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SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203




Regulation 2013

Academic Year 2016 17

Prepared by

Mr. G.R.Iyappan, Assistant Professor/ CIVIL

SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203.


Historical Background - Basic Concept of FEM - Engineering problems and governing
differential equations Finite element modelling Discretisation - Node, Element - different types of
element Approximate Solutions Principal of minimum potential energy, Rayleigh-Ritz method and
Galerkins methods.
Q.No Questions BT Level Competence
1. What is the basic concept of finite element analysis? BT-2 understand
2. Explain discretization? BT-6 Creating
3. What is the requirement of displacement field to be satisfied in BT-3 Application
4. the use
Give of RayleighRitz
examples method?
of Eigen value problems in structural mechanics. BT-5 Evaluate
5. How will you classify essential and non-essential boundary condition? BT-4 Analyze
6. Derive thermal load vector for 1D bar element. BT-5 Evaluate
7. Explain body force and surface force with examples. BT-2 understand
8. What do you mean by convergence in finite element analysis? BT-4 Analyze
9. What is the significance of weak formulation? BT-4 Analyze
10. What is quadratic shape function? BT-1 Remember
11. Why polynomial shape functions are preferred? BT-2 understand
12. What are the limitations of Galerkin formulation? BT-3 Application
13. Write down the stiffness matrix for 2D beam element. BT-1 Remember
14. What is shape function? BT-1 Remember
15. Discuss displacement and shape function? BT-2 understand
16. What is Ritz technique? BT-1 Remember
17. Illustrate the potential energy for beam of span L simply supported at BT-3 Application
ends subjected to a concentrated P at mid-span. Assume EI constant.
18. What are the advantages of FEA? BT-6 Creating
19. Define banded structure? BT-1 Remember
20. Define the modulus of resilience? BT-1 Remember
1. Solve the following equations by Gauss elimination method? BT-3 Application
a) 28r1+6r2 =1
b) 6r1+ 24r2+6r3=0
c) 6r2+28r3+8r4= -1
d) 8r3+16r4 = 10
2. A simply supported beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load over BT-1 Remember
Entire span. Find the bending moment and deflection at the mid span
using Rayleigh Ritz method and compare with exact solution. Use a
two term Trial function y=a1sin (x/l) +a2sin (3x/l).
3. Discuss Rayleigh Ritz and Galerkin methods of formation by taking an BT-2 understand
4. Show from first principle that the stiffness matrix of a general finite BT-1 Remember
element can be evaluated in the form of K= BTCBdr
5. Find stiffness matrix for a one dimensional bar subjected to both BT-1 Remember
distributed load and point loads. (Note: Differential equation should be
formed and then apply basic Galerkin method on differential equation to
form element stiffness matrix.)
6. Solve the following differential equation using Ritz method. d2y/dx2 = - BT-3 Application
sin (x) boundary conditions u(0) = 0 and u(1) = 0.

7. i) Taking a differential equation, explain the process of weak BT-2 understand

ii) Explain any two methods of weighted residuals with examples.

8. i) Derive the element stiffness matrix and element force matrices for a BT-6 Creating
one Dimensional line element.
ii) A simply supported beam of span L, youngs modulus, moment of
inertia I is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of P/unit length.
Determine the deflection W at the mid-span. Use Rayleigh Ritz method.
9. For the bar shown in fig, evaluate the nodal displacement, stress in each BT-5 Evaluate
Material and reaction forces.
A1= 2400 mm2, A2= 600mm2, P= 200kN, E1= 70GPa, E2= 200GPa

10. Analyze the frame shown in the Fig. EI = Constant BT-4 Analyze

11. A simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load over BT-1 Remember
entire span. Determine the bending moment and deflection at mid span
by using Rayleigh-Ritz method and compare with exact solution.
12. A beam AB of span l simply supported at ends and carrying a BT-1 Remember
concentrated load W at the centre C as shown in fig. determine the
deflection at mid span by using Rayleigh-Ritz method and compare with
exact solution.
13. A simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load over BT-4 Analyze
entire span and it is subjected to a point load at the centre of the span.
Determine the bending moment and deflection at mid span by using
Rayleigh-Ritz method and compare with exact solution.

