going down a
slope style course at high speeds, performing tricks and maneuvers clearing jumps or
obstacles, using a halfpipe to fly through the air. They are judged based on execution,
difficulty, landing, variety, amplitude (aggressive energy and height) and style. Many
skateboarders are also snowboarders.
Sky Divers: Sky diving is typically a recreational sport. In sky diving, the aerodynamic
deceleration device (Parachute) is the most important piece of equipment.
Skydivers (CreW Skydivers): The CreW (Canopy Relative Work) Athlete participates
in the most dangerous and spectacular activity in Skydiving. Two or more parachutes fly
together in formation. The ability to communicate with other divers during a dive is
essential. This is a competitive sport worldwide. Participants say that the excitement
they feel stays with them for a longer period of time than free falls. Events are posted on
the Internet.
Sky Surfers: Sky surfing involves a freefall and is done by using a board, release
equipment, a canopy and recovery parachute. This is very expensive sport both
financially and training. There is limited training time because each jump is expensive
and short. The high cost of equipment is also a factor. When you purchase a sky board
you should read and view any instructional material that comes with it. Equipment
should include helmets, parachute rigs, skyboard, jump suite, and digital camcorder.
Remember, smaller boards fall faster than normal, large boards fall slower than normal.
Additional costs include travel. Athletes may make commercial money or competitive
jumps for a purse. This is a team sport with a Skysurfer and a Cameraflyer.
Freeflyers: Freeflying involves two freeflyers and a Cameraflyer.
The Cameraflyer takes a video of each performance. They must also be skysurfers and
videographers. They follow the performer through the sky and fly over and under to get
the bet visual performance.
SnoCross Racers: snocross athletes ride a snowmobile (called a sled) fast on a bumpy
course in competitions.
Snowboarders: Snowboarding (giant slalom or alpine, and halfpipe or freestyle) takes
place on the slopes of snow covered mountains with a large vertical drop. Competition
takes place depending on the weather. Many snowboarders are also skateboarders.
UltraCross Athletes: Ultracross is a winter sport. Athletes compete in a team relay-
style event on a ski course. A team is one skier and one snowboarder. The team must
walk, snowboard and ski during competition. Members depend on the other for their
expertise. During competition, teams are picked at random in a draw.
Waterskiers (barefoot): Barefooting is considered waterskiings ultimate challenge.
Athletes may perform tricks before the jump, jump over obstacles in the water and
maneuver around gates in the course before the jump ramp. There are competitions in
this sport called events or tournaments. There are official rules governing competitions.
Barefooting may involve a slalom start, step-off start, tumble-up start, cable start.
Equipment includes a suit with padding and built in flotation, a handle, a tor harness and
gloves (optional). Speed on the water allows you to stand on the water, but the falls are
harder. Only experienced athletes should attempt barefooting.
Wavesurfers: Wavesurfing takes place on coastal water breaks in a number of countries.
The sport has traditionally been recreational, however, there are competitions and world
championship. Some competitions give prize money.
Windsurfers: Windsurfing may take place on water, snow or sand.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Extreme sports athletes may participate in making videos and films for sale to
television studios and motion picture makers and to the public.

FBI Agents

FBI Agents gather facts about possible federal law violations. They are responsible for
sensitive foreign counterintelligence matters, important civil investigations, background
inquiries and criminal investigations on prominent figures, both in the public and private
sectors. They are responsible for investigating violations of more than 260 statutes.
Crimes investigated include bank robberies, kidnappings, espionage, sabotage and
terrorism. The investigating agent analyses the alleged law violation then identifies the
issues and needed evidence. He/she determines or helps to determine the direction of the
investigation. The agent gathers evidence by interviewing suspects and witnesses,
analyzing records, securing informants, participating in raids and possibly participating in
undercover assignments. The agent uses clear, logical, objective and well-documented
reports to present investigation results.
Tasks include: An agent may testify before a grand jury. Other agent functions may
include serving subpoenas and obtaining and using search and arrest warrants.

Farm Equipment Mechanics

Farm Equipment Mechanics maintain and repair farm equipment and machinery.
Duties include adjusting and repairing gas and diesel-powered tractors, harvesters, cotton
pickers, and other implements. Some mechanics specialize in engine overhaul,
transmission work, air conditioning, hydraulics or repair of a particular piece of
Tasks include: They may also make parts and perform welding tasks. Some farm
equipment mechanics also work on light industrial equipment.

Farm Equipment Sales Representatives

Farm Equipment Sales Representatives sell agricultural equipment and supplies. They
help their customers decide what type of equipment they need to buy. They may
specialize in one type of equipment.
Farm Labor Contractors

Farm Labor Contractors provide workers to agricultural products growers on a contract

basis. They act to relieve growers of the employment and supervision of farm laborers.
They may hire supervisors or act as supervisor to farm laborers. They also help farm
workers find continuous earning opportunities. They recruit, hire, instruct, assign tasks
to, direct workers to the worksite, and enforce work rules.
Tasks include: Typically, they are responsible for transporting workers to and from the
work site. Some provide housing, food and check cashing services. Often family
members help with office work, computer record keeping and maintaining field
equipment. Contractors typically get workers as returnees from the previous year, walk-
ins, or by referrals.

Farm Machinery Operators

Farm Machinery Operators operate various types of machinery to plant, cultivate,

spray, and harvest crops. This machinery includes harvesters, threshers, pruning saws,
and similar farm equipment. They attach plows or other implements to tractors or other
vehicles and drive the machinery in the fields.
Tasks include: maintain, repair, and adjust the machinery. They also may perform other
farm tasks, such as loading and unloading materials, husking and shelling corn or hoeing
row crops.

Farm and Ranch Hands

Farm and Ranch Hands perform various farm and ranch duties, usually on a year-round
basis, helping to maintain farming and ranching operations. Farm and ranch hands may
repair and keep clean farm buildings, fences and equipment and haul livestock and
produce to market.
Farm Hands may prepare soil by plowing and harrowing, although tasks vary with the
type of farm. They may fertilize, cultivate, spray and help to harvest crops. Farm hands
may also tend livestock.
Ranch Hands (may also be called Cowboys Cow Punchers or Buckaroos) work on
livestock farms. The livestock they tend may be cattle raised for meat or dairy or horses.
Cowboys perform round-ups, usually in the spring. Ranch hands and cowboys may also
feed, water and care for the animals. They may also brand livestock, check for and treat
disease and treat disease and infection, clean and disinfect barns, stalls and sheds, help
deliver offspring, and brand the livestock. Their work may also include irrigating,
digging fence postholes and stacking hay. To do their work, Cow Punchers must wear
special clothing such as leather chaps as protection, a hat to protect them from the sun,
boots that can stand up to heavy wear, and use a rope when working. Ranch hands and
cow punchers may also use modern equipment such as computers and transportation such
as pickups, trucks and motorcycles to perform their duties.
Farmers and Farm Managers

Farmers and Farm Managers are concerned with the efficient and prosperous
production of agricultural goods. Since todays farms are increasing in size and
mechanization, farming often involves large capital outlays and numerous skills as well
as a lot of personal time and energy. The typical farmer usually performs all tasks
including business management duties as well as farming duties. They decide what to
plant, when to harvest and how to improve property. Absentee farm owners sometimes
hire Farm Managers to oversee and coordinate farming activities. Some farmers do
farming on a part time basis, supplementing their incomes with other work, others are

Fashion Merchandisers

Fashion Merchandisers select, purchase, promote and sell clothing and accessories.
They study fashion trends and visit manufacturers and merchandise markets. They work
as part of a team and consult with managers and buyers, advise the advertising and
display departments and organize and coordinate promotional activities such as fashion
shows. Many consider this to be a glamorous occupation. They book or hire models,
choose outfits to be shown, oversee lighting, choreography and all of the details that go
into making a successful fashion show. They often work with a specific line of
clothing such as mens, womens, childrens or infants wear.

Fast Food Service Managers

Fast Food Service Managers operate high-volume restaurants that specialize in quick
service and take-out food. Operations are highly standardized. Managers direct the
preparations and serving of food, interview, hire, and train new employees, and manage
such phases of the business as the ordering of supplies, inventory, repair of equipment,
cleanliness and sanitation, payrolls and accounts payable, banking and local advertising
and public relations activities. Their two major responsibilities are supervising all
restaurant staff and maintaining control over food and labor costs.
Fiber Optic Engineers and Technicians

Fiber Optic Engineers and Technicians work with optical communications equipment
where light travels through glass fibers to measure sound, strain, temperature, and
pressure. Fiber optics will not allow electrical or electromagnetic interference and will
therefore allow better security. In telecommunications a fire-optic cable enables faster,
farther, and less expensive transmission. Manufacturers build fiber-optic systems into
machinery and equipment, like copiers, office equipment, computers and medical
equipment. Laser technology also uses fiber-optic technology.

File Clerks

File Clerks keep office records accurate, up-to-date and properly placed. They classify,
store, update and locate them on request. They examine new materials and store them for
future use according to a system. They also keep records of materials removed from the
files and make sure they are returned.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. In small offices, they often do other things such as type, sort mail or run office

Film Critics

Film Critics view movies and television shows to report on the quality of the film. They
may write a review for publications or present their review on camera.

Film Editors

Film Editors are responsible for cutting and splicing film and videotapes to create the
finished product for motion pictures, television productions or TV commercials. They
choose the best shot of each scene to make a movie. They combine photography,
performance, consistency and timing. They work with sound effects editors on the sound
tracks. They work with music editors to synchronize the music tracks and to find the
right music for a production. Although they work under the direction of the director,
senior editors make many artistic decisions, which dramatically affect the final product.
Financial Analysts

Financial Analysts evaluate the fiscal effects of decisions of public and private
organizations and individuals. They may work in forecasting and profit analysis. They
prepare budgets; work in cost and general accounting. They analyze changes in
production and services to determine the effects on costs. They compare standard costs
to actual costs. They prepare reports for management. They advise management. They
interpret budgets to management. Using mathematical techniques, they study the
consequences of alternative ways of investing money.
Tasks include: In a financial institution they may make recommendations regarding the
purchase or sale of stocks or bonds. For a large industrial concern they may evaluate the
impact of building a new plant on the companys profit position. In large corporations
they may be assigned to either financial or operational departments.

Financial Planners

Financial Planners review assets, liabilities and earning power of clients and help them
develop plans to preserve or increase assets and maximize income. Some specialize in
planning for retirement income. They make projections of clients future living costs and
the expected return on their assets and advise them of ways of achieving the best lifestyle
they can. Others help clients develop investment strategies that will enhance their net
worth. Some act as tax advisors. Some sell insurance. If they have brokers licenses they
may purchase securities directly for their clients; otherwise they refer them to registered
securities salespeople.

Fingerprint Classifiers

Fingerprint Classifiers analyze fingerprints, footprints, and other evidence, sometimes

by using plaster casts to preserve the evidence. They may use automated fingerprint
searchers and may manually search fingerprints files for a match and specialize in
working with a specific kind of evidence. They may obtain fingerprints from newly
arrested persons. They may obtain latent prints at crime scenes, fingerprints from dead
bodies and compare them for identification. They use various chemicals to process latent
prints. They may apply laser equipment to fingerprint identification.
Tasks include: They may file fingerprint cards and testify in court. In smaller agencies,
Police Officers or clerical people may do the fingerprint work. They are not usually
police officers.
Fire Fighters

Fire Fighters protect communities against the loss of life, injury and destruction of
property by fire. They may work at accidents, hazardous material spills, and in fire
prevention. Fire fighters work as a team with each person assigned to a special job.
They respond to fire alarms, decide what action to take, to locate the source fire and
connect hose lines and nozzles. Duties include operating and maintaining fire equipment
and trucks.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may search for clues and conduct salvage operations. Those who operate
heavy fire equipment have specialized skills.

Fire Protection Engineers

Fire Protection Engineers inspect structures for fire safety. These structures may be
industrial, office, mercantile and public buildings, homes and other property. They may
investigate the cause of fires. They also work to promote fire prevention.
Tasks include: They prepare publications about recommended building materials,
equipment and methods of construction.

Fish Pathologists

Fish Pathologists diagnose fish diseases of live fish (domestic or imported live).

Fish and Game Wardens

Fish and Game Wardens work to prevent violations and enforce laws and regulations of
the California Department of Fish and Game relating to the conservation and protection
of fish and wildlife. They also inspect commercial fishing operations, canneries,
processors, and fish markets.
Fish and Wildlife Specialists

Fish and Wildlife Specialists work with natural resources, such as soil, water, plants,
fish and animals and the interference of human beings to produce an environment that
supports fish and wildlife. These specialists plan and manage wildlife programs for
biological, educational, economic, commercial, recreational or aesthetic goals. They
study, research, and apply scientific solutions to problems by surveying and restoring
marshes, lakes, streams, and surrounding areas; managing wildlife refuges and game
areas; enforcing conservation regulations; and educating others about wildlife
Tasks include: Some work in artificial propagation of fish and water quality assessment
and control and other environmental control programs.

Flight Attendants

Flight Attendants provide services to aircraft passengers to ensure their comfort and
safety. They are the personal links between passengers and airline companies, serving in
an important public relations role. The duties vary and include attending preflight
briefings, checking passenger cabin and galleys for supplies, equipment, and food;
greeting passengers and directing them to their seats; assisting with luggage and seat
belts; and demonstrating the use of safety equipment. Their most important function is to
help passengers during emergencies. In-flight, they may serve meals and refreshments,
answer questions about the flight and the aircraft, assure passengers, distribute reading
material, pillows and blankets, operate movie and music systems, give first aid on
occasion, and provide childcare. They may also complete flight attendant reports.

Floor Covering Installers

Floor Covering Installers apply carpeting, resilient flooring, such as soft tile, linoleum
and sheet vinyl, and various kinds of tile to floors, countertops and other surfaces. They
fit and bond materials to wood, concrete, metal and floors. They prepare the floor and
measure the room to make a pattern or sketch. Some specialize in laying only one or
more materials such as rigid countertops.
Floral Designers

Floral Designers prepare floral arrangements for a variety of occasions, using flowers,
greenery and accessories such as ribbons and containers. Designing is a creative
occupation and the designer must have color discrimination. They may have to perform a
variety of duties other than arranging flowers. The floral arrangement must be
appropriate for the event, plus meet the customer specifications on color, flower
preference, delivery and cost. Many florists own and operate their own business.
Tasks include: Activities might include selling, cleaning, and preserving flowers; taking
phone orders and dealing with international orders; and monitoring supplies.

Flying Instructors

Flying Instructors may teach student pilots how to fly. They may teach flight
procedures and techniques in ground school courses. Flying instructors teach students by
accompanying them on training flights. They prepare course curriculum. They lecture
on various subjects. They observe their students during training flights. They test,
monitor and evaluate a students progress. Instructors may only conduct instruction in
the type of aircraft for which they have a certificate rating. They counsel their students
about their progress.
Flight Simulator Instructors give both classroom and simulator courses for pilots,
navigators and flight engineers. They conduct briefings and debriefings. They provide
corrections and modifications for training programs, policies and procedures. They may
serve as an expert in a specific type of aircraft.
Tasks include: Part of the responsibility as an instructor is to sign the logbook of each
student given flight or ground instruction. In addition, the instructor must maintain a
record in a flight instructor logbook. Pilots waiting for their first aircraft pilots job may
perform flying instruction tasks. Some Flying Instructors work with pilots who are
seeking recertification for a pilots license.

Food Processing Workers

Food Processing Workers prepare raw foodstuffs and combine ingredients to make
various food products. Food processing plants hire production workers who may perform
one or more tasks. Most tend and operate equipment that chop, mix or cook.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Others do work by hand such as decorating baked goods or removing bones and
trimming meat.
Food Product Sales Representatives

Food Product Sales Representatives sell products like bakery products, soft drinks,
candy, canned goods, coffee, tea, and spices. Their customers include wholesalers,
grocers, restaurants, hotels, airlines and other food service institutions like schools,
hospitals, senior citizen centers, detention centers and prisons. They too, may specialize
in one product or they may sell many.

Food Service Directors

Food Service Directors coordinate the preparation of noon meals and help develop
policies for operating school kitchens and cafeterias.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Taking inventory, hiring and assigning personnel.

Food Technologists and Scientists

Food Technologists and Scientists study the nature of food, work to improve food
products, to increase the nutritional level of diets, and investigate the effects of food
Tasks include: Research and development at colleges and universities. Some Food
Scientists teach. Some work in sales.

Food and Drug Specialists

Food and Drug Specialists inspect facilities, operations, sanitary conditions, control
methods, and products at manufacturing plants for enforcement of state and federal
regulations. They investigate for compliance by collecting and evaluating data.
Tasks include: They may perform tests on samples in a laboratory or by using field-
testing equipment while on site.
Foreign Service Officers

Foreign Service Officers work to strengthen foreign understanding and support for U.S.
policies and actions. United States Foreign Service Officers are administrative, consular,
economic, or political officers within the Foreign Service. It helps the President and the
Secretary of State to plan, and carry out our foreign policy. The United States Foreign
Service works at home and abroad. The foreign service offers workers satisfying
personal experiences and rewarding experiences while working on development project
all over the world. They may work with villagers, health care workers, economists,
private sector entrepreneurs, and high-level officials. Some are commercial or business
specialists who work to increased and continue trade.
Administrative Officers prepare budgets and financial plans, maintain government
property, and manage posts abroad.
Consular Offers assist Americans in foreign country and help aliens get visas to the U.S.
Economics officers deal with trade, energy, economic, transportation an food issues.
Political Officers deal with the collection, exchange, analysis and reporting of political
information that affect interests of the U.S. They also report U.S. Government views to
foreign officials, negotiate agreements and maintain close contact with politically
influential people.
Foreign Service Commercial Officers deal with U.S. commercial affairs abroad.
Foreign Service Information Officers. The U.S. Information Agency employs Foreign
Service Information Officers who serve as public affairs, information, and cultural affairs


Foresters try to achieve the best use of forestland and resources for a wide variety of
forest products, clean and abundant water, wildlife, range and recreation. They evaluate
forest resources, direct land surveys, oversee road construction and maintenance, inspect
logging operations and plan and supervise reforestation and logging (harvesting projects).
Foresters also develop methods to protect forests from fire, insects and disease, and
manage wildlife and recreation. Industrial foresters usually manage timberlands.
Foresters in public agencies plan and supervise recreational uses of forestlands. Others
teach and do research.
Consulting Foresters appraise and market timber and give advice on forestland and
Forestry Technicians

Forestry Technicians help Foresters manage and care for the environmental, economic
and recreational asset of the public and private forestlands and their resources.
Technicians survey and mark trees for harvest, collect information on timber and
watershed projects, investigate causes of water pollution; and help prevent and control
forest fires.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They also help surveying, laying out roads and locating boundaries. They may also
gather and evaluate data on insects and diseases.

Foundry Workers

Foundry Workers do various unskilled labor tasks to assist skilled foundry workers.
They produce finished metal parts known as castings from patterns and molds. Forging
and casting are techniques that give shape and size to metal. These functions take place
in a foundry.
Tasks include: Workers may perform many tasks, which may include moving, and
loading sand, castings and other materials by hand or wheelbarrow. They also may mix
sand and compact it into flasks, weigh material, skim slag from molten metal, pour
molten metal into molds, break molds from finished castings and clean castings and the
work area.

Free Agents

Free Agents have skill, ability, knowledge or expertise that is in demand by more than
one employer. These are workers who would typically be under contract to perform
tasks. As Free Agents they become self-employed. Sometimes they become Free Agents
by choice and sometimes their will because of one of many reasons. T hey may be
skillful sports figures, talented actors and others in the entertainment field, or business
people with intellectual knowledge
Tasks include: They usually hire other professionals like accountants, lawyers and
advisers in their field to work on their behalf. They also maintain relationships with
mentors, patrons and colleagues. They must make connections with people, market
themselves, choose their clients, negotiate their own contract, and work hard.
Freelance Writers

Freelance Writers inform, entertain and inspire their readers in all forms of creative
literary composition. They collect and analyze facts. They interview, investigate and
observe others. Freelance writers are distinguished by the fact that they are self-
employed, even though they frequently contract with publishers or producers for specific
assignments. They write a draft of a manuscript, review and revise it for publication and
may make changes according to the publisher. Those employed by others may do
freelance work on occasion. They may specialize in one or more styles of writing.
Tasks include: Freelance writers research their subject thoroughly to prepare for

Freight Handlers

Freight Handlers load and unload products transported by truck, rail, ship or air. They
estimate maximum loads, stack materials, band materials together, tag products, and
install braces or padding around the load to prevent damage in transit. They may do their
tasks manually or may operate equipment such as cranes, lift trucks, hoists, hand trucks
or dollies. Freight handlers who work in the trucking industry are often called Material
Handlers. Those who load and unload ships are known as Longshore Workers or

Front Office Managers

Front Office Managers supervise and recruit Hotel Desk Clerks and coordinate
maintenance and housekeeping. This position is usually found in larger hotels and motels.
They prepare daily reports; supervise accounting and order and purchase supplies. They
help resolve problems arising from guest complaints, and may assume other front desk
duties when necessary.
Fugitive Recovery Agents

Fugitive Recovery Agents capture fugitives from bail. They find and apprehend
fugitives from bail. They intend to prevent their escape and return them to custody for
their scheduled court date or forfeiture of bail. Bail is set by the court, provided by a
surety agency (Bail Bond Agency) and is the agreement between the court and the
bonding agent and the person that assures they will return to court as agreed. When they
do not return, they have broken the agreement with the bonding agent to return and a
Fugitive Recovery Agent may be sent by the Bail Bond Agency after them. Agents are
expected to work within the law and in some states to notify law enforcement when they
are working. Typically, Fugitive Recovery agents are considered private citizens who
can make an arrest, have the right o break and enter if necessary to apprehend a fugitive,
to arrest, to search for and seize weapons, to imprison the fugitive, and to carry firearms.
The term, Bounty Hunter, is an unpopular title with the workers.
Tasks include: They may have to obtain medical attention for the fugitive.


Fundraisers plan, implement, direct, and promote programs, services, special events and
products to increase the visibility of their organization, improve the volunteer recruitment
efforts, increase community participation and impact the financial support of the
company. They appeal in writing, in broadcasts, and by personal contact. They work to
find a combination of major donors, corporate sponsorships, or foundation grants or
loans, to generate the cash and goods needed to help the organizations for which they

Funeral Directors and Embalmers

Funeral Directors and Embalmers perform different duties to prepare for the deceased
and the family for a funeral.
Funeral Directors arrange and direct funeral services and operate funeral
establishments. They are responsible for complete care of the deceased person from the
time a call is received notifying of the death until the funeral has been concluded. They
talk with the family of deceased persons to determine details of funerals such as selection
of a casket, religious rites, time of the services and the location of a cemetery.
Arrangements are made for transferring the body to the mortuary where it is embalmed
and then placed in a casket for services.
Embalmers prepare deceased people for burial. They may assist as pallbearers at the
funeral. They are employed by funeral directors.
Tasks include: In smaller establishments, the Funeral Director may also be the
Furniture Movers

Furniture Movers pack household or office items and load them in a truck. Before the
move, an estimator visits the home or office and assesses the time and effort required. A
Furniture Moving Dispatcher chooses the moving team and handles changes in orders or
mistakes in estimates. The moving team consists of a driver who supervises the packing
and the arrangement of the furniture in the truck, and one or more helpers. Warehouse
Workers may be involved if the furniture must be stored or transferred to a long distance

Furniture Rental Consultants

Furniture Rental Consultants convince customers to rent or rent with an option to buy
furniture. They show the customer different models and colors of furnishings including
furniture, floor coverings, draperies, household appliances, and office equipment. They
must use a catalog to show other merchandise, may make suggestions and then help
customers with their decorative scheme. They explain terms and delivery schedule,
prepare the agreement, and then close the contract, sometimes collecting a deposit.

Furniture Sales Representatives

Furniture Sales Representatives sell furniture to retail outlets or distributors. They

often specialize in a particular type of furniture such as home, office, or outdoors. Sales
Representatives compile lists of prospective buyers for use as sales leads and contact
them personally or by phone or mail telling them of upcoming shows and special
displays. They quote prices and credit terms, prepare sales contracts and estimate
delivery dates. They must know their products, the companys manufacturing capacities
and be familiar with the needs of their buyers. Since it is important for the buyers to
become regulars, they try to accommodate their needs and resolve any complaints. They
prepare business reports and keep an account of expenses. They must also understand
advertising and be able to discuss this with buyers as a bargaining tool. Several times a
year, wholesale furniture markets are held in Los Angeles and San Francisco, which
attract buyers from around the country.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Furniture Sales Representatives of a small furniture company may spend most of
their time calling upon furniture store buyers, demonstrating with samples and catalogues
the types of products available. Sales Representatives of a larger furniture company may
spend most of their time in a company showroom, which displays to the buyer the types
of furniture the company has to offer. Only a small amount of time or none at all may be
spent at a customers place of business.
Furniture Workers

Furniture Workers make, assemble, and finish furniture. They use different machines
for each part of the furniture (chair and table legs, table tops, chair seats).


Gamekeepers breed, raise and protect game animals and birds on game preserves. They
provide health care for animals. They may trap them so they can be released to other

Games Programmers

Games Programmers write and debug the code (computer instructions) to develop
games for Windows, Macintosh, Java, Digital Video, and Digital Audio, Midi and3D
Content. They determine the concept and design of the frame they will create. They
create sketches of what the game will look like. They create a limited version of the
audio and video of their game. They prepare flow charts of the activities. They create an
Alpha release for people who are working on the game. Then, each version after this
reveals design problems and flaws until the final release is done. After the game is
finished it must be published and then sold.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They conduct tests on their games. They read technical manuals.

Gem Cutters

Gem Cutters craft gemstones into faceted or Cabochon fashioned fine quality gems.
They are concerned with beauty, clarity and durability. They work to enhance the
specific qualities that increase the value of a stone. They may fashion a variety of stones
such as natural gemstones, semiprecious stones, organic gems, synthetic gems and
amethysts, diamonds, emeralds, garnets, rubies, sapphires and tourmalines. Some
customize their work. Some jewelers are also gem cutters. Self-employed Gem Cutters
may have to market and sell their own gems.
Tasks include: They may buy stones where they are mined or from other gem cutters
(rough). They check for flaws in the stone. They mount the stone with wax onto a rod
called a dopstick. After cutting, they shape, grind or facet the stone. Then, they polish
the gem. They may repair damaged or scratched gemstones. They may repolish

Gemologists examine gemstones (diamonds, jade, sapphires, rubies, etc.) to determine

whether they are genuine, to determine their quality and to appraise their value. They
also look for flaws and defects, which affect the value of stones.
Tasks include: They identify rare stones. They grade stones for color and perfection.
They may give advice to other Gemologists and jewelry makers.


Genealogists research and examine state and national census records, archival
collections, church records, city and county court records, land and real estate records,
federal, state, and county tax rolls and personal records to trace family history or lines of
descent. They interview a client, negotiate an agreement, and report back to the client.
They are searching for birth, baptism, marriage, death and estate records for information.
They prepare a plan for their research. They prepare a chart showing the lines of descent,
family relationship, and a written history. They also interview others to get information.
Tasks Include: Some teach courses in genealogy or are speakers at seminars and
workshops. They construct a chart showing family relationships. They consult American
and International genealogical resources to learn the descent of a specific person or
ancestor. Some are witness in court for testing about family relationships.

General Office Clerks

General Office Clerks perform numerous clerical duties essential to smooth office
operations. They compile reports; tabulate and post data in record books, prepare and
mail bills, receipts, invoices, statements, and checks, answer telephones; and operate
typewriters, calculators and duplicators.

Genetic Counselors

Genetic Counselors provide information and support to family members with birth
defects or genetic disorders and to families who may be at risk for a variety of inherited
Genetic Engineers

Genetic Engineers are concerned with changing or altering genetic instructions of cells
through gene-splicing to produce a beneficial change.
Tasks include: They may work with a bacterium, which has been altered to produce
human insulin or interferon or a wheat plant, which has been altered to make it grow in
an area where it previously would not. They may work in molecular cloning of RNA
and/or DNA viruses.

Geologic Technicians

Geologic Technicians work under the supervision of Geologists on geologic surveys and
field sample collection and preparation for testing.
Tasks include: They work with collection and documentation of data, and preparation of
maps and reports.


Geologists study the origin, history, composition, and structure of the earth, both for
scientific knowledge and for practical purposes such as locating oil, minerals and other
raw materials and compiling architectural safety reports, maps and diagrams. Geologists
first locate and obtain physical data such as mineral or fossil specimens. Next, they use
knowledge of chemistry, physics, math and biology, usually in a well-equipped
laboratory to analyze the data and specimens. Finally, they compile all the knowledge
they have gathered into reports for use by other Scientists and Engineers.


Geophysicists study and measure physical aspects of the earth, such as the shape, the
structure and composition of its interior, ocean tides and currents, properties of the
atmosphere, location of mineral deposits and the origin of glaciers, volcanoes, and
Tasks include: They also locate sites of natural gas, minerals, ground water and
geothermal opportunities.

Gerontologists work with the elderly as advocates, planners, counselors, and social
workers, in teaching and in research. They may work in the health community support
systems, transportation, human services management, income maintenance, nutrition,
housing, adult education and planning.
Tasks include: Health Professionals: They provide hospital care, day care, or home care
to older persons.
Planning or service provider: They develop policy that is later implemented by
government agencies to provide direct service in social service and they provide direct
services and counseling.
Research: They study human behavior and interactions, institutions, and history and
examine areas such as nutrition, leisure time activities and family interactions.
Education: They may teach courses at college and universities.


Glaziers cut, fit and install glass in buildings and vehicles. They use both hand and
power tools. Some install windows and structural glass in shower doors and automatic
doors. Glaziers cut glass to fit, put putty in frames, press glass into place and fasten it
with wire clips and another strip of putty to keep out moisture. They may also be
required to install architectural metal in window walls or storefronts.
Tasks include: In construction they may install mirrors and decorative glass.

Golf Club Managers

Golf Club Managers operate country club or resort golf courses. They make policies,
prepare and maintain budgets, prepare an inventory, and purchase and order supplies.
They maintain golf course greens, and oversee clubhouse functions, restaurant,
swimming pool and bar. They may also teach golf. They plan grounds care activities
and procedures, prepare work schedules, assign duties to workers and examine their work
upon completion. They may provide instructions to workers. They recruit and hire
workers and keep personnel records of workers.
Tasks include: They maintain lawns and sand areas. They supervise personnel and
oversee restaurant and golf shop operations. They inspect facilities to maintain
compliance with health and safety regulations. They enforce laws, and rules and safety
regulations concerning personnel and patron behavior.
Graphic Artists and Designers

Graphic Artists and Designers design and prepare camera-ready copy for any type of
printed material, including business cards and stationary, brochures, advertising,
packaging, book covers, and many other types of materials. This field also includes
signs, architectural graphics, and film, television, video and computer-related imagery.
In a large agency, they work on a team with the Art Director, a Creative Director and the
assistant Art Director. After the client approves the design, a layout Artist orders the type
and produces the graphic designs. Then a Paste-Up or Mechanical Artist prepares the
final copy. A Graphic Artist or Designer is able to do all of these tasks and any of these
people may call themselves Graphic Artists or Designers. The amount of design involved
in the job depends on the type of employer and the amount of direction provided by the
Director. Their task is to inform and persuade a specific audience with images.
Web Graphic Designers are responsible for all graphic content, creations and
development of websites and other integrative on-line environments.

Grocery Checkers

Grocery Checkers operate check stand and maintain merchandise shelves in

supermarkets and grocery stores. At the check stand they may unload carts, weigh
produce, price items, enter amounts on the cash register, collect money or food stamps,
cash checks and bag the groceries.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. When customer flow is slack, they may mark prices, stocks shelves, or do other
tasks. In smaller stores they may fill customer telephone orders.

