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ARTICLE D-3

SHELLS OF REVOLUTION UNDER


EXTERNAL PRESSURE1

AD-300 SCOPE L L t L c tr
ATL p + + A s for large end
2 2
The rules given in this Article for determining the
thicknesses of vessels under external pressure are appli-
cable to spherical, conical, and cylindrical shells with L sm t L c tr
A TS p + + A s for small end
or without stiffening rings, to formed heads, and to 2 2
tubular products (see AF-130.2). Charts for use in
determining the thicknesses of these components are Bp factor determined from the applicable chart in
given in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D. Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D for the material
used in a shell or stiffening ring at the design
AD-300.1 Nomenclature. The symbols used in this metal temperature
Article are defined as follows: DLp outside diameter of large end of conical section
Ap factor determined from Fig. G in Subpart 3 of under consideration, in. (mm)
Section II, Part D and used to enter the applica- Dop outside diameter of cylindrical shell, in. (mm)
ble material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, (In conical shell calculations, the value of Ds
Part D. For the case of cylinders having Do /t or DL should be used in calculations in place
values less than 10, see AD-310.2. Also, factor of Do, depending on whether the small end Ds
determined from the applicable chart in Subpart or large end DL, is being examined.)
3 of Section II, Part D for the material used in Do /2ho
a stiffening ring, corresponding to the factor B p ratio of the major to the minor axis of ellipsoidal
(see below) and the design metal temperature heads, which equals the outside diameter of the
for the shell under consideration. head skirt divided by twice the outside height
AeLp effective area of reinforcement at large end in- of the head (see Table AD-350.2)
tersection due to excessive metal thickness, sq Dsp outside diameter of small end of conical section
in. (mm2) under consideration, in. (mm)
Aesp effective area of reinforcement at small end in- Ep modulus of elasticity of the material at design
tersection due to excessive metal thickness, sq temperature, psi (kPa). For external pressure
in. (mm2) and axial design in accordance with this Section,
ArLp required area of reinforcement at large end of the modulus of elasticity to be used shall be
cone, sq in. (mm2) taken from the applicable materials chart in
Arsp required area of reinforcement at small end of Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D.2 (Interpolation
cone, sq in. (mm2) may be made between lines for intermediate
Asp cross-sectional area of the stiffening ring, sq in. temperatures.)
(mm2) Ecp modulus of elasticity of cone material, psi (kPa)
ATp equivalent area of cylinder, cone, and stiffening Erp modulus of elasticity of stiffening ring material,
ring, sq in. (mm2), where psi (kPa)

2
Note that the modulus of elasticity values listed in Subpart 3 of
1
For formed heads under pressure on the convex side, this may be Section II, Part D for specific material groups may differ from those
either internal or external pressure, depending on the orientation of values listed in Table TM-1 of Section II, Part D and need only
the head on the shell. be applied for external pressure and axial compression design.

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AD-300.1 PART AD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AD-300.1