14. A bar of uniform cross section is clamped at one end left free at the other BT-3 Application
end and it is subjected to a uniform axial load P as shown in fig.
Calculate the displacement and stress in a bar by using two terms
polynomial and three terms polynomial. Compare with exact solutions.
1. List and briefly describe the general steps of finite element method. BT-1 Remember
2. Discuss the importance of FEA in assisting design process. BT-2 understand

3. An alloy bar 1m long and 200mm2 in cross-section is fixed at one end is BT-3 Application
subjected to a compressive load of 20Kn.if the modulus of elasticity for
the alloy is 100GPa, find the decrease in length of the bar. Also determine
the stress developed and the decrease in length at 0.25m, 0.5m and
0.75m. Solve by collocation method.
4. a)Describe the historical background of FEM BT-6 Creating
b)Explain the relevance of FEA for solving design problems with the aid
of examples


One dimensional problem - Coordinate systems global, local and natural coordinate systems,
shape function Bar, beam and truss element - Generation of Stiffness Matrix and Load Vector.
. PART - A
Q.No Questions BT Level Competence
1. Differentiate scalar variable and vector variable problems. BT-2 understand
2. Define Natural coordinate system? BT-1 Remember
3. What are the properties of shape functions? BT-1 Remember
4. What are the advantages of expressing displacement field in Natural co- BT-6 Creating
ordinates than generalized co-ordinates?
5. Specify stress and strain tensors for plane stress case. Give suitable BT-3 Application
examples for plane stress problems.
6. Derive transformation equation used in Gaussian integration BT-3 Application
7. What is natural or intrinsic coordinate? BT-1 Remember
8. What do you mean by isoperimetric formulation? BT-2 understand
9. Explain plane strain problem with an example. BT-2 understand
10. Show any two examples where the weak formulations are adopted. BT-3 Application
11. Explain natural coordinates? BT-6 Creating
12. What are equivalent nodal forces? BT-1 Remember
13. What are the types of non-linearity in structural analysis? BT-4 Analyze
14. Write down the shape functions for four noded rectangular elements? BT-4 Analyze
15. What are incompatible displacement models? BT-5 Evaluate
16. Write the natural co-ordinates for the point P of the triangular element. BT-1 Remember
The point P is the C.G of the triangle.
17. Examine the properties of stiffness matrix? BT-4 Analyze

18. Discuss the steps involved in finite element modeling. BT-2 understand
19. Write the shape function for constant strain triangle by using Polynomial BT-1 Remember
20. What are the conditions for a problem to be axisymmetric? BT-5 Evaluate
1. Derive shape functions and stiffness matrix for a 2D rectangular element. BT-3 Application

2. Evaluate the nodal load vector due to self-weight of a four noded BT-5 Evaluate
rectangular element with two degrees of freedom (translations) at each
node. Use Gauss quadrature method of numerical integration.
3. Find the shape functions N1, N2, N3 at the interior point P(3.85,4.8) for BT-1 Remember
the triangular element shown in fig .

4. Discuss the convergence requirements of interpolation polynomials. BT-4 Analyze

5. The nodal coordinates of a quadrilateral element as given as (0, 7), (9, 4), BT-1 Remember
(7, 9) and (2, 8). Find the integral (x2 +y2 -3xy) dA over the area of the
element of second order Gaussian quadrature.

6. Derive shape functions for constant strain triangle element. BT-2 understand
7. Integrate the following function using Gaussian integration. Proper BT-5 Evaluate
Gauss points should be specified. The x limit is varying from 0 to 2 and
y limit is varying from 1 to 3 (xy) dxdy.
8. i) Derive the weights and Gauss points of Gauss one point formula and BT-2 understand
Two point formula.
ii) Derive the shape functions of a four noded quadrilateral element.
9. 11 BT-6 Creating
i) Evaluate (x2 +xy2) dx dy by Gauss numerical integration.
-1 -1
ii) Derive the element strain displacement matrix of a triangle element.

