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DEPARTMENT OF

CIVIL ENGINEERING

(M.E-STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING)

QUESTION BANK

II SEMESTER

Regulation 2013

Prepared by

VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203.

QUESTION BANK

SUBJECT : ST 7201- FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

SEM / YEAR: II/ FIRST

UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION

Historical Background - Basic Concept of FEM - Engineering problems and governing

differential equations Finite element modelling Discretisation - Node, Element - different types of

element Approximate Solutions Principal of minimum potential energy, Rayleigh-Ritz method and

Galerkins methods.

PART - A

Q.No Questions BT Level Competence

1. What is the basic concept of finite element analysis? BT-2 understand

2. Explain discretization? BT-6 Creating

3. What is the requirement of displacement field to be satisfied in BT-3 Application

4. the use

Give of RayleighRitz

examples method?

of Eigen value problems in structural mechanics. BT-5 Evaluate

5. How will you classify essential and non-essential boundary condition? BT-4 Analyze

6. Derive thermal load vector for 1D bar element. BT-5 Evaluate

7. Explain body force and surface force with examples. BT-2 understand

8. What do you mean by convergence in finite element analysis? BT-4 Analyze

9. What is the significance of weak formulation? BT-4 Analyze

10. What is quadratic shape function? BT-1 Remember

11. Why polynomial shape functions are preferred? BT-2 understand

12. What are the limitations of Galerkin formulation? BT-3 Application

13. Write down the stiffness matrix for 2D beam element. BT-1 Remember

14. What is shape function? BT-1 Remember

15. Discuss displacement and shape function? BT-2 understand

16. What is Ritz technique? BT-1 Remember

17. Illustrate the potential energy for beam of span L simply supported at BT-3 Application

ends subjected to a concentrated P at mid-span. Assume EI constant.

18. What are the advantages of FEA? BT-6 Creating

19. Define banded structure? BT-1 Remember

20. Define the modulus of resilience? BT-1 Remember

PART - B

1. Solve the following equations by Gauss elimination method? BT-3 Application

a) 28r1+6r2 =1

b) 6r1+ 24r2+6r3=0

c) 6r2+28r3+8r4= -1

d) 8r3+16r4 = 10

2. A simply supported beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load over BT-1 Remember

Entire span. Find the bending moment and deflection at the mid span

using Rayleigh Ritz method and compare with exact solution. Use a

two term Trial function y=a1sin (x/l) +a2sin (3x/l).

3. Discuss Rayleigh Ritz and Galerkin methods of formation by taking an BT-2 understand

Example

4. Show from first principle that the stiffness matrix of a general finite BT-1 Remember

element can be evaluated in the form of K= BTCBdr

5. Find stiffness matrix for a one dimensional bar subjected to both BT-1 Remember

distributed load and point loads. (Note: Differential equation should be

formed and then apply basic Galerkin method on differential equation to

form element stiffness matrix.)

6. Solve the following differential equation using Ritz method. d2y/dx2 = - BT-3 Application

sin (x) boundary conditions u(0) = 0 and u(1) = 0.

formulation.

ii) Explain any two methods of weighted residuals with examples.

8. i) Derive the element stiffness matrix and element force matrices for a BT-6 Creating

one Dimensional line element.

ii) A simply supported beam of span L, youngs modulus, moment of

inertia I is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of P/unit length.

Determine the deflection W at the mid-span. Use Rayleigh Ritz method.

9. For the bar shown in fig, evaluate the nodal displacement, stress in each BT-5 Evaluate

Material and reaction forces.

A1= 2400 mm2, A2= 600mm2, P= 200kN, E1= 70GPa, E2= 200GPa

10. Analyze the frame shown in the Fig. EI = Constant BT-4 Analyze

11. A simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load over BT-1 Remember

entire span. Determine the bending moment and deflection at mid span

by using Rayleigh-Ritz method and compare with exact solution.

12. A beam AB of span l simply supported at ends and carrying a BT-1 Remember

concentrated load W at the centre C as shown in fig. determine the

deflection at mid span by using Rayleigh-Ritz method and compare with

exact solution.