Esp modulus of elasticity of shell material, psi (kPa) heads and sections), all measured parallel to the
f1p axial load at large end due to wind, dead load, axis of the vessel, in. (mm); or
etc., excluding pressure, lb /in. (kN/m) (e) the distance from the first stiffening ring
f2p axial load at small end due to wind, dead load, in the cylinder to the cone-to-cylinder junction.
etc., excluding pressure, lb /in. (kN/m) Lcp length of cone between stiffening rings mea-
hop one-half of the length of the outside minor axis sured along surface of cone, in. For cones with-
of the ellipsoidal head, or the outside height of out intermediate stiffeners,
the ellipsoidal head measured from the tangent
line (head-bend line), in. (mm)
Ip available moment of inertia of combined ring
Lc p Lx2 + (RL Rs)2
shellcone cross section about its neutral axis
parallel to the axis of the shell, in.4 (mm4). The Lep equivalent length of conical section, in. (mm)
width of shell which is taken as contributing to p (L x / 2)(1 + D s / D L )
the moment of inertia of the combined section LLp design length of a vessel section, in. (mm), taken
shall not be greater than 1.10Do ts and shall be as the largest of the following:
taken as lying one-half on each side of the (a) the center-to-center distance between the
centroid of the ring. Portions of the shell plate cone-to-large-shell junction and an adjacent
shall not be considered as contributing area to stiffening ring on the large shell;
more than one stiffening ring. (b) the distance between the cone-to-large-
shell junction and one-third the depth of head
CAUTIONARY NOTE: Stiffening rings may be subject to lateral on the other end of the large shell if no other
buckling. This should be considered in addition to the requirements stiffening rings are used.
for Is and I.
Lsp one-half of the distance from the centerline of
the stiffening ring to the next line of support
Isp required moment of inertia of the combined on one side, plus one-half of the centerline dis-
ringshellcone cross section about its neutral tance to the next line of support on the other side
axis parallel to the axis of the shell, in.4 (mm4) of the stiffening ring, both measured parallel to
If the stiffeners should be so located that the maximum the axis of the component, in. (mm). A line of
permissible effective shell sections overlap on either support is:
or both sides of a stiffener, the effective shell section (a) a stiffening ring that meets the require-
for that stiffener shall be shortened by one-half of each ments of this paragraph;
overlap. (b) a circumferential line on a head at one-
kp 1 when additional area of reinforcement is not third the depth of the head from the head tan-
required gent line;
p y /Sr Er when a stiffening ring is required, but k (c) a circumferential connection to a jacket
not less than 1.0 for a jacketed section of a cylindrical shell; or
Kop a factor depending on the ellipsoidal head pro- (d) a cone-to-cylinder junction.
portions Do /2ho (see Table AD-350.2) Lsmp design length of a vessel section, in. (mm), taken
Lp total length of a tube between tubesheets, or the as the largest of the following:
design length of a vessel section, taken as the (a) the center-to-center distance between the
largest of the following: cone-to-small-shell junction and an adjacent
(a) the distance between head tangent lines stiffening ring on the small shell;
plus one-third of the depth of each head if there (b) the distance between the cone-to-small-
are no stiffening rings (excluding conical heads shell junction and one-third the depth of head
and sections); on the other end of the small shell if no other
(b) the distance between cone-to-cylinder stiffening rings are used.
junctions for vessels with conical heads if there Lxp axial length of cone, per Fig. AD-300.1, in.
are no stiffening rings; (mm)
(c) the greatest center-to-center distance be- Pp external design pressure, psi (kPa)
tween any two adjacent stiffening rings; Pap maximum allowable external working pressure,
(d) the distance from the center of the first psi (kPa) (gage or absolute, as required)
stiffening ring to the head tangent line plus one- QLp algebraical sum of PRL /2 and f1, lb /in. (kN/m)
third of the depth of the head (excluding conical Qsp algebraical sum of PRs /2 and f2, lb /in. (kN/m)

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Fig. AD-300.1 2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

FIG. AD-300.1 LENGTH Lx OF SOME TYPICAL CONICAL SECTIONS FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE

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AD-300.1 PART AD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AD-310.2

RLp outside radius of large cylinder, in. (mm) values of L /Do greater than 50, enter the chart at a
Rop for spherical shell, the outside radius, in. (mm) value of L /Do of 50. For values of L /Do less than
p for hemispherical head, the outside radius, in. 0.05, enter the chart at a value of L /Do p 0.05.
(mm) Step 3. Move horizontally to the line for the value
p for ellipsoidal head, the equivalent outside of Do /t determined in Step 1. Interpolation may be
spherical radius taken as Ko Do, in. (mm) made for intermediate values of Do /t. From this intersec-
p for torispherical head, the outside radius of the tion move vertically downwards and read the value of
crown portion of the head, in. (mm) factor A.
Rsp outside radius of small cylinder, in. (mm) Step 4. Using the value of A calculated in Step 3,
Sp the lesser of 1.5Sm at design metal temperature enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of
from the tables in Subpart 1 of Section II, Part Section II, Part D for the material /temperature under
D, or 0.9 times the tabulated yield strength at consideration. Move vertically to an intersection with
design metal temperature from the tables in the material-temperature line for the design temperature
Subpart 1 of Section II, Part D, ksi (kPa) (see AD-121.2). Interpolation may be made between
Scp allowable stress intensity of cone, psi (kPa) lines for intermediate temperatures. In cases where the
Srp allowable stress intensity of stiffening ring ma- value at A falls to the right of the end of the material-
terial, psi (kPa) temperature line, assume an intersection with the hori-
Ssp allowable stress intensity of shell, psi (kPa) zontal projection of the upper end of the material-
tp minimum required thickness of cylindrical shell temperature line. For values at A falling to the left of
or tube, of spherical shell, or of formed head, the material line, see Step 7.
in. (mm) Step 5. