© All Rights Reserved

15 views

© All Rights Reserved

- 07 04 Romberg Rule
- Modeling a Functional Building IA
- riemann sums paper
- Geo Mathematics
- tutwk11
- Calculus
- Maths
- CalcIII Complete
- 107-385-1-PB
- CalcIII Complete
- Mathematical Knowledge of Non-mathematics
- Integral Calculas
- v
- Ethics 2013
- GATE 2014 2015 Exam Syllabus for Computer Science
- CalcIII Complete
- MStat Sample 2009
- Double Integral (Structural)
- Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation by Surfaces of Arbitrary Shape in Layered Media, -I; Theory
- iwomic

You are on page 1of 15

Meredith Hinz

Mrs. Tallman

AP Calculus

27 March 2017

Riemann Sums

One might ask Why would anyone ever need to know about Riemann sums, Trapezoidal

rules, or Simpsons rules? To find area of course! While taking the integral of the function is

one way to find the area under a curve, it is not the only way. Continue on to learn all about the

To start off, a Riemann sum is shown in the form f(x)dx, in which each term of the sum

represents the area of a rectangle of altitude f(x) and base dx. A Riemann sum gives an

approximate value for a definite integral. The limit of a Riemann sum as dx approaches zero is

the basis for the formal definition of a definite integral (Foerster, Paul). A Riemann sum is used

A similar process is called the Trapezoidal rule. Both Riemann sums and the trapezoidal

rule are similar, but while Riemann sums use rectangles, the Trapezoidal rule uses trapezoids to

Simpsons rule is another way to approximate a definite integral. This technique however,

is used by replacing the graph of the integrand with segments of parabolas, then adding up the

areas of the regions under the parabolic segments. Simpsons rule is similar to the trapezoidal

rule, except that the graph is replaced by segments of quadratic functions rather than by segments

of linear functions.

Hinz - 2

All three techniques, Riemann sums, the Trapezoidal rule, and Simpsons rule, are used to

approximate the area under a curve. However, there are multiple differences between the three.

For example, as previously mentioned, Riemann sums approximate the area by adding up

rectangles, but the Trapezoidal rule adds up trapezoids, and Simpsons rule uses parabolic

Simpsons rule is the most accurate method of the three. This is because the parabolic

segments can mimic the original function more closely than rectangles or trapezoids.

Given f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5 on the interval from x=1 to x=5, below is illustrated

the following 5 Riemann sums with 2 intervals: left, right, midpoint, upper, lower. In each case,

Figure 1 displays the left Riemann sum for the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5.

The height of the first rectangle is 13 units. The height of the second rectangle is 5 units.

Hinz - 3

Figure 2 displays the right Riemann sum for the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5.

The height of the first rectangle is 5 units. The height of the second rectangle is 29 units.

Figure 3 displays the midpoint Riemann sum for the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-

3)+5. The height of the first rectangle is 8 units. The height of the second rectangle is 4 units.

Sum.")

Hinz - 4

Figure 4 displays the upper Riemann sum for the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5.

The height of the first rectangle is 13 units. The height of the second rectangle is 29 units.

Figure 5 displays the lower Riemann sum for the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5.

The height of the first rectangle is 5 units. The height of the second rectangle is 3.12 units.

To find the area under the curve using Riemann sums, calculate the area of each rectangle

2

(26+10) = 36 units

2

(10 + 58) = 68 units

Midpoint:

2[f(2)+f(4)] = 2[8+4]

2

2(12) = 24 units

Hinz - 5

2

2(42) = 84 units

2

2(8.12) = 16.24 units

Figure 6 illustrates the various calculations for finding the area. Figure 6 shows the area

calculations for the left, right, midpoint, upper, and lower Riemann sums.

The area of the same function, f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5, can also be approximated

Figure 7 shows a visual representation of how the Trapezoidal rule approximates area.

The image shows the Trapezoidal rule on the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5 with 4

intervals.