Grounds Managers

Grounds Managers manage and coordinate the care and maintenance of lawns, shrubs,
flowers, and trees on the grounds of public and private buildings and facilities, in
botanical gardens, playgrounds and in parks and other public places. They plan tasks for
taking care of the nursery, planting flowers, transplanting and pruning trees and
shrubbery. They plan grounds care activities and procedures, prepares work schedules,
assign duties to workers and examine their work upon completion. They may provide
instructions to workers. They may hire workers and keep personnel records or workers.
When they work for smaller employers they may perform accounting and marketing
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may do the same work as those they supervise. Workers may also direct
workers when maintaining and repairing driveways, walks, hedges, swings, benches and
other part equipment. They may patrol grounds to guard against vandalism and
Groundskeepers and Gardeners

Groundskeepers and Gardeners take care of lawns, shrubs, flowers, and trees on the
grounds of public and private buildings and in parks and other public places. Job duties
include trimming and watering lawns and plants, pruning trees and shrubs, raking leaves,
picking up litter, and applying fertilizers and insecticides.
Tasks include: Groundskeepers and Gardeners may also put in new plants.

Guide Dog Trainers

Guide Dog Trainers must teach the dog and owner to function as a team. They teach the
working dogs to navigate through everyday journeys, such as getting to their office or
going to the grocery store. Instructors take the dogs out and expose them to office
buildings, malls grocery stores and buses. They spend one month with the blind handler
to help the dog and handler adjust to each other.
Tasks include: They teach the dogs to respond to verbal commands. They teach them to
wear a harness to avoid obstacles. They cue the dog with spoken commands. They teach
the dog to stop before entering a street.


Gunsmiths restore firearms to working order and refinish firearms. They may repair or
modify parts. Some customize firearms to specifications. They test the magazines and
lubricate guns. They install parts such as rights, grips, pads and decorative pieces. They
clean the guns and parts.
Tasks include: They may work with collectible or new firearms. They lay out plans for
designs of new-guns. They may work with metal and wood. They fire the gun to get
information about it. They may design and make tools, testing equipment and parts of


Handcrafters make by hand custom products for sale. Because they are usually self-
employed, they must do a variety of things. They must get the needed tools and materials
and set up their own work areas. They may make products like pottery, leather products,
candles, glassware, stained glassware, ornamental metalwork, woodcarvings, macram,
jewelry, and clothing.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Handcrafters may also sell their own products by exhibiting them in shops, at craft
fairs or in art shows. They may also do the bookkeeping and clerical work needed for
their small business.
Handwriting Analyst

Handwriting Analysts examine a handwriting specimen to predict what the writer will
do or how they will act under certain conditions. They analyze the handwriting to identify
the character, personality traits and tendencies of a person. They may evaluate
handwriting to determine the suitability of job applicants for a job.
Tasks include: Part of their analysis involves measuring handwriting strokes and
applying the techniques of handwriting analysis. They may observe the individual during
writing. They prepare reports of their analysis.

Hazardous Materials Technicians

Hazardous Materials Technicians collect, transport, prepare and dispose of hazardous

waste material. Hazardous waste is products left by hazardous materials used in almost
every modern manufacturing and industrial, process, including the medical and health
care industry. They may be firefighters or other industrial workers who are on response
teams that respond to hazardous material spills. They may dispose waste chemicals,
fuels, propellants, explosives and contaminated materials. Some may take soil samples at
contaminated sites. They identify, analyze, inventory packages, label and ship hazardous
waste. Hazardous Waste Technicians typically work to stop the release of hazardous
Tasks include: They may be called a variety of job titles. They may respond in an
emergency, answer questions. Speak before groups and prepare written reports.

Hazardous Waste Managers

Hazardous Waste Managers work to protect people and the environment. They work in
the hazardous waste industry in the environmental and occupational health field. They
determine the nature and cause of pollution and then take action to stop it and enforce
government rules and regulations. They review facility plans and work with industries to
determine their disposal or clean-up problems and provide information on the treatment
and containment of hazardous wastes. They may act as technical assistants when spills
occur, identify the pollutant, attempt to determine the impact a spill will have and
recommend corrective action. They may work with Public Health or Occupational
Health and Safety Workers.
Tasks include: They may also help develop government rules and regulations and assist
in developing spill prevention programs. Some specialize in recycling and recovery of
hazardous waste, alternative technology, assessment and monitoring of groundwater or in
permitting, surveillance and enforcement.
Health Service Administrators

Health Service Administrators coordinate hospitals and other health care facilities
including college health services and their staff to assure adequate patient care. Duties
vary and may include management duties such as planning and coordinating department
activities in personnel an staffing, purchasing, public relations such as making speeches
before community clubs and organizations, fund raising, accounting and program
evaluation. They develop and implement budgets and analyze the financial position of
the institution. They work closely with physicians and the governing body of an
institution (board) and must maintain hospital operations in compliance with regulatory
agency requirements.
School Health Care Administrators are concerned with the growth and development of
youth and the learning process, with aspects of school health programs and with
counseling, guidance and mental health. Some institution directors administer activities
in prisons, rest or nursing homes, clinics, private mental institutions.
Assistant Administrators may be responsible for a specific department or of general
hospital services.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of this

Health Therapists

Health Therapists help to restore and maintain the emotional and physical well being of
patients. Many Health Therapists use a holistic approach to the individual, which views
the body as an integrative whole. Using a variety of techniques, the Health Therapist,
usually a member of a health care team, integrates movement, creative expression,
feelings, and fantasies into a whole and functioning personality. They may specialize in
several areas.

Health and Safety Inspectors

Health and Safety Inspectors are concerned with preventing accidents to consumers and
workers. Some inspectors are generalists, while others only inspect within a specialized
field, such as Mining Inspectors, Aviation Inspectors or Fire Inspectors. By investigating
conditions relevant to a specific factory or industrial or commercial business place, health
and safety inspectors seek to determine compliance with state or federal laws and
standards. These inspectors conduct investigations by interviewing workers and
supervisors, collecting samples of potentially dangerous substances, performing on-the-
spot tests or sending the samples to a lab for detailed analysis. They may also observe
the operation of machinery and take pictures to aid in their research. Finally, they
compile data into reports and present such reports to company officials, recommending
changes to reduce or eliminate hazards.
Hearing Aid Salespeople

Hearing Aid Salespeople perform evaluative tests on peoples hearing. They use special
equipment to test hearing and apply a standardized evaluation procedure. They may
replace parts and make repairs to hearing aids. They dispense and sell hearing aids.
They show the customer how to use an aid, select and fit them with one. Audiologists do
diagnosis. Audiologists also dispense and sell hearing aids.
Tasks include: They may sell custom instruments, behind-the-ear (BTE) instruments,
completely-in-the-canal (CIC) instruments or programmable instruments. They provide
adjustments at follow-up visits. They also perform annual tests. They may make an
impression of a clients ear to help shape the hearing aid. They may assist clients in
methods of rehabilitation.

Hearing Officers

Hearing Officers arrange and preside over proceedings involving laws and regulations
administered by public agencies. Similar to a court of law, but less formal, the
proceedings may involve tax assessments, denial of benefits, the revocation of a license,
or citations for various kinds of violations. Hearing officers observe, ask questions of the
participants, listen to testimony, review evidence and issue decisions. They interpret the
meaning of information to others and resolve conflicts. They may administer oaths, or
issue subpoenas for witnesses and documents. They decisions they make may be final
and binding or they may be subject to appeal or review by higher authorities.
Tasks include: They may also conduct research. They prepare written opinions and

Heating and Cooling Systems Mechanics

Heating and Cooling Systems Mechanics install and repair refrigeration and heating
equipment used in homes, schools and commercial buildings. They work on equipment
ranging from window air-conditioners and private home heating units to large, complex
systems in plants and factories.
Tasks include: They may also install and repair solar energy systems.
Heavy Equipment Operators

Heavy Equipment Operators run mobile power-driven machines used in heavy

construction. Machinery includes all hoisting and portable machines, pile drivers,
derricks, cranes, shovels, scrapers, graders, concrete mixers, compressors, rock, sand, and
gravel equipment and dredging equipment. This machinery is used to excavate and grade
earth, erect structural and reinforcing steel, pour concrete, and move heavy materials and
equipment. Some heavy equipment operators work underground.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some heavy equipment operators provide emergency service on highways and

Helicopter Pilots

Helicopter Pilots operate a single pilot helicopter that can take off from and land on
small areas. They control the helicopter and monitor the cockpit panels and navigation
instruments. They use aeronautical charts to plan their fight, which includes a route,
altitude, and speed. They check the weather reports. They may transport people, cargo
and mail.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. The tasks helicopter pilots perform vary and depend on the type of employer.
*they may also work in aerial photography
*in the air taxi business, they may carry passengers within a city or between cities
*in construction they haul materials for the construction of highways, buildings and for
*in crop dusting for agriculture they may drop chemicals and fertilizer over fields
*for the forest service they may seed forests
*in law enforcement they may perform searches of difficult terrain and help during
apprehension of suspects
*for local government services, they report traffic conditions.
*for news stations, they report traffic conditions
*for oil and gas drilling operations they may be involved in hauling cargo and pipeline
*for private companies, they perform administrative flights
*for protective services, they fight fires where they may haul people, cargo, and fire
fighting equipment and supplies such as water and fire retardant spray
*in the tourism industry they may conduct sightseeing tours
*some work as helicopter flight instructors
*they use a checklist to check their aircraft and instruments before takeoff. They check
to see that things have been loaded correctly. They are often
responsible for preventive maintenance on their helicopter. They must keep accurate
records of their flight and maintenance.
Highway Maintenance Workers

Highway Maintenance Workers perform the manual tasks associated with highway,
municipal and rural road and rights-of-way upkeep. They work for public works
departments of cities and counties and are also employed by state departments of
transportation. They fill potholes or broken places in roadways with asphalt or other
bituminous material, spread it with rakes, and finish the final surface. They apply oil to
road surface with sprayers. They clean and clear culverts, ditches, and other drain
structures of debris, maintain road shoulders, and assist in removal of slides from
roadways. They may put up and repair guardrails and highway markers. They may paint
lines on highways. They are responsible for the regular upkeep of the roads, highways
and freeways in the state.
Tasks may include:
*performing traffic control
*doing litter pickup
*performing rodent control. They scatter poison grain and place poison in rodent
*doing minor tree trimming and landscaping tasks. They clear weeds and brush from
areas such as rights-of-way and roadside shoulders and may apply
poison sprays. They may also maintain roadside rest areas
Tasks may be performed by lead workers:
*driving trucks to bring personnel and repair equipment to the work site. Operating
automobiles, landscape equipment, and light construction equipment
*occasionally operating heavy equipment such as steam rollers, tractors with mower
attachments, snow removal equipment and emergency service

Highway Patrol Officers

Highway Patrol Officers enforce state traffic laws. They patrol highways in an
automobile or motorcycle or in planes in some areas and respond to emergencies.
Tasks include: They investigate accidents and make court appearances.


Histotechnologists prepare portions of selected human and animal tissues for

microscopic examination and diagnosis by the pathologist. This involves processing and
cutting tissue samples into sections, mounting them on slides and staining them with
special dyes to make cell details more clearly visible under the microscope. They may
also work with frozen sections.
Tasks include: In many cases, tissue specimens are received from surgery. They
operate computerized laboratory equipment. They examine the slides to be sure they
meet laboratory requirements. Some supervise other laboratory personnel.
Home Economists

Home Economists teach or conduct consumer and homemaker education programs.

They advise in the selection of household equipment, food and clothing and budget
planning, meal preparation, and energy conservation. Home economics emphasize the
family, buy many specialize in business, research, human services, and education. Jobs
vary depending upon the type of employer, from conducting radio and TV programs,
writing advertising copy and magazine and newspaper articles to testing new products
and recipes and equipment. Those who teach, plan courses, prepare lessons, give tests
and evaluate the progress of students.

Home Health Aides

Home Health Aides provide personal care and home management services to allow
patients to live in their own homes. Their patients may include the elderly, the
convalescent or people with mental, emotional or physical disabilities. Duties vary with
the needs of each patient. They usually work under the supervision of physician,
registered nurse or therapist. They assist with bathing, exercising, dressing and feeding.
They check the temperature, blood pressure and pulse and respiration rates to evaluate the
condition of patients. They may give massages and help with medicines. They help
patients adapt to changes caused by their disability, frailty, or illness. They give patients
psychological support and companionship. They also keep records on their patients.
Bilingual Home Health Aides may act as interpreter for the patient and family members.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some people combine home health aid and homemaker duties.
Home-Based Workers

Home-Based Workers are not employees or telecommuting workers. They perform

work while in the home. The home is the primary workplace. However, some have a
business location outside the home. They may be running a business from home. The
job duties are numerous and vary according to occupation. Workers use a wide variety of
equipment to perform their duties.
Tasks include: This is a list of typical tasks that can be performed by Home-Based

Accounting Arts Bookselling

Business consulting Buying and purchasing activities Childcare
Clerical tasks Computer programming Computer software
Consulting Data entry, processing Designing, product
& graphics
Desktop publishing Illustrating, photography Interior Design
Job search activities Preparing resumes Mail response
Mailing activities Medical Transcribing Paralegal Work
Product assembly Proofreading Reading/editing
Research Sales Sewing/handwork
Small Business Social Casework Telemarketing
Telephone Answering Serv. Telephone Interviewing Transcribing
Translating Typing Web Design
Woodworking Word Processing Writing

Horse Management Workers

Horse Management Workers work with horses. They may handle, train and outfit
horses for riding, working or show. They may provide the total care and management
including nutrition. They may also diagnose disease of horses.
Tasks include: Caring for horse equipment, housing programs and facilities. They may
also do the breeding of horses.

Horse Trainers

Horse Trainers train horses for riding, racing, showing or harness. Part of the training is
to train them to respond to oral, spur, or rein commands.
Tasks include: They feed the horses, clean the stalls and exercise the animals.

Horseshoers (also called Farriers) remove old shoes from horses and fit the horse with
new shoes. They trim and file hooves, select new shoes, measure and shape shoes to fit,
then nail the shoe in place and finish the hoof smooth. On occasion the shoes are made
from straight pieces of steel. Experienced horseshoers may treat disease and refer horse
owners to veterinarians.

Horticultural Workers

Horticultural Workers assist in the cultivation of plants in wholesale and retail

nurseries. They prepare soil and growth media, haul and spread topsoil, fertilizer, peat
moss, and other materials. They also dig, rake and screen soil, fill cold frames and hot
beds to prepare for planting. They may spray, weed, and water plants and may use
herbicides, pesticides and fungicides. Other horticultural workers plant, sow seeds in
environmentally controlled structures, such as greenhouses and nurseries. Some workers
work with timing and metering devices when watering and fertilizing and read and
interpret sensing indicators and regulate humidity, ventilation and carbon dioxide systems
to control environmental conditions.
Tasks include: Horticultural workers may also work as Horticultural Products
Salespeople and Nursery Products Salespeople.


Horticulturists develop new or improved plant variety. They may specialize in

ornamental plants, fruits, nuts, berries, vegetables, flowers or trees and shrubs. They
conduct experiments to improve the yield, quality, nutritional value, resistance to disease
and adaptability of plants. They develop ways to plant, breed, cultivate and harvest,
store, process and transport plants.
Tasks include: They may hire and train workers. Typically they supervise workers.
They may use and maintain machinery. Workers may write articles and give lectures.

Hospital Central Supply Technicians

Hospital Central Supply Technicians work with sterilization equipment, such as an

autoclave and package surgical instruments to be used in surgery. Equipment they clean
and sterilize may include aspirators and suction units. They sterilize surgical linens and
supplies, such as surgical packs. They rotate stock, check, remove and replace outdated
supplies. They distribute supplies and equipment.
Tasks include: They keep records of inventory. They restock supply carts to designated
areas. They issue disposable supplies.
Hostlers (Railroad)

Hostlers operate a locomotive to service, reposition and deliver railroad engines between
shop locations, service tracks, and switching areas in the railroad yard. They see that the
engines are equipped with emergency supplies.
Rail Yard Engineers operate switch engines to move cars when trains are being made
up, broken up, or switched for loading and unloading.
Tasks Include: some operate cranes. Hostlers also work in the motor freight
transportation field. They drive trucks to hook up trailers and hostling tractors. They
park or dock them for loading and unloading.

Hotel Desk Clerks

Hotel Desk Clerks register guests, assign rooms, reserve rooms, issue room keys, escort
guests and instruct employees in hotels, motels, clubs and lodges. They may process
incoming mail and record and transmit messages. They may also keep records, compute
bills, collect payments and make change. Duties and responsibilities may vary according
to the size of the establishment. With larger employers, they may have only one specific
job, where with smaller employers, they may have to perform simple bookkeeping,
process mail, operate switchboards, and take messages for guests.


Housemovers prepare buildings for moving from one site to another. Working with
moving-permit regulations, they decide upon the best techniques to use. This sometimes
requires cutting the building into sections, breaking holes in the foundation, positioning
jacks, lowering the house onto dollies, fastening them, and directing workers activities.
Tasks include: They direct the truck drivers to the new site.


Houseparents care for persons in group-living situations. They are responsible for
seeing that the daily routine is carried out and that meals are prepared. They may plan
activities and outings with the approval of the director of the home.
Human Factors Engineers

Human Factors Engineers work to improve the effectiveness of the interplay between
humans and machines. They allocate to machines the functions they do best, and to
humans, those they do best. They analyze people perceive and respond to machine
configurations, controls and informational displays. They also take into consideration
human physical and psychological limitations, (visual acuity, noise tolerance, etc.), and
make sure that proper use of machines does not impose impossible tasks. They develop
and test software processes and designs for machines that reduce the possibility of error
and improve their safety and the ease and efficiency of their use. Working with engineers
they may be involved in the design of automobile instrument panel, computer software
programs, keyboards or other input devices or control systems for weapons, spacecraft or
industrial robots. They develop documentation, and develop and test manuals and
training materials for users of the products they design. They may work as part of a
human factors team. Some are working as Engineering Psychologists. In some
companies, Human Factors Engineers are considered engineering support personnel.

Human Resources Managers

Human Resources Managers develop and implement policies designed to attract and
keep the best available and qualified employees in an organization, to provide for their
well-being, and to promote efficiency on the job. They are usually part of management
and work in the personnel or human resources department of a company. Duties include
recruiting, interviewing, selection, screening and referring applicants, and hiring job
applicants, counseling and disciplining employees, classifying jobs, and planning wage
and salary scales. They may also handle labor grievances and contract negotiations,
training and safety programs, and administer retirement, employee benefit, and
affirmative action or equal employment opportunity (EEO) guidelines. Human Resource
Managers work under the direction of the personnel, industrial relations or human
resources director.


Hydrologists study the earths waters and water system, underground and on the earths
surface. They trace water flow from rainfall, through the earths crust, into the ocean,
and back again to the air. They are interested in properties and distribution as well as
circulation. They collect information directly from the earth, measuring wells, lake
depths, soil percolation, and river-flow volumes. They study seepage and evaporation
rates for dams. They test water composition and analyze water records. They predict
water quality, shortages, floods, and ice-to-water ratios that assist in residential and
industrial site development. They solve critical issues of water supply and use. They
may specialize in ground water or pollution or water-related environmental issues.
Image Consultants

Image Consultants help people learn to project a positive self-image or to be appropriate

for a job interview, a business meeting, a conference or at work. Consultants may advise
individuals about their appearance, behavior or speech. They may work for corporations
that want to design a policy for professional attire for the workplace or teach their
employees about their professional image. They may be hired by companies to sell a
product or service by giving workshops or seminars to their customers about image.
They may also be self-employed as consultants.
Tasks include: They may do color analysis, teach skin care, make suggestions about
wardrobe planning and clothing management, determine the color and style of an
individual, offer grooming tips, and advise about makeup, and hair design. Some
corporations hire them to do sales training. They help them develop poise and
confidence. They help them learn corporate protocol.
As Personal Shoppers they assist the client by shopping for them, such as for apparel
and accessories. They may develop a personalized list of stores where the client can
shop. To do this they must be aware of the personal state of the client.

Immigration Inspectors

Immigration Inspectors are responsible for preventing ineligible persons from entering
the U.S.

Industrial Designers

Industrial Designers combine artistic talent with knowledge of marketing, materials, and
methods of production to create and develop ideas to improve the appearance and
functional design of products. They study and compare products, gather information
about buying trends and needs of users of products by attending showings and reading
publications. They may make models and prepare illustrations and exhibits. They may
design products, containers, and packaging for products or trademarks and logos. They
may work closely with advertising workers when designing packaging.
Industrial Engineering Technicians

Industrial Engineering Technicians help Industrial Engineers find ways to improve

production and job performance. They apply engineering theory and principles to
problems, working under directions. They may study and record time, motion, method,
and speed of production, maintenance, clerical, and other workers. These records are
then used to set standards to improve efficiency.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They prepare layouts of machinery and equipment and prepare charts, graphs, and
diagrams to illustrate workflow. They make recommendations for revisions, alteration of
equipment, and plant layout and safety.

Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineers determine the most efficient and economical methods of utilizing
manpower, machines and materials in an industrial setting. They design plant location
and production plans, systems for data processing, equipment layout, workflows, physical
distribution of goods and services, and industrial accident prevention measures. They
may participate in development and implementation of product design changes to
improve overall productivity, quality, reliability and cost. They may be employed as
Manufacturing Engineers, Process Engineers, Operations Analysts, Quality Engineers,
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Industrial Engineers develop and supervise several management control systems to
aid top management in financial planning and cost analysis. These include quality, cost,
and inventory controls. They monitor systems and provide reports. They may
recommend material handling equipment and systems proposals.

Industrial Relations Directors

Industrial Relations Directors make the policy and directs and coordinates the
industrial relations activities. They analyze wage and salary reports and study industry
trends in order to set salaries. They work to comply with federal and state law. They
report to corporate officials and agency heads.
Industrial Truck Operators

Industrial Truck Operators drive vehicles such as jitneys, forklifts, and stackers in
warehouses, storage yards, factories, or construction sites in various industries to move
and lift heavy materials. They may unload or load freight cars, trucks, aircraft, or ships.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may also inventory materials and products, and do minor vehicle maintenance
and repairs.

Information Abstractors and Indexers

Information Abstractors and Indexers analyze the content of documents and reference
them for easy storage and retrieval. Their work may be stored in electronic data systems.
They review newspapers, books, popular periodicals, trade publications, journal articles,
conference proceedings, legal decisions and other information sources to identify key
topics for indexing the material. They may also prepare abstracts of the publication for
storage in hard copy, microfiche or electronic form. Some may also assist users in
accessing information.

Information Brokers

Information Brokers provide information services to businesses and others for a fee.
They typically use existing databases to provide information about a variety of topics.
They analyze information, make recommendations and make presentations of their
findings. They compile bibliographies. They prepare indexes to handbooks or reports.
They consult with clients who use the reports in their management decision-making
process. They design solutions to resource needs.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They work to make clear and useful reports for their clients. They may offer
computer advice, network design and website services.
Information Researchers

Information Researchers analyze, interpret, and integrate data into a computer database
for retrieval by others, such as on the Internet, in schools and colleges, within
corporations and between government agencies. They gather, compile and collect
information from all relevant sources and review, evaluate and classify it to develop
descriptions, profiles or summaries. They determine which information to include. They
modify, update, edit and maintain information files. They search the Internet for
information. These workers maintain the employers collection or library of materials.
They consult with management.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. You may have to instruct or teach others how to find information. You may provide
support for the end user and staff. You may answer correspondence from users. You
may consult with people in business, industry, unions and government to get information.
You may be asked to evaluate and improve research methods and techniques. You may
determine the need for additional research materials. Those involved in occupational
information research may compute or calculate pay figures.

Information Resource Managers

Information Resource Managers direct the operations of library and information

systems. They may supervise an information library and develop and implement
procedures. They work to provide information to help understand a business, to analyze
the progress of the company and to forecast the future.


Innkeepers typically own and operate small bed and breakfast establishments or
renovated historic hotels. Non-owners operate some inns. The inns usually have three to
twenty bedrooms, quaint and home-like furnishings ad lavish homemade breakfasts.
Each inn or Bed and Breakfast (B&B) has its own charm or special ambiance. Typically,
inns have special characteristics such as a seaside, sunset, or mountain view, country or
gourmet food; special activities like horses, hunting and fishing, wine tasting, weddings,
or a front porch. Some are known for their gardens, privacy, architecture or features for
children. Some resemble authentic farms or are historic homes. They are decorated to
resemble the theme of the B&B or inn. Guests are served meals, typically morning
meals, and are provided with the quiet environment of comfort and relaxation.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Innkeepers must hire staff, make reservations, arrange for advertising and direct
guests to nearby services or entertainment. They must keep accurate records. They must
supervise cleaning activities and the upkeep of the rooms. They also take care of
landscaping and outdoor maintenance.
Instrument Mechanics

Instrument Mechanics inspect, adjust, test, repair, maintain and service electronic,
mechanical and pneumatic measuring instruments and control devices and systems.
These instruments measure temperature, time, weight, pressure, fluid flow, liquid level,
motion, force, velocity, density and chemical composition. Instrumental Mechanics do
this to detect abnormal fluctuations. They may specialize in working with a certain kind
of instrument or system.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Instrument Mechanics may also install these devices. They may disassemble and
clean instruments and replace parts. Then they calibrate the instruments. They may
prepare schematic drawings, sketches and reports. They may keep inventory.

Instrumentation Technicians

Instrumentation Technicians develop, maintain and repair computer-controlled

equipment. The equipment may be used in the operation of television transmitters, long
distance telephones, other communications systems, and hydroelectric and nuclear power
plants. They test equipment and keep records. They may prepare graphs and write
reports of their test results. Some work as field service representatives who install and
maintain equipment.

Insulation Installers

Insulation Installers paste, wire, tape or spray insulation onto a variety of structures and
surfaces to exclude or retain heat. They select the proper material and method of
installation for insulating walls, attics, steam pipes and boilers, meat storage rooms, and
electrical wiring. Insulation installers use common hand tools to measure, cut and fit
various types of insulation. They may use compressors to blow-in or spray-on
insulation. Some work with asbestos.
Insurance Adjusters

Insurance Adjusters decide whether life, medical and disability and property and
liability insurance claims are covered by an insurance companys policies. Then they see
that the payment is made. They gather information about the circumstances of the claim
form, talking with witnesses, inspecting police and hospital records or observing physical
evidence. They analyze this information to determine the validity of the claim and then
negotiate a settlement with the policyholder and authorize the payment. They
recommend legal action when a settlement cannot be negotiated and sometimes testify in
court on contested claims.
Claims Adjusters work for casualty insurance companies and may either specialize in
one form of insurance or work with all lines of casualty insurance. They may also work
for companies specializing in workers compensation.
Claims Examiners work mostly for life and health insurance companies where they pay
claims in accordance with policy provisions and investigate the details surrounding
questionable claims. Their title is Disability Insurance Claims Representatives or
Workers Compensation Claims Representatives.
Independent Adjusters settle claims on behalf of insurance companies under contract.
Public Adjusters represent the claimant.

Insurance Clerks

Insurance Clerks review and verify data on insurance applications, records, and policies.
They verify computations on interest, premiums, and settlements. They correspond with
sales personnel about processing of applications. They may also compile periodic reports
for management. Some insurance clerks (Finance and Insurance) order insurance policies
to ensure coverage for property. Some insurance clerks (Clerical) compile records of
insurance policies covering risks to property and equipment of an industrial organization.
Tasks include: Insurance Clerks may type a check or voucher requesting payment of
premium. They may arrange for renewal, transfer or cancellation of insurance coverage.
They may compile statistical data for the insurance company. They may proofread
printed material. They may design forms.
Insurance Claims Clerks get claims information from insured or designated persons to
settle claims with their insurance carrier.
Insurance Policy Processing Clerks process applications for, changes to, reinstatement
of and cancellation of insurance policies.
Insurance Checkers verify accuracy of insurance company records, performing
comparisons of premiums paid, interest, and dividends due with the same data on other
Insurance Salespeople

Insurance Salespeople sell policies (life, property-liability or casualty and health) to

individuals and businesses for protection against future financial losses. The amount of
contact with clients depends on the type of insurance they have. Salespeople analyze the
clients needs and resources and recommend a specific amount and type of insurance.
They are also involved in maintaining records, preparing reports, identifying prospective
customers, assisting in collecting premiums, and preparing insurance claims for clients.
General agents or career agents work for one company while independent agents
represent more than one client.

Interior Designers and Decorators

Interior Designers and Decorators identify, research, and creatively solve problems
pertaining to the function and quality of the interior environment, perform services
relative to interior spaces, including programming, design analysis, space planning and
anesthetics, using specialized knowledge of interior construction, building codes,
equipment, materials and furnishings; and prepare drawings and documents relative to the
design of interior spaces in order to enhance and protect the health, safety and welfare of
the public.

Internet Project Managers

Internet Project Managers oversee the ongoing development, implementation,

coordination, maintenance and overall strategy of a companys website. They work to
increase awareness of a companys products and services offered by coordinating them
with placement of information on the website.
Tasks include: They interact with top management.
Internists (Physicians)

Internists diagnose and treat diseases and injuries of the human internal organ systems,
such as the heart, liver and lungs. They examine patients for symptoms, determine the
nature of the disorder, and prescribe medication or recommend dietary and activity
programs. They do external exams plus use diagnostic aids such as x-rays, blood tests
and EKGs to diagnose problems. Internists do not perform surgery. They may refer
their patients to other medical specialists as needed. Also called doctors of internal
medicine, internists are among the largest group of medical specialists nationwide. While
performing their job, they:
*examine patients for symptoms of disorders
*decide the nature and extent of injury or disorder using a variety of aids and tests
*discuss problems with patients
*prescribe treatment, medications, diet or activities
*refer patients to surgery if needed
*supervise and follow up on patient treatment
*maintain medical records and supervise staff
*read and study to stay abreast of new medical developments


Interns are advanced students or recent graduates. They perform the tasks of an
occupation in a real life environment under the supervision of experienced workers.
Internships are typically for a specified length of time. Some occupations require
internships. The purpose of professional internships is typically to fulfill licensing
requirements and gain experience. Employers may offer other internships to encourage
students to enter the career field. Interns typically learn about the field, develop skills,
and make contacts.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. The tasks to be completed in an internship are typical to a specific occupation.
Some internships offer college credit to those still in school. Unpaid internships are
called externships. Unpaid internships offer the opportunity to explore career options.
Interpreters and Translators

Interpreters and Translators provide a link between words, spoken or written, in one
language to persons fluent in another language. Generally, interpreters and translators
work into their native language and out of their foreign language. Languages that
frequently need interpreting and translating are: Arabic, Cantonese, Japanese, Korean,
Portuguese, Spanish, Tagalog and Vietnamese.
Interpreters work with live speech and provide simultaneous (Specialty) or consecutive
speech translations.
Tasks include: They may work as escorts for foreign visitors, as Conference
Interpreters, or as Interpreters for persons who must carry out legal, business or other
dealings in a language they cannot speak.
Translators work with written material and prepare manuscripts or written reports in a
variety of fields. They may prepare correspondence, sales quotations, technical and
product brochures, and audio-visual material. Some may specialize such as in scientific
Tasks include: Translating commercial signs into another language. Translating
hospital brochures into another language. Translating election notices for federal, state
and county government. Translators may also translate legal documents in court cases.
In manufacturing they may translate bilingual instructions.

Interviewing Clerks

Interviewing Clerks talk to people by telephone, mail or in person at home, place of

business, or field location to get information to complete forms, applications or
questionnaires. They explain the purpose of the interview. They ask specific questions,
record answers and help people complete a form. They may read from a prepared script.
Then they record responses using a computer word processing software program.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They sort, classify and file forms. They may prepare and type reports. In hospitals
they interview entering patients to compile a medical history. In financial institutions
they interview applicants for jobs. In industry they interview prospective employees. In
research they interview consumers.

Inventors develop an idea, product, or invention and perform experiments. They make
discoveries and breakthroughs in a wide variety of research. Inventors may research on
their own or collaborate with a team of inventors to produce results. To retain ownership
of their inventions many inventors venture into their own business. Many inventors are
self-employed or working as consultants and may own their own companies. These
inventors usually file for patents for their own inventions. Some sign agreements with
their employers giving ownership of their inventions to the company. In this case, the
company usually keeps ownership of an invention.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
Engineers: As Inventing Engineers, they are also involved in design.
Scientists: Some inventors work in the sciences, such as biochemistry and materials
Aviation: Some work in space flight safety and in signal processing.

Investment Managers

Investment Managers buy and sell securities and other investment instruments so as to
realize the best possible return on portfolios held by an individual or organization. These
portfolios may be part of the assets of the organization, or they may be accounts held in
trust such as estates or pension funds. Working with financial analysts reports, they
keep abreast of developments in securities markets so as to be able to make quick
decisions regarding the buying or selling of market instruments.

Investor Relations Executives

Investor Relations Executives combine financial analysis and public relations to keep
stockholders informed about their company. They work closely with company Business
Executives and Managers. They work to improve and maintain the relationship between
the organization and investors. They develop ways to keep records and make reports to
management. They analyze records and advise management and top executives. During
acquisition of other companies or when their company is being acquired, they may try to
influence stockholders. They have contact with shareholders, the banking community
and investors.
Tasks include: They may recruit, hire and train staff. They may evaluate performance
and recommend advancement or disciplinary action. They may submit reports to
regulatory agencies.
Iron Fence Erectors

Iron Fence Erectors erect and repair metal fences and fence gates around businesses,
homes or farms. They measure the fence line and mark the positions for postholes. They
must dig postholes, mix and pour concrete, align posts, cut and connect metal tubing, set
up and stretch wire mesh or chain link fencing between posts and attach fencing to the
posts. Then, they assemble the gate and fasten it into position.
Tasks include: They may have to blast rocks. They may weld parts together. They may
work with highway guardrails. Some work with wooden fences.


Janitors maintain buildings in clean and orderly condition. They clean and supply
restrooms, wash walls and ceilings, mop and wax floors, clean carpets, sweep, dust, wax,
polish metalwork, collect and dispose of trash and replace lights. Some janitorial jobs
may include lawn mowing, clearing snow and ice, tending furnaces and boilers, painting
and minor plumbing and wiring repairs.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may operate and maintain power equipment. They may also paint and
exterminate pests. They notify management when major repairs must be done.


Jewelers make and repair jewelry, like rings, necklaces, bracelets, and earrings. Skilled
crafts people may cut or shape stones, too. Jewelers work with gold and silver and other
metals. Most jewelers do repair work. Many jewelers work in their own stores. They
may also sell silverware, china, glassware, porcelain and timepieces.
Jewelry Makers are skilled artisans who make jewelry by hand using their own designs.
Jewelry Repairers reset stones, enlarge or reduce the size of rings, change mountings,
engrave, solder broken parts, or redesign old jewelry.
Silversmiths work mainly with silver or silver plating. They may replate items or
sometimes only polish items of value.
Tasks include: They may also perform wax injection and finishing.

Job Analysts

Job Analysts write job or occupational descriptions and for large companies civil service
personnel departments. They gather and analyze information by observing and
interviewing workers. They consult with management to determine the purpose of a
study. These descriptions are used in recruiting, selecting, promoting, evaluating,
training and administration.
Tasks include: They use developed data to write descriptions.

Jockeys ride horses in order to win races. They confer with the horse trainer to plan a
riding strategy. They discuss the horses performance.


Journalists write news stories and communicate ideas for publication or broadcast for
newspapers, magazines, radio and TV stations. They gather and verify factual
information regarding a story through interview, observation, and research. Journalists
also write articles, technical reports, advertising copy, or creative stories in private
industry and public agencies.


Judges preside over courts of law and hold hearings to settle legal disputes. They inform
defendants of their rights, arbitrate disputes and advise counsel and jury. They hear
allegations, decide what evidence is admissible, listen to testimony, and advise lawyers
and settle disputes. They instruct and direct juries concerning the laws application.
When there is a conviction, judges set fines and determine sentences within the limits set
by state and federal laws. Judges also may perform marriage ceremonies, do legal
research, and set court and hearing procedure rules. Presiding over legal matters
demands that judges write their case decisions. They research laws and regulations and
decide if there is enough evidence to prosecute. They prepare for appeals, question
witnesses, and recommend that litigants refuse or accept compromise settlements. The
advise attorneys, juries and court personnel and administer judicial systems. Judges also
give instruction to the jury and work with other legal personnel. Judges may examine
evidence in criminal cases to determine if evidence will support charges; sentence
defendants in criminal cases; and award settlements to litigants in civil cases. Most
judges are also lawyers.
Other work activities include:
*listening to presentation of cases, rule on use of evidence and methods of giving
testimony, and settle disputes between opposing attorneys.
*instructing the jury on how the law applies and direct jury to decide verdict based on the
facts presented.
*sentencing person convicted by jury in criminal cases.
*preparing written decisions on cases.
*conducting hearings to determine if a defendant should be held for trial.
*researching laws and policies to prepare for an appeals hearing.
*recommending refusal or acceptance of compromise settlements.
*setting rules of procedure.
Kitchen Helpers

Kitchen Helpers assist cooks by doing basic food preparation tasks, maintaining work
areas, kitchen equipment, and keeping utensils clean and orderly. They may wash, peel
or chop fruits and vegetables, scrape and wash dishes, pots and pans; remove garbage
from work areas and put it into containers; and sweep and scrub floors. They also bring
supplies from the storage area to the work area. They wash worktables and clean
refrigerators. They may also make sandwiches, salads and coffee. They may specialize
in one particular task.

Labor Relations Specialists

Labor Relations Specialists analyze and interpret collective bargaining agreements.

They work in unionized companies and advise management, resolve grievances,
negotiate agreements, and investigate violations of agreements.

Landscape Architects

Landscape Architects develop plans and designs of outdoor spaces for useful and
aesthetic purposes. Projects include commercial, industrial, and housing development;
parks, gardens, and recreational areas such as resorts and golf courses, coastal facilities,
urban plazas and other public places; and residences. Other projects may include
schools, cemeteries, landmark monuments, marine facilities, and scenic highways. They
study the site and analyze their clients needs, draw up plans, and make sketches, models,
and drawings. They estimate costs, schedule the work, and supervise resulting work.
They must understand the scale and properties of regional, community, and neighborhood
landscapes as a whole. They must work in compliance with codes and ordinances.
Tasks include: In some cases, they may prepare environmental impact statements or
reports, which describe potential effects on the physical environment from the proposed
development. They often consult with other professionals and sometimes supervise or
review work in progress.
Laser Technicians

Laser Technicians work in research and development, in manufacturing, and in

maintenance and repair of laser systems. They review project instructions, interpret
production details and may install and align optical parts. They turn controls of
equipment, set-up precision electronic and optical instruments to test laser equipment and
analyze test data and report test data. Lasers amplify light rays, which produce a light
beam, which can be concentrated on a small area. They are used in science research,
medicine (Microscopic eye surgery, for example), dentistry, telecommunications,
materials processing and testing, construction (welding), the military (satellite tracking,
and guiding spaceships), in business (supermarket scanners), in jewelry making (diamond
cutting, for example), and thermonuclear fusion. Lasers are also used in holography,
which combines laser beams and photography to make a three-dimensional image.
Holography is currently used in art and advertising.
Tasks include: They prepare and write technical reports. They recommend solutions to
technical problems.
*In research and development, laser technicians work under the supervision of
engineers to test new models and designs.
*In manufacturing, they work in production where they assemble components according
to project instructions. They explain designs to machine shop workers and are
responsible for the finished product.
*Many laser technicians are laser Field Service Technicians who install, service and
repair laser systems at customer sites.


Lathers construct metal mesh or plasterboard backing to which plaster readily adheres.

Laundry and Dry-cleaning Workers

Laundry and Dry-cleaning Workers operate machines to clean, press, and wash
clothing linens and other textile articles.
Laundry Workers receive, wash, press, and deliver garments and other articles to be
laundered. They mark and sort articles, remove stains, load and tend washing machines,
extractors and driers. Others fold articles for delivery and operate hand irons or pressing
Dry Cleaners clean garments, draperies, and other fabric articles, which should not be
washed in water. They sort articles, select the proper time cycle, apply special pre-
spotting solutions and then load items into automatic dry-cleaning machines. They set
controls for solvents and length of cleaning time.
Law Clerks

Law Clerks research legal data and prepare for brief or argument based on statutory law
or decisions. They study legal records and documents. They perform factual
investigation. They prepare briefs or arguments. They may draft opinions and assist in
making legal analysis. They may file pleadings with the Court Clerk. They work closely
with an attorney and typically under the supervision of attorneys. They may assist
lawyers and judges in court or during hearings. Some work for a firm with a number of
attorneys on staff.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may serve copies on opposing counsel. Some workers combine paralegal or
bailiffs skills as law clerks. Some law clerks focus on State Law, Federal Law or a
particular issue.

Law Enforcement Officers

Law Enforcement Officers are responsible for protecting life and property, and
preserving the peace. They enforce laws and maintain order. They work to prevent
crimes, investigate complaints and crimes, apprehend violators, and assist in prosecutions
of criminals. City and county officers spend considerable time on peacekeeping tasks
such as resolving family disputes.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. The rest of the time is spent on crime-related and service activities. They use
computers to generate leads, spot crime trends, and run checks on persons and property.
They also prepare and submit reports of their activities and testify in court.

Law Office Managers

Law Office Managers handle all the administrative duties of a law firm. Their goal is to
operate the firm at a profit. They handle the office space, billing and account-keeping
duties. They also work with new computerized operating procedures.


Lawyers advise people of their legal rights and obligations and represent them in courts
of law. They also negotiate out-of-court settlements, represent clients before government
agencies, and act as trustees and guardians. Some lawyers act as prosecutors representing
federal, state r local jurisdictions. Other lawyers are engaged in legal research, drafting
legislation, or taking legal actions on behalf of consumers, minorities, or the
Tasks include: Lawyers may specialize in business, civil, criminal or probate law, estate
law, family or divorce law, labor, malpractice, patent law, real estate law, taxation law,
title law or trial law.

Lecturers prepare and deliver information about a wide variety of subjects. They usually
specialize in a specific subject about which they have knowledge. They may be college
professors or teachers who lecture to other academic professionals or their community.
They may be professionals who have information to share. They may be hired as paid
professionals with specialized knowledge who lecture about a subject. They prepare
bibliographies of reading materials.
Tasks include: They plan the presentation and prepare an outline. They arrange for
audiovisual equipment. They may use projected material, film or slides in their
presentation. They may supervise other workers.

Legal Secretaries

Legal Secretaries prepare papers and correspondence such as summonses, complaints,

motions, and subpoenas. They may also file documents with the courts. Attorneys
depend upon them for notification of upcoming events and to ensure advanced
completion of legal documents necessary for those events. Specialized duties may
include making initial drafts of more common forms of pleadings, notices and affidavits.
They deal with mail, screen calls, map travel arrangements, schedule appointments,
coordinate meetings, tracks information and receive visitors.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. In some cases, Legal Secretaries may review law journals and other legal
publications to identify court decisions pertinent to pending cases and prepare reports for
company officials. They also perform clerical duties and maintain the files in law offices.
They may file, fax, duplicate and do other administrative duties.

Legislative Aides

Legislative Aides perform a variety of clerical tasks for elected or appointed

governmental officials. They may deliver information to the public about an officials
position on issues and work with the press. They answer telephone calls from the public
and keep records of the calls. An aide may specialize in a particular issue, such as
education issues, issues of the disabled or seniors or environmental issues.
Liberal Arts Teachers

Liberal Arts Teachers provide classroom instruction to teenage students in middle and
high schools. Some teach in community colleges or private vocational schools. Liberal
arts include English, drama, languages, government, health sciences, music, social
sciences, and physical education. Teachers develop teaching plans, give formal lectures
and conduct classes, prepare and give examinations, check homework assignments and
evaluate the progress of their students.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They often must teach more than one related subject within their field.


Librarians organize and coordinate the functions of a library in order to make it work for
people. They provide service to clients by utilizing all types of communication
resources, including print, nonprint, and computerized databases. Typical duties include
performing reference service, ordering, cataloging and classifying materials, maintaining
the collection of books, periodicals, documents, films and recordings; preparing
bibliographies; and furnishing information on library activities, facilities, rules and
services to other agencies and individual users. Some librarians perform outreach service
to the handicapped and institutionalized. Most librarians today are well versed in the use
and applications of computers.
Tasks include: Some circulate books from a vehicle called a bookmobile (specialty).

Library Assistants (Clerical)

Library Assistants work under the supervision of librarians. They perform

recordkeeping duties. They reserve, circulate, renew and discharge books and other
materials. They issue identification cards, check prices of materials, prepare order forms,
send notices for overdue books, and collect fines. Common duties include book re-
binding, mending and repair, card filing, reshelving, sorting and cataloging new
materials, and answering inquiries on the telephone and in person. When books are
returned, library assistants inspect them for damage, verify due-dates and compute library
fines. They may also assist with inventory. Many use Internet websites to get
Tasks include: They may also be responsible for displays in the library. They may also
help put together bibliographies. Some may be assigned to drive a bookmobile vehicle to
various sites and help the librarian.
Library Technicians

Library Technicians are library paraprofessionals who work under the supervision of
library staff. They help library staff to maintain library material, pre-catalog, acquire
books, and check out books. They may work with books, magazines, records, tapes,
films, videocassettes, and pamphlets. Common duties include book re-binding, mending
and repair, card filing, re-shelving, sorting and cataloging new materials, and answering
inquiries on the telephone and in person. When books are returned, library technicians
inspect them for damage, verify due-dates, and compute library fines. They instruct
patrons in the use of the library and equipment. They also assist with inventory and help
put together and type bibliographies. They may also be responsible for displays in the
library. Many research information on Internet websites. Some specialize in childrens
specialties, music specialties, instructional media, and audiovisual and emerging
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
*catalog materials
*reshelf books
*work with inter-library loans
*may serve on reference desk

Licensed Vocational Nurses

Licensed Vocational Nurses assist in the care of patients with medical problems. They
administer medications, monitor equipment, change dressings, and prepare food trays.
They feed, bathe, massage and dress patients, maintain patients charts, and take
temperatures and pulse rates.
Private duty LVNs care for a single patient in the home or hospital and may do general
housekeeping as well.


Lifeguards watch public and private beaches, private swimming areas or swimming
pools. They may receive people or small crafts in trouble. They may give first aid
treatment and write reports of rescues.
Light Technicians

Light Technicians hang light units, arrange for electrical wiring circuits and operate the
controls for lights during a theatrical performance. They work according to a lighting
plan for each production. They operate computers and other equipment and work from
cues to create light or light level or intensity. They collaborate with other members of the
production team. They may work closely with the director of photography.
Tasks include: They work closely with the Lighting Designer. They may read the play
or screenplay or script. They may attend planning meetings.

Line Workers

Line Workers install and repair electrical, telephone, television, and telegraph
transmission systems for business and residential customers. They climb poles or work
underground to install transmission cables and repair and replace lines. Workers may
specialize as Ground Helpers, Cable Splicers, Electrical Line Erectors and Line
Construction Line Workers erect towers and install transmission and high-voltage
distribution power lines between generating stations and substations.
Cable Splicers work with overhead, underground and submarine cables that are used in
communications and power transmission systems. They cut the cable sheath before they
can splice the two cables together. They test conductors. They cover the conductors.
Some work with energized circuits to avoid interruption of service. They may locate and
repair leaks. When working underwater they may work on board marine craft.

Lithographic Workers

Lithographic Workers prepare and photograph text and illustrations and make printing
plates that reproduce these materials on an offset press. Lithographic work involves
several distinct operations, each of which may be done by a specialized group of workers,
or in smaller shops, several operations may be combined and performed by one person.
Camera Operators photograph and develop negatives of the copy.
Strippers arrange and past film or prints of type and artwork on layout sheets from
which photographic impressions are made.
Platemakers expose sensitized plates to the negative and chemically treat the plate to
bring out the photographic image.
Proofers make copies from the plate to test the correctness of the images and colors.
Loan Officers

Loan Officers evaluate applicants financial backgrounds to determine whether or not a

loan should be granted. They review potential borrowers; applications and financial
statements, and reports of credit analysts before making a judgment. Most specialize in
particular markets such as agricultural, small business, real estate, or automobile loans.
May supervise and train other employees in the department.


Lobbyists represent interest groups (Clients) and promote a policy on public issue to
persuade local, state and federal legislators and other public officials. They study
proposed legislation and recommend changes more favorable to the clients interests.
They devise the best arguments possible and plan strategy. They try to contact them
personally outside the legislative chambers. They arrange for voters to express their
opinions to their legislators. They may testify before the legislative committees.
Tasks include: They prepare news releases and materials, and conduct news
conferences. They plan meetings to discuss the issues and proposals. They work with
other lobbyists on common issues. They prepare news releases and materials and
conduct news conferences. They plan meetings to discuss the issues and proposals. They
may work with other lobbyists on common issues. They learn about close races and
recommend campaign contribution to others. They also attempt to make rules in
regulatory agencies to all levels of government.


Locksmiths are skilled craft workers who open, adjust, and repair locks, install and
change locks and lock combinations, make keys and develop and install security systems.
They may use machines and lock picks. These skills distinguish locksmiths from key
cutters. Locksmiths also keep records of locks and work completed.
Key Cutters make duplicate copies of keys in a hardware or variety store.
Sales Repairers are skilled craft workers work with a variety of types of safes.
Tasks include: They may work on alarms, safes, and automobiles or other vehicles.
Lodging Managers

Lodging Managers direct the day-to-day business operations of hotels and motels to
serve their patrons successfully. These activities include front office, kitchen, dining
rooms, and housekeeping, accounting and purchasing departments. Common to any
managers job is the profitable administration of the establishments activities. Specific
duties vary according to the size, type, and location of the business. Managers in large
hotels and motels mostly concentrate on administration, while managers of small firms
may perform clerical work, relieve the desk clerk or PBX Operator, perform cleaning
tasks and do general building repairs. These managers must spend some time in
community affairs.


Loggers work in the timber and logging industry in a variety of occupations such as
Fallers and Buckers, Choker Setters and Yarding Workers. This industry produces
lumber used in construction.

Longshore Workers

Longshore Workers load and unload ships and move cargo in and out of dockside
warehouses. They operate cranes or winches to move large crates, automobiles, and
other very large items. They also drive lift trucks to transfer items such as smaller crates,
lumber, and pallet-mounted machinery. They position and fasten hose lines to ships
cargo tanks when loading or unloading liquids such as oil or chemicals. They perform a
variety of other manual duties, such as lashing and shoring cargo aboard ships or
attaching winch slings or hooks and signaling the winch operator to move, raise or lower

Lumber Graders and Inspectors

Lumber Graders and Inspectors examine and label lumber products by grade and
quality. They determine whether each piece of wood meets set standards. They stamp
the grade or quality on each piece. Inspectors are certified and are usually self-employed.
Graders are not usually certified and are employed by the lumber company.
Lumber Mill and Plywood Laborers

Lumber Mill and Plywood Laborers handle logs, lumber, or plywood and prepare them
for production and shipment.
Plywood Laborers perform a variety of tasks in the production of finished plywood.
They select, pull, glue and stack plywood panels which are bonded together to form the
finished product. Plywood laborers also assist others in setting up machines and in
loading and unloading materials from railroad cars and trucks.
Sawmill Laborers prepare logs to be cut and shaped into lumber. They sort and stack
lumber. They load and unload railroad cars and trucks. They help others to set up

MIS Managers

MIS Managers or Directors design, develop, test, implement, manage and direct the use
of one or many management computer information systems used by a company. They
may make decisions on the types of computers, programs and equipment, which would
be best for the company to use. They develop standards and procedures. They are
responsible for the installation, operation, maintaining of data, and generating of reports
used by management. They must learn what information can benefit the company and
what the company wants to know and then they are responsible for distribution of
information to managers. They may establish an information center, which can be used
for easy access to data. They may help determine company policy.
Tasks include: Workers also keep records of information they provide, such as the
number of reports and turn-around time for requests. They may train Analysts.

Machine Tool Operators

Machine Tool Operators, including both skilled and semi-skilled workers, specialize on
one or several machine shop power tools that are used to shape metal to precise
dimensions. Examples of such machinery are a drill press, lathe, milling machine, boring
mill, shaper, planer and grinder. Skilled operators plan and set up machine operations
according to blueprints and other instructions, semi-skilled operators do more repetitive
and simpler tasks, such as placing materials in machine tools and watching gauges and
dials to make sure of proper machine functioning. Machine tool operators use measuring
devices, like micrometers, calipers and gauges.

Machinists craft precision parts from suitable metals using machine tools. They follow
specific dimensions of blueprints, specifications, or sketches. They operate basic
metalworking power tools, make or repair metal pieces, tools, and machines. Some
program, set up, and operate Numerical Control (NC) and Computerized Numerical
Control (CNC) machines.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists employ huge superconductive magnets

and radio waves to reveal detailed information about the bodys anatomy and chemical
composition. Radiologic Technologists may use MRI equipment as well.

Mail Carriers

Mail Carriers deliver and collect letters and packages along assigned routes. They must
sort the mail into racks before delivery, complete delivery forms, collect charges, and get
signatures on receipts for certain types of mail. They enter changes of address in a route
book to readdress mail to be forwarded. Duties may include delivering parcel post or
collecting mail from street boxes and office mail chutes.
Rural Mail Carriers provide many services including selling stamps and mail orders
and accepting registered or insured parcels and letters.

Mail Clerks

Mail Clerks work in private industry in mailrooms where they properly prepare outgoing
mail and distribute incoming mail.

Maintenance Mechanics

Maintenance Mechanics repair and maintain machinery used in many kinds of factories
or plants. Mechanics read blueprints and operation manuals and observe the machine in
operation in order to gather enough information to diagnose the problem. Based on their
analysis of this information, they repair the machines using hand tools, precision
measuring instruments, and power tools. They take apart devices, check them out for
wear or defect and replace, clean or lubricate parts. They operate a variety of equipment
including machine tools, power hoists and cranes, electronic testing equipment and the
machines they repair.
Maitres D

Maitres Ds provide extra courtesy and better service to customers dining out at a full-
service restaurant, a hotel restaurant, or in an executive dining room. They schedule and
confirm reservations. They greet guests; seat them at tables or in a lounge. They may
offer drinks. They may recommend a wine to the customer. They may explain to the
diner what goes into the preparation of their meal. They check the bills. They work
primarily in the front of the house and deal with any problems that may arise. They
coordinate and supervise the activities of dining room personnel including hosts and
hostesses, waiters and waitresses and wine stewards. They make sure the restaurant is
fully staffed. They inform and instruct staff. They consult the kitchen staff about the
menu and changes in the menu.
Banquet Maitre Ds manage all aspects of the banquet operations. They arrange parties
or special events.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. In some cases they may prepare simple things at the table, such as salads or they
may offer fresh ground pepper. They may organize clean up and closing of the

Management Consultants

Management Consultants examine the present structure of a business or organization,

evaluate, and then make recommendations to enhance profitability or efficiency. They
market their expertise to all levels and sizes of business and industry, both in the private
sectors and locally, nationally and internationally. They offer specialized abilities,
services and knowledge. Profound economic and business changes now under way are
radically altering the world or work. Outsourcing or contracting with a consultant to
perform a specific assignment will become more integrated into organizational
operations. Management Consultants will present their solutions in an oral presentation
or written report. They may conduct seminars for on-site workers or teams. Topics span
many disciplines and may include information systems, organizational restructuring,
production management, employee performance, downsizing and transition.
Tasks include: Conducting training seminars, giving public lectures, making keynote
speeches and conducting workshops. Consults with the client to determine and define a
need or a problem.
Manufacturing Engineers

Manufacturing Engineers are responsible for the operations on the factory floor. They
develop, evaluate and improve manufacturing methods. They work to maintain efficient
and safe utilization of plant facilities. They may plan training programs.
Tasks include: Manufacturing Engineers perform tasks similar to Industrial Engineers,
but the tasks may be more technical. They may advise management about production

Marine Biologists

Marine Biologists study life in the worlds oceans, seas, bays and estuaries (all salt
water). They study all living marine organisms (from bacteria to whales), their
environment, and the relationship that exists between them. They are interested in new
discoveries, new food sources, and saving endangered species. They gather specimens
from the sea or shorelines, taking into account tidal cycles, seasons, and exposure to
atmosphere elements. However, much of their time is spent conducting experiments,
compiling data and writing reports on computers. With the results of their research,
marine biologists produce mathematical predictions called models. Some recent research
topics are analysis of oceans from satellites, mapping and tracking of sea life populations,
discovery of biochemicals used as pharmaceuticals, and response of marine organisms to
global climate change or pollutants.
Tasks include: They must stay up-to-date and knowledgeable about current work in
their field.

Market Researchers

Market Researchers work to determine whether new products or services will sell and
who will buy the product. They use statistical procedures to design data gathering
projects, such as surveys, opinion polls, or questionnaires. They gather and analyze data
on customer preferences and buying habits, and on competitors prices, sales and
methods. They prepare reports and graphic illustrations, such as tables and charts, for
follow-up consultations and presentations of their findings. They may forecast future
marketing trends and make suggestions to management on how to use their findings.
Tasks include: They may work for a client company where the emphasis is on problem
definition and implementation of their findings, for a research supplier where the
emphasis is on data gathering and tabulating collected data, or an advertising agency
where the emphasis is on testing concepts, products, packaging and advertising. They
may specialize in working in the high-tech or financial service industry. They work with
a staff of Research Workers, such as statisticians, survey interviewers and office workers.
Marketing Directors

Marketing Directors work to increase the sales volume of a business organization.

They oversee marketing, advertising, publicity and promotional activities of the
organization. They conduct local, regional and national surveys. They tabulate and
analyze market research data on consumer attitudes and preferences, competitor products
and price structures, and develop sales techniques and campaigns. They set marketing
goals, pricing schedules, and assign products and territories. They may select, train and
evaluate the performance and review commissions an expenses of sales personnel.
Tasks include: In large organizations, these Marketing Managers are responsible for
different products or territories. Marketing Director select, train, and supervise sales staff.

Martial Arts Fighters

Martial Arts Fighters compete in professional karate kumite matches that are full
contact and are run by rules similar to boxing.

Massage Technicians

Massage Technicians use their hands to provide treatments to body muscles to relieve
tension. They use techniques like kneading, rubbing and stroking to stimulate
circulation. They may use acupressure to release tension. They also use vibrating
equipment and apply lubricants. They may give steam or dry heat, ultraviolet or infrared,
or water treatments. They may recommend exercise, weight reduction, or other activities
to clients.


Mathematicians use symbolic languages to set up an analyze relationships among

quantities and qualities of things, events, and places. Pure Mathematicians develop the
theories to further the science of mathematics.
Applied Mathematicians develop techniques and approaches to solve problems in
natural science, social science, engineering and management.
Other Mathematicians teach at different levels.
Mathematics and Science Teachers

Mathematics and Science Teachers provide classroom instruction in a variety of

mathematics and science courses to teenage students in middle and high schools. Some
teach in community colleges and private vocational schools. Math teachers help students
to develop mathematical skills. They must be able to help students at both a remedial and
an advances level. Life Science Teachers teach biology, botany, zoology or a general
science course. Physical Science Teachers instruct their students in chemistry, physics
and general science. All teachers develop plans, conduct classes, lecture, demonstrate,
assign lessons and correct homework, prepare exams, and evaluate student progress.
They may be required to supervise study halls and homerooms and other student

Meat Cutters

Meat Cutters prepare meat, fish and poultry for wholesale and retail trade. They use a
cleaver, knife and saw to complete the job. Meat Cutters reduce the wholesale cuts into
retail portions. Meat Cutters may do custom cutting. Some wrap and weigh meat, advise
customers and collect money. In large stores, they may specialize in one type of cut,
wrap and weigh meat. Meat cutters also prepare other meat products like sausage, corned
beef, or smoked meats.
Butchers work in slaughter plants. They may slaughter or butcher, and skin and trim
Meat Cutters-Jobbers cut large segments of meat into wholesale cuts.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may place meat in containers to be wrapped by others. They may clean the
work area. They may unload meat from delivery trucks.

Mechanical Engineering Technicians

Mechanical Engineering Technicians work under the direction of Mechanical

Engineers to design, develop and test machinery, equipment, and parts. They draft
drawings. They request that parts be made. After testing, they may adjust or modify
equipment to meet specifications.
Tasks include: They may estimate costs, design new tools and help plan assembly
processes. They may assemble new or modified mechanical components for products.
They may make recommendations for changes in the product.
Mechanical Engineers

Mechanical Engineers research, develop, plan and design machines, tools, engines, and
other mechanical equipment. They may oversee installation, maintenance and repair of
such equipment. Duties involve designing (which includes CAD/CAM (computer-aided
design/manufacture), and developing machines that produce or transmit power (such as
jet and rocket engines, nuclear reactors, marine engines, solar-powered engines, steam
and gas turbines), as well as a variety of machines that use power (such as refrigeration
and air conditioning equipment, machine tools, printing presses, and many others).
Tasks include: Work depends on the type of employer and the duties performed. They
may also be involved in bioengineering. They also test their designs.

Medical Assistants

Medical Assistants help to care for patients by providing routine treatment and
performing laboratory or clerical tasks. They prepare treatment rooms for use, interview
patients for background information, and check weight, height, temperature, pulse and
blood pressure. They clean and sterilize instruments, and hand instruments and materials
to the Physician as directed. They may also prepare inventories of supplies. Clerical
duties include setting up patients files and assisting the doctor in keeping them up to
date, scheduling appointments, receiving payment for bills, completing insurance forms,
and handling office bookkeeping and billing. In larger offices, workers will specialize.

Medical Laboratory Assistants

Medical Laboratory Assistants work in a clinical laboratory and perform routine tests
to obtain data used by physicians and other medical staff in the prevention, diagnosis and
treatment of illness. They work under the direction of Medical Technologists,
Bioanalysts and Pathologists and perform work of a non-technical nature. They conduct
chemical, bacterial, blood and other tests on body fluid and tissue samples. They may
operate equipment such as centrifuge, computer and microscopes, and clean and sterilize
laboratory equipment. They keep records of tests performed.
Tasks include: In a large laboratory, they may concentrate in one area of work.
Computers are also becoming an integral part of laboratory testing and reporting as well
as patient reporting.
Medical Laboratory Technicians

Medical Laboratory Technicians perform more routine tests for use in treatment and
diagnosis of disease. They prepare samples and run a variety of lab tests. They use a
microscope to test blood and other body fluids. First, they may get blood samples from
patients. They follow asceptic (sterile) procedures. They often work under the
supervision of a Medical Technologist.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may prepare vaccines, biologicals and serum for prevention of disease.

Medical Records Administrators

Medical Records Administrators develop and manage systems for compiling, storing
and retrieving medical information about patients in hospitals and other health facilities
and in health financing and quality review agencies. They develop and maintain manual
or computerized recordkeeping systems. They supervise and train Medical Records
Technicians and Clerks in small health care facilities; the Medical Records
Administrator may perform Medical Records Clerk duties also. Administrators also
compile statistical reports, develop standards for medical records maintenance and assist
medical staff in evaluating patient care or conducting research through study of the
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some experienced Medical Records Administrators act as consultants to small
hospitals, nursing homes, and renal dialysis and ambulatory care clinics that do not
require the services of full-time Administrators.