10. Triangular elements are used for the stress analysis of a plate subjected BT-1
BT-3 Remember
to in plane loads. The components of displacements parallel to (x, y) axis
at the modes 1, 2, 3 are found to be (-0.001, 0.01), (-0.002, 0.01) and (-
0.002, 0.02) cm respectively. If the (x, y) coordinates of the nodes shown
in Fig are in cm, find the components of displacement of the point (30,
25) cm.

11. Derive the stiffness matrix for 2D truss element. BT-2 understand
12. Why higher order elements are needed? Determine the shape functions BT-3 Application
of an eight noded rectangular element.
13. What are the difference between boundary value problem and initial value BT-1 Remember
14. Drive the stiffness matrix for one dimensional bar element. BT-2 understand
1. A cantilever beam of length 3.4m has an elastic spring support of BT-5 Evaluate
stiffness 230kN/m at its free end where a point load of 13kN acts. Take
youngs modulus as 200GPa and area. Moment of inertia of the cross-
section as 1x10-4 m4. Evaluate the displacement and slope at the node
and reactions.
2. A two noded truss element is shown in fig. The nodal displacements are BT-3 Application
u1=5mm u2=8mm.Solve the displacement at x=l/4,l/3 and l/2.
3. A concentrated load P=50KN is applied at the centre of a fixed beam of BT-4 Analyze
length 3m, depth 200mm and width 120mm.Calculate the deflection and
slope at the midpoint. Assume E=2x105 N/mm2

4. Discuss the generation of stiffness matrix and load vector for a beam BT-2 understand


Two Dimensional problems Plane Stress, Plane Strain Problems Triangular and Quadrilateral
Elements Isoparametric Formulation - Natural Coordinates, Shape function, stiffness matrix
Axisymmetric Problems ELEMENT
- Numerical Integration. PROBLEMS

1. State the conditions to be satisfied in order to use axisymmetric BT-5 Evaluate
2. Explain the Jacobian transformation. BT-1 Remember
3. What is meant by an Isoparametric element? BT-1 Remember
4. Explain the Lagrange interpolation polynomials used for higher order BT-2 understand
5. Write shape functions for 1 D linear strain element. BT-1 Remember
6. Show the stiffness matrix for an axisymmetric triangular element. BT-4 Analyze
7. Brief the application of higher order elements. BT-4 Analyze
8. Explain isoparametric elements? BT-2 understand
9. Define a plane stress problem with a suitable example. BT-4 Analyze
10. What are the methods used for numerical integration in finite element BT-6 Creating
11. Why higher order elements are necessary? BT-5 Evaluate
12. Describe lumped mass system? BT-6 Creating
13. What is dynamic condensation? BT-1 Remember
14. What do you mean by higher order element? BT-2 understand
15. What is geometric isotropy? BT-1 Remember
16. In an element the geometry is defined using 4 nodes and the BT-3 Application
displacement is defined using 8 nodes. What is this element called?
17. When Hermite interpolations functions are used? BT-3 Application

18. What are the ways in which 3D problem can be reduced to a 2D BT-3 Application
19. List out the significance of Jacobian Transformation. BT-2 understand
20. Write down the displacement equation for an axisymmetric element? BT-1 Remember

1. Determine the stiffness for the axisymmetric element shown in fig. Take BT-3 Application
E as 2.1 x 105 N/mm2 and Poissons ratio as 0.3.

2. Explain the Isoperimetric elements and its types. BT-6 Creating

3. Derive the displacement interpolation matrix, strain displacement BT-3 Application

interpolation matrix B, and Jacobian operator J for the three node truss
element shown in Fig. Also sketch the interpolation functions.