Hinz - 6

To approximate the area using the trapezoidal rule, find the area of each trapezoid, and

1

Area = f(a) + 2f(b) + 2f(c) + f(last)](width)

2

1

2 [f(1) + 2*f(2) + 2*f(3) + 2*f(4) + f(5)]*1

1

= 2 [13+ 2*8 + 2*5 + 2*4 + 29]

1

2 [76]

2

= 38 units

Figure 8 depicts the steps to calculating the area of f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5 from

2

x=1 to x=5 using the Trapezoidal rule on 4 intervals. The area found was 38 units .

Lastly, the area of the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5 can be approximated using

Simpsons Rule.

Hinz - 7

Figure 9 shows a visual representation of how Simpsons rule approximates area. The

image shows Simpsons rule on the function f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5 with 4 intervals.

1

Area = 3 [f(x) + 4f(x1) + 2f(x2) + 4f(x3) + 2f(x4) + + f(last)]

1

= 3 [13 + 4*8 + 2*5 + 4*4 + 29]

1

3 [13 + 32 + 10 + 16 + 29]

1

= 3 [100]

2

= 33.33 units

Figure 10 depicts the steps to approximate the area of f(x) = (x-3)4+2(x-3)3-4(x-3)+5 from

2

x=1 to x=5 using Simpsons rule on 4 intervals. The area found was 33.33 units .

Hinz - 8

Of all the approximations, Simpsons rule was the most accurate because it had the least

difference between the approximation and the actual value. Below are the various area

calculations.

4 3

( x3) +2( x3) 4 ( x3)+ 5

5 2

Definite Integral: dx = 32.8 units

1

2

Left Riemann Sum: [f(1)(2)] + [f(3)(2)] = 36 units

2

Right Riemann Sum: [f(3)(2)] + [f(5)(2)] = 68 units

2

Midpoint Riemann Sum: 2[f(2)+f(4)] = 24 units

2

Upper Riemann Sum: 2[f(1) + f(5)] = 84 units

2

Lower Riemann Sum: 2[f(3) + f(3.68)] = 16.24 units

1 2

Trapezoidal Rule: 2 [f(1) + 2*f(2) + 2*f(3) + 2*f(4) + f(5)]*1 = 38 units

1 2

Simpsons Rule: = 3 [13 + 4*8 + 2*5 + 4*4 + 29] = 33.33 units

2

As a result, the Simpsons Rule approximation of 33.33 units was the closest to the

2

actual area of 32.8 units .

Hinz - 9

Table 1

Approximations Compared to Definite Integral

Difference From

Approximations Area Found ( Definite Integral

units2 )

Definite Integral 32.80 0

Left Riemann Sum 36.00 3.2

Right Riemann Sum 68.00 35.2

Midpoint Riemann Sum 24.00 -8.8

Upper Riemann Sum 84.00 51.2

Lower Riemann Sum 16.24 -16.56

Trapezoidal Rule 38.00 5.2

Simpsons Rule 33.33 0.53

Table 1 shows how all the approximations relate to the definite integral. Of all the

approximations, Simpsons rule was the most accurate because it had the smallest difference

The Mean Value Theorem for integrals states that if y = f(x) is continuous on the closed

f ( x ) dx

interval [a,b], then there is at least one point x = c in [a,b] for which f(c) = a

ba

(Foerster, Paul).

4 3

Find the area under the curve f(x) = (x3) +2( x3) 4 ( x3)+ 5 using 2

intervals. Use the mean value theorem to find the height of each of the 2 rectangles.

3

f(c) = 1 = 8.2units

31

f(c) = 3 = 8.2units

53

Hinz - 10

Figure 11 displays the height of the two rectangles on the graph of f(x) =

= (8.2)(2) + (8.2)(2)

2

= 32.8 units

The area under a curve can be found various ways including using rectangles. By finding

the height and width of the rectangles under the curve, the area was found with ease.

The volume of a spherical hot air balloon expands as the air inside the balloon is heated.

The radius of the balloon, in feet, is modeled by a twice-differentiable function r of time t, where

t is measured in seconds. For 0<t<12, the graph is concave down. The table below gives selected

values of the rate of change, r(t), of the radius of the balloon over the time interval 0 t 12.