Medical Records Technicians

Medical Records Technicians compile and maintain medical records and statistical
information about health care patients for hospitals and other health care facilities. They
compile administrative and health care statistics and prepare reports used for research,
marketing, planning and other purposes. They maintain and use health information, code
clinical data and analyze health records. They review records for completeness, and file
and retrieve records as needed. They work to maintain the flow of medical and reports to
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. In small departments, they may have supervisory responsibility for the medical
records department and over the Medical Records Clerks. In large departments they
may specialize in a specific task. They may also assist medical staff with special studies
and research.
Medical Secretaries

Medical Secretaries relieve Physicians and other professional medical staff of clerical
work and some administrative duties. In a Physicians office, secretaries compile and
maintain medical records, answer routine correspondence, and transcribe dictation or type
from a transcribing machine to prepare correspondence and reports, complete insurance
claims forms and order office supplies.
Tasks include: In some offices, they answer the telephone, schedule appointments for
the Physician and greet visitors; in other offices, the receptionist performs these duties.
Sometimes they send bills to patients and may even handle bookkeeping and tax reports,
but these duties are often handled by a bookkeeper. Tasks are similar in hospitals and
other settings.

Medical Social Workers

Medical Social Workers help patients and their families to understand, accept and
follow medical recommendations when personal or social problems interfere with their
recovery. They work with the physician and other health care workers to identify
problems and help patients resume life in their community. They may meet with
individuals or a family group. They identify resources and help plan and improve health
services. They may supervise home service program activities.

Medical Technologists

Medical Technologists perform complicated laboratory tests to provide information for

use by physicians in diagnosing and treating diseases. These include chemical tests, as in
determining the blood cholesterol level, an microscopic examinations as determining the
presence of cancer cells in tissue. They cultivate and identify bacteria and other
pathogenic microorganisms; cut, stain and mount tissue for study, type and cross-match
blood samples; and operate centrifuges, particle counters, automated analyzers and other
equipment in the laboratory. Most have some contact with patients, as when drawing
blood samples.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They also instruct and supervise assistants or trainees, prepare reports and in the
course of their work, perform mathematical calculations. In large hospitals, they
frequently specialize in an area such as microbiology, biochemistry, hematology,
cytotechnology or toxicology.
Medical Transcriptionists

Medical Transcriptionists differ from Medical Records Technicians because they work
primarily with medical information. They interpret, translate, and transcribe information
that is dictated and recorded by a physician and other healthcare providers. Information
they transcribe and document may be the results of medical examinations, medical
treatment reports, patient assessments, patient workups, therapeutic procedures, clinical
course, diagnosis, prognosis and patient health history. These reports become permanent
records and facilitate delivery of healthcare services. They may need to edit the records
for grammar or inconsistencies and to expand abbreviated words. They print out the final
record. They read charts and keep a file of records.
Tasks include: Some perform these services for law offices. Some medical secretaries
and medical assistants also do transcription as a part of their jobs.

Mental Health Counselors

Mental Health Counselors assist individuals, couples and families to deal with
emotional and interpersonal problems and to achieve satisfying lives. They use a variety
of techniques ranging from individual psychotherapy and group sessions to hypnosis and
biofeedback. Some therapists specialize in particular problem areas such as family and
parent-child relationships, chemical dependency, domestic violence, problems of the
emotionally disturbed, marital dysfunction, or sexual problems. Extensive professional
preparation is required to do this work, but it may come from any of a number of
disciplines: Psychiatry, clinical or counseling.
Tasks include: some clinical psychologists and clinical social workers may call
themselves psychotherapists, although psychoanalysts are typically psychiatrists.

Merchandise Displayers

Merchandise Displayers design and install attention-getting displays of clothing,

furniture and other merchandise in commercial retail stores. They plan and erect displays
in the interior and windows of stores and to trade exhibitions. They may construct or
assemble displays, arrange things and place price signs. They consult with advertising
and sales workers to decide what will be displayed. They make a layout and decide on
lighting, colors, theme and props. They prepare sketches on floor plans.
Window Trimmers work with these displays for windows of retail stores.
Tasks include: They may arrange materials such as furniture, mannequins, merchandise
and backdrops. They install decorations.

Messengers pick up and deliver things inside their own company or outside to other
companies or to customers.
Office Messengers perform routine errands and deliver messages, documents, telegrams,
packages and other items to assist the flow of work to offices or departments within a
firm. They may operate office machines, such as sealers and mailers and do some
clerical work. They may open and distribute mail.
Outside Messengers deliver messages; documents, small packages and other quickly
needed items to business establishments. They may travel on foot, by bicycle, auto, or
public transportation. They may collect money and receipts from customers and keep a
record of delivery. This work requires stamina. Other messengers deliver food, flowers,
medical supplies and electronic or mechanical parts.
Tasks include: Keeping a record of the items they deliver.

Metal Refining Workers

Metal Refining Workers convert ore into usable metals such as iron, steel, lead, copper
and aluminum. Workers operate furnaces to purify the ore and pour the melted metal into
large blocks called ingots. Ingots are heated and rolled into longer and flatter shapes.
They may be further processed in these plants into products such as sheet metal, or wire.
Workers use large-scale equipment such as cranes, blast furnaces, and rolling mills.

Metallographic Technicians

Metallographic Technicians prepare samples of metals and alloys for testing, conduct
test or samples to determine their physical properties using photo microscope, X-Ray
gamma ray, magnetic flux detection equipment, pressure devices and hot acid baths.
Some work in manufacturing and make tests to insure the quality of products. Others are
engaged in research and the development of new or improved metal products.
Metallurgical Engineers

Metallurgical Engineers work in many fields. Two specific fields are extractive and
physical metallurgy. They may work in process metallurgy, physical metallurgy, or
materials science. Metallurgical Engineers may utilize high technology equipment such
as the scanning electron microscope.
Extractive Metallurgical Engineers develop and apply methods to extract, process and
convert metals into useful products. Some specialize in extracting metals from ores by
thermo chemical means (smelting) or mechanical separation (flotation).
Physical Metallurgical Engineers study the structures and properties of metals,
developing methods of refining, alloying, heat-treating and mechanically processing
metals. They also conduct tests of metals and alloys to determine their physical and
mechanical characteristics. They may be involved with materials selection, welding,
brazing, soldering, corrosion, materials coatings (platings, etc.), analysis of failed parts
and nondestructive testing (X-Ray, ultrasonic testing, etc.). Some Metallurgical
Engineers (mainly Ph.D.s) may be involved with research and development projects
such as developing and testing new materials including electronic materials, plastics,
composites, ceramics, etc.
Tasks include: Metallurgical Engineers perform a wide variety of tasks including some
routine applications. They often supervise processing plant operation.


Meteorologists study and predict the characteristics and distribution of air and water;
also the impact of human activity on these resources in order to predict and control their
Synoptic Meteorologists gather data about the atmosphere and make predictions of
weather patterns.
Physical Meteorologists study and predict the dispersal of pollutants in the air. Some
devise methods of modifying the weather.
Climatologists use past weather records to discover weather patterns.
Media Meteorologists analyze weather data, make forecasts and give warnings of
dangerous weather.
Meter Readers

Meter Readers check electric power, gas and water meters and record volumes used by
residential and commercial customers. They walk or drive over a route and take readings
of meter dials. They then record these readings in route books on hand-held computers,
which are returned to the business office each day. They are also expected to observe
and report unusual conditions such as abnormal consumption, damaged or defective
meters and indications of unauthorized use.


Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms

such as bacteria, microparasites, viruses, and molds. Some are concerned with the
identification and control of communicable diseases, environmental pollutants, and health
hazards within the community. They analyze water supplies, food products, and clinical
specimens. Those working in quality and utility identify and test plankton and sludge,
also studying toxicity. Some perform laboratory tests in clinics to aid in medical
Molecular Microbiologists are involved in genetic engineering and research.
Tasks include: Some work in the veterinary field. Others develop, test and monitor
products and processes used in agriculture, industry, sanitation, food, wine and other
beverage processing and drug manufacturing. Some specialize in specific kinds of
microorganisms or areas of work.

Microfilm Technicians

Microfilm Technicians operate and maintain microfilm equipment, including rotary

cameras and film duplicators. They record, store and retrieve documents, such as records
and maps. They prepare these documents for filming by trimming and removing staples.
They typically maintain equipment by changing lamps, cleaning glass and optical
Microfilm Clerks tend the machine that mounts microfilm on to cards for filing. They
insert the film, fill the hopper, pour the adhesive solution and start the machine. They
monitor the process.
Tasks include: They also may make minor repairs.
Microwave Technicians

Microwave Technicians assemble, debug, test, align, document, install, and maintain
electronic microwave circuitry and equipment such as amplifiers, multipliers and
converters, synththesizers, mixers, voltage controlled oscillators used in
telecommunication (telephones and television), radar (police, air traffic control and
defense), satellites, navigation (airport landing system), and military surveillance and
countermeasure systems. Some work in the development and manufacturing of
microwave products, such as amplifiers, receivers and antennas. Others are engaged in
the installation and servicing of these systems. Some specialize in troubleshooting,
identifying malfunctions in systems and repairing them. They use a variety of electronic
instruments, including signal generators, pulse generators, oscilloscopes and other
measuring devices. When engaged in testing systems, they must keep records of test

Military Enlisted Personnel

Military Enlisted Personnel work in various occupations in the Army, Navy, Air Force,
Marine Corps and Coast Guard to carry out military operations in the defense of the
United States and other countries. The armed forces offer specialties that range from
basic combat to technical fields such as electronics, computer science, and medicine.
Training in areas, such as aviation, administration, accounting, food service, mechanics,
and construction is also available.

Military Officers

Military Officers hold leadership and supervisory positions in the Army, Navy, Air
Force, Marine Corps and Coast Guard. They have legal responsibility for preparing and
carrying out effective military operations. This may require technical and managerial
ability as well as ability to assume leadership of combat operations and peacetime
maneuvers. Military operations must be supported by (1) intelligence (study of friendly
and enemy capabilities), (2) effective delivery of supplies and maintenance of equipment,
(3) training and administration of personnel. The armed forces employ some officers as
specialists in these fields as well as in medicine, dentistry, law and engineering. Most
Officers, however, are general Administrators who can supervise effectively in several


Millwrights install and dismantle industrial machinery and equipment, using hoists, lift
trucks, hand and power tools. Machinery and equipment in kept in sound operating
condition by maintenance millwrights.

Miners do manual labor in surface or underground mines. They use a variety of tools
including picks, shovels and pry bars, jacks and wheelbarrows to dig drainage ditches,
clean working areas, and shovel materials into shuttle cars. They also position and adjust
tools and equipment as needed and serve as helpers to other skilled workers. Tunneling
positions are similar, but occur in different work settings.
Tasks include: They extract and mine ore, coal, or rock from underground mines and
quarries. Tasks may include setting up and blasting, shoveling shattered material into
mine cars, setting up supports for mine interiors, laying down tracks for mine cars,
digging passageways and installing ventilation systems. Some miners work as quarry
workers, mining-and-oil field equipment operators, mining and-oil well equipment
operators and sand fillers.

Mining Engineers

Mining Engineers develop, evaluate, extract and prepare minerals for processing,
refining and manufacturers use. Using data on the minerals to be mined, they design
mines and methods of transporting the extracted minerals to processing plants. Mining
engineers supervise the construction of mine plants and the workings for surface and
underground operations. They are responsible for efficient operation of mines and mine
safety, including ventilation, water supply, power, communications and equipment
maintenance. They must be familiar with the relation of other engineering fields to
mining and construction situations. Some mining engineers may specialize in extraction
of specific metal ores, coal, gold and other minerals.

Model Makers

Model Makers construct full-scale three-dimensional replicas of objects, structures, and

working parts in accordance with drawings, rough sketches, verbal instructions or
blueprints. The objects represented may be industrial products ranging from tiny
machine parts to aircraft bodies or they may be representations of buildings or structures
for such uses as architectural displays or miniature motion picture sets. Models may be
formed from wood, metal or molded plastic, fiberglass, or other materials. They use hand
or power tools and machines to build the scale models or mock-ups.
Model Builders may also test models and make changes in design.

Models try to convey an idea by their appearance, persuading people to buy the product
or service they advertise. Models work with clothing, makeup and costume accessories
in a variety of poses and settings. They frequently demonstrate new products and
services at exhibits, in commercial films or on television. They may model in
showrooms, retail stores, custom salons or specialty stores. Many work in fashion show
modeling, which is more theatrical. Others pose for still photography, for illustration


Molders prepare molds from which metal castings are made. This process is used in
making many finished metal products, from automobile engines to cooking utensils.
Metalworking patternmakers develop the patterns for the molds. Using one of six
principle methods of casting molders pack sand around a pattern, which is a model of the
object to be duplicated. After the pattern is removed, molten metal is poured into the
cavity. The metal solidifies and forms the casting.

Mortgage Brokers

Mortgage Brokers work with Real Estate Agents and their clients to put together loan
packages at the best available rates. Once a clientele is developed, additional business
can come from referral and repeat business.

Motion Picture Projectionists

Motion Picture Projectionists set up and operate film and slide projection and sound
equipment. They thread the film through the projector. They adjust and regulate sound
and light. They operate more than one machine to assure uninterrupted play. They
rewind the reels and film. They may also repair the equipment and film.
Tasks include: In movie theaters they also work as counter attendants. In schools they
also work with other kinds of audio-visual equipment.

Motorcycle Repairers

Motorcycle Repairers adjust, service, and repair motorcycles and motorcycle

equipment. They take engines apart and repair or replace parts. They may hammer out
dents, and bend and weld the frame. They listen to the engine for malfunctions.
Tasks include: They may also repair and overhaul motor scooters, mopeds and similar
motorized vehicles.
Multimedia Occupations

Multimedia Occupations use a combination of skills in communications, art, graphic

arts, animation, filmmaking, computer science, technology and business. Multimedia
products are available on electronics media such as television, computers (Internet and
www), in a kiosk, and video and film. It is a product or service, a variety of media,
computer controlled, and interactive in CD-Rom, television, the Internet or film.
Products in this industry can really have applications to any industry. People in these
occupations work as a team on interactive and collaborative projects.
Tasks include: They may develop and design multimedia storyboards and materials,
create computer generated art, Internet and website home pages, dramatic visual effects,
video games and graphics etc. They may conduct meetings, give presentations or
demonstrate their work. They may monitor the work of others.
Occupations in the field:
*Communications: Multimedia Writers, Instructional Designers, Copywriters, and
*Art: Illustrators, Production Artists, Art Directors, Creative Directors, Lead Designers
*Graphic Arts: Graphic Designers and Artists, Animators, Interface Designers, Website
*Computer Science: Multimedia Developers, Technical Directors, Computer
Programmers (Systems), Computer Programmers (Business), Game Designers,
*Business and Social Service: Trainers
*Filmmaking: Directors, Producers, Camera Operators, Sound Designers, Sound
Engineers and Producers, Video Producers, Property Makers

Municipal Clerks

Municipal Clerks prepare draft agendas and bylaws for town or city council. They
record minutes of council meetings. They answer official correspondence. They keep
fiscal records and accounts.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They prepare reports on civic needs.
Music Business Managers

Music Business Managers handle the day-to-day business of musicians. They meet
with the client and gather information and documents that will help them understand their
client. They make decisions in the musicians absence and act in the musicians best
interests. They work to improve the image of the musician they meet. They help the
musician develop professionally and help them set and achieve goals. They work with
musicians to avoid making mistakes that could have implications on their entire career.
They help design a long-range plan, discover new ways to promote the musician and the
music, and provide workshops and seminars to help professional musicians. They may
provide instruction on time and money management. They may develop strategies and
work with the media.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may also help with public relations. They may help promote a new release
campaign. They may make travel arrangements. They may also work with others that
work with musicians such as the recording studio, the record company, music arrangers,
the publishing company, booking agents, singers, producers, music public relations
managers, the sound engineers and mixers, the manufacturing of releases. They may also
listen to radio, television and video to stay familiar with the music business. They may
help with the hiring of personnel.

Musical Instrument Makers

Musical Instrument Makers combine art, sculpture and woodworking to create musical
instruments. They may specialize in making stringed instruments, such as guitars,
violins, dulcimers, and auto harps. Many also repair, restore or customize instruments.

Musical Instrument Repairers

Musical Instrument Repairers inspect, repair, restore, clean, adjust, restring, refinish,
and tune and test musical instruments. They use a variety of special hand tools such as
chisels and scrapers, and gauges for measurement. They must diagnose defects, test the
various components and repair or replace faulty parts.
Tasks include: There are almost as many kinds of repairers as there are musical
instruments. Usually, however, repairers specialize in a class of instruments such as
traditional instruments like pianos, organs, acoustic guitars, woodwinds and percussion
instruments and electronic instruments like keyboards, synthesizers, amplifiers, sound
systems, and guitars.

Musicians play, arrange, conduct, and compose musical compositions. Most musicians
specialize in either popular or classical music and are either solo artists or a member of a
musical group. Composers create and write compositions expressing ideas or feelings in
musical form. Performers are often also composers, or lyricists who write the words to
songs and work closely with the composer. In addition to performing, many musicians
teach instrumental music.


Nannies provide high quality in-home childcare. They are most commonly hired prior to
the birth of the second child, when in-home care becomes more of a priority than a
luxury. When parents have multiple births or a child with a special challenge, they also
may use the services of nannies. Nannies are professionals with contracts clearly
defining their duties. A nanny does more than sees to a childs custodial care. She/he
develops a schedule, which will promote and enhance the childs social, emotional,
intellectual, and physical development. Nannies are partners with parents-they mirror
family life.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Professionally trained nannies often prepare and plan meals, know about
constructive play, and know about music. They help with reading, literature and
developmental guidance. Moreover, nannies know how to handle illness, injury and nap
and bedtime issues.

Naval Architects

Naval Architects design marine craft and floating structures such as ships, sail boats,
aircraft carriers, hydrofoil boats, catamarans, barges, tugs, dredges, submarines,
torpedoes, floats, and buoys. Some work in research and some in teaching.
Tasks include: They may oversee construction and repair. They may be required to do
cost estimation.
Network Control Technicians

Network Control Technicians help install, setup, test, maintain and troubleshoot Local
area (LAN) and wide area (WAN) computer networks. T hey provide support to users.
They work closely with Network Analysts and Network Managers. They assign
passwords, keep a variety of logs and use manuals to complete their tasks. In
manufacturing they may travel to a customer site to set up, adjust or connect a new
product. The definition of networks varies widely. We use the definition, Networks
refer to the hardware and software operating systems that connect microcomputers and
minicomputers to each other for the purposes of sharing data and communication
between users.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may repair and replace systems. They may operate and monitor voice and data

Network Managers and Administrators

Network Managers and Administrators install and configure a local area network
(LAN), wide area network (WAN), or Internet system for their employer. They direct the
network and its related computing environment that includes computer hardware,
systems software, applications software, and all configurations. They may work with
part of a network system. They make recommendations regarding the purchase of
equipment. They report to company managers. They may plan, coordinate and
implement network security measures. The definition of networks varies widely. We
use the definition; Networks refer to the hardware and software operating systems that
connect microcomputers and minicomputers to each other for the purposes of sharing
data and communication between users.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may plan and track projects, write proposals and troubleshoot both operating
system software and hardware. They may perform maintenance on equipment. They
may manage analysts and technicians. In smaller companies these managers may work
with only one technician.
Network Specialists

Network Specialists analyze, design, develop, test and evaluate LAN/WAN systems for
linking microcomputers and minicomputers with one another to share data and
communications, and with a variety of peripheral devices ranging from terminals and
printers to analog sensing devices and telecommunication switching systems. They may
diagnose, maintain, monitor and troubleshoot problems. They may work directly with
systems users to analyze their specific network requirements. They may make
recommendations. Also, they may oversee the installation of systems. They report to a
Network Manager or Administrator about equipment needs, upgrades and usage. They
also may work with Internet, intranet and other data communications systems. The
definition of networks varies widely. We use the definition; Networks refer to the
hardware and software operating systems that connect microcomputers and
minicomputers to each other for the purposes of sharing data and communication
between users.
Tasks include: They may deal with vendors for in-house automation and personnel.
They also may be responsible for devising procedures to protect computer system
security to prevent unauthorized access.

New Account Clerks

New Account Clerks assist customers in opening new checking and savings accounts.
They explain the features of various types of accounts available clearly to the customer.
They help the customer complete needed paperwork. They attempt to solve customer
problems. They present funds given by the customer to a teller. They give a receipt to
the customer.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They help fill out forms and type up the applications. They may admit customers to
safe-deposit boxes. They may obtain credit information about a customer.

Newspaper Carriers

Newspaper Carriers are independent contractors who purchase newspapers from a

newspaper publishing company and sell and deliver them to regular customers. They
usually are responsible for collecting payments from the customers. Carriers also solicit
new subscriptions by contacting prospective customers on the established route.
Nondestructive Testers

Nondestructive Testers conduct and interpret tests on a variety of materials and

equipment to detect flaws or potential problems before or during use. They use many
different testing techniques to avoid harming the materials they are testing. A major part
of testing involves radiography (using x-rays). Other techniques utilize magnetic
particles, liquid penetrants, ultrasonic devices, eddy currents and acoustic emission
measurements. Workers may also use computed tomography-computerized axial
tomography (CAT) to inspect the internal structures and geometrics of images or slices
of objects. Technicians may be testing new materials or equipment such as power plants
or airplanes.
Tasks include: Some tasks require extensive travel and long workdays.

Nondestructive Testing Engineers

Nondestructive Testing Engineers design nondestructive tests that are performed on a

product or parts of a product. They perform the tests to determine the strength of the
product or find weaknesses in the product or part. These tests are designed so that they
do not destroy the products.
Tasks include: Maintenance of test equipment, training staff.

Nuclear Engineers

Nuclear Engineers design, develop and monitor the operation of nuclear equipment and
systems. These include nuclear reactors, power plants, accelerators and production
facilities. Nuclear engineers also evaluate industrial and environmental hazards
generated by nuclear systems. They recognize and define problems and adapt scientific
knowledge to solve them.

Nuclear Medicine Technologists

Nuclear Medicine Technologists operate sophisticated equipment under doctors orders

utilizing radioactive substances such as isotopes for diagnostic work or for treating
various diseases, mainly cancer.
Tasks include: They may work with patients, conduct laboratory studies, do research or
work in purchasing and administration.
Nuclear Technicians

Nuclear Technicians operate and maintain nuclear reactors used to generate electricity.
Nuclear Reactor Operators control reactors used in scientific tests or to produce

Numerical Control Tool Programmers

Numerical Control Tool Programmers write programs that run the

automated/computerized machine tools that produce metal parts such as drill presses,
lathes, lasers, punch presses, boring mills and milling machines used to make precision
Tool Programmers use computer languages to write programs or commands for a
machine to follow. This allows operations normally performed by machinists to be done
automatically. They must determine the sequence of events; calculate machine speeds an
monitor operations. These programmers must be experienced and/or knowledge as a
machinist in order to correctly code the instructions. The more experienced programmers
also may perform actual programming of the machines computer software.
Tasks include: The information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
*Gathering information from blueprints, drawings and specifications for the part to be
made before programming the machine
*Determine the dimensions of the metal to be cut, machine-cutting speeds and feed rates
*Study and analyzing these facts to design a set of instructions that will tell the machine
how to make the part out of the bar or sheet metal
*Writing this program on paper or plastic tape which is then fed into the machine
*Testing or de-bugging the program before production begins
*Tool programmers may train machine operators to use new programs

Numerical Control Machine Operators

Numerical Control Machine Operators (NC or N/C) set up and operate machines that
are programmed to automatically cut and shape metal or plastic work pieces. They attach
the necessary tools and load the program into the electronic controller. They may have to
change tools, load programs to micro-computers and monitor the machines.
Nurse Anesthetists

Nurse Anesthetists specialize and work in a nursing specialty, anesthesia. They

administer anesthesia to patients during an operation.
Tasks include: They observe and record respiration, blood pressure and changes in the
patients condition.

Nurse Midwives

Nurse Midwives provide primary care for women and their babies during pregnancy,
labor, delivery and after birth. They work with patients under the supervision of the
obstetrician. They attend normal, spontaneous births (complicated cases are handled by
the obstetrician). They instruct patients in prenatal and post natal health practices. They
remain with the patient during labor and delivery.
Tasks include: They also provide other types of gynecological care (such as pap smears)
and diagnose and treat other minor problems. They counsel patients in health
maintenance and disease prevention.

Nurse Practitioners

Nurse Practitioners are Registered Nurses who have special training in the diagnosis
and treatment of illness. A physician must supervise them, but the physician does not
need to be present. The physician may authorize the nurse practitioner to interview and
examine patients, take medical histories, to treat routine problems, order laboratory tests,
prescribe certain kinds of medicine, and refer more complex problems to Physicians.
(Nurse Practitioners tend to learn about the whole person and advise the patient on
emotional and social problems, which affect the patients health). They also teach
patients how to deal with illness and how to stay healthy.
Tasks include: Working with children, with older people, with students, with injured
workers, with adults, and with women.

Nursing Assistants

Nursing Assistants perform routine tasks in caring for hospital, clinic and nursing home
patients. They work under the supervision of medical staff such as physicians and
registered nurses. They may aid patients in getting out of bed and walking, give back
rubs, and bathe and shave patients. They may help patients with tasks such as dressing if
they cant assist themselves. They may also take and record temperatures, pulse and
respiration rates.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They also serve food, help in feeding, sterilize instruments, clean rooms, and change
bed linen.
Nursing Directors

Directors of Nursing administer, supervise and coordinate nursing services in hospitals,

health care agencies of federal, state and local governments and health care departments
of industrial firms. They develop nursing policy and procedures, prepare budgets and
reports, interview and hire nursing staff, advise medical staff, department heads and
administration and in some cases, plan and direct training and staff development.

Nursing Educators

Nursing Educators teach the principles of nursing to students in nursing schools and
hospitals. They may work in a classroom setting or a clinical setting.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some conduct in-service training in other health care institutions, such as nursing
homes, hospices, and home health care services.

Obstetricians and Gynecologists

Obstetricians and Gynecologists are physicians who specialize in the care of women.
These physicians examine a patient to see if an operation is needed, estimate risk to
patient, and decide best procedures. They review reports of patients condition and
medical history. They examine instruments, equipment and surgical setup, perform
surgery using a variety of instruments and techniques, and supervise recovery from
surgery. They also maintain medical records and supervise staff.
Obstetricians specialize in their care during and after pregnancy and delivery. They
examine the patient to determine if any abnormalities or complications exist. They
prescribe proper care and diet. They oversee delivery and respond to any emergencies.
Some may perform cesarean deliveries and other procedures to insure the safety of the
mother and infant.
Gynecologists treat disease of female genital, urinary and rectal organs. They physically
examine patients and use laboratory and radiological tests to diagnose problems. They
may also perform surgery, both major and minor. Some Gynecologists specialize further,
in such fields as infertility.
Occupational Therapists

Occupational Therapists plan and organize activities to help rehabilitate patients with
physical disabilities or who are under psychiatric care. They direct educational,
vocational and recreational activities such as arts and crafts, group projects, a physical
exercise program and outings into the community, designed to help patients develop
skills, build self-esteem and self motivation, and to become self-sufficient. They evaluate
the abilities and skills of the patients, set goals, and plan therapy programs together with
patients and other members of the medical staff. They must do daily and weekly
documentation of treatment and progress and complete a discharge summary.

Occupational Therapy Assistants

Occupational Therapy Assistants assist clients in carrying out their program goals and
assist in the evaluation process. They work under the supervision of an Occupational


Oceanographers study the movements, physical properties, plant and animal life and
mineral deposits of the ocean, the ocean floors, shores and the atmosphere above them.
They may measure tides and tidal currents, wind velocities and wave dynamics. Some
study mineral deposits, fossils and earthquake faults on the ocean floor. Others study the
ecological balance of the ocean by studying the biota and chemically analyzing water
samples. Some may work with shoreline construction and rehabilitation of highways,
bridges, ports and other transportation facilities. Still others may work in the related
emerging field of mariculture (sea farming).
Geological Oceanographers study geological processes occurring in, around and under
the oceans.
Physical Oceanographers study the mechanisms of energy transfer in the oceans and
across their boundaries and water quality.

Office Machine Operators

Office Machine Operators use various kinds of office equipment to speed the flow of
paperwork. They may work in various departments such as mailing, billing, accounting,
personnel or credit.
Office Machine Repairers

Office Machine Repairers service and repair business office equipment, such as
typewriters, paper shredders, electronic calculators, accounting machines, adding
machines, duplicating and copying machines and dictating-transcribing machines. Duties
include periodic inspecting, cleaning, oiling and adjusting of machines in offices. Major
repair is usually done at repair shops. Repairers usually specialize in the repair of one
type of machine or they may repair many types of machines produced by one

Office Managers

Office Managers maintain an efficient flow of work in a variety of settings. They

review production and ensure that deadlines are met. Office managers evaluate and
revise office procedures, and institute and train workers in their use.
Tasks include: Typical duties may include supervising office operations such as typing,
bookkeeping and filing.

Operations Research Analysts

Operations Research Analysts try to solve business planning and operational problems.
To do this, they use computerized simulation models. They use mathematical methods to
create models using theories from other disciplines. For example, they may study an
astronauts reaction to weightlessness, a customers reaction to waiting in a long line,
behavior in comb traffic flow or inventory control.


Ophthalmologists specialize in the treatment of disease of, and injury to, the eyes. They
examine the patient for symptoms of eye disorder and perform various tests to determine
vision loss. They prescribe medications, corrective lenses and eye exercises, and may
perform surgery of necessary.
Optical Technicians

Optical Technicians make lenses for a variety of uses. Those employed in the industrial
area may lay out, cut grind, and polish lenses, prisms, and mirrors which are used in
microscopes, telescopes, cameras and many other precision scientific equipment. These
lenses are made according to engineering data and drawings. Those optical technicians
who work in the health area are called Ophthalmic Technicians. They prepare eyeglass
or contact lenses according to specifications. Both types of technicians require skill and
Industrial Optical Technicians must often make lenses that are accurate to a millionth
of an inch. Although these types of technicians have many skills in common, they are
not inter-changeable because each type has its own type of operation peculiar to its type
of production. Although some optical technicians perform all the operations necessary in
the production of the lenses, others specialize in one part of the operation and are called
Layout Technicians, Precision Lens Grinders, Finishers, and Eyeglass-Lens Cutters. In
large laboratories work may be more specialized.


Optometrists examine, diagnose, and treat conditions of the vision system. They help
people protect and improve their vision. They examine the eyes to determine the
presence of vision impairments, eye diseases, vision malfunctions, or other abnormalities.
They are licensed to prescribe and adapt lenses, contact lenses, or other optical aids, and
utilize vision training to preserve, restore and improve vision efficiency. In some states,
they may use drugs for diagnostic purposes.
Note: The roles of the optometrist, optician, and ophthalmologist are sometimes
confused. Opticians are unlicensed crafts workers who fabricate and dispense lenses and
frames. Ophthalmologists are physicians who provide medical care of the eye.

Orchestra Managers

Orchestra Managers work with orchestras in the areas of concert production, fund
raising, accounting, advertising, public relations and contract negotiations. They may be
employed as Managers, Assistant Managers, Department Directors, and Executive
Assistants in larger orchestras or executive Directors of smaller orchestras.
Order Clerks

Order Clerks process orders received by mail, telephone, FAX, Internet, E-mail or
personally. They may receive orders from outside customers or from inside company
employees such as salespeople or other staff. They may take orders for parts, materials,
merchandise or services. They review orders for completeness and check prices, delivery
or expected arrival dates and accuracy of orders. Then, they route the order to the
warehouse. They may receive payment and forward the payment on to processing. Some
order clerks may be asked to give price estimates for a total job rather than on one item.
They may follow up to see that an order is delivered.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may take special orders. In catalogue sales, order clerks may contact a
customer for additional information or changes to orders. When orders are missing they
contact others to trace the orders. They may prepare reports for management. They may
check a catalog or manual to verify item and price.

Order Fillers

Order Fillers receive orders and check and mark prices of merchandise on an order
form. They read the order and obtain merchandise from bins or shelves. They package
the items for shipment. Orders may be received by mail, e-mail, FAX and telephone.
They must keep records of all orders completed. Some order fillers are required to
inspect orders. The typical product orders may include: any manufactured product, auto
or electronic parts, and bulk items.
Tasks include: They may also be required to compute prices. Sometimes they may also
perform order clerk duties. Some make delivery.