4. Derive shape functions and stiffness matrix for a 2D rectangular element. BT-1 Remember
5. Derive the shape functions for element shown in fig. Shape functions BT-4 Analyze
should be specified in natural coordinate system..
6. Derive the shape functions for ID cubic element. Shape functions should BT-4 Analyze
specify in both natural and global coordinate systems

7. i) Obtain the shape functions of a nine noded quadrilateral element. BT-2 understand
ii) Describe auto and adaptive mesh generation techniques.
8. For the four noded quadrilateral element shown in fig determine the BT-2 understand
Jacobian and evaluate its value at the point (1/2, )

9. Determine the shape functions of six noded triangular elements. BT-5 Evaluate

10. Evaluate the Jacobian matrix at the local coordinates == 0.5 for the BT-1 Remember
linear quadrilateral element with its global coordinates as shown in fig.
Also evaluate the strain-displacement matrix

11. Explain the term: BT-3 Application

i) Plane stress analysis

ii) Plan strain analysis
12. Describe in detailing about finite element modeling. BT-2 understand

13. Derive the strain-displacement matrix for CST element. BT-4

14. Derive the expression for stress-strain relationship matrix for 2D BT-1 Remember
1. Derive constitutive matrix for axisymmetric analysis. BT-3 Application
2. Explain with an example of each of the following BT-6 Creating
a. Sub parametric element
b. Iso parametric element
c. Super parametric element

3. Analyze the element characteristics of a four node quadrilateral element BT-4 Analyze

4. What are the nonzero strain and stress components of axisymmetric BT-2 understand
element? Explain.
Convergence: Requirements for convergence P and H Methods of Mesh Refinement ill
conditioned Elements Discretisation Errors Auto and Adaptive Mesh Generation Techniques - Error
Q.No Questions BT Level Competence
1. List out the meshing techniques? BT-1 Remember
2. Give two examples of geometric nonlinear problems? BT-1 Remember
3. List the sources of errors in finite element analysis. BT-1 Remember
4. List the methods used for evaluation of Eigen values and Eigen vectors. BT-1 Remember
5. What is meant by error evaluation in FEM? BT-3 Application
6. How is geometry nonlinearity taken care in finite element analysis? BT-4 Analyze
7. What do you mean by material non linearity? BT-2 understand
8. What is a mass index? BT-2 understand
9. Give examples of thermal analysis problems. BT-1 Remember
10. Explain normal modes? BT-6 Creating
11. What is the difference between h and p methods? BT-3 Application
12. What are serendipity elements? BT-2 understand
13. What is discretization error? BT-2 understand
14. Explain weak formulation? BT-6 Creating
15. How error is evaluated in finite element analysis? BT-5 Evaluate
16. What are the types of non-linearity? BT-1 Remember
17. Form the consistent and lumped mass matrix for a truss element. Length BT-5 Evaluate
= 3m, Area = 20 x 10-4 m2 and mass density = 2.5x104 kgm-3
18. When the equilibrium equations are established with respect to the BT-4 Analyze
deformed shape, then the system is analyzed as ---------- nonlinear one.
19. What are the types of meshes? BT-4 Analyze
20. How the discretization error is evaluated? BT-3 Application

1. Explain the automatic mesh generation technique. BT-2 Understand
2. State the need for mesh refinement. Discuss the methods of mesh BT-1 Remember
3. Discuss p and h methods of refinement and give applications of each BT-2 understand
4. Discuss on 3D mesh generation techniques. BT-3 Application
5. Comment on discretization error with an example. BT-6 Creating
6. Explain 2D mesh generation methods. BT-2 understand
7. Explain how the consistent mass matrix for a pinpointed bar element is BT-6 Creating
8. What is adoptive meshing? Explain any one algorithm for auto meshing. BT-3 Application
9. Explain 3D Mesh Generation methods. BT-6 Creating
10. Briefly explain about Convergence and its requirements BT-3 Application
11. Write the short notes on: BT-2 understand

i) Ill conditioned triangle.