Hinz - 11

The radius of the balloon is 32 feet when t = 7. (The volume of a sphere of radius r is given by

4

V= 3 r3.)

Hinz - 12

Table 2

Rate of Change of Balloon Radius

t (seconds) 0 1 4 7 11 12

Table 2 shows the values for the rate of change of a balloons radius in relation to the

time.

a) Estimate the radius of the balloon when t = 7.2 using the tangent line approximation at t =

7. Is your estimate greater than or less than the true value? Give a reason for your answer.

r(t) = 1.4(x - 7) + 32

r(7.2) = 1.4(7.2 - 7) + 32

Figure 12 displays the steps to approximating the radius of the balloon when t = 7.2 using

the tangent line approximation. As stated in the above problem, at 7 seconds, the balloons radius

is 32 feet. By knowing this information, one can plug it into point-slope form. The y-intercept

will be the original radius of 32, the slope will be the rate of change at 7 seconds (1.4), and (x-7)

will calculate the change in x. Since the slopes in Table 1 are decreasing, the graph r(t) vs. t is

concave down.

b) Find the rate of change of the volume of the balloon with respect to time when t = 7. Indicate

4

V= 3 r3

dV 4 dr

= 3 r 2

dt 3 dt

dV 2

dt = 4 32 *(1.4)

Hinz - 13

3

dV ft

dt = 5,734.4 sec

c). Use a right Riemann sum with 5 subintervals indicated by the data in the table to

12

approximate r ' ( t ) dt .

0

12

r ' ( t ) dt , find the area of each rectangle and add them together.

0

12

0

12

r ' ( t ) dt is the change in the balloons radius measured in feet from the time interval

0

12

d.) Is your approximation in part c greater than or less than r ' ( t ) dt ? Give a reason.

0

Hinz - 14

12

The approximation underestimates r ' ( t ) dt because the r(t) values provided in table

0

2 are decreasing, therefore they have a negative slope. If one takes a right Riemann sum of

Overall, whether it be a definite integral, Riemann sum, Trapezoidal rule, Simpsons rule,

or other approximate, there are countless ways to find the area under a curve. With this

knowledge in hand, one can solve math problems with ease and maybe even have some fun with

it!

Works Cited

Foerster, Paul A. Calculus: Concepts and Applications. Emeryville, CA: Key Curriculum, 2010.

Print.

"Graphing Calculator - Symbolab." Symbolab Math Solver - Step by Step Calculator. N.p., n.d.

"Numerical Integration Utility." Numerical Integration Utility. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

<http://www.zweigmedia.com/RealWorld/integral/integral.html>.

"Riemann Sum." Riemann Sum -- from Wolfram MathWorld. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

<http://mathworld.wolfram.com/RiemannSum.html>.

"Riemann Sum Calculator." Riemann Sum Calculator - EMathHelp. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar.

2017. <https://www.emathhelp.net/calculators/calculus-2/riemann-sum-calculator/?f=

Hinz - 15

%28x-3%29%5E4%2B2%28x-3%29%5E3-4%28x-

3%29%2B5&a=1&b=5&n=2&type=mid&steps=on>.

"Riemann Sums." Desmos Graphing Calculator. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

<https://www.desmos.com/calculator/tgyr42ezjq>.

"Trapezoidal Rule Calculator." Trapezoidal Rule Calculator - EMathHelp. N.p., n.d. Web. 26

calculator/?f=%28x-3%29%5E4%2B2%28x-3%29%5E3-4%28x-

3%29%2B5&a=1&b=5&n=4&steps=on>.

- 07 04 Romberg RuleUploaded byJohn Bofarull Guix
- Modeling a Functional Building IAUploaded byGeorgiy Kachurin
- riemann sums paperUploaded byapi-249234743
- Geo MathematicsUploaded byLalit Narayan
- tutwk11Uploaded bymaplecookie
- CalculusUploaded bygooberlicous
- MathsUploaded bybrajeshbj
- CalcIII CompleteUploaded byHamza Shafique
- 107-385-1-PBUploaded byprotogizi
- CalcIII CompleteUploaded bySaiSurej
- Mathematical Knowledge of Non-mathematicsUploaded bylika
- Integral CalculasUploaded byRagib Nur Alam Shuvo
- vUploaded byVYELLAREDDY
- GATE 2014 2015 Exam Syllabus for Computer ScienceUploaded byMayukh Maitra
- CalcIII CompleteUploaded byChippy
- Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation by Surfaces of Arbitrary Shape in Layered Media, -I; TheoryUploaded byHaroon Muhammad
- Ethics 2013Uploaded byPONDI1973
- MStat Sample 2009Uploaded byxyza304gmailcom
- iwomicUploaded byfrancesco_sm64
- Double Integral (Structural)Uploaded byMaimai Rea Conde
- Antiderivative(integral)-lecture25.pdfUploaded byvhince
- RecursionUploaded byeddyedwards511
- Question 1Uploaded bySuresh Prasad
- seakeeping_isope2000Uploaded byTullio Opatti
- Chapter 5 ProblemsUploaded byJae0917
- Gate Syllabus EC ImpUploaded bymanikantamnk11
- CalcIII CompleteUploaded byxdrone
- Lesson 15Uploaded bydelsonwiest
- PGD-2014-15.pdfUploaded bysrivatsa
- CalculusUploaded byabsmeena

- seniorportfolio-seniorresearchpaperUploaded byapi-310595177
- 2016 chs sball-mac busters 400 clubUploaded byapi-310595177
- senior portfolio - cubo paperUploaded byapi-310595177
- senior portfolio - tower projectUploaded byapi-310595177
- senior portfolio - juniorfinalresearchpaperUploaded byapi-310595177
- freshmen research projectUploaded byapi-310595177
- burgin hinz russo finalpaperUploaded byapi-310595177
- referencesUploaded byapi-310595177

- AFS Tables & TcodeUploaded byljsilvercool
- Glenn-Johnson Price Book 2012Uploaded bySecurity Lock Distributors
- SCRIPT 1-21Uploaded byKathrinaRodriguez
- Succeed-in-cae-2015.pdfUploaded bycoonivillenas
- Phytogeographical Analysis of the Vegetation of Eleven Wadis in Gebel Elba, EgyptUploaded byibrahimflora7404
- Day-1 an Session BTS & Metallurgical ConsiderationsUploaded byShashi
- 1756 Um016a en p Programming Rslogix5000Uploaded byedwinred
- JSBSim TrainingShort UNINA 2014Uploaded byraffacap
- Thermador T24IR800SPUploaded byPurcellMurray
- Legrand SwiftclipUploaded byfarooq929
- CameoUploaded bymickaelboddaert
- Sabre Tutorial CantUploaded byBollocks Eater
- Chapter 05 - The Lateral and Third VentriclesUploaded byFernanda Farias
- COMPUTERS.pptxUploaded byMkaeDizon
- 02. Illusion MCD-TTK (Technical)Uploaded byLê Trung
- pda(1)Uploaded bydili4u
- Manual de Partes Aficio MP2550Uploaded byGustavo Romero Kellerman
- Dumping Price DiscriminationUploaded byShubhadip Biswas
- Electric DriveUploaded byswapnilswap11
- Chapter 3Uploaded byCarmine Faul
- Collocations and IdiomsUploaded byIvan Nedeljkovic
- Sedicon Sluicers as Effective MethodUploaded byप्रवीण देशार
- Macmillan Guide 2 Sci Teachers BookUploaded byXenia Xenia
- India Giant Appetite for Medical Imaging Equipment (clearstate)Uploaded byClearstate Pte Ltd
- Power Optimiser Best BestUploaded byJP GUPTA
- E-DiscoveryUploaded byapi-77753745
- Study Of Atm And Deposit MachineUploaded byManpreetSinghRajput
- Module 7,9,10 EssayUploaded byVinay
- ENTPUploaded byMagdalena Magličić
- BUE Publication List - December 2016 FINAL 20.11.2016Uploaded byMohammed Essa