Orthopedists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, fractures and the
deformities of the bone and joints.


Osteopaths work with the musculoskeletal system and with manipulative therapy. They
diagnose and treat injuries and diseases and may correct disorders by performing surgery.
Osteopaths may enter medicine in general practice or as specialists after completion of
additional study.
Outdoor Recreation Planners

Outdoor Recreation Planners design, develop and plan interpretive and environmental
educational outdoor recreational programs. They meet with members of the community
and other professionals to plan the programs. They may adapt activities to meet the
participants needs. They enforce rules and regulations. They work closely with
Recreation Leaders and Directors.
Tasks include: They may also perform administration tasks.

Packers and Wrappers

Packers and Wrappers package products by hand or by machine to be shipped or

Packing and Wrapping Machine Operators tend machines that sort, pack, wrap and
mark. They often replenish packaging supplies, observe machines to detect malfunctions,
and make minor repairs and adjustments.
Hand Packers and Wrappers normally assemble cartons, obtain products, and insert
them into containers; seal and label containers for shipping. They may wrap precut meat
for retail sale; operate bread-wrapping machinery or individually package manufactured,
agricultural and other goods by hand and/or machine for later sale.


Painters use their knowledge of paints and other covering materials to apply decorative
and protective coatings to various kinds of structures. Typical duties include preparing
surfaces by scraping and sanding, performing minor repairs and applying a priming agent
or undercoating, finish coats and new wall coverings.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Painters may work in new construction, maintenance, remodeling or restoration.
They may work on office buildings, hotels, retail buildings, manufacturing facilities,
homes, condominiums, apartments, churches, schools and hospitals.


Paleontologists study fossil remains of plants and animals to trace evolution and
development of past life and to identify geological formations.
Tasks include: They usually spend their time in research.

Paperhangers cover interior walls, ceilings, signs, and other surfaces with wallpaper,
vinyl, fabric or other wall coverings. Before they cover surfaces, they wet or steam any
old paper to remove it and apply a sealer so that the new covering will stay on. To cover
the surface with the new material, they first measure the area to be covered and then cut
strips of covering from a roll, making sure that the patterns at the top and base will
match. They then apply the strips, place them on the surface, and smooth them by hand
or with a brush.
Tasks include: They set up scaffolding, smooth rough spots, fill holes and cracks, and
remove old paint. They may also paint the interior or exterior of buildings.

Paralegals and Legal Assistants

Paralegals help lawyers in the performance of legal services. Duties may include
preparing and interpreting legal documents, interviewing clients for information,
preparing for trial, managing and organizing documents, interpreting and indexing
Legal Assistants may perform any task delegated by the Lawyer except give legal
advice, appear in court, accept cases or set fees.


Parapsychologists design and conduct research projects and investigations into

parapsychology (a branch of psychology which investigates paranormal phenomena such
as extrasensory perception (ESP), telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, telekinesis, out-
of-body experience (astral projection), near death experience, altered states, dreams,
psychic healing and possible applications). Parapsychologists observe unexplainable
phenomena. They work in controlled laboratory experimentation, on spontaneous
investigations and in field investigations.
Park Rangers

Park Rangers manage, supervise and patrol national, state, county, municipal, and
special district parks, historic sites and recreation areas. They may plan and conduct
programs of public safety and law enforcement. They may also carry firearms while on
duty. They sometimes direct and participate in emergency services and rescue
operations. Rangers may acquaint visitors with the natural, cultural and historical
features of the area. They may also prepare exhibits and write brochures.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Other tasks may include leading nature walks, planning conservation programs, and
learning the principles of forest, brush, and grass fires, plant disease and insect damage
control. Rangers may also supervise Park Technicians and seasonal help.

Parking Lot Attendants

Parking Lot Attendants assist in parking and protecting customers automobiles in

parking lots and garages. They drive, or direct customers to drive their cars to vacant
spaces. Some also retrieve cars from parking spaces for customers. They patrol the area
to prevent thefts from the automobiles. Parking lot attendants use information about the
time of arrival and departure of the vehicles to compute and collect the correct fee from
Tasks include: They may provide routine service to the cars (such as washing and
waxing) during the slack periods, which are common to this occupation.

Parole and Probation Officers

Parole and Probation Officers help legal offenders readjust to society. They provide
support and guidance to help people identify and solve their problems.
Parole officers work with people who have been released from a correctional institution
and placed on parole.
Probation officers work with juveniles and adults released by a court without sentence
or imprisonment and put on probation by a court of law, sometimes in conjunction with
incarceration or confinement to juvenile hall. Some of their time is devoted to
supervision and counseling after the offenders have been returned to the community.
They perform pre-sentencing investigations, investigate home conditions of clients, keep
accurate records, write reports of their findings to give court testimony and to enforce the
order of the court.
Parts Counter Clerks

Parts Counter Clerks work with parts automobile parts and other motor vehicle parts,
as well as, for motorcycles and boats, or equipment parts. They use catalogs to determine


Pathologists are physicians who use laboratory procedures to determine the nature, cause
and development of diseases of the human body. They also study the structural and
functional changes caused by disease. They diagnose using medical laboratory
procedures. They perform autopsies. They work as clinical pathologists, forensic
pathologists, neuropathologists, or surgical pathologists.

Patient Account Representatives

Patient Account Representatives gather information on hospital patients medical

coverage, maintain records on health care costs of in and out patients at hospitals and
clinics. They also provide information to patients and family about costs and coverage.
In some cases they may provide financial counseling to patients or their families, and
resolve problems related to medical charges and service.


Patternmakers are highly skilled craftspeople who build patterns to make molds in
which castings are formed. Patterns are made of metal, plaster or plastic. Patternmakers
select the proper stock, form patterns by using various machines, and assemble pattern
segments by hand.
Metalworking Patternmakers build patterns to make molds for metal castings.
Wood Patternmakers make wood patterns used to make molds and castings. They may
also make full-scale models.

Pawnbrokers examine objects to determine how much they are worth. The items they
receive maintain their value over a reasonable period of time. They buy, sell, trade and
repair almost anything of value. They may appraise jewelry, watches, cameras, guns,
musical instruments, appliances and house wares, microwave ovens, video games,
televisions, leather clothing, antique art and collectibles, and computers and office
electronics equipment and auto and home stereos, sporting goods, tools, VCRs. They
lend cash to people and accept repayments from them to reclaim their property. If
property is not reclaimed, they sell it. Some tasks are similar to other appraisers.
Tasks include: Providing payday loans, cashing checks selling items. They may sell
forfeited items on the Internet and in retail stores. They may also do shop maintenance.


Pediatricians provide children with medical care through their growth and development
from birth through adolescence. They examine the child patient for disease. They make
diagnosis and discuss a problem with the patient and family. They prescribe suitable
treatment or medication and administer immunizations or other preventative health
measures. They monitor on-going development and growth, set up a routine for
preventing disease, maintains medical records, supervise staff, and perform basic
surgeries. They refer the child to the appropriate specialist if the need arises.


Perfusionists operate a heart-lung machine (mechanical pump) during heart surgery or

respiratory failure to maintain the right amount of oxygen in the patients bloodstream,
blood temperature, and flow rate. They play a very important function during the
surgery. They review the patients Medical history and chart. They consult with the
surgeon, physician or anesthesiologist. They monitor, observe and adjust the equipment
to maintain normal body functions. They also assemble, set-up and test the machine.
Tasks include: They may also clean, repair and adjust parts. They purchase supplies.
They also give support during other surgical procedures. They may develop and
implement policies and procedures.
Peripheral EDP Equipment Operators

Peripheral EDP Equipment Operators use different kinds of equipment for putting
data into a computer, transferring data from one form to another, and/or producing output
(on a tape, disk or paper) from a computer. According to written or oral instructions,
they prepare equipment for operation and load the equipment for operation and load the
equipment. Then they monitor the control console and respond to operating and
computer messages. Messages indicate the individual specifications of each job being
run. If an error message occurs, operators must locate and solve the problem or terminate
the program.
Tasks include: They maintain logbooks or records for each job that is run and record any
malfunctions that occurred. Their duties are changing as advances in telecommuting
technologies impact the work to be done.

Personal Computer Programmers

Personal Computer Programmers work with microcomputers to design software for

home or office use. Great attention must be given to making programs easy to operate
and foolproof. Programs are often written in basic, but PASCAL, assembler, and other
languages are also used.

Personal Consultants

Personal Consultants help busy professionals with routine tasks. They try to design
ways to help them save time.
Tasks include: They may help getting their work areas in order, design and develop
storage space areas, get a filing system going, design a way to keep track of
correspondence, including e-mail and faxes.

Personnel Agency Managers

Personnel Agency Managers work to place people in jobs. They work with employers
to help find the right person for the job. They work with the unemployed to evaluate
their skills and experience so they can help them find employment. They work with
employed workers to help them find advancement opportunities.

Personnel Assistants and Clerks

Personnel Assistants and Clerks work under supervision and perform clerical duties in
a personnel department.
Pest Control Workers

Pest Control Workers seek out and destroy insects, spiders, skunks, rodents, and other
pests that infest homes or commercial property, destroy crops or endanger public health.
Exterminators use chemicals and mechanical traps to rid an area of pests. First they
clean the area to be treated and then fumigate it with chemicals. They spray behind
cabinets, under sinks in cracks and crevices, and sometimes may spray mattresses,
clothing or upholstered furniture.
Termite Specialists have a more involved job. They receive a report from a structural
pest control representative, pinpointing the source and extent of the infestation, and
determine the sequence of steps to exterminate them. They use hand tools, electric drills,
jackhammers, saws, and chisels to cut openings in buildings to gain access to infested
areas. They saturate the infested areas by running a pesticide through a hose inserted into
these openings. They may also replace damaged wood and raise the foundations of
buildings to isolate the wood from the ground.

Petroleum Engineers

Petroleum Engineers develop methods of maximizing the recovery of oil and gas. They
develop plans and select equipment for drilling the wells from which crude oil and
natural gas may be raised to the surface. They also prepare cost estimates and plan for
the production, field processing and delivery to a refinery for processing. Crude oil is an
exhaustible natural resource and it is the responsibility of Petroleum Engineers to devise,
supervise and monitor the most efficient and economical methods of extraction.
Petroleum engineers must be familiar with other branches of engineering as they apply to
the field of petroleum engineering.

Petroleum Field Workers

Petroleum Field Workers perform a variety of general maintenance jobs to support oil
and natural gas field operations at well sites, refineries and along pipelines. They may
install and repair pipes, gauge oil tanks, and occasionally perform chemical analysis.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Other tasks may include cleaning machinery, cleaning up spilled oil, digging holes
and trenches, mixing and pouring concrete, and painting equipment. They may also act
as relief operators.
Petroleum Plant Operators

Petroleum Plan Operators control equipment, which refines crude oil into gasoline,
kerosene, fuel oil, lubricants and other home and industrial products. Since the refining
process is highly mechanized, most production workers observe gauges and meters and
adjust machinery when necessary.

Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives

Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives sell drugs and pharmaceutical products to

physicians, dentists, veterinarians, hospitals, drug stores and wholesalers. Some work
directly for pharmaceutical manufacturers. They introduce new products to the medical
community. They acquaint doctors with the characteristics of the products, clinical
studies, recommendations on dosage and use, and provide them with samples. They
perform a similar service for hospital technical staff and druggists.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Other representatives work for wholesalers and may carry the products of a number
of manufacturers, including both prescription and non-prescription drugs.


Pharmacists prepare, compound, and dispense medicines prescribed by doctors,

veterinarians and dentists. They advise customers or patients on the use and interaction
of medicines and over-the-counter products. They also advise doctors, veterinarians and
other prescribers on the proper selection and effect of drugs. They may also maintain
patient-medication profiles, buy and sell non-pharmaceutical supplies, and hire and
supervise personnel. Some specialize in pure research. Pharmacists learn to recognize
and classify hundreds of medicines, many of which are new, and must know how to
prepare others.

Pharmacy Assistants

Pharmacy Assistants work under the direction of and assist Pharmacists. They help the
Pharmacist with the preparation of prescriptions by typing labels and entering
information into a computer. They also compile and maintain drug and supply inventory
records and may order supplies. They may clean equipment, shelves and work areas and
may wash and sterilize bottles and beakers. They may pick up and deliver orders and run

Photofinishers use their knowledge of developing and printing to produce finished

Film Developers produce negatives from exposed film.
Printers prepare photographic prints from negatives. Others operate machines, which
perform the developing, and printing processes.
Slide Mounters operate machines, which cut and seal slides in mounting frames.
Photograph checkers and assemblers inspect finished slides and prints and package
them for customers.


Photographers record visual images on film or videotape to graphically illustrate or

explain an idea. They may also prepare the pictures for presentation. They generally
specialize in a particular type of subject matter, such as portraits, landscape, nature or
news pictures and in types of equipment such as 35-millimeter cameras, video or movie

Photonic Technicians

Photonic Technicians work with the generation, manipulation, transport, detection,

harnessing and use of light and other forms of radiant energy or photon. Phonic
Technicians may also work with systems with integrated technologies. Photonics has
application possibilities in medicine, opto-electronics, lasers environment, energy,
transportation, defense, public safety, aerospace, in computers used in entertainment and
consumer devices, in manufacturing (testing, evaluation and analysis) and in
Tasks include: They may troubleshoot problems with systems and repair them. They
work closely with a team that includes Photonic Engineers, project leaders and support

Physical Therapist

Physical Therapists help people overcome or adjust to physical disabilities caused by

injury, illness or birth defects. They evaluate physical disabilities and treat patients to
relieve pain and restore function. They plan and administer treatments on referral by
physicians. They administer and interpret tests and measurements for muscle strength,
coordination and respiratory and circulatory efficiency. Results of these tests are used to
develop programs for treatment. They instruct patients in care and use of wheelchairs,
braces, canes, crutches and other device. They also keep records of treatment.
Physical Therapy Assistants

Physical Therapy Assistants give heat, light, sound, water and electrical modality
treatments to patients and help with therapeutic exercises and massage. They may also
use traction to help relieve pain. They work under the supervision of a physical therapist.
They teach patients how to use exercise equipment and to use orthoses and prostheses
and supportive devices. They attempt to motivate them to learn and improve. They
observe patients and keep records of observations. They may give support to the patient
and their family. They may give orientation to new assistants, instruct aides and perform
clerical tasks.

Physicians Assistants

Physicians Assistants provide routine and emergency medical care under the
supervision of licensed Physicians. They may specialize in areas such as cardiology,
surgery and orthopedics. Some state laws state that the Physicians Assistant (like Nurse
Practitioners, at the direction of an employer and as approved by the Board of Medical
Examiners) may perform medical procedures according to qualifications, training,
experience, and job description. Results obtained from any diagnostic procedures shall
be reported promptly to the supervising physician for use in making the diagnosis and in
prescribing treatment. Physicians Assistants interview patients, take medical histories,
perform physical exams, order laboratory tests, and make tentative diagnosis. They take
x-rays and electrocardiograms, set simple fractures, suture wounds, and provide treatment
for common illnesses. They also give vaccinations and prescribe some medicines and
may assist physicians in surgery.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may complete insurance reports.


Physicians diagnose and treat human disease and maintain and improve the health of
their patients. They use medical equipment and instruments and tests. They adhere to
standard medical procedures. Some physicians are General Practitioners who deal with a
wide range of medical problems. Others are specialists who have completed advanced
training in fields such as family orthopedic surgery or dermatology. Those in primary
care practice include General Practitioners, Internists, Pediatricians, Obstetricians and
Gynecologists. Increasingly, physicians are assigning tasks of routine nature to auxiliary
workers, such as Nurse Practitioners and Physicians Assistants.

Physicists study matter, energy and the relationships between them and devise methods
to apply laws and theories of Physics to industry, medicine and other fields. In the solar
energy industry traditional skills are applied to researching materials use.

Piano and Organ Tuners

Piano and Organ Tuners adjust the strings of a piano or organ to achieve the proper
pitch. They remove the front boards to expose the strings. They place felt between the
strings to mute them. They compare the pitch with a tuning fork. They turn the string
pin with the tuning hammer to adjust the pitch.
Tasks include: At the factory piano tuners also adjust the strings. They may also repair
and restore these musical instruments.

Picture Framers

Picture Framers put mirrors or pictures in wood, plastic or metal frames. They
assemble frames, place glass, picture or mirror into frame, secure them into place,
position backing, staple backing to the frame and measures, position and install hangers.
They may cut, assemble and mount mats. They may pack and ship the framed pictures.
Tasks include: Some do custom design framing or restoration framing of mirrors,
paintings, photographs and other works of art. They may work with precut materials or
make them from stock molding. They may also sell frames. Some frame original works
of art, prints, lithographs, photographs and memorabilia. Some work in preservation or
original artwork or photographs.

Pilots and Flight Engineers

Pilots and Flight Engineers work as a team and are responsible for the safe and efficient
operation of aircraft. Pilots operate the controls and perform other tasks essential for
getting planes into the air. They also supervise the crew.
Co-Pilots assist pilots in communications, monitoring flight instruments, and in operating
Flight Engineers help make pre-flight checks and monitor the operation of various
mechanical and electrical devices during flight.
Plasterers and Drywall Installers

Plasterers and Drywall Installers prepare and apply smooth or textured finishes to
walls and other building surfaces. After lathers construct lathes to which plaster readily
adheres, plasterers apply a wet acoustical or finish coat to the lathe.
Drywall Applicators build interior walls and place pre-dried sheetrock.

Plastics Engineers

Plastics Engineers researches, develop, plan and design products made with synthetic
resins. These resins are produced from natural substances such as coal tar, coal,
petroleum, wood, natural gas and salt.

Plastics Fabricators

Plastics Fabricators use machines to cut plastic products. Some of these products are
mats and pads, bags, beach balls, baby pants, coolers, fiberglass chairs, trays, and
containers. They use a template, blueprints, or a design for a pattern. They cut with
knives, scissors or machines. They glue pieces together. They also look for defects,
which they patch when necessary.


Playwrights write original plays for the theater, films or television. They are also known
as Dramatists. Playwrights must be original, able to express emotions through language
and be creative at writing believable dialogue.

Plumbers and Pipefitters

Plumbers and Pipefitters assemble, install and repair metal or plastic pipe systems used
to carry liquid, gas vacuum, and semisolid material. They may work with water, gas
steam, air, drainage lines, and heating and cooling systems. They use hand tools such as
wrenches, bits and pipe cutters. They may use power machines to cut, bend and thread
pipes. They may also weld and solder pipes. On new construction projects they work
from blueprints to determine the proper location of pipes and fixtures. When doing repair
work, they must trace problems in the system to their source, open clogged drains and
replace defective parts.
Podiatric Assistants

Podiatric Assistants prepare patients for treatment, sterilize instruments, perform

general office duties and assist Podiatrists in preparing dressings, administering treatment
and developing x-rays. They work under the supervision of a Podiatrist.


Podiatrists prevent, diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the foot. A podiatrist
will obtain medical histories, use physical diagnostic methods, employ x-rays and
laboratory tests. Minor surgical procedures are performed in the office, while major
surgical procedures are done in the hospital. Podiatrists may not amputate the foot or
toes nor may they administer a general anesthetic. They are also limited to the use of
non-surgical means to treat leg muscles and tendons relating to foot action. Podiatrists
may provide 1) flexible casting or immobilization for foot an ankle fractures and sprains;
2) mechanical devices to correct walking patterns or balance; 3) medical treatment to
cure and/or control foot problems, including corns and calluses. They may prescribe
drugs, physical therapy or proper shoes. They refer patients to appropriate medical
doctors if they observe symptoms of other medical disorders such as diabetes, arthritis or
heart disease. Some podiatrists do research in hospitals and education centers.

Policy Analysts

Policy Analysts help businesses and organizations make public policy decisions. They
explore how public policy should be decided, perform a cost benefit analysis of proposed
policy decisions and project the consequences of any proposed policy change.

Political Scientists

Political Scientists investigate the ways power is gained and used. Some study the
actions of foreign governments, political parties or revolutionary movements. Others
analyze topics such as public opinions, political decision-making and the uses of
ideology. They may conduct polls and surveys, review Supreme Court decisions or
actions of legislative bodies, or analyze the content of media articles. Some do academic
research, writing or teaching. Others work on applied problems for federal agencies such
as the Department of State and Defense. Some work for legislative committees or
individual office holders or office seekers. A few are freelancers who prepare analyses
for newspapers, radio and television distribution.
Polygraph Examiners

Polygraph Examiners use polygraph instruments to determine the truth or falsehood of

statements made. They analyze and interpret results of these tests.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They screen individuals to protect national security.

Porters and Bellhops

Porters and Bellhops assist guests and passengers by carrying their baggage and
performing other escort and catering services.
Bellhops show hotel guests to rooms, assist them with hand luggage, give information
about services and facilities of the hotel, and explain features of the guests rooms, such as
how to use the radio, television, telephone, and night-lock. In addition, they may page
guests in the lobby, dining room, or other parts of the hotel; deliver messages; run errands
and perform valet services by picking up articles to be laundered and calling taxis for
Porters carry baggage by hand or cart for passengers at airports and railroad stations.
They take luggage to storage rooms, airline terminals, ticket windows, trains, taxis, buses
and private cars. They also call taxicabs, direct people to ticket windows and rest rooms
and help passengers with disabilities.

Postal Clerks

Postal Clerks sort incoming and outgoing mail in the post office. Some clerks work
behind the counter and sell stamps and money orders, weigh packages and letters to
determine postage, and fill out forms for registered or insured mail or damaged package
claims. They may have to convey postal regulations to the public. Other clerks separate
mail, feed mail through stamp-canceling machines, and sort it according to destination.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Duties differ with the size of the post office and the degree of automation. In large
post offices and mail processing facilities, much of the sorting of letter-sized mail is done
by postal clerks keying the zip code of the letter passing before them. Letters are sorted
to an appropriate bin on the back of the letter-sorting machine. Clerks pull the letters
from the bins and bundle or sack them.

Postmasters administer and coordinate the day-to-day operations of the United States
Post Offices. They supervise incoming and outgoing mail. They organize and supervise
mail handlers, clerks and technicians; train and evaluate the work of employees; and
prepare work schedules. They may confer with employees and negotiate labor disputes.
They may work with more than one center in a district. The chief function of the Postal
Service is the collection and delivery of the mail (letters, packages magazines). They
also issue domestic and foreign money orders.
Tasks include: They resolve customer complaints. They prepare reports. : They may
perform other post office activities. They confer with suppliers.
Mail Superintendents coordinate the activities of postal and related workers in an
assigned post office. They perform similar work in organizations other than the postal

Preschool Teachers

Preschool Teachers provide activities for children from two to five years of age to
advance their physical, mental and social development. Their primary job is to provide a
good learning environment and to plan and present programs of instruction using
materials and teaching methods designed to meet the needs of the students. They
supervise children in play and recreational activities helping children to develop self-
confidence, explore their interests, develop their talents, and learn how to behave with
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Preschool teachers also administer evaluative tests, keep class records, make reports,
and organize groups and individual study projects. They may confer with parents and
plan and direct the work of aides and assistants. They may visit the homes of children
and may transport them to and from the day-care center or nursery.

Press Operators

Press Operators tend presses and prepare type forms and press plates for final printing.
They make adjustments to control thickness and flow of ink. Duties differ depending on
the kind and size of presses (letterpress, gravure, or offset) found in the shop. In small
commercial shops one person may operate a relatively small offset press. A crew of
Operators is required to run the giant presses used in large newspapers. Modern plants
have computerized presses with a control panel to operate. Most press operators
specialize in one type of printing.
Print Shop Operators may also operate binding, photocopying or collating equipment.
Private Investigators

Private Investigators work for clients to locate missing persons, to solve crimes or to get
information. Their work is much like other detectives and investigators except they are
responsible for reporting criminal information to police.


Producers work to create productions and handle the financial arrangements of a film,
television, video, radio, stage or theatre presentation. Their productions may be for
entertainment, information or instruction. They may begin by buying rights to a story or
buying a script or they may be hired by a studio or television station which already has a
project defined. They select the director or assistant director, draw up contracts for the
actors and other staff, deal with unions, design a budget and persuade investors to finance
the production. They must see that the production does not exceed its budget and arrange
for it to be shown when finished.
Advertising Producers coordinate production and media commercials.
Television Producers may perform a variety of tasks directing, producing and working
on a story.
Tasks include: Creative decisions such as concept and theme development,
interpretation of a script, set design, sound, special effects and choreography.

Product Managers

Product Managers are responsible for the development and profitability of one or more
specific products or services, which are marketed by large manufacturing, transportation,
communication, financial, and service enterprises. They conduct studies and make
forecasts of the potential market for such services. They analyze the cost of providing the
services and product prices. They are involved in the manufacturing, packaging and
distribution of the product. They make sales presentations and negotiate sales contracts.
They promote the product by developing advertising copy, descriptive material and
training procedures for those staff that will actually be engaged in selling the product.
After the product has been marketed, they monitor sales and conduct evaluations to
determine how well it is meeting consumer needs, and what modifications may be
required. They may be referred to as brand managers when working with a brand name
Production Clerks

Production Clerks compile and record information about production rate, manufacturing
efficiency and quality control. They review work orders, shipment schedules, purchasing
receipts, product specifications and evaluations, progress reports and workers time
sheets. Production clerks calculate the quantity of items produced, the amount of raw
material used, the amount of scrap materials left over or discarded due to defects and the
output of workers and departments. They write production reports and maintain files of
papers used and prepared. They confer with others to determine progress of work and
completion dates.

Production Painters and Finishers

Production Painters and Finishers paint and polish articles such as autos, toys, jewelry
and furniture. Painters use machines, spray guns or hand brushes to apply final protective
and decorative coats to objects. A finishers duties may include examining articles for
defects, trimming or grinding excess matter or rough edges and/or patching and sanding.

Production Planners

Production Planners plan and prepare schedules for manufacturing industrial and
commercial products economically, efficiently and on time. They develop forecasts of
sales, analyze production specifications and plant capacities and draw up plans that
specify the sequence and allotted time for manufacturing operations. During production
they check for errors, troubleshoot and take corrective action to keep production on
schedule. Some planners develop systems to maintain inventories of raw materials or
finished products. Others develop systems for controlling distribution of finished

Production Superintendents

Production Superintendents are efficiency experts that assure that their firms products
are made economically and produced on time. Typical duties include analyzing data on
costs and market conditions, directing activities of subordinate supervisors, interpreting
statistics on availability of raw materials, supervising maintenance of plant equipment,
quality control, and keeping records of labor, production, material costs, and equipment
depreciation. Conducts hearings and negotiates issues to resolve grievances.
Production Workers

Production Workers perform one or more repetitive assembly operations to mass-

produce goods such as appliances, instruments, toys and bicycles. Assemblers may bolt;
screw or cement parts together by hand or use hand tools or power tools. This job often
involves tending such machines as presses, riveters, and resistance welders.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Operations often include force fitting or fastening on an assembly line.

Professional Athletes

Professional Athletes compete in athletic events as members of a team or as individuals.

They play the games according to set rules and regulations before an audience. A wide
variety of team sports, like baseball, football, soccer or hockey are played. As
individuals they may play at sports like tennis, golf, boxing, martial arts, racing, skiing,
and wrestling. Athletes in team sports usually begin by playing in high school and then
in college where they become eligible for draft to the leagues. After they are drafted,
they may sign on with a professional contract.

Professional Ice Skaters

Professional Ice Skaters have skated and usually competed for many years before
turning professional. They may try out for a touring ice show. They may become
teachers at a local ice rink.

Project Managers

Project Managers coordinate the activities of an entire project. They interact with the
business team, the development team, and the functional team. They may oversee the
purchasing of raw materials for a project.
Tasks include: They interact with top management.


Proofreaders read copy or proofs to check for errors. They mark grammatical,
typographical or compositional errors for correction. They also measure for positioning
on a page to comply with specifications. In smaller agencies, the Type Director may
also proofread.
Property Managers

Property Managers are in charge of leasing, renting, and maintaining property, such as
land, buildings and equipment. They contract with their clients to provide this service.
They prepare lease or rental agreements and make collections. They arrange for
maintenance, repair and alteration of the property. They keep records and help prepare
financial reports on the status of the property. They may advise clients about financing,
purchasing or selling property.


Prosthetists-Orthotists design, prepare and fit devices, which improve the functioning
of persons with missing limbs or disabling physical conditions. There are two major
branches to this field. Prosthetics includes the design, preparation and fitting of artificial
limbs. Orthotics includes the design, preparation and fitting of braces and splints. A
much smaller but growing field is anaplastics, which includes design and preparation of
artificial body parts such as eyes and heart valves. They supervise and are assisted by
Orthotists-Prosthetic Technicians.

Psychiatric Social Workers

Psychiatric Social Workers assist mentally or emotionally disturbed patients and their
families. They help patients respond to treatment and assist in the adjustment leading to
and following discharge. They provide supportive services to help clients or patients
understand, accept and follow medical recommendations. They work with the
Psychiatrist, Clinical Psychologist and others on the health care team. They serve as a
link between the patient, the psychiatric agency and the community.
Tasks include: Planning and conducting programs in the community.

Psychiatric Technicians

Psychiatric Technicians care for and supervise mentally ill patients in a hospital setting.
Duties may vary according to where they work. They may help patients develop social
skills and encourage patients to take part in social or recreational activities. Their routine
duties may include bathing, feeding, dressing and grooming of patients. They may escort
patients to and from treatments, examinations, around the grounds and to community
activities. They may observe and record patient behavior and physical conditions. They
may restrain patients to prevent injury to themselves or others. They work in close
personal contact with patients. They are members of the psychiatric treatment team and
are usually supervised by nurses.

Psychiatrists are medical doctors who study, work to prevent, diagnose and treat mental,
emotional and behavioral disorders. They examine a patient to determine physical
condition, following standard medical procedures. They may order diagnostic and
laboratory tests for the patient, and analyze the results. After determining the nature and
extent of the disorder, psychiatrists formulate treatment programs, which may involve
medication, psychotherapy, group therapy or other modes of treatment. Psychoanalysis
includes the study of unconscious motivation and dream analysis.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
*Organizing information about a patients family, personal history and symptoms
*Treating diseases of the brain and nervous system
*Maintaining medical records and supervise other staff
*Specializing in child or adolescent psychiatry


Psychodramatists use drama techniques for therapeutic purposes. Psychodrama is a

specialization in a clinical psychology concentration. Psychodrama helps clients discover
their inner truth, express emotions freely and establish authentic relationships with others.
Through enactment patients explore their issues and concerns. Psychodrama is solution-
based therapy for personal growth. It is a form of psychotherapy that promotes healthy
relationships and dramatic life changes for individuals. Psychodramatists direct
psychodrama sessions, which include warm-up, action, structures, closure and
processing. Therapy may include exercises in improvisation to putting on a full
production and using other theater techniques. Techniques may include role reversal,
mirroring, doubling and role training.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Psychodramatists are concerned with the well being of individuals, groups, families
and organizations. They may be a presenter at conferences.


Psychologists study the behavior of individuals and groups and try to help people
achieve satisfactory personal adjustment. They may deal with the total human
personality or certain aspects such as perception or learning. Some engage in teaching or
research; others work with people doing testing, counseling or treatment in clinics,
schools and industries. Some people with preparation in psychology are employed in
occupations allied to being a psychologist.
Public Administrators

Public Administrators are trained management specialists in public agencies that

coordinate and direct public services toward meeting the state or communitys needs.
They analyze problems with the help of special committees and public agencies and
recommend solutions to governing bodies. They often have line authority over a staff.

Public Health Educators

Public Health Educators plan, organize, and direct health education programs for
individual, groups, and the community. They may work with volunteer agencies and
other civic and professional agencies to provide services. Many specialize. In hospitals
they may specialize in patient health education. Others may specialize and teach health
care professionals.
Tasks include: Conducting surveys to determine needs, working with other health
specialists and community groups, preparing educational materials, writing grants and
determining the availability of health services.

Public Health Microbiologists

Public Health Microbiologists conduct experiments to detect the presence of harmful

bacteria in water, food supply or the general environment, examining for
microorganisms, which constitute a menace to public health. They work to control or
eliminate possible sources of pollution or contagion, and with hospitals and clinical
laboratories to determine the presence of bacteria, which cause contagious or epidemic
Tasks include: They may inoculate members of the community against contagious

Public Health Nurses

Public Health Nurses instruct individuals, families and communities in health education
and disease prevention. They may visit homes to determine patient and family need.
They develop a plan to meet those needs and provide nursing service. They give
medications according to physician instructions. They may work in occupational health
programs, chronic disease programs, in maternal and child health programs, health
education programs and conferences.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may specialize in pediatrics for example. They must be trained in the
detection, prevention, reporting requirements and treatment of child neglect and abuse.
Public Relations Workers

Public Relations Workers help public and private organizations and individuals and
groups build and maintain a favorable public image. They prepare information about the
business and communicate this material to the public through radio, television,
newspapers, magazines and direct mail. They maintain good and honest relationships
with media so that during crises press personnel will contact them directly to verify
information. They prepare information and develop camera-ready copy.
Tasks include: They may include writing speeches and arranging speaking engagements
for company/agency officials and participate in community service organizations and
community activities.

Pulp and Paper Workers

Pulp and Paper Workers tend machines that produce newsprint, paperboard containers
and boxes. Pulp and paper manufacturing jobs often involve technical work as well as
operating, installing and repairing equipment.

Quality Control Inspectors

Quality Control Inspectors examine manufactured products to assure standards are met.
Following procedures developed and outlined by the Quality Assurance Engineer, the
Inspector uses mechanical and laboratory equipment to test the quality and reliability of a
product. When the percentage of defects exceeds allowable limits, this may result in
changes in production. They are often using highly technical measuring instruments and
the tests may require some mathematical computations and final reports.

Quality Engineers

Quality Engineers work in quality assurance, quality control, reliability, maintainability,

test engineering, and other areas of manufacturing and service organizations. They
develop, apply and maintain quality standards for products and services. They implement
and establish quality systems, inspection systems, procedures and plans to establish
compliance with government, industry or company quality standards. When involved in a
technical field, such as avionics or electronics systems, they may need an in-depth
knowledge of applicable commercial and military standards or specifications. They must
identify the requirements that are applicable to a specific research and development
project. They evaluate the design of a product, applicable inspection and test techniques,
estimate quality costs, analyze materials use and handling, attempt to simplify operations
and work flow, and analyze problems. They review drawings for implementation of
quality and reliability requirements and prepare statistical reports.
Radiation Safety Technicians

Radiation Safety Technicians inspect facilities, premises, darkrooms, film processing

equipment, activities, records and a wide variety of x-ray equipment to determine
compliance with rules and regulations governing radiation use and to protect people from
radiation hazards. They work under the direction of a health physicist. They may make
recommendations for improvements, advise and instruct staff in the safe use of
radiological equipment, review applications for permits and certificates to practice
radiological technology, inspect schools of radiological technology and assist in
preparing technical curricula and training.

Radio and TV Service Technicians

Radio and TV Service Technicians install and repair electronic home entertainment
systems and related equipment. They diagnose and repair troubles in radios, televisions,
audio systems, videocassette recorders and camcorders, etc. They check for causes of
common problems, may use wiring diagrams and other service manuals, may use test
equipment to check circuits and replace parts and make adjustments.

Radio and Television Broadcasters

Radio and Television Broadcasters talk to audiences over the airwaves, providing
information and entertainment. Broadcasters read/broadcast news, weather, commercials,
sports and station announcements. In addition, they frequently act as Performers.
Radio Broadcasters handle a variety of assignments: announcing newscasts, playing
music, reading, logging the meters and signing the station log.
TV Broadcasters, when on the air, announce or talk only. They usually perform no
technical duties.
Radiologic Technologists

Radiologic Technologists operate x-ray equipment to help diagnose and treat various
health problems. They review the physicians instructions, then prepare the patient for
examination by providing physical assistance, verbal instruction and reassurance. They
position patients under the x-ray machine, expose the patient to the prescribed doses of
radiation, may administer and drugs necessary to make organs visible in the picture, and
set and operate controls. They also develop the film, prepare records of services
performed, make adjustments and minor repairs on equipment, and make arrangements to
have more difficult repairs done by professional services. They may specialize in
diagnostic technology, therapeutic technology, or mammographic radiologic technology.
Diagnostic Radiologic Technologists use radiologic equipment to provide radiologists
with x-rays for diagnosis of diseases of the human body. Their work is mostly the same
as other radiologic technologists. They must be certified after completion of a state-
approved program. This specialty is found in large hospitals. They may work night and
weekend shifts.
Mammographic Radiologic Technologists operate similar equipment as other
radiologic technologists do to detect breast tumors. They work in a high volume
laboratory environment. They must be certified after graduation from a state-approved
Therapeutic Radiological Technologists use radiologic equipment to provide treatment
ordered by a physician or radiologist for benign and malignant internal and external
growths. (Also see Nuclear Medicine Technologists) They must be certified after
completion of a state-approved program. These workers typically work normal business


Radiologists interpret radiographs. They aid other physicians in determining the nature
of a disease or injury. They use x-rays and other radioactive materials, other imaging
procedures such as MRI (and ultrasound, computer assisted imaging procedures, nuclear
medicine and radiology for diagnosis and treating of diseases). They examine the
internal structure and functions of organ systems.
Tasks include: They may watch the progress of injected dyes through the body by using
x-rays. They may treat a malignant tumor with x-rays and attempt to arrest its growth.
Railroad Brake Operators

Railroad Brake Operators help control the safety and movement of trains by following
signals and instructions from others. Brake operators work with conductors of crews,
checking the air brakes and seeing that tools and other equipment are in proper places.
During runs, brake operators inspect the train, looking for indications of equipment
Switch Tenders or Yard Brake Operators throw switches, couple and uncouple cars,
and adjust hand brakes when trains are being made up or broken up.

Railroad Conductors

Railroad Conductors direct and supervise crews on trains carrying passengers or freight.
They are responsible for all train operations en route or in the rail yards. They coordinate
all crewmembers and their responsibilities so that the train runs safely and on schedule.
Tasks include: They collect information about train routes, schedules, track conditions
and the contents and destination of each car. They may perform the duties of Passenger
Car Conductors, Pullman Conductors, Road Freight Conductors and Yard Conductors or
Road Freight Conductors.

Railroad Engineers

Railroad Engineers are responsible for the safe and efficient operation of locomotives.
Passenger or Freight Service Engineers operate trains over the road.


Ranchers breed and raise livestock, like beef cattle, dairy cattle, goats, horses, sheep or
pigs that may be for meat or show. They select pasture and range lands to graze animals.
They mix feed supplements. They arrange to sell the animals and their products.
Tasks include: Feeding animals; building pens and fences; cleaning animals, cleaning
and operating equipment, cleaning and maintaining grounds; and treating animals for
minor injuries or illness. They also attend to animals before and after birth.
Range Managers

Range Managers find ways to provide sustained production of forage, livestock and
wildlife. They study and manage rangelands, arid regions, grasslands and other areas of
low productivity. Their occupation title depends on their particular area of expertise.
Tasks include: They study rangelands to determine the best grazing seasons, and the
number and kind of livestock that can be grazed profitably. They study forage plants
and their growth requirements. They develop methods for controlling poisonous plants,
for protecting range areas from fire and rodent damage and for re-seeding range lands.
They plan and direct construction and maintenance of range fencing, water storage,
structures for soil-erosion control, and corrals.

Real Estate Agents

Real Estate Agents help people buy, sell and rent property and businesses. They
familiarize themselves with market conditions and properties for sale. They show
property to prospective buyers and locate properties to sell. They bring together buyers
and owners and negotiate the terms of real estate contracts such as deeds, leases and
mortgages with buyers, sellers, and renters of properties. They may help locate
financing. They may manage and arrange for maintenance of rental property or develop
and sell new building projects. They may also make appraisals. They work under the
supervision of a Real Estate Broker.

Real Estate Brokers

Real Estate Brokers are usually self-employed. They may hire Sales Agents who
contract their services to brokers. They typically own or operate the business from which
sales agents work. They may specialize in selling a certain type of property.

Real Estate Developers

Real Estate Developers specialize and plan and arrange the development, construction,
and management of commercial property such as office space, and industrial space or
residential real estate including multifamily properties and holds the project together.
Tasks include: Some also provide development services to property owners. They
supervise staff that prepares appraisals, studies and statistical abstracts. They oversee
sampling, surveying and testing activities.
Receptionists and Information Clerks

Receptionists and Information Clerks greet callers at business offices to determine the
purpose of their visits and direct them accordingly. Tasks vary depending on size and
type of employer. They may make appointments, give information, keep records, sort
mail, send bills, receive payments, type, file and answer the telephones and distribute

Records Clerks

Records Clerks compile, record, file or check information needed for a variety of
purposes. Insurance reviewers record information on applications for insurance policies.
They make sure all questions on a form have been answered. Others may check school
records to see whether students are eligible to graduate, or some may count ballots and
prepare official records. Records Clerks use computer software that calculates.
Tasks include: Some keep records of deliveries to customers, compile financial records,
weather charts or train schedules. Duties vary by size of form.

Records Managers

Records Managers are trained to create and maintain computerized records and
information systems. They apply the concepts of cataloging, storing and retrieval to an
office setting.
Tasks include: Some work with medical records.

Recreation Leaders

Recreation Leaders guide people in leisure activities. They may organize and direct
recreational activities like arts and crafts, camping, games, team sports, exercise classes,
music, drama, and hobbies. They demonstrate equipment and techniques and explain
rules and regulations. They lay out materials and equipment before starting. Often they
must instruct people about the activity. They may also have to encourage or motivate
people to participate. They also ensure the safety of participants by watching the
Tasks include: They may supervise Recreation Aides.
Recreation Program Directors

Recreation Program Directors plan and supervise leisure programs and oversee paid
and volunteer staff. They manage recreational facilities; prepare budgets and order
supplies and equipment. They promote and administer various programs of instruction
such as golf, dance, arts and crafts, cultural art programs, leisure services, games and
hiking and camping. They train and evaluate personnel, introduce new programs,
equipment, and materials to the staff and adapt recreational programs to meet the needs
of the community.
Tasks may include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of
the job. They may also organize parties, lectures and dramatic presentations.

Recreational Therapists

Recreational Therapists help people recover from or adjust to mental, physical,

emotional or social problems through recreational activities. They plan and direct
therapy programs providing exercises and social interaction. Activities may include
dancing, arts and crafts, music, parties, gardening and camping. They assess the progress
of their patients. Therapists discuss their observations with other members of the
treatment team to determine what other activities the patent may need.


Recruiters seek out, interview and evaluate potential employees for positions that require
specialized training or experience, ranging from chief executives and specialized
computer scientists to electronics technicians and sales representatives. They may also
recruit non-technical personnel. In some cases they may take commitments to hire
candidates. Some work as employees of corporations and focus on meeting the staffing
needs of their employer. Others work for executive search agencies, firms that specialize
in head hunting locating new employees with desired qualifications for client
businesses that contract for this service.

Reducing Salon Attendants

Reducing Salon Attendants measure, weigh, and record progress for members. They
demonstrate exercises and exercise equipment. They schedule the use of the equipment.
They may lead aerobic and other exercise classes. They take the patrons body statistics.
They give that information to a supervisor who plans a program for the client. They
monitor activities to assure progress.
Tasks include: They may collect fees, book appointments, answer telephones, fold
towels and issue lockers. They keep the desk area clean.
Referees and Umpires

Referees and Umpires judge and officiate at sporting events. They settle disputes,
determine penalties for infractions.

Refuse Collectors

Refuse Collectors collect trash, garbage, and recycling materials from containers along
assigned routes in a city or town. They load trash and garbage onto the truck to be driven
to a dump or sanitary landfill and empty it on arrival. Drivers must inspect mechanical
and safety equipment on collection trucks daily. They keep informed of road and
weather conditions. Collectors also may drive the truck.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may also operate a hydraulic lift truck that picks up and empties dumpsters.

Registered Nurses

Registered Nurses use a scientific process to plan care for people in acute illnesses and
teach them how to stay healthy or cope with their illness. They may give medicine,
treatments, tests, injections or draw blood as prescribed by the physician; observe patients
for physical, mental, social or emotional changes and record changes and record changes
or reactions to illness and/or drugs; take temperature, pulse, blood pressure or other vital
signs; and maintain health records.

Rehabilitation Counselors

Rehabilitation Counselors help persons who are mentally and/or physically disabled to
adjust to their disability and find suitable employment. They evaluate prospective clients
and determine their eligibility for assistance and whether available rehabilitation
techniques are likely to be beneficial. Where appropriate, the counselors develop, with
the client, a plan of service. This may call for occupational training, restorative surgery,
counseling or some combination of these. The counselor then authorizes necessary
services and monitors the progress of the client. They may also contact employers to
solicit job openings. In some cases they may work with employers to redesign jobs to fit
the capabilities of the client. Clientele served by rehabilitation counselors include
persons who have physical or emotional impairment due to injury or illness, drug-related
problems and mental retardation.

Rehabilitative Engineers

Rehabilitative Engineers design devices to improve the functional mobility of people

with physical disabilities. They work to meet the needs and to assist individual clients.
Rental Clerks

Rental Clerks interact with customers on behalf of service provider companies. They
take orders for products and services and receive payment for services.


Repossessors locate debtors and recover merchandise for non-payment of accounts.

They usually follow the unsuccessful efforts of Collection Agents.

Respiratory Therapists

Respiratory Therapists provide medical care and treatment to patients who have lung
problems. They set up, adjust and operate equipment such as oxygen tents, incubators,
iron lungs, resuscitators, mechanical ventilators, aerosol inhalants and oxygen tanks, with
their accompanying hoses and gauges. They also keep patient medical records of
treatment and costs, do routine maintenance and minor repairs of equipment, help
patients with breathing exercises, and teach patients and their families how to use
equipment at home. They also make several visits a month to inspect or clean the
equipment and ensure its proper use. They work side by side with physicians, nurses and
others on the health care team. Therapists usually have additional supervising and
teaching responsibilities.
Tasks include: Respiratory care usually involves one or more of the four major kinds of
treatment: administering oxygen and oxygen mixtures; using humidity and aerosol mists
to keep the respiratory tract moist or to deliver medication; administering chest physical
therapy, which includes exercises to reduce the effort of breathing as well as tapping and
coughing procedures to help clear the lungs; and operating mechanical ventilators that
replace or assist natural breathing.

Restaurant Managers

Restaurant Managers are responsible for scheduling and directing the activities of
restaurants, cafeterias and other food service operations, including hiring personnel and
providing necessary training. Specific duties vary, but most include the purchase of food
and equipment, menu planning with the chef, and inspection of safety and health
Tasks include: They may also keep records, play the help, take inventories, and solve
customer and employee problems. Marketing, advertising and business promotional
campaigns are also part of their duties.
Restoration Specialists

Restoration Specialists work to restore historic buildings and sites to their original

Retail Store Managers

Retail Store Managers are responsible for the operation of stores, which sell
merchandise. In large stores they direct the activities of other workers. In small stores
they may do many jobs, including selling, ordering, stocking, budgeting. They plan work
schedules and assign work. They are responsible for hiring, firing, and promotion of
employees. They formulate pricing policies.
Tasks include: They may also select the merchandise to be sold.


Riggers install and repair mechanical and electrical equipment on boats and ships. They
may install accessories. They may install and repair hoists and other equipment used to
move heavy loads aboard a ship. They also assist ship fitters in moving and placing
heavy beams and other parts on the ship. They may service and prepare new and used
boats for sale. They select cables, ropes, pulleys, winches, blocks and sheaves.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some workers install inboard and outboard motor boar accessories such as lights,
motors, batteries, ignition switches and propellers. Some work with related outdoor
marine equipment. They may repair metal, wood and fiberglass hulls and vessel
components. They may fabricate and maintain sails. They may also work with
propellers and drive shafts.

Right-of -Way Agents

Right-of-Way Agents estimate property value and negotiate to purchase property or the
right to use it through lease or rental. They may offer relocation assistance. Land may be
acquired in this way for highways, beaches, parks, building sites, etc.

Risk Resolvers

Risk Resolvers collect and analyze data to determine why things break, wont work, or
cause injury. This is a new field concerned with safety for employees, of products and in
preventing loss. They are responsible for eliminating or limiting future losses and for
dealing with present and past losses. They may supervise Safety Technicians.
Robotics Applications Engineers

Robotics Applications Engineers work for manufacturers who use robots in production.
They tell a robot what to do. They teach or program the robot to move tools, parts, or
materials usually by using a computer terminal. They must know the capabilities and
physical limits of the robot.

Robotics Technicians

Robotics Technicians install, set up, integrate, program, maintain, modify, test, operate,
service and repair industrial robots and robot controllers, systems, and components. They
work closely with engineers in design, development and production. There are a variety
of robot applications in manufacturing, including welding, spraying, assembling, material
handling, sorting and stacking, die casting, forging and heat treating, and plastic molding.
To program the robot they must use the keyboard and control panel. Robotics
Technicians also monitor a robot in production or program or reprogram a robot when
repairing it. They discuss the assignment with customer representatives and are assisted
by customer staff. They may train customer staff.

Rock Musicians

Rock Musicians work with small musical groups usually with a lead singer, keyboard
player, lead bass and rhythm guitarist and drummer. They play music in lounges, studios,
clubs, halls and (sometimes outdoors on stage), in auditoriums, and in concert halls.
They may prepare recordings and videos for distribution.
Tasks include: Performers are often also composers or lyricists who write the words to
songs and work closely with the composer.

Rodeo Performers

Rodeo Performers demonstrate skill and daring in rodeo competition to entertain

spectators and compete for prize money. They may compete in bareback riding, steer
wrestling, team roping, saddle bronco riding, calf roping, and bull riding events or for
all-around cowboy or all-around champion.


Roofers apply a variety of materials to the roofs of buildings. Carpenters often apply
wood shingles. Roofers may cut roofing paper to size, nail or staple it to the roof, and
then fasten the shingles using cement staples or nails. Some jobs involve mopping or
pouring hot tar asphalt, and gravel onto the roof until a desirable thickness is achieved.
Room Cleaners

Room Cleaners work for hotels, motels, residence halls and hospitals. Those who work
in hotels and motels clean the rooms and halls, vacuum rooms, move furniture, make the
beds, launder soiled linens and provide guests with fresh linens and towels. Those who
work in hospitals clean the wards, rooms, laboratories and halls. After patients are
discharged, they must change the linen and disinfect the bed frame and mattresses. They
must use proper cleaning and disposal procedures for infection control.

Rotary Drillers

Rotary Drillers operate machinery (Gasoline, diesel, electric or steam) that drills oil,
natural gas or geothermal wells. They use powered hand tools like wrenches and tongs.
They examine core samples to determine the nature of the strata. Some drill underwater
wells on barge-mounted derricks or drilling platforms. They observe gauges and controls
to control cutting or boring equipment. They keep records, regulate outflow and may
repair or replace defective parts of machinery. They work under the supervision of the
tool pusher or drilling superintendent. Drillers also help dismantle and load equipment
when moving to new drilling sites.
Tasks include: Drillers may supervise driller helpers, roughnecks or floorhands.


Roustabouts patrol oil fields to spot failures, line leaks, oil spills, and potentially
dangerous situations. Roustabouts work with oil field operators. They may work for
companies that may have hundreds of oil wells.

Route Salespeople

Route Salespeople drive trucks or automobiles to sell and deliver products or services to
wholesale and retail customers. They deliver merchandise such as milk, bakery goods, or
candy; may take orders; keep records of sales and deliveries; and collect payment and
make change. They may stock shelves and cases and set up displays. They load their
delivery truck or car. Duties and routes may vary depending on the industry.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may also call on prospective customers and explain new products.
Safety Engineers

Safety Engineers identify, eliminate and control hazards. They develop and implement
safety programs to prevent unsafe working conditions. They perform inspections and test
safety equipment and recommend ways to prevent accidents and injury.


Sailmakers design custom sails and repair damaged sails. Panels are sewn together by a
sewing machine operator and other workers sew on detail, such as numbers or patches.
Some workers do handwork, such as rings, headboards and corners.

Sales Engineers

Sales Engineers sell chemical, mechanical, electro-mechanical, electric and electronic

equipment, supplies or services to business and industry. These products require a
technical background. They are involved primarily in marketing and sales. They have
direct customer contact with management, engineers, architects or other professional and
technical personnel. They write specifications for customer engineers and may advise
others about product design. They estimate costs, prepare quotations and proposals,
negotiate contracts and are responsible for their product through the installation and
warranty period. They provide technical services to clients and may train customer
employees. They usually specialize in the sale of one or more closely related group of
products or services.

Sales Representatives

Sales Representatives sell products, supplies, and equipment to businesses and industrial
establishments. They represent the manufacturer of products. Usually they travel to the
customers business, display and demonstrate merchandise, quote prices, and prepare
sales contracts. They solve product and delivery problems between customer and
manufacturer. They sometimes offer suggestions, which can help their customers,
improve business. They need to understand advertising and sometimes bargain for
promotional sales tied in with an advertising campaign. To complete the sale, they may
confer with engineers, accountants and lawyers. They attempt to help clients find
solutions to problems. They must know about their clients business to know which
products are best for them.
Sales and Service Managers

Sales and Service Managers direct the distribution of products and services to
customers in order to increase business.
Sales Managers direct the sales staff and coordinate the selling process by establishing
sales territories, quotas and goals.
Service Managers supervise workers in such fields as customer services, repair,
recordkeeping and stock control and often obtain information from customers concerning
the types of services desired.

Sanitary Engineers

Sanitary Engineers design projects and direct the construction and operation of water
treatment, sewage, garbage and trash disposal plants and other related hygienic
operations. They perform investigations. They prepare documentation. They prepare,
review, check and interpret sanitary engineering plans, estimated and specifications.
They interpret laws, rules, and regulations. They conduct studies of traffic patterns or
environmental conditions. They prepare and present reports.
Tasks include: in government they conduct investigations and studies to determine
compliance with health and engineering standards.

Santa Claus

Santa Claus are people who pretend to be Santa. They listen to children to determine
what they wish for as a Christmas gift. Children sit on Santas lap and tell him their
wishes. A photographer may take their pictures so they can remember the day. They tell
stories that have an appropriate moral message, such as sharing.
Tasks include: Santa Claus may distribute gifts at parties and other gatherings.

Santas Elves

Santas Elves help Santa Claus and Mrs. Claus greet children and their parents. They
tell them where to stand in line to see Santa Claus. They tell them when it is their turn to
talk to Santa. They may help put children on Santas lap. They may have their
photograph taken with the children and Santa.
Tasks include: They may help Santa distribute gifts at parties and other gatherings.
Saw Filers and Tool Sharpeners

Saw Filers and Tool Sharpeners sharpen, maintain and repair various types of
industrial, business and home saws, blades, and tools. They set up and select the right
equipment to use. They position the tool to be sharpened. Tools they sharpen include
saws, snips, cutlery scissors, knives, shears, trimmers, hatchets, drill bits, ice skates, lawn
mower blades, chisels and garden tools.
Tasks include: This work offers the opportunity to work at home.

School Counselors

School Counselors assist with the educational, vocational, emotional and social
development of students. They work with students individually, in the classroom, and in
small groups. They must work closely with parents, teachers, administrators and other
school personnel to develop efficient programs to meet student needs. They may
administer and interpret tests, assist teachers in developing personal growth units, and
maintain systematic records for the students they counsel.
Elementary School Counselors usually deal closely only with children who have been
identified by parents or teachers as having academic, emotional or social problems.
High School Counselors may be expected to know all of their students and assist them
in planning their academic programs.
College Counselors are expected to be available to students who request assistance and
may be required to approve each students program.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Many school counselors teach psychology or personal development classes.

School Nurses

School Nurses work with the school administration to implement health standards and
programs. They may also instruct health education classes.

School Psychologists

School Psychologists combine counseling of school children and working with child
welfare and attendance. They may work at both the elementary and secondary levels of
education. They may also be involved in school social work as well as psychology.
Science Technicians

Science Technicians conduct tests and analyze data for use in research and production.
In research, they assist scientists by constructing and maintaining experimental
equipment, and setting up and monitoring experiments. They also keep records, collect
and analyze test results and write reports that may include designing charts and graphs to
illustrate test results. In production, science technicians test and analyze the physical and
chemical characteristics of materials in the research, development and processing of
products such as food, metals and paper. They also clean and sterilize field and
laboratory equipment.
As Agricultural Technicians they work with Agricultural Scientists in food and fiber
research, production and processing, may conduct tests to improve crops, increase
resistance to disease and pests or work with animal breeding and nutrition.
As Biological Technicians they work with Biologists.
As Chemical Laboratory Technicians they work with Chemists and Chemical
Engineers, Medical Laboratory Assistants.
Forensics Technicians work in criminal investigations.
As Laboratory Testers they conduct routine and repetitive experiments on products and
materials to provide data about quality and specifications to manufacturers.

Scientific Programmers

Scientific Programmers design computer programs to solve mathematics, science or

engineering problems. They work with scientists, engineers, or systems analysts who
explain a problem and the procedures the computer should perform. Programmers then
write detailed instructions, which tell the computer to perform the needed calculations.
They continue to debug the programs and revise them until the programs work correctly
and are easy to use. Scientists or engineers compile their data, and then use these
programs. Programmers may draw flow charts or diagrams and must be able to
understand complex mathematical formulas. Scientific programs are most often written
in a variety of computer languages.

Screen Writers

Screen Writers write scripts for motion pictures and television. They may adapt books
or plays or use an original idea.
Secondary School Teachers

Secondary School Teachers develop and plan teaching materials and provide classroom
instruction to teenage students. They usually specialize in a particular subject area, but
may teach a variety of courses within their specialty. Secondary School Teachers keep
attendance records, administer tests, and evaluate students progress. In addition, they
participate in faculty and professional meetings, educational conferences and teacher
training workshops. They also often sponsor special activities or student organizations.


Secretaries perform a variety of clerical tasks, assuming certain administrative

responsibilities necessary to keep the office functioning smoothly. Duties include
scheduling appointments, screening telephone calls, welcoming visitors, filing, typing
and transcription.

Securities Clerks

Securities Clerks maintain and process files of stocks, bonds and similar assets for Stock
Brokers, Trust Administrators or other financial management customers. They accept
securities, prepare them for storage in vaults or transfer them as required. They also
monitor changes in the value or earnings of these assets, as well as stock splints,
dividends and bond calls and supply information about these changes. They may also
issue buy and sell orders of these securities on the instructions of the Trust Administrator.

Securities Salespeople

Securities Salespeople help people select and purchase stocks, bonds, securities, mutual
funds, tax shelters and insurance. They are actually salespeople or sales agents of a
broker. After completing training they may become registered representatives. They
analyze investments, furnish information about market conditions and distribute
information about securities to customers.
Security Guards

Security Guards protect property, like buildings, schools, factories and grounds from
loss or damage. They check for fire, robbery, intruders and other hazards. They patrol
and check windows, doors and lights. They punch a clock to record being there. In
emergencies they sound alarms or call the police or fire department. Those who work
during business hours may enforce company rules and check delivery vehicles and people
entering or leaving the premises. They may also observe and report offenses, detain
suspects and collect evidence.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may have to attend court hearings.

Security System Technicians

Security System Technicians install and maintain electronic security and environmental
control systems. These may be burglar alarms that signal the presence of intruders,
devices that warn of smoke or heat, or mechanical failure such as the breakdown of a
pump or cold storage freezer. They may combine environmental monitors with
computers in a ventilation, lighting and air-conditioning so as to minimize energy
Security System Service Engineers are Security System Technicians. They determine
the proper locations for sensors and controls; connect the devices and make tests to insure
that they are working properly. In the case of system failure, they must identify the cause
of the problem, make adjustments and repair or replace parts. They may order or produce
computer memory chips or entire boards specially programmed for the requirements of
the installation.

Seismologists work in the study of earthquakes and other ground vibrations from a
variety of natural and artificial sources, such as those generated by explosive and
mechanical sources.
Earthquake Seismologists study and interpret data from seismographs and measure
earth motion before, during and after quakes to find out where earthquakes occurred and
how big they were. All the geophysical data is sorted in a computerized program. They
attempt to locate earthquake faults and quakes. They may issue maps and technical
reports indicating areas of seismic risk and research and develop earthquake prediction
Engineering Seismologists help evaluate the sitting of critical facilities such as offshore
oil platforms, nuclear power plants, oil and gas pipelines, communication centers,
hospitals, highway bridges, and overpasses, dams and toxic waste disposal facilities.
They help plan construction of buildings and other engineering projects so they will not
be damaged by quakes.
Exploration Seismologists artificially generate waves, which are used to determine the
location of oil, natural gas or water. This specialty is the major source of jobs in the earth
sciences field. This application is also being used in the hazardous waste industry.
Tasks include: Seismologists may have to supervise a field crew. Seismology may also
be used to monitor underground nuclear explosions.

Semiconductor Processors

Semiconductor Processors use silicon wafers, chemicals, and machines to make and test
microchips for use in computers and other products. They process semiconductor
materials by loading them into a furnace for fusing and forming, by monitoring controls
of the growing chamber which produces crystals into rods. They then mold the rods into
cylinders, called ingots. They then saw or slice the ingots into wafers. Then, they etch
electronic circuits onto the wafers. They may repeat the etching and stripping process
many times to add more layers of circuits. Then, they make holes in each layer where
they direct metal, often aluminum, to connect circuits. The wafers are cut into small
rectangles known as chips. The electronic pathways in each chip are tested by using
probes. Chips are attached to frames and then they are sealed in plastic.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Semiconductor processors keep records and monitor equipment.
Growers heat the crystals that grow into rods.
Cutters slice the ingots.
Etchers use special photographic equipment and chemicals to etch electronic circuits
onto wafers.
Finishers attach the chips to frames and seal them in plastic.
Lappers tend lapping machines that remove saw marks and reduce wafer thickness or
polish the wafers.
Service Station Attendants

Service Station Attendants greet customers and provide services to trucks and autos.
Typical duties include operating gas pumps, checking oil, water, air pressure, fan belts,
oil filters and transmission and brake fluid levels.
Tasks include: Attendants also make minor auto repairs and adjustments, and my drive
tow trucks and make emergency repairs at breakdown sites.

Service Station Dealers

Service Station Dealers own and manage their own stations. Some lease and manage
stations owned by an oil company. Some dealers hire a manager to operate their station.

Set or Scenic Designers

Set or Scenic Designers translate dramatic ideas. They design sets and arrange for rental
of certain objects from nearby shops and galleries. They draw diagrams and prepare
models. They are in charge of set construction and work closely with stage hands and
properties persons who collect the props.

Sewing Machine Operators

Sewing Machine Operators use high-speed electric sewing machines in factories to

produce garments and other cloth articles such as drapery, lampshades, neckties and
carpets. Most Operators run regular sewing machines that seam pieces of cloth together.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some operators use specialized machines, such as the zigzag, chain stitch, basting,
ultrasonic seaming, embroidery sewing machines and many more. Others specialize in
heavy-duty sewing, such as on upholstery.

Sheet Metal Workers

Sheet Metal Workers fabricate, assemble, install and repair products or equipment made
of sheet metal, such as ducts for air-conditioning, heating and ventilating systems, siding,
metal roofing, gutters, kitchen equipment and parts of ships. They fabricate much of the
metal in shops. Following blueprints, they measure, cut, bend, shape and fasten pieces of
metal. At construction sites, they usually assemble and install the pieces made at the
shop. Shipbuilding Sheet Metal Workers perform the same tasks as other sheet metal
workers in other industries, although the pieces of metal used are often heavier and
larger. Some workers specialize in either shop of construction work; others do both.
Ships Crew Members

Ships Crew Members assist Ships Officers and Engineers and perform a variety of
manual tasks required for the operation and maintenance of commercial ships. On most
vessels, crews are divided into deck and engine departments. Deck crews clean and paint
ship surfaces, secure and remove docking lines, and stand watches. Engine crews oil,
clean and maintain the ships engines.