13. A simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load over BT-4 Analyze

entire span and it is subjected to a point load at the centre of the span.

Determine the bending moment and deflection at mid span by using

Rayleigh-Ritz method and compare with exact solution.

14. A bar of uniform cross section is clamped at one end left free at the other BT-3 Application

end and it is subjected to a uniform axial load P as shown in fig.

Calculate the displacement and stress in a bar by using two terms

polynomial and three terms polynomial. Compare with exact solutions.

PART - C

1. List and briefly describe the general steps of finite element method. BT-1 Remember

2. Discuss the importance of FEA in assisting design process. BT-2 understand

3. An alloy bar 1m long and 200mm2 in cross-section is fixed at one end is BT-3 Application

subjected to a compressive load of 20Kn.if the modulus of elasticity for

the alloy is 100GPa, find the decrease in length of the bar. Also determine

the stress developed and the decrease in length at 0.25m, 0.5m and

0.75m. Solve by collocation method.

4. a)Describe the historical background of FEM BT-6 Creating

b)Explain the relevance of FEA for solving design problems with the aid

of examples

One dimensional problem - Coordinate systems global, local and natural coordinate systems,

shape function Bar, beam and truss element - Generation of Stiffness Matrix and Load Vector.

. PART - A

Q.No Questions BT Level Competence

1. Differentiate scalar variable and vector variable problems. BT-2 understand

2. Define Natural coordinate system? BT-1 Remember

3. What are the properties of shape functions? BT-1 Remember

4. What are the advantages of expressing displacement field in Natural co- BT-6 Creating

ordinates than generalized co-ordinates?

5. Specify stress and strain tensors for plane stress case. Give suitable BT-3 Application

examples for plane stress problems.

6. Derive transformation equation used in Gaussian integration BT-3 Application

7. What is natural or intrinsic coordinate? BT-1 Remember

8. What do you mean by isoperimetric formulation? BT-2 understand

9. Explain plane strain problem with an example. BT-2 understand

10. Show any two examples where the weak formulations are adopted. BT-3 Application

11. Explain natural coordinates? BT-6 Creating

12. What are equivalent nodal forces? BT-1 Remember

13. What are the types of non-linearity in structural analysis? BT-4 Analyze

14. Write down the shape functions for four noded rectangular elements? BT-4 Analyze

15. What are incompatible displacement models? BT-5 Evaluate

16. Write the natural co-ordinates for the point P of the triangular element. BT-1 Remember

The point P is the C.G of the triangle.

17. Examine the properties of stiffness matrix? BT-4 Analyze

18. Discuss the steps involved in finite element modeling. BT-2 understand

19. Write the shape function for constant strain triangle by using Polynomial BT-1 Remember

function?

20. What are the conditions for a problem to be axisymmetric? BT-5 Evaluate

PART - B

1. Derive shape functions and stiffness matrix for a 2D rectangular element. BT-3 Application

2. Evaluate the nodal load vector due to self-weight of a four noded BT-5 Evaluate

rectangular element with two degrees of freedom (translations) at each

node. Use Gauss quadrature method of numerical integration.

3. Find the shape functions N1, N2, N3 at the interior point P(3.85,4.8) for BT-1 Remember

the triangular element shown in fig .

5. The nodal coordinates of a quadrilateral element as given as (0, 7), (9, 4), BT-1 Remember

(7, 9) and (2, 8). Find the integral (x2 +y2 -3xy) dA over the area of the

element of second order Gaussian quadrature.

6. Derive shape functions for constant strain triangle element. BT-2 understand

7. Integrate the following function using Gaussian integration. Proper BT-5 Evaluate

Gauss points should be specified. The x limit is varying from 0 to 2 and

y limit is varying from 1 to 3 (xy) dxdy.

8. i) Derive the weights and Gauss points of Gauss one point formula and BT-2 understand

Two point formula.

ii) Derive the shape functions of a four noded quadrilateral element.

9. 11 BT-6 Creating

i) Evaluate (x2 +xy2) dx dy by Gauss numerical integration.

-1 -1

ii) Derive the element strain displacement matrix of a triangle element.

10. Triangular elements are used for the stress analysis of a plate subjected BT-1

BT-3 Remember

to in plane loads. The components of displacements parallel to (x, y) axis

at the modes 1, 2, 3 are found to be (-0.001, 0.01), (-0.002, 0.01) and (-

0.002, 0.02) cm respectively. If the (x, y) coordinates of the nodes shown

in Fig are in cm, find the components of displacement of the point (30,

25) cm.

11. Derive the stiffness matrix for 2D truss element. BT-2 understand

12. Why higher order elements are needed? Determine the shape functions BT-3 Application

of an eight noded rectangular element.

13. What are the difference between boundary value problem and initial value BT-1 Remember

problem?

14. Drive the stiffness matrix for one dimensional bar element. BT-2 understand

PART - C

1. A cantilever beam of length 3.4m has an elastic spring support of BT-5 Evaluate

stiffness 230kN/m at its free end where a point load of 13kN acts. Take

youngs modulus as 200GPa and area. Moment of inertia of the cross-

section as 1x10-4 m4. Evaluate the displacement and slope at the node

and reactions.

2. A two noded truss element is shown in fig. The nodal displacements are BT-3 Application

u1=5mm u2=8mm.Solve the displacement at x=l/4,l/3 and l/2.

3. A concentrated load P=50KN is applied at the centre of a fixed beam of BT-4 Analyze

length 3m, depth 200mm and width 120mm.Calculate the deflection and

slope at the midpoint. Assume E=2x105 N/mm2

4. Discuss the generation of stiffness matrix and load vector for a beam BT-2 understand

element.

Two Dimensional problems Plane Stress, Plane Strain Problems Triangular and Quadrilateral

Elements Isoparametric Formulation - Natural Coordinates, Shape function, stiffness matrix

UNIT-3 FINITE

Axisymmetric Problems ELEMENT

- Higher ANALYSIS

Order Elements OF TWO DIMENSIONAL

- Numerical Integration. PROBLEMS

PART - A

Q.No

UNIT-3 FINITE ELEMENTQuestions

ANALYSIS OF TWO DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMSBT Level Competence

1. State the conditions to be satisfied in order to use axisymmetric BT-5 Evaluate

elements?

2. Explain the Jacobian transformation. BT-1 Remember

3. What is meant by an Isoparametric element? BT-1 Remember

4. Explain the Lagrange interpolation polynomials used for higher order BT-2 understand

elements.

5. Write shape functions for 1 D linear strain element. BT-1 Remember

6. Show the stiffness matrix for an axisymmetric triangular element. BT-4 Analyze

7. Brief the application of higher order elements. BT-4 Analyze

8. Explain isoparametric elements? BT-2 understand

9. Define a plane stress problem with a suitable example. BT-4 Analyze

10. What are the methods used for numerical integration in finite element BT-6 Creating

method?

11. Why higher order elements are necessary? BT-5 Evaluate

12. Describe lumped mass system? BT-6 Creating

13. What is dynamic condensation? BT-1 Remember

14. What do you mean by higher order element? BT-2 understand

15. What is geometric isotropy? BT-1 Remember

16. In an element the geometry is defined using 4 nodes and the BT-3 Application

displacement is defined using 8 nodes. What is this element called?

17. When Hermite interpolations functions are used? BT-3 Application

18. What are the ways in which 3D problem can be reduced to a 2D BT-3 Application

approach?

19. List out the significance of Jacobian Transformation. BT-2 understand

20. Write down the displacement equation for an axisymmetric element? BT-1 Remember

PART - B

1. Determine the stiffness for the axisymmetric element shown in fig. Take BT-3 Application

E as 2.1 x 105 N/mm2 and Poissons ratio as 0.3.

interpolation matrix B, and Jacobian operator J for the three node truss

element shown in Fig. Also sketch the interpolation functions.

4. Derive shape functions and stiffness matrix for a 2D rectangular element. BT-1 Remember

5. Derive the shape functions for element shown in fig. Shape functions BT-4 Analyze

should be specified in natural coordinate system..

6. Derive the shape functions for ID cubic element. Shape functions should BT-4 Analyze

specify in both natural and global coordinate systems

7. i) Obtain the shape functions of a nine noded quadrilateral element. BT-2 understand

ii) Describe auto and adaptive mesh generation techniques.

8. For the four noded quadrilateral element shown in fig determine the BT-2 understand

Jacobian and evaluate its value at the point (1/2, )

9. Determine the shape functions of six noded triangular elements. BT-5 Evaluate

10. Evaluate the Jacobian matrix at the local coordinates == 0.5 for the BT-1 Remember

linear quadrilateral element with its global coordinates as shown in fig.

Also evaluate the strain-displacement matrix

ii) Plan strain analysis

12. Describe in detailing about finite element modeling. BT-2 understand

14. Derive the expression for stress-strain relationship matrix for 2D BT-1 Remember

element.

PART - C

1. Derive constitutive matrix for axisymmetric analysis. BT-3 Application

2. Explain with an example of each of the following BT-6 Creating

a. Sub parametric element

b. Iso parametric element

c. Super parametric element

3. Analyze the element characteristics of a four node quadrilateral element BT-4 Analyze

4. What are the nonzero strain and stress components of axisymmetric BT-2 understand

element? Explain.

UNIT-4 MESH GENERATION AND SOLUTION PROBLEMS

Convergence: Requirements for convergence P and H Methods of Mesh Refinement ill

conditioned Elements Discretisation Errors Auto and Adaptive Mesh Generation Techniques - Error

Evaluation.

PART - A

Q.No Questions BT Level Competence

1. List out the meshing techniques? BT-1 Remember

2. Give two examples of geometric nonlinear problems? BT-1 Remember

3. List the sources of errors in finite element analysis. BT-1 Remember

4. List the methods used for evaluation of Eigen values and Eigen vectors. BT-1 Remember

5. What is meant by error evaluation in FEM? BT-3 Application

6. How is geometry nonlinearity taken care in finite element analysis? BT-4 Analyze

7. What do you mean by material non linearity? BT-2 understand

8. What is a mass index? BT-2 understand

9. Give examples of thermal analysis problems. BT-1 Remember

10. Explain normal modes? BT-6 Creating

11. What is the difference between h and p methods? BT-3 Application

12. What are serendipity elements? BT-2 understand

13. What is discretization error? BT-2 understand

14. Explain weak formulation? BT-6 Creating

15. How error is evaluated in finite element analysis? BT-5 Evaluate

16. What are the types of non-linearity? BT-1 Remember

17. Form the consistent and lumped mass matrix for a truss element. Length BT-5 Evaluate

= 3m, Area = 20 x 10-4 m2 and mass density = 2.5x104 kgm-3

18. When the equilibrium equations are established with respect to the BT-4 Analyze

deformed shape, then the system is analyzed as ---------- nonlinear one.

19. What are the types of meshes? BT-4 Analyze

20. How the discretization error is evaluated? BT-3 Application

PART - B

1. Explain the automatic mesh generation technique. BT-2 Understand

2. State the need for mesh refinement. Discuss the methods of mesh BT-1 Remember

refinement.

3. Discuss p and h methods of refinement and give applications of each BT-2 understand

Method.

4. Discuss on 3D mesh generation techniques. BT-3 Application

5. Comment on discretization error with an example. BT-6 Creating

6. Explain 2D mesh generation methods. BT-2 understand

7. Explain how the consistent mass matrix for a pinpointed bar element is BT-6 Creating

obtained.