ii) Discretization errors
12. Commend on discretization errors with an example. BT-4 Analyze
13. Differentiate conforming and non conforming element. BT-5 Evaluate
14. Discuss p and h mesh refinement and give application for each method. BT-5 Evaluate
1. Explain Auto and Adaptive Mesh Generation Techniques. BT-2 understand
2. Briefly explain the history of Mesh Generation Techniques BT5 in Finite BT-5 Evaluate
Element Analysis.
3. Discuss discretization errors with example BT-2 understand
4. Integrate in detail the error evaluation BT-5 Evaluate


Preprocessing - Mesh generation region and block representation, generation of node numbers,
mesh plotting- Post Processing Types of data available displaying results graphically listing nodal
and element solution data.
Q.No Questions BT Level Competence
1. List out the two advantages of post processing. BT-1 Remember
2. Derive the constitutive matrix for a noded element. BT-5 Evaluate
3. Write the equation for calculating element mass matrix in terms of shape BT-1 Remember
4. State the functions of a preprocessor in FEA software package. BT-2 understand
5. Name few software packages used for finite element analysis. BT-1 Remember
6. Specify degrees of freedom for SOLID 45 element analysis. BT-1 Remember
7. Give one dimensional heat flow equation. BT-1 Remember
8. Give examples of thermal analysis problem. BT-1 Remember
9. What is dynamic condensation? BT-2 understand
10. Why is the 3 noded elements called as CST elements? BT-4 Analyze
11. What is the governing differential equation for a one dimensional heat BT-5 Evaluate
12. What is natural coordinate system? BT-2 understand
13. What is lumped mass matrix? BT-3 Application
14. How thermal loads are input in finite element analysis? BT-4 Analyze
15. In buckling analysis the Eigen value and Eigen vectors are calculated. BT-6 Creating
Actually what do they represent?
16. Discuss Radiation of heat transfer. BT-2 understand
17. Brief the applications of higher order element. BT-3 Application
18. What is the difference between h and p methods? BT-4 Analyze
19. Explain an ill conditioned element. BT-6 Creating
20. Write discretization errors. BT-3 Application

1. Explain the generation of node numbers in FE analysis using soft wares. BT-2 understand
2. Write a detailed note on mesh plotting. BT-1 Remember
3. Discuss the modeling procedure using soft wares by taking an example BT-2 understand
of a plate bending problems.
4. Write short notes on: BT-1 Remember
i) One dimensional heat transfer problems in finite element analysis.
ii) Error evaluation in FEA

5. Plate with small centre hole (3mm diameter) is subjected to 50 N tensile BT-3 Application
load( refer fig). Thickness of the plate is 6mm and width of the plate is
28mm. Take E= 210 GPa and Poisson ratio = 0.3. How will you solve
this problem using finite element software (ANSYS)? Determine steps
should be provided.
6. How will you solve this problem (refer fig) using finite element BT-4 Analyze
software? Detailed steps should be clearly specified.

7. Write the step by step procedure of solving a structural problem by using BT-6 Creating
any finite element software.
8. Explain preprocessing and element types to be chosen in finite element BT-6 Creating
9. How finite element analysis works - within software and users BT-5 Evaluate
10. What is bottom up and top down approach in FEA? BT-1 Remember
11. Write short notes on region and block representation. BT-2 understand
12. Write the general requirements of pre and post processing. BT-2 understand
13. Explain in details about pre-processing, solution phase and post BT-1 Remember
processing with respect to an engineering structure.

14. What is adoptive meshing? Explain any one algorithan for auto meshing. BT-1 Remember
1. Write the detailed requirements of pre and post processing. BT-1 Remember
2. Discuss in detail about region and block representation. BT-2 understand
3. Explain in detail about preprocessing, solution phase and post processing BT-5 Evaluate
with respect to an engineering structure
4. Create a finite element model and analysis procedure for a design of BT-6 Creating
retaining wall.