Ships Officers and Engineers

Ship Officers and Engineers work as a team and share responsibilities to insure the safe
and efficient operation of sailing vessels.
Deck Officers (mates) are responsible for safe navigation, handling of the ship and
planning and supervising cargo stowage. They supervise and coordinate ship crews,
inspect holds during loading, stand watches at certain times, and assume command in
case the shipmaster becomes incapacitated.
Engineering Officers are concerned with the mechanical operation of the ship, its
engine, and its many complex mechanical electrical systems. They supervise crews that
operate and repair engines, deck machinery, refrigeration and sanitary equipment aboard
ship. Engineers will need to know electronics and computers because more ships are
becoming automated.

Ships Pilots

Ships Pilots take command of ships to steer them into and out of ports. They are
concerned with the safe and efficient moving of ships. Their ports may be harbors,
estuaries, straits, sounds, on rivers, lakes and bays. Their occupation title depends on the
location of their port. They are familiar with local water depths, winds, tides, currents
and hazards, such as reefs and shoals. A pilot may work on many ships a day.
Boat Pilots work on passenger and other boats on lakes and rivers. They do safety
checks and inspections, refuel the boats, and clean dock areas.
Harbor Pilots steer ships into and out of harbors, estuaries, straits, and sounds, on rivers,
lakes and bays. They direct the course and speed of a ship. They must be able to
navigate local waterways. They must know local winds, weather, tides and current
bottom of waterway.
Tasks include: Pilots on river and canal vessels are usually part of the regular ships
crew. Harbor pilots are typically independent contractors.

Shipfitters build and repair ships such as submarines, container ships and oil tankers.
Shipfitters assemble plates and beams that form the ship. They direct construction of
parts at dockside and are responsible for the proper placement of them on the ship.
Shipfitters may also use heavy hand and power tools to form parts like the hull, deck
plates and bulkheads.

Shipping and Receiving Clerks

Shipping and Receiving Clerks keep records of incoming merchandise and prepare
outgoing merchandise for shipment.
Shipping Clerks pack, weigh, label and dispatch articles, insuring that shipments comply
with purchase orders. They determine shipment methods and may also direct loading of
items to be shipped.
Receiving Clerks keep records, may unpack items and route them to final destinations in
the plant or warehouse.
Tasks include: Small organizations often employ persons under the combined title of
Shipping and Receiving Clerks. Both may be required to enter data on goods shipped
and received into computer terminals.


Shipwrights use carpentry skills to fabricate, install, or repair ships. They also build
supports for ships in dry-dock. They also assist Shipfitters in moving and placing heavy
beams and other parts on the ship. They work with Riggers.
Riggers install and repair hoists and other equipment used to move heavy loads aboard a
ship. Other workers weld or rivet the sections together.

Shoe Repairers

Shoe Repairers use a variety of machines and hand tools to rebuild, resole or repair used
shoes or boots. They also repair other items made of leather, canvas, rubber or plastic,
like luggage, purses or belts. They use machines like stitchers, finishers, patching
machines, and cutters. Hand tools are used to cement, cut or nail materials.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Shoe repairers may specialize, some in general shoe repair, some in orthopedic
correction. Still others may repair saddles and western wear.
Shop Iron Workers

Shop Iron Workers prefabricate iron and steel parts for buildings and bridges. They
produce such heavy items as steel beams and girders that form the skeletons of
skyscrapers and bridges and lighter items such as fire escapes, catwalks and stairways,
grills and gates; industrial steel doors, metal windows, conveyors and decorative iron
pieces. Working from blueprints, they compute measurements of all parts to scale and lay
out the work by marking the metal to show the location of cuts, bends and holes. They
cut the metal, do any necessary bending and shaping and perform any drilling, chipping,
grinding, or polishing required. They use tools such as drafting tools, chisels, hammers,
bevels, drills and presses, torches, tongs and hoists. In large shops they concentrate on
one phase of the work. In small shops, workers often perform all operations.

Short Order Cooks

Short Order Cooks prepare simple, fast foods and snacks such as hamburgers, French
fried potatoes, eggs, bacon, hotcakes, waffles, and chicken to be served in restaurants,
cafes, coffee shops, lunch counters and fast food establishments. Although some work
alone, many help Chefs and Dinner Cooks prepare foods.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Other duties include cleaning equipment and workstations, helping to order and
store supplies, and keeping simple kitchen records. Their jobs differ with the type of
restaurant and menu.

Shorthand Reporters

Shorthand Reporters record and preserve official legal testimony using manual or
machine shorthand. Almost all shorthand reporters use machine shorthand. They record
proceedings from court trials, legislative hearings, business conferences, arbitrations and
depositions. Depositions are often done by freelance reporters. Other duties include
reading portions of testimony during trials, preparing official transcripts of court
proceedings, and making identification marks on material.
Sign Language Interpreters

Sign Language Interpreters use their fingers, hands and facial expressions to translate
(transliterate) the spoken language of hearing people into manual sign language for the
deaf or hard-of-hearing or interpret manual sign language (American Sign Language) into
spoken or written language. They try to interpret the exact message. They may work in
teams on long and complex sessions.
Oral Interpreters and Translators are able to repeat the message and intent of the
speech and mouth movements of a person who is deaf or hard of hearing.
Platform Interpreters perform sign language interpretation on stage. Some are part of a
staged production as Actors.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some interpreters work in health care services with patients. Some translate
television news and other broadcasts. Some accompany a hearing-impaired person to
classes, laboratory sessions, examinations and extracurricular activities. In education
they may interpret classroom instruction.


Singers use their voice to interpret music. They sing solo or with other members of a
group and may be accompanied by music. Depending on the quality of their voice, they
may be a soprano, mezzo-soprano, contralto, tenor, baritone or bass. They usually
specialize in one type of music such as opera, popular, jazz, folk, rock country and
western, gospel, choral or oratorio. They may make recordings or do live
performances. Singers usually memorize a score, but sometimes use printed sheet music.

Ski Lift Operators

Ski Lift Operators operate gasoline, diesel, or electrical ski lifts. They check passes and
pull levers to start and stop the machinery, assist passengers on and off the lifts. They
inspect the records and report the condition of all lift machinery. They maintain proper
and safe levels of snow throughout the entire lift station area. Their job is just one or
many that ensure the successful operation of a ski area.

Ski Repairers

Ski Repairers repair defects in skis that have been damaged.

Tasks include: They often work in production of new skis. They may also repair and
refinish used-damaged skis in service shops.
Small Business Owners

Small Business Owners operate and manage their own small firms that manufacture
products and sell goods and services to their customers. They must direct production,
marketing and distribution of products, manage finances, supervise employees, purchase
materials and supplies. They may oversee all activity of the business or may be involved
in only one aspect.

Small Engine Repairers

Small Engine Repairers service and repair small gasoline powered internal combustion
engines used in such products as motor boats, motorcycles, chain saws and power lawn
mowers or that drive electric generators, compressors and similar devices. They
disassemble engines and adjust or replace parts and reassemble and test them. They also
adjust and repair clutches and power train linkages and other moving parts.

Snow Ski Instructors

Snow Ski Instructors instruct and demonstrate skiing techniques to individuals or

groups. They watch their students ski and determine how to improve their performance.
Instruction can be at any level from beginning to expert. Most of the work involves
instructing, evaluating and advising beginners. An important part of the instructors job
is lecturing on safety measures and the proper use of equipment. There are now snow
boarding instructors as well, teaching those who want to learn techniques on a

Snowplow Operators

Snowplow Operators remove snow from public roads, highways, and private property.
They look for and identify markers lining snow-covered roads and abandoned snow
covered vehicles. They work with a variety of special heavy equipment depending on the
season and their work location.
Social Directors

Social Directors plan, organize, coordinate and supervise social development activities,
such as lectures, entertainment, concerts, dances, dramatic and musical presentations,
contests, games, card parties, tournaments and field trips for vacationing guests at resorts
and hotels. They help create a friendly atmosphere. They greet visitors and guests,
answer their questions about social and recreational activities, interview them to
determine their attitude and needs encourage them to participate in activities, and
introduce them to others. They develop social and cultural programs, select performers
and negotiate with agents for entertainment, and draw up schedules. They also arrange
for various kinds of equipment to be set up.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may arrange for transportation to and from activities. They may supervise or
direct the activities of other staff. They may help resolve guests complaints.

Social Program Planners

Social Program Planners analyze community needs and design programs to alleviate
social problems. They design and conduct research projects, analyze data and write
reports. They may be responsible for developing new projects or evaluating the success
of completed projects in the fields of manpower, education, housing, health or other
public works. They monitor and review programs for compliance with government
regulations. They also coordinate programs and activities of government agencies and
other organizations.

Social Scientists

Social Scientists study the development and characteristics of human society and may
specialize in a particular discipline, such as Anthropology, Political Science, Geography,
History or Sociology. The studies and analyses of Social Scientists assist educators,
government officials, business leaders and planners in understanding the dynamics of
individual and group behavior. Social Scientists are mainly involved in research and use
various methods to collect data.
Social Service Aides

Social Service Aides assist people in obtaining social services. They provide much of
the legwork necessary in implementing social service programs. Aides are typically
entry-level workers who work under the direction of professional staff. They may serve
as contacts between the agency and people in the community who need services, explain
available services, fill out forms, provide transportation for clients, arrange appointments,
answer questions, and help run day care centers.

Social Workers

Social Workers provide numerous services to help individuals and groups solve or cope
with their social problems. They interview clients to identify problems and provide
counseling and/or psychotherapy. They may refer clients to other professional or
community resources. Social Workers specialize in such fields as child welfare, family
services, adoptions, public assistance, group, medical, clinical, psychiatric, or
correctional counseling, parole and probation casework, and aging. Some are involved in
social planning research, consumer affairs and industry-based counseling programs.


Sociologists study the behavior of humans in groupsfamilies, communities, industrial

organizations and institutions such as schools, hospitals and social service agencies.
They are concerned with social phenomena, such as social stratification, deviant
behavior, effects of mass media, urban organization, educational systems, and mental
health and may specialize in a number of areas, such as organizational behavior, social
change, criminology, demography, statistics, research methodology, small groups, the
family, race relations, gerontology, urban sociology, medical sociology, sex roles and
society, rural sociology or social theory.
Tasks include: Demographers use population statistics to study births, deaths, diseases
and population in geographic areas.
Teaching Sociologists provide instruction on a variety of sociology areas in college and
universities. They must have a graduate degree to teach. Some do research.
Rural Sociologists specialize in the study of rural groups.
Medical Sociologists specialize in the study of the health care industry. They may work
in hospitals.
Software Engineers

Software Engineers research, design, develop, and implement computer software

systems. They design applications that interface between software and hardware and
with hardware product development to design applications. They define problems and
concepts, analyzing software requirements. They determine the feasibility of a design.
The designer details the problem in a structured design such as flow charts and block
diagrams and prepares documentation. They code instructions to the computer. They
work as a member of a project group and collaborate and consult with product
developers, hardware engineers, and marketing staff. They recommend changes or
enhancements to the system.
Tasks also include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of
the job. Software Engineers:
*use scientific analysis and mathematical models to predict and measure outcome
*develop and direct software system testing
*perform tests on the target computer or on special simulators
*correct errors or debug the software
*prepare users instruction an documentation
*may consult with customer
*may coordinate installation of software system

Soil Engineers

Soil Engineers study and analyze surface and subsurface soils to determine
characteristics for construction, development or land planning. They inspect proposed
construction sites. They determine the type, characteristics, classification and stability of
the soil by conducting tests. They set up drilling machinery to obtain data and soil and
rock samples. They use test equipment in the field and laboratory to analyze the samples.
Tasks include: preparing maps, charts and reports of test results, making
recommendations about foundation design, building heights and other factors,
participating in environmental studies and preparing environmental impact reports.

Soil Scientists

Soil Scientists deal with natural resources and ways to protect, develop and manage
them. They study the characteristics and behavior of soils and classify them according to
response to various treatments and ability to produce vegetation. Researchers often work
with scientists in other disciplines such as biochemistry, microbiology and others.
Solar Engineers

Solar Engineers design and produce solar energy systems and materials. They may
specialize in water, air or passive systems.
Tasks include: They may design a system to meet a clients needs, work with special
materials or coatings for solar heat collectors or design switching, sun sensor, and storage

Solar System Installers

Solar System Installers install, maintain and repair solar hot water systems, pool and spa
heating systems, space heating and air conditioning systems. They use a variety of
construction, plumbing, sheet metal and electrical skills. They mount pre-assembled
solar panels on roofs; install storage tanks, pumps, valves and piping. They may also set
up and adjust the electrical controls, which are a part of many solar systems. Much of the
work in retrofitting existing structures to solar heating systems.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be regular part of the
job. They may also perform routine maintenance.

Sound Engineers

Sound Engineers operate consoles and other equipment to control, replay and mix sound
from various sources in live concert performances and in the production of records, tapes,
and films. Sound crews also install and hookup equipment. The sound mixer supervises
the sound crew. The sound crew may also have a number of assistants.
Tasks include: Workers may also work as Utility Sound Operators, Sound Cable
Workers, Maintenance Design Sound Engineers, and Microphone Operators.
Special Education Teachers

Special Education Teachers work with physically and mentally handicapped students to
teach basic academic and living skills. They try to meet the individual needs of students
and maximize their potential. They adapt elementary and secondary school and college
techniques and methods of instruction. They work in schools, community colleges and
colleges, hospitals correctional facilities, and students homes. They plan curricula,
prepare instructional materials, and devise special teaching tools, techniques and
equipment. Students may have one or more types of disability. Very handicapped
students may spend part of all of their time in a resource room with other similarly
handicapped students. Less disabled students may be mainstreamed, or integrated into
the regular classroom and assisted as often as necessary by an itinerant special education
teacher. Special Education Teachers work closely with the other teachers of these
students, providing materials, educating them in the special needs of the students, and
helping them cope with problems as they arise. They also work closely with parents and
prepare reports on the progress (assessments) of their students.

Special Effects Specialists

Special Effects Specialists work to produce special effects for television, motion pictures
and theatrical productions. Some operate a camera and film, some use projectors, some
process film to create effects and some make, install, set up, activate, and operate the
equipment and machinery used to produce special effects. Special effects could include
making rain, snow, explosions, mechanical effects, and electrical or electronic effects.

Speech Pathologists/Audiologists

Speech Pathologists and Audiologists help people, both adults and children, with
speech, language, or hearing problems by determining existence of a disorder and then
providing treatment. Duties vary with education, experience and employment setting.
They may conduct programs to improve communication skills, provide counseling, teach,
or direct research.
Speech Pathologists may specialize in diagnosis and treatment of speech and language
Audiologists specialize in diagnostic evaluation of hearing, prevention and habilitative
and rehabilitative services for auditory problems.
Sports General Managers

Sports General Managers are responsible for personnel staffing, labor negotiations,
finance, concession bidding, team travel, promoting events, and security at events. They
work closely with team directors, coaches, the business manager and owners.
Tasks include: They may supervise other staff members.

Sports Medicine Specialists

Sports Medicine Specialists are professionals concerned with the effects of exercise on
the human body and the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of athletic injuries. They
apply much of what they have learned about the care and rehabilitation of the younger
athlete to individuals in the older age range and the athletic or not so athletic, which are
seeking improved quality of life through muscle training, regular exercise and overall
training and fitness programs. The target audience is rapidly expanding as people
continue to be active into their later years. In the area of treatment, fiber optics has
revolutionized surgical techniques in the repair of the knee (an area often injured in many
sports) by use of an arthroscope. The specialist may recommend protective gear,
supervise trainers, develop training or rehabilitation programs, and advise coaching
Tasks include: The sports medicine umbrella, which covers scientific and clinical
aspects of the field, is growing. It encompasses exercise physiology, sports psychology,
and sports nutrition (Scientific specialties). Athletic medicine, athletic training and
cardiac rehabilitation are clinical aspects of this field. The recent advent of Board
Certification of Added Qualification in Sports Medicine recognizes this field as a true
specialty. It no longer falls only in the category of specialization for physicians.

Sports Officials

Sports Officials serve at municipal sports events and professional sports events. They
set up and take down equipment, monitor games, keep scores, handle a cash register,
keep records of games, and may do minor maintenance. They may train other sports


Sportscasters give a play-by-play reporting of sports events, attend press conferences

and interview players.
Stage Hands

Stage Hands construct and arrange the props, sets, and lights for theater, movie or TV
Grips construct the sets and move them during a performance. They may also rig lights
and hook up cameras.
Gaffers (Stage Hands) or Light Technicians arrange for electrical wiring and control the
lights during a performance. They work closely with the Director of photography. See
the occupational description.
Prop Makers procure, construct and position all of the movable props or special effects
devices. For small productions these functions may be handled by one person or by the

Stationary Engineers

Stationary Engineers operate and maintain power, heating, air-conditioning,

refrigeration, solar energy equipment and other machinery in factories and other large
buildings. They tend boilers, steam engines, compressors, generators and pumps. Their
duties include checking meters and gauges to insure that machines are operating properly
and recording pressures, temperatures and fuel consumption.

Statistical Clerks

Statistical Clerks compile data and compute statistics for use in statistical studies using
prescribed procedures and formulas. They may also have to verify the authenticity of the
source material.


Statisticians analyze data referring to groups of individuals or events in order to describe

or draw conclusions about these groups.
Mathematical and Theoretical Statisticians design or refine theories and methods for
analyzing data.
Applied Statisticians adopt these statistical methods to solve problems in various fields
such as the social sciences, health sciences, economics, management, insurance,
engineering and urban and city planning.
Stator Rewinders

Stator Rewinders assemble electric motors and generator stators. A stator is a stationary
part in a machine in or about which a rotor revolves. Stator rewinders select the correct
diameter of wire to wind on precision chucks to product coils. They wind coils that are
inserted into the insulated slots. They align laminations. They cut, strip and bend wire
leads to make connections and solder. They test windings, grounds, and circuits and
other equipment, software or procedures. They rewind defective parts. They inspect and
diagnose equipment or materials to check for problems. They evaluate the quality of the
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
*They install equipment to meet specifications

Steeple Jacks

Steeple Jacks maintain, construct, restore, rebuild and demolish elevated structures, such
as smokestacks, water tanks, steeples, domes, tall buildings and flagpoles. They may also
service stadium light standards, high-rise sign poles, radio towers, clock towers and bell
towers. Duties include rigging a boatswains chair and stirrups with ropes and pulleys
attached to the structure, climbing to the necessary height, constructing and climbing
scaffolding tower around the structure, and then maintaining or repairing the structure.
They may install lighting protective devices; fill fractures with mortar, sandblast, repair
roofs, paint and lay bricks.
Tasks include: Sometimes the task may be only replacing light bulbs. They may also
demolish or dismantle the structure section by section. Sometimes they perform routine
preventive maintenance. Some specialize in working on a specific project. They may
weld fabricated steel for a structure.


Stenographers record dictation in shorthand or on a stenotype machine. They then

transcribe letters and reports on a typewriter or word processor. They also perform
routine office tasks. Some take dictation in technical terms or in foreign languages and
work in settings such as conventions and conferences or word processing centers. Some
type directly from a dictating machine. Some specialize in the medical, law or
engineering field.
Stock Clerks

Stock Clerks store goods or parts, maintain supplies, and keep track of stock. They
unpack and check shipments for amount and inspect them for damage, mark items with
prices and codes, store materials on shelves or in bins, and keep records of articles
received or shipped. They count, sort and weigh goods. They fill orders and deliver
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They pack, label and address goods for shipment.


Stockbrokers handle transactions for their investors. They sponsor and train Sales
Agents. Stockbrokers may be discount Brokers (banks, for example) who only handle
transactions for their customers or full-service Brokers who also offer advice and
investment counseling.

Store Salespeople

Store Salespeople sell merchandise in retail and wholesale stores. They usually work on
a sales floor or over the counter and provide customers with general information and
assistance with products. After determining the type and quality of merchandise desired,
they show various items, pointing out design, quality, and usefulness. They prepare sales
slips or contracts, receive payment, or obtain credit authorizations.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. In small stores salespeople may also order, price, display and inventory
merchandise. They may also be required to keep the shop clean.

Structural Iron Workers

Structural Iron Workers are specialized field workers who follow blueprints to
assemble and erect the steel framework of skyscrapers, bridges, tunnels, storage tanks
and other metal structures. Working as a member of a crew, the journey worker performs
many of the tasks involved in raising, placing and joining together steel girders and
columns to form a structural framework. Workers in other specialties of this occupation
set and tie steel bars in concrete forms to reinforce concrete structures, install metal
stairways, catwalks, floor gratings, metal doors and window frames and similar
structures. The apprentice Structural Iron Worker starts as a ground worker carrying
materials to the journey worker and gradually learns all phases of the trade, including
bolting, rigging, welding and blueprint reading.
Stunt Performers

Stunt Performers perform difficult stunts, such as overturning speeding automobiles or

falling from a racing horse, and participating in fight action scenes for motion picture,
television or stage productions. They may also work with motorcycles, do high falls, do
air and water work; perform acrobats, gymnastics, and martial arts. They must be
versatile. They must be safety conscious and decide if a stunt can be performed safely.
They may also do ND stunts (non-descript). Stunt performers may also be rock climbers,
high divers, gymnasts, circus performers and pyrotechnic performers.
Tasks include: They examine terrain and inspect equipment such as harness, rigging
bars, or nets to avoid injury. They coordinate body movement and facial expression to
simulate giving and receiving violent blows. They read scripts and may confer with the
motion picture Director and or Director of photography to ascertain positions of cameras
and other performers. May design and build or repair own safety equipment. They
often have to apply makeup to resemble an actor when performing part of a special role.

Surgical Technicians

Surgical Technicians assist members of the operating room surgical teams before,
during and after surgery. They work under the direct supervision of a surgical team
supervisor, a registered nurse. They assist in getting the operating room set up with
equipment, instruments, sterile linen, intravenous fluid preparations that might be needed.
They transport patients to the operating room and help prepare them for surgery. During
surgery, they pass instruments, sponges and other sterile items to members of the surgical
team and continually maintain the supply of these items. They must be able to operate
sterilizers, suction devices, lights and other pieces of equipment, help collect and handle
specimens collected during the operation and help apply dressings. After, Operating
Room Technicians transport patients to the recovery room and assist in cleaning,
sterilizing and restocking the operating room for the next surgery.

Survey Interviewers

Survey Interviewers conduct market research surveys and polls. They talk to people to
get information, preferences and opinions that are needed to complete survey forms,
questionnaires or records. They ask specific questions of people, record their answers and
help people fill out forms. They may use computers to record and store questionnaire
answers. They may talk to people in person at shopping malls, stores, or door-to-door or
by phone from phone banks. They may also contact people by mail. They report the
results to management.
Tasks include: Some also sort, classify, and file completed forms.
Survey and Mapping Technicians

Survey and Mapping Technicians assist surveyors and mapping scientists in measuring
distances, angles, points, contours and elevations on land. These measurements are used
in construction, mapmaking, boundary location, and mining. They calculate information
from field notes. They draw maps of geographical areas using surveying notes, aerial
photography or other maps. They work to show natural and constructed features and
political boundaries.
Chain Workers measure distances between surveying points with a surveyors chain and
electronic distance measuring devices (EDM).
Rod Workers use a leveling rod to assist in determining elevations.
Light Keepers adjust light or electric signal equipment to determine angles and
Tasks include: They may draw topographical maps.

Surveyors and Mapping Scientists

Surveyors and Mapping Scientists measure the earths surface to determine the shape,
contour, location and dimension of land and land features. Information is used for making
maps and charts, establishing boundaries and areas of construction and real estate sites,
planning and subdivision of lands, and determining public land boundaries. They work
with a crew, which consists of helpers and instrument assistants.
Tasks include: They may specialize in land, geodetic control, engineering or marine

Systems Analysts

Systems Analysts plan and coordinate activities to develop systems, which process data
to solve business, scientific or engineering problems. Analysts in a business environment
are usually part of a team charged with developing computer solutions to meet business
problems. They proceed through a set of application development steps: feasibility,
requirements definition with managers and other system users, external design (Users
view of the system), and internal design (data processors view of the system). They may
also consult with hardware specialists. They prepare documentation of systems, which
they have designed, flow charts, and sets of specifications for programmers.
Tasks include: In some cases they may do actual programming or they may direct the
activities of a staff of programmers.
Systems Programmers

Systems Programmers maintain the computer system of an organization by making new

equipment work, training people to use the system and solving problems when they
occur. Much of the time they program in assembly language by writing the specific step-
by-step instructions which enable the computer to perform the desired operations and also
for fixing small problems which prevent the system from working smoothly. They must
know every detail of the operating system of each computer and be able to teach others to
use it. When new equipment is added to the system they must often modify the programs
supplied by the manufacturer to make the new equipment work well within the system.
When new equipment is needed, they are often responsible for selecting it. In most
installations, systems programmers spend most of their time doing maintenance work, but
system programmers who work for computer manufacturers (and have many years of
experience) may be asked to design new operating systems or new languages for
computers, which are under development.
Maintenance Programmers: In some organizations all maintenance programmers are
called systems programmers.
Applications Programmers: In many small organizations, this work may be done by
applications programmers. In small organizations the positions of programmer and
systems analyst are combined into one.

Tailors and Garment Fitters

Tailors and Garment Fitters construct, alter, restyle or repair garments. When making
an entire garment, typical tasks include measuring the customer, advising on fabric and
style, cutting the fabric, preparing tailored details such as rolled lapels or slot pockets,
sewing the garment sections together, pressing and final fitting and adjustments.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some tailors and garment fitters do only alterations or repairs, such as letting out or
taking in waistlines, adjusting hems, resewing seams and replacing buttons.
Talent Managers

Talent Managers have sports personalities, celebrities, entertainers performers, models,

technical and professional talent, voice talent, singers, actors, directors and writers as
clients. They help build the careers of their clients. They help promote and create good
will for their clients. They may arrange auditions or screen tests for their clients. They
may work with agents, publicists and lawyers of their clients.
Art Managers book artists, designers, illustrators, photographers, writers and
craftspeople in jobs with businesses. They interview their client, contact potential
employers and practice their presentation with their client. They are usually self-
employed. Contacts are essential in this field as is knowledge of the arts. Outlook is
good as more employers are hiring people with arts experience to organize special events,
manage ticket sales, write proposals and do fundraising.
Internet Talent Managers represent those who work for companies who need talented
technical IS (Information Systems) people. The talent managers find the best talent
available for their employers or agencies. They advise the company about their web site.
Through a companys website, they advertise for talented people. They post current job
openings and accept resumes.
Talent Agency Assistants perform some administrative duties. They make telephone
calls and answer the telephone.
Tasks include: Talent Managers read scripts for their clients. They set up meetings with
sponsors. They may attend talent search and casting calls. They interview performers.
They attend industry parties and work the room. They keep records of personalities,
performances and availability of their clients. They may specialize in promoting adults
or children.

Tape Librarians

Tape Librarians are in charge of the storage of a companys magnetic tape inventory.
They must keep them clean and organized for easy access. They keep records of the
location of all tapes and check them out to users.
Tax Examiners

Tax Examiners determine the tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business
firms according to prescribed laws and regulations. They examine and analyze
accounting records, tax assets and liabilities to resolve delinquent tax problems. They
investigate legal instruments, documents, transactions, methods and practices. They
verify or amend tax liabilities. They meet and talk with the taxpayer or representative to
explain issues and about the application of tax laws and regulations. They select a
remedy that may include a partial-payment agreement, an offer of compromise or seizure
and sale of property.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They get the taxpayers agreement to pay or contest an assessment. They may direct
service of subpoenas, warrants, notices of assessment and garnishments. They may
appear at informal appeals hearings. They may recommend criminal prosecutions and
civil penalties. They research microfilm records. They process taxpayer inquiries and

Tax Preparers

Tax Preparers assist with or prepare tax returns for others. They are self-employed
persons, work for corporations, are in partnerships, associations or another entity. They
collect the necessary information, interview their client, complete tax forms and compute
tax. They may complete the forms manually or use a computer to fill out the forms.
They keep records of returns. They sign the tax returns and must be available for
consultation with the Internal Revenue Service. If they are designated by the IRS they
may represent taxpayers before the IRS and the State Franchise Tax Board.
Taxpayer Service Representatives for the IRS answer questions and assist individuals
with their federal tax returns.

Taxi Drivers

Taxi Drivers operate motor vehicles to transport passengers. They may transport one to
four passengers at a time. They help passengers in and out of the cab and may handle
luggage. They must also keep accurate records.


Taxidermists preserve animal and bird specimens and mount them into a lifelike
Teacher Aides

Teacher Aides provide classroom and clerical assistance to elementary and secondary
teachers. Duties may include typing and record keeping. They may call roll, prepare
attendance records, grade homework and record scores. They may supervise study halls,
cafeterias, hallways and playgrounds.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Others assist in libraries and operate audio-visual equipment. They may handle
students behavior problems and help in directing students learning activities. They may
plan, prepare and develop teaching aids and distribute teaching materials.

Team Leaders

Team Leaders coordinate and manage the activities of a functional work team. Their
work includes influencing the daily operational activities and monitoring their teams
performance. They are the teams direct supervisor. Team Leader skills are needed in a
variety of industries. They may design strategies for work completion. They may design
plans and due dates for getting the work done. They check schedules to see if the work is
up to date. They communicate with interdepartmental workers and interact with top
Tasks also include: They may work in packaging of a product. They may work in
quality control and testing of products. They may work in marketing and sales. They
may track sales. They may also be involved in customer service where they have direct
contact with customers. Examples of how team leaders function in industries are: They
may work with Information Systems (IS) teams in maintenance programming, on a
software support team, or with the development of programming languages and
applications. Team Leaders may manage a group of software or hardware developers. In
transportation they may work in trucking, parcel delivery, leasing, service, retail
distribution, in logistics and manufacturing. In Quality Control they design a testing plan
and methodology.

Technical Illustrators

Technical Illustrators layout and draw charts, graphs, and figures and mechanical,
structural and electrical parts and assemblies for reference works, textbooks, technical
manuals and handbooks and brochures. These illustrations may also be used in charts,
posters, transparencies and slides. Technical illustrators use the tools and techniques of
both the drafter and the graphic designer.
Technical Writers and Editors

Technical Writers and Editors put scientific and technical information into languages
that can be understood by people who need to use it. They gather data about the subject
matter through observation of the production process, interviews of production and
engineering staff, trade journals and other such publications. They collect and help create
diagrams, charts, illustrations and other artwork to explain the text. They also work with
photographers, artists and printers to produce the final publication. May travel to obtain
information or supervise photography at a job site. They organize materials obtained,
write and edit the technical publication in such a way that it can easily be understood
especially by the people who service, maintain or operate various types of equipment.

Telecommunications Analysts

Telecommunications Analysts determine and analyze needs for long distance

communication and design and implement effective systems for voice, video, electronic
mail and data transmissions. Some develop mathematical models of communication
configurations and use computerized techniques to identify the most efficient systems.
They may also develop and test computer software used in operating telecommunication
systems. If they work for the operator of a telecommunication system, they may evaluate
and modify systems developed by vendors and then install and maintain these systems.

Telecommunications Engineers

Telecommunications Engineers are responsible for the design, installation, maintenance

and operation of telecommunication systems. Telecommunication systems may be
telephone, television, teletype, data, mobile or microwave radio systems.