8. What is adoptive meshing? Explain any one algorithm for auto meshing. BT-3 Application

9. Explain 3D Mesh Generation methods. BT-6 Creating

10. Briefly explain about Convergence and its requirements BT-3 Application

11. Write the short notes on: BT-2 understand

ii) Discretization errors

12. Commend on discretization errors with an example. BT-4 Analyze

13. Differentiate conforming and non conforming element. BT-5 Evaluate

14. Discuss p and h mesh refinement and give application for each method. BT-5 Evaluate

PART - C

1. Explain Auto and Adaptive Mesh Generation Techniques. BT-2 understand

2. Briefly explain the history of Mesh Generation Techniques BT5 in Finite BT-5 Evaluate

Element Analysis.

3. Discuss discretization errors with example BT-2 understand

4. Integrate in detail the error evaluation BT-5 Evaluate

Preprocessing - Mesh generation region and block representation, generation of node numbers,

mesh plotting- Post Processing Types of data available displaying results graphically listing nodal

and element solution data.

PART - A

Q.No Questions BT Level Competence

1. List out the two advantages of post processing. BT-1 Remember

2. Derive the constitutive matrix for a noded element. BT-5 Evaluate

3. Write the equation for calculating element mass matrix in terms of shape BT-1 Remember

functions.

4. State the functions of a preprocessor in FEA software package. BT-2 understand

5. Name few software packages used for finite element analysis. BT-1 Remember

6. Specify degrees of freedom for SOLID 45 element analysis. BT-1 Remember

7. Give one dimensional heat flow equation. BT-1 Remember

8. Give examples of thermal analysis problem. BT-1 Remember

9. What is dynamic condensation? BT-2 understand

10. Why is the 3 noded elements called as CST elements? BT-4 Analyze

11. What is the governing differential equation for a one dimensional heat BT-5 Evaluate

transfer?

12. What is natural coordinate system? BT-2 understand

13. What is lumped mass matrix? BT-3 Application

14. How thermal loads are input in finite element analysis? BT-4 Analyze

15. In buckling analysis the Eigen value and Eigen vectors are calculated. BT-6 Creating

Actually what do they represent?

16. Discuss Radiation of heat transfer. BT-2 understand

17. Brief the applications of higher order element. BT-3 Application

18. What is the difference between h and p methods? BT-4 Analyze

19. Explain an ill conditioned element. BT-6 Creating

20. Write discretization errors. BT-3 Application

PART - B

1. Explain the generation of node numbers in FE analysis using soft wares. BT-2 understand

2. Write a detailed note on mesh plotting. BT-1 Remember

3. Discuss the modeling procedure using soft wares by taking an example BT-2 understand

of a plate bending problems.

4. Write short notes on: BT-1 Remember

i) One dimensional heat transfer problems in finite element analysis.

ii) Error evaluation in FEA

5. Plate with small centre hole (3mm diameter) is subjected to 50 N tensile BT-3 Application

load( refer fig). Thickness of the plate is 6mm and width of the plate is

28mm. Take E= 210 GPa and Poisson ratio = 0.3. How will you solve

this problem using finite element software (ANSYS)? Determine steps

should be provided.

6. How will you solve this problem (refer fig) using finite element BT-4 Analyze

software? Detailed steps should be clearly specified.

7. Write the step by step procedure of solving a structural problem by using BT-6 Creating

any finite element software.

8. Explain preprocessing and element types to be chosen in finite element BT-6 Creating

analysis

9. How finite element analysis works - within software and users BT-5 Evaluate

interaction.

10. What is bottom up and top down approach in FEA? BT-1 Remember

11. Write short notes on region and block representation. BT-2 understand

12. Write the general requirements of pre and post processing. BT-2 understand

13. Explain in details about pre-processing, solution phase and post BT-1 Remember

processing with respect to an engineering structure.

14. What is adoptive meshing? Explain any one algorithan for auto meshing. BT-1 Remember

PART - C

1. Write the detailed requirements of pre and post processing. BT-1 Remember

2. Discuss in detail about region and block representation. BT-2 understand

3. Explain in detail about preprocessing, solution phase and post processing BT-5 Evaluate

with respect to an engineering structure

4. Create a finite element model and analysis procedure for a design of BT-6 Creating

retaining wall.

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