Telecommunications Programmer Analysts

Telecommunications Programmer Analysts evaluate the need for data communications

software, select hardware, and modify vendor software to make the hardware fit into the
system, maintain existing software and advise applications programmers.
Telecommunications Services Sales Representatives

Telecommunications Services Sales Representatives work on outside sales of services

and products. They work to increase the revenue of their employer by increasing sales.
They explain to potential customers the features of the service, quote the cost, and
advantages. They write orders and sometimes take payments.
Telephone Services Salespeople market telephone services and yellow page advertising
to businesses. They review services and analyze customer needs. They may specialize in
selling these services to businesses in a particular industry.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may not be a regular part of the job.
They may also resolve complaints. They may specialize and sell to a specific type of

Telecommunications Technicians

Telecommunications Technicians install, checkout, troubleshoot and operate

telecommunications equipment such as vhf and uhf radio equipment, mobile radio units,
relay stations, microwave systems, satellite systems, telephone switchboards, closed
circuit television systems, power supplies, coaxial cable, fiber optics, antennas an
electronic missile control systems.

Telecommuters perform tasks while in the home work place. They are employees.
Telecommuters may also work at a nearby work center designed for telecommuting and
shared by more than one employer. They may also work at odd hours of the day of night.
They are not usually expected to work a strict business day. They are evaluated on the
basis of work accomplished. They may be working on behalf of an employer or working
by contract for employers. The job duties are numerous and vary according to
occupation. Workers use a wide variety of equipment including answering machines
telephones, conference calls, cellular phones, pocket pagers, computers, modems, fax
machines, emails, the Internet and mailing machines to perform their duties. They may
use a variety of computer software including operating software, simple calculation
programs, e-mail systems, and complex graphics packages. Work completed by these
workers may be electronically transmitted from the home work place to the
administration office of an employer. This work offers the opportunity for workers who
telecommute to have uninterrupted time to plan, research or design projects and to reduce
commuting time and dealing with rush hour traffic. For employers, the high cost of
office space may be reduced. It may also be easier to recruit and retain workers.
Information Workers: The most common home place worker is information workers.
They collect, analyze, manipulate, and disseminate information. They receive and
dispatch information over telephone lines, cable TV lines and, increasingly, by satellites
or other wireless networks.
Tasks include: This is a list of typical tasks that can be performed by telecommuters.
Go to an occupational description for more information:

Accounts receivables and billing Arts

Clerical tasks Computer Programming
Computer software design & development Copywriting
Data entry & Data Processing Designs, product & graphics
Desktop Publishing Field Repair(machines/equip)
Illustrating & Photography Information Provider
Product Assembly Project Design
Proof Reading Reading & Editing
Research Sales
Telephone Interviewing Transcribing
Translating Foreign Languages Typesetting
Word Processing Typing

Telemarketers sell products by contacting customers by telephone. They use a prepared

sales talk to try to persuade the customer to buy. They quote prices. They take orders
from callers. They try to get people to purchase merchandise, products or services.
Some request donations, sell special events tickets, or sell memberships in associations.
When they are successful they take orders. They compile lists of possible customers
using city and telephone directories and computer-generated contacts. They may also get
leads from their employers and fellow workers. Some may specialize in selling a certain
product or service. A few of the wide variety of products are household goods,
magazines, insurance, financing and tickets. A few of the wide variety of services are
carpet cleaning, lawn care, and chimney cleaning services. Note: The term
Telemarketers is often used to describe Telemarketing Sales Representatives which
is a different occupation. They usually have broader responsibilities such as marketing.
They make a large volume of calls to prospects. They may deal with clients in a specific
area, a certain client or with a few major clients. They usually have customer service
experience. They also follow up on leads provided by telemarketers or telephone
solicitors. They earn higher pay. Telemarketing Sales Representatives may work for
corporations. Some positions may require previous training in marketing and
communications or extensive product knowledge and experience. Some companies
provide continuing education seminars or workshops for their experienced
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
*Setting appointments with potential customers for other Sales Representatives or
Agents who follow up.
*Preparing a sales script describing advantages of a product or service
*Responsibility for keeping records of contacts and results of calls
*Developing lists of prospective customers
*Operating a computer terminal to make calls, respond to incoming calls and for
*Arranging for payment and delivery
*Completing paperwork at home

Telephone Installers-Repairers

Telephone Installers-Repairers install, service, and repair telephones, switchboard

systems and other communications equipment. Typically duties include installing,
relocating and removing telephones and PBX systems in homes and offices, connecting
the equipment to outside service wires on buildings or poles and fixing any equipment
Telephone Operators

Telephone Operators use switchboards or keyless consoles to assist persons in

completing telephone calls. Some work in the central offices of telephone companies,
where their main duty is that of assisting customers in special situations such as complete
person-to-person calls (Toll Assistance Operators) or providing directory assistance
(Directory Assistance Operators). Others work at private branch exchanges (PBX
Operators) in business and public agencies. They not only connect and transfer calls;
they may also give out information and take messages.

Test Engineers

Test Engineers conduct tests at the production level on aircraft, automotive equipment,
industrial machinery and equipment, controls, systems and products. They design,
develop and construct test procedures and tools, direct and control the phases of testing
operations and analyze and interpret test data. They work with engineering, quality
control and technical personnel to make testing and test-control equipment. They install
and calibrate testing instruments, equipment and control devices and evaluate the test
equipment. They decide under which conditions tests will be conducted. They confer
with scientific engineering and technical personnel to resolve testing problems. They
may also refine existing test procedures. They make recommendations for improvement
of a product. They prepare technical reports.
Aeronautical Test Engineers test aerospace and aircraft products. Aerospace engineers
also test models to study and evaluate operations.
Agricultural Equipment Test Engineers test agricultural machinery and equipment.
They research theories, simulate and test the findings, develop alternatives and new
applications. Some test specialized farm equipment, such as tractors and mechanical
pickers, while others plan and develop entire processing plants.
Ceramics Test Engineers conduct tests on ceramic products. They may test raw
materials. Some ceramic engineers are engaged directly in processing activities such as
testing raw materials, monitoring, firing and inspecting finished products.
Chemical Test Engineers test chemicals fuels, and chemical processes.
Computer Test Engineers specialize in the testing of computers, computer systems and
their components. They develop test programs and analyze the data and reports.
Electrical Test Engineers conduct tests on electrical equipment and systems.
Electronics-Test Engineers conduct tests on electronic components, products and
systems. They apply knowledge and principles of electronic theory.
Environmental Test Engineers test equipment and conduct field or laboratory tests to
analyze air, soil and water samples.
Human Factors Test Engineers develop and test software processes and designs for
machines that reduce the possibility of error and improve their safety and the ease and
efficiency of their use. They may develop documentation and develop and test manuals
and training materials for users of the products they design.
Marine Equipment Test Engineers test marine machinery and equipment.
Mechanical Equipment Test Engineers conduct tests on mechanical equipment. They
also test their designs.
Mining and Oil Field Equipment Test Engineers conduct tests on mining and oil field
machinery and equipment.
Nondestructive Testing Engineers perform the tests to determine the strength of the
product or find weaknesses in a product or part.
Physical Metallurgical Test Engineers conduct tests of metals and alloys to determine
their physical and mechanical characteristics.
Production Test Engineers test high-speed data acquisition products and signal
processing systems.
Quality Test Engineers work in quality assurance, quality control, reliability,
maintainability, test engineering and other areas of manufacturing and service
organizations. They evaluate the design of a product, applicable inspection and test
Software Test Engineers test software, firmware and various interfaces. They work
with networks, isolate and identify design defects and help customers solve problems.
They may also debug software.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may perform maintenance on and troubleshoot problems with test equipment.
They may provide some training to members of their staff. They may supervise
engineering and technical staff.

Textile Machine Operators

Textile Machine Operators tend machines that run fabrics and yarns through chemical
and physical treatments to prepare them for manufacturing or marketing. They may treat
the fabrics and yarns with chemical, heat, mechanical action and cleaning agents to reach
desired weight, pliability, size, texture, water or soil resistance and finish. Duties often
include placing and moving materials on the machines during operations.

Theater Managers

Theater Managers plan and direct the activities of workers in theaters for stage
productions or motion pictures. They oversee the work of the staff to insure efficient
operation. They determine price of admissions. They promote events. Those who
manage theaters for motion pictures must advance-book their features, and negotiate
financial dealings. Those who manage stage theaters must also arrange for ticket sales
and publicity, production crews and hotel and transportation accommodations for
performers if necessary. They perform the day-to-day administrative tasks. They
oversee the spending of money.: They schedule events, programs and activities. They
prepare a budget and keep inventory. They recruit and hire personnel. They purchase
and order supplies. They train personnel. They solicit advertisements.
Ticket and Reservations Agents

Ticket and Reservations Agents are employed by transportation companies to schedule

passengers and prepare tickets. They may quote schedules, compute fares and plan and
prepare itineraries for domestic and international travel.
Reservations Agents make and confirm reservations by computer or telephone at the
request of ticket agents. They may also advise either the passenger or the ticket agent of
changes and may keep inventory of available passenger space.
Ticket Agents sell travel and tour tickets, plan routes and itineraries for passengers and
compute fares. They may also sell travel insurance to passengers and check baggage,
direct passengers and make announcements of arrivals and departures using a public
address system.

Tile Setters

Tile Setters attach tile on walls, floors or ceilings using plaster, cement, and grout to
place the tiles. They may chip tile using a hammer and chisel or cut the tile with pincers.
They also lay tiles, which are paperbacked strips and sheets.

Time Study Analysts

Time Study Analysts conduct studies and measurements to promote efficient and
economical utilization of personnel and facilities. They may observe laborers and
analyze the motion and time requirements of various job duties. They may develop
recommendations on work methods, wage rates, and budget decisions.

Tire Vulcanizers

Tire Vulcanizers rebuild tires by retreading them. It takes several procedures to do this.
Tasks include: In a large shop a worker may specialize, but in a small shop a worker
may perform all the jobs.
Title Examiners

Title Examiners search public records to document the history of ownership of real
property. Records of real estate transactions are maintained by each county. Some title
companies also maintain copies of these records, sometimes in microfiche form. They
may copy or summarize recorded documents. They may prepare land issue policy that
guarantees legality of a title. Persons without experience in this field generally start out
as Title Searchers, obtaining and verifying copies of the required documents. More
experienced examiners often referred to as Title Officers, study the documents and make
judgments about the proof of ownership and about other actions that may be required.
They may also issue policies insuring the validity of the title.

Toll Collectors

Toll Collectors collect money charged for use of bridges, highways and tunnels and fares
charged for ferries. They balance their records at the end of their shift.

Tool and Die Makers

Tool and Die Makers operate machine tools and instruments to produce metal and
plastic devices such as gauges, jigs and fixtures used in the manufacturing process. They
may construct and repair these precision metalworking tools. The two jobs require
similar skills.
Tool Makers use lathes, mill grinders, drills, drill presses, jog borers, precision hand tool
and optical and electronic devices.
Die Makers work with dies used to stamp and forge metal and precision surface and
cylindrical grinders. Specialists make metal stamping dies, die casting molds, jogs, and
fixtures and do experimental machining. They are usually involved in the design and
production of a machined product.

Tour Guides

Tour Guides conduct group tours to help visitors learn of the natural, cultural and
historical significance of the area. They prepare or compile informational materials about
the tours as needed. They may organize the tour, arrange for transportation, arrange for
meals, arrange for shopping opportunities, and give information and commentary about
Tasks include: They may give short-guided hikes and interpret what they see.
Tow Truck Drivers

Tow Truck Drivers drive a towing vehicle to move stalled motor vehicles, those
damaged by accident or ticketed by police officers for traffic violation. They also assist
motorists and make repairs to vehicles, and fix flat tires. They are dispatched by radio.

Traffic Managers

Traffic Managers direct and coordinate movements of cargo from one place to another.
They may arrange the transport of raw materials to processing or production areas. They
may route outgoing and incoming freight, both domestic and international. Some arrange
to transmit radio and television programs to other stations or schedule advertising. Some
arrange telephone traffic within a specific geographic area. They analyze data, such as
rates, fares, weight, and quantity. They may determine routes to be used and rates to be
charged. Traffic Managers may also arrange to transport people.

Traffic Rate Clerks

Traffic Rate Clerks work for carriers of shippers. For carriers they examine shipping to
currents, determine rates, record costs, trace and dispatch delayed shipments. For
shippers they check freight bills and invoices for charges, handle customs documents,
trace and dispatch late shipments.

Traffic Technicians

Traffic Technicians are in charge of keeping traffic in a city flowing smoothly. They
adjust the length of lights at signals by programming a computer. They are concerned
with the volume of traffic, speed of vehicles, the adequacy of lighting, factors influencing
traffic conditions and the number of accidents. They determine speed restrictions and
may draft plans and graphs for proposed installations.

Trainers conduct orientation of new employees and training sessions for new employees
and for employees who are changing jobs within the company. They develop new in-
house job-related training programs as they are needed. They instruct experienced
workers on new procedures or the operation of new equipment. They also may teach
management skills to supervisors. They assess the training needs of employees and set
up a timetable for developing skills. Training may include individual coaching, group
instruction, lectures, demonstrations, conferences, meetings and workshops. They may
work in industry, business, government, health care institutions or as consultants to
employers. In small companies, much of this work is done by Human Resources
Managers or informally by supervisors.

Transportation Engineers

Transportation Engineers develop plans for surface transportation projects. They work
according to established standards. In government they inspect projects for compliance
to plans and specifications. They may supervise engineering staff.

Transportation Planners

Transportation Planners prepare plans for transportation systems such as highways,

rapid transit lines, or to improve existing facilities. They work as a team member or
manager with sociologists, economists, environmentalists, land use planners and
engineering personnel.

Travel Agents

Travel Agents provide travel information and make travel arrangements, which meet the
clients budget, interest, and time. They use timetables, travel manuals, and rate books to
plan routes, compute ticket costs, verify arrival and departure times, as well as seating
space. Some specialize in domestic or international travel, in one popular destination, in
a mode of transportation, or a kind of client such as clients with disabilities, business
travelers or professionals. They spend a great deal of their time talking on the telephone
and using a computer terminal.
Treasury Enforcement Agents

Treasury Enforcement Agents investigate suspected illegal sales of guns through the
U.S. Department of Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. They may
investigate the underpayment of taxes by a liquor or cigarette manufacturer.
Tasks include: Duties are similar to other Agents and detectives and investigators.

Tree Surgeons

Tree Surgeons determine the health of ornamental shade trees and shrubs. They give
necessary treatments to improve their health and to increase the value of trees and shrubs.
They may prune the trees and shrubs to improve their appearance. They may be required
to apply cable to brace trees and sometimes fell trees. They may also have to apply

Tree Trimmers

Tree Trimmers trim trees to clear right-of-way for communications lines and electric
power lines and to minimize storm and short-circuit hazards. They use climbing
equipment to reach branches and saws and pruning shears to prune treetops. They may
repair damaged trees and remove broken limbs. Sometimes they fell trees using a
chainsaw. They do not diagnose health problems of trees.

Truck Drivers

Truck Drivers operate trucks or trailer combinations to deliver various materials to

manufacturers and markets.
Long-haul Truck Drivers operate diesel, butane, or gasoline-powered trucks and trailers
over distances ranging from hundreds to thousands of miles. Other drivers operate log
trucks, dump trucks, delivery vans and numerous other types, primarily within local

Truck and Heavy Equipment Mechanics

Truck and Heavy Equipment Mechanics maintain and repair trucks, buses, and heavy
equipment, like construction and logging equipment. They determine the cause of
equipment problems. Their duties may include simple adjustments, tune-ups, or
complete engine overhaul.
Turf Grass Managers

Turf Grass Managers are involved in the planting, growing, harvesting and marketing
of sod, or turf grass. Sod is used for sports fields, golf courses, large landscaped grounds,
cemeteries and privately as lawns and yards. Turf Grass Managers supervise and
coordinate the activities of other workers. These activities may include fertilizing,
irrigating, seeding, weeding, mowing, raking, watering and spraying turf grass. Many of
their other duties are similar to gardeners and groundskeepers.
Tasks include: On golf courses, sand trap raking is part of the job. They may also wash
balls, pick up garbage, prune trees and shrubs, and rake debris and leaves.


Typesetters examine the layout and set the type according to the designers
specifications. They make the final type copy, which is made into printing plates to
produce books, newspapers, magazines and other printed materials. Typesetters
originally set type by collecting metal letters and arranging them in a frame. Most
typesetting is now done by phototypesetting. Now typesetting is done by machines that
produce a paper plate (lithography-offset printing) or a metal plate is made
photographically from the camera-ready copy. In phototypesetting they use machines
like a typewriter keyboard with extra keys, computers with a VDT (video display
terminal) screen, which calculates the line length, saves the words in memory and
produces many typefaces in a wide range of sizes. They may also develop the paper or
film. More sophisticated machines allow the typesetter to work much faster and require
less training to operate. Typesetters also proof and make necessary corrections.

U.S. Marshals

U.S. Marshals enforce Federal laws. They receive prisoners into federal custody. They
process federal prisoners. They review records, gather information and trace and arrest
those named in warrants. They may also seize property. They escort and guard them
during hospitalization. They protect personnel, judges, jurors and witnesses and their
families. They escort prisoners to and from jails and courts. They are assigned special
duties as needs arise, such as protecting missiles being transported and airline passengers.
Tasks include: They serve civil and criminal writs. They trace and arrest individuals
named in warrants. They maintain order in courtrooms. They apprehend fugitives who
are wanted by foreign nations and believed to be in the United States.

Underwriters review insurance applications to determine if they are acceptable to the

insurance company they represent. In making these judgments they consider such facts
as the amount and terms of insurance coverage, and the kinds of risks to which the
applicant is susceptible. They may accept or deny the application, or they may return it
to the sales agent with suggested changes in terms or coverage. Most underwriters
specialize in one of five major categories: casualty, life, property, liability or health.

Union Business Representatives

Union Business Representatives direct and coordinate business affairs of a labor union.
They work to achieve the goals, objectives, and standards of the union, promote
membership and help place people in jobs. They help write union contracts and negotiate
with management on hours, wages, employment security, and health and safety
conditions. They handle grievances and maintain good relationships between union
members and management. They interpret and explain contracts, rules and regulations
and advise members about their rights. They make regular visits to work places to check
for compliance to contracts. They lobby for their union in Sacramento and Washington,
Tasks include: They look for ways to improve union strategy, tactics and operations.

University and College Teachers

University and College Teachers provide advanced instruction to students in specific

subject areas. They prepare and present materials and evaluate students through assigned
problems, discussions, research papers, laboratory work, and examinations. They often
serve as advisors to students and as consultants to industry and government. Teachers at
universities must engage in research and must publish their findings.


Upholsterers repair and rebuild upholstered products; some work in manufacturing new
ones. Duties include installing webbing, padding and springs; measuring, laying out, and
cutting new covering material; and, finally applying the new covering, using tacks and
sewing by machine or hand. Other workers specialize in cutting trimming, sewing, and
cushion building. Many upholsterers have helpers who assist by removing old
Furniture Upholsterers may only repair upholstery or remodel or refinish furniture.
Urban and Regional Planners

Urban and Regional Planners conduct studies and develop proposals for the overall
growth and improvement of urban, suburban, neighborhood, regional, and rural areas.
Their research helps local officials and other executives make decisions on social,
economic, physical, and environmental issues. They may review specific land
applications including zone changes, site plans, use permits, land divisions, and plan
amendments. They collect and analyze data and prepare studies that show how land is
being used and may suggest ways to develop unused land or to use land that is already
developed. Planners examine community and institutional facilities such as health clinics
and schools to ensure the facilities can meet the demands placed on them. They prepare
and present reports to decision-making bodies such as a city council or a county board of
supervisors and other community groups. They meet with land developers to explain
current plans. Planners enforce city and county plans by approving proposed
developments, which conform to the plan, or by withholding approval on those that do
not conform. They negotiate for changes that will permit the proposals to be approved.
Tasks include: Planners may specialize in one aspect of planning such as land use
planning, policy planning and management, transportation planning, housing and
community development, health and human services planning, historic preservation
planning, economic and resource development, environmental policies planning, urban
design and physical planning or third world development planning.


Ushers assist people at entertainment and sports events, motion pictures or theater
performances by opening doors, greeting guests, pointing out exits, directing them to
concession stands, and helping them find telephones, restrooms, and other facilities.
They check and verify and collect tickets or passes and then guide people to their
designated seats. They give out programs. They perform crowd control. They may also
clean the theater between shows.
Ticket Takers collect admission tickets and passes at events. They examine the ticket or
pass to verify its authenticity. They may refuse admittance to those with no pass or ticket.
They may refuse admittance to undesirable people, such as those who are intoxicated or
dressed improperly. They count and record the number of tickets collected.
Press Box Custodians verify credentials of patrons desiring entrance into press boxes
and permits only authorized persons to enter. They may run errands for patrons.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may also distribute programs and help patrons search for lost articles or
companions. They may help fellow workers change advertising displays. They must be
prepared to answer questions. They may serve refreshments during intermission. They
monitor ramps, clear aisles and collect cushions.
Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners

Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners remove dust, dirt, grease, lint and trash
from transportation vehicles, machinery and other equipment. These are airplanes,
automobiles, taxis, railroad cars, ships and buses. Some work in automated car washes.
In this case they clean car interiors and dry exteriors only. Some workers use
sandblasting to clean the vehicles.
Tasks include: They use water, brushes, brooms, cloths, mops, vacuum cleaners,
cleaning solutions, hoses and other cleaning equipment to clean the interiors of vehicles.
They use brooms, cloths, high-pressure steam machines, detergent, water hoses, air
hoses, brushes and scraping tools to clean the exteriors of vehicles and industrial


Vendors sell merchandise or refreshments at public events and on the streets. Public
events may be parades, sports events, such as ball games. They circulate among the
people, calling out items for sale. They collect money from their customers. At sports
events and parades they may sell refreshments, programs, novelties and cushions. They
walk through the seating area. Some street vendors may sell fruit, vegetables, flowers or
ice cream.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They may sell their own handmade products or other merchandise. They may pick
up products from the warehouse. They may do their own bookkeeping and clerical work.
Some display sample products, write orders and deliver the merchandise.


Veterinarians attempt to prevent, control, and cure animal diseases. Duties vary, but
most diagnose and prescribe treatment. They administer tests, observe the animals
condition, perform surgery and prescribe medicine or therapy. In government,
veterinarians try to control and eliminate disease, protect wildlife, and examine livestock
in slaughterhouses. Others do research and teach.


Videographers record events on videotape. They typically perform work similar to

Television Camera Operators. They usually work under the direction of
cinematographers, technical directors, and directors. They may produce videos and
documentaries, which may be used by producers. Many videographers record special
events like weddings, bar mitzvahs, etc. They may specialize in using a particular type of
Tasks include: They are responsible for maintaining and repairing their equipment.

Viticulturists are trained to apply scientific knowledge and modern methods of

agriculture to grape growing. They select vine stocks suitable to soil and weather
conditions and lay out new plantings. They decide when and how to bud, graft, prune,
cultivate and harvest crops, plus they must coordinate all of the vineyard processes.
Some viticulturists may specialize in 1) the identification and control of pests and
diseases, 2) the economic operation of a vineyard, 3) the nutrition of vines and soil. They
may purchase farm equipment and machinery supplies; review and analyze production
methods and sales and prepare timely reports; supervise both office and farm personnel.
Tasks include: Some viticulturists work on the staff of vineyards as technical
specialists; others are advisors with the agricultural cooperative extension of universities
to assist grape growers; and still others manage or own their own vineyard. They work
closely with the winerys enologist.

Vocational Education Teachers

Vocational Education Teachers provide instruction and training in job-related subjects

to prepare students for employment, for specific jobs that may not require a college
education, or to upgrade their skills. They may teach both high school age students and
adults. They usually specialize in a specific occupational program such as agriculture,
driver education, business and office skills (Business Education Teachers), home
economics, health fields, the construction trades and industrial arts (carpentry,
woodworking, electrical, plumbing, machine shop and welding), mechanics (auto, heavy
equipment, and refrigeration), personal services (cosmetology and barbering), printing,
merchandising, and protective services (police science and fire science). They also
demonstrate and teach necessary job skills such as work methods and procedures, safety
practices, use and maintenance of tools and equipment, rules and regulations governing a
specific occupation, and job finding skills. They lecture in a classroom, shop or
laboratory and evaluate student progress.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. They organize training programs. They may also purchase supplies and equipment.

Volcanologists study, monitor, and report volcanic activity. They gather information
such as rock samples and measure earth tremors, changes in the magnetic field beneath a
volcano, and the content of volcanic gases. During an eruption they take temperatures,
collect samples for lab analysis, measure height of lava foundations and ash plumes and
check the lava flow rate. Date is then interpreted. Their goal is to predict when a
volcano will erupt.
Tasks include: They make maps to aid in the development of viable land use and for
planning for evacuation if necessary. Some work underwater where they observe and
collect samples for research.

Waiters and Waitresses

Waiters and Waitresses serve food and beverages to customers. They greet patrons,
discuss the menu, take orders, serve food, make out checks, and occasionally collect
payment. In small businesses, they may help clear and set tables and counters, and help
prepare food.

Ward Clerks

Ward Clerks perform receptionist and clerical duties for a hospital, nursing home or
health care facility-nursing unit. They set up records for new patients. They prepare
requisition forms for laboratory tests, therapy, and drugs. They record information from
nurses records onto a patients chart and prepare notice of a patients discharge. They
order supplies for the nursing staff, answer the telephone, and relay messages to staff and
patients. They may also direct visitors to a patients room and distribute mail,
newspapers, and flowers to patients. They may also keep records on unit personnel.
Some of their duties are similar to medical records clerks.

Wardrobe Supervisors

Wardrobe Supervisors make sure all of the costumes and accessories for a theatrical
production are clean, ironed and ready to wear. They insure that the costumes are hung
in the correct backstage location and often assist the performer with costume changes.
Sometimes they must perform last minute repair and spot cleaning. They often oversee a
staff of workers.
Warehouse Workers

Warehouse Workers receive, store, and ship materials and finished products within or
near a plant, yard, or work site. Some work within a plant to distribute materials to the
work areas. Duties include moving items from receiving or production areas to storage,
stacking items, filling requests for stock items, and preparing goods for loading. To do
this they may use powered or non-powered, such as an industrial truck, forklift or hand
truck. They also inspect materials for damage and keep records of materials received or

Watch Repairers

Watch Repairers check, clean, repair and adjust the mechanisms of mechanical and
electrical and electronic watches, clocks and timing switches. They may cut, saw, file
and polish timepieces using hand tools. They also replace batteries.
Tasks include: Some specialize in working with a certain kind of fine watch, such as
chronographs or Rolexes. Some specialize in timing devices used in industry. Some
repair automobile or vehicle clocks. Some repair watchcases and watchbands. Some
may also do jewelry repair by soldering pieces together, repairing broken clasps and

Water Well Drillers

Water Well Drillers set up and operate portable drilling machines and equipment to drill
for and supply groundwater to homes, communities and industries. They may supervise
workers who install subterranean pipes and filtration equipment.

Water and Wastewater Plant Operators

Water and Wastewater Plant Operators work to control the flow and processing of
water and wastewater to make them sanitary. They operate and monitor special control
equipment, taking readings, recordings and samplings of wastewater and they adjust
valves and gates, and operate, maintain, and repair pumps, engines and generators.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Operators may also collect samples and run laboratory tests, and work computers.
Some may supervise plant attendants and other workers.
Web Developers

Web Developers are involved with design and redesign, development, and
implementation and maintenance of web-based Internet, Intranet, and Extranet
applications home pages. They also may develop and implement the market research
plan. They may consult with staff experts and staff groups in management, marketing
research, personnel and regional operations. They develop, assess and communicate Web
site usage and security policies and standards. They may work under the direction of a
Webmaster. They may establish and maintain the tools and software of an internal Web
development environment. They may maintain existing applications.
Web Server Developers: Web Developers may assist Web Server Developers and
provide technical assistance to the site administrator. They may develop and expand
multimedia capabilities.
Tasks include: They evaluate analysis needs, conduct projects, development findings,
make recommendations, present to senior management and work with the
implementation team. They may upgrade customer sites, give customers information,
provide customer technical services and perform a product inventory. : They may also do
credit card validation when working with customers. They may work closely with
advertisers. Some assist in planning company strategy for Internet usage.


Webmasters is a term that refers to workers who oversee others who prepare and convert
data for electronic publication and Internet presentation. They may create business Web
sites and interface screens. They may develop visual and non-visual solutions to meet the
employer requirements. These workers use technical and artistic skills to create
interactive products. They create interactive multimedia projects that may include
animation, graphics, video, and audio. They may maintain an existing website and
maintain the network and server.
Tasks include: They may provide technical assistance, support, and training to users.
They may create hyperlinks and answer e-mail. Web programmers, web graphic
designers, web developers and others may perform some of the work of Webmasters.
Wedding Consultants

Wedding Consultants help prospective brides plan engagement parties, wedding

ceremonies, receptions, and honeymoon travel. Those who are self-employed help with
all aspects of wedding planning. Part of a wedding consultants duties is to refer their
clients to people who provide wedding services, such as musicians, photographers,
printers, limousine services, or supply and rental stores. They give advice regarding
etiquette, wedding party attire and selecting a trousseau. They advise on the selection of
silverware, china, glassware, and stationery, invitations, flowers and catering services.
They may also compile and maintain a gift register.
Tasks include: This information list tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. Some help with clothes shopping. When they are employed in retail sales, they may
sell their products to the bridal party.

Weights and Measures Technicians

Weights and Measures Technicians install, maintain, repair, inspect, and test
commercial, electronic, electrical, and mechanical and weighing and measuring
instruments for accuracy and compliance to county and state and federal standards. They
may weigh, inspect and test packaged goods for compliance to regulations. They enforce
state laws and regulations to minimize measurement error and fraud. They inspect a
variety of retail, industrial, farm and specialty scales. They may audit weigh master
operations and records. They inspect and test liquid measuring devices, electric watt-
hour measuring devices, devices to measure the quantity of petroleum products and
packaged commodities. Beginners work under supervision.
Tasks include: Travel to supermarkets, gasoline stations, and truck scales. They also
register device repair companies and their employers who perform services.


Welders join pieces of metal together and make a permanent bond. They use a gas torch
or electric arc to heat the metals. They get extra metal for the bond from metal rods.
They make a variety of products. Welders use a variety of hand tools and interpret
blueprints. Other jobs, which do not require as much skill, are Welding Machine
Tenders and Feeders and Production Line Welders.
Woodworking Machine Operators

Woodworking Machine Operators set up and tend machines to cut, surface, size or join
wood or to cut tongues, grooves, bevels, beads, or patterns. Operators make various
machine adjustments for specific sizes and angles. They also feed wood stock into the
machine. Woodworking machine operators may also set up and run wood lathes to form
such items as broom handles and furniture legs.
Tasks include: This information lists tasks that may or may not be a regular part of the
job. The master crafts worker must select and order quality wood for projects.

Word Processing Machine Operators

Word Processing Machine Operators use text-editing equipment to produce

correspondence, report forms or other material. They enter text from a master copy or
transcribing machine on high-speed typewriter equipment with a programmed memory,
which electronically records the materials typed on magnetic tapes, magnetic cards, or
floppy disks and which may compose the format automatically. The operator positions a
blank cartridge, disk, or card in the console, inserts proof paper or, in up-to-date systems,
uses a video display screen.
Tasks include: The operator may be required to proof copy for errors, which are edited
on the screen. The duties of operators in some word-processing centers may also include
filing of magnetic tapes, magnetic cards, floppy disks, correspondence, and reports and in
small offices may include secretarial duties.


Zoologists study every aspect of animal life (aquatic life, land or airborne animals) and a
great range of ecological relationships. They may specialize in the study of a particular
animal, their origin, behavior; its a habitat, food, diseases and predators in their natural
habitats. They may study and work with both live and dead animals. Some conduct
research in a laboratory or in the field. Some teach. Some work as Curators.
Tasks include: Zoologists may coordinate the activities of others. They prepare
specimen slides to identify species and to study animal disease. They may specialize in
one kind of animal. They may write text materials or work on nature related programs.
Some work in wildlife management. Some work in environmental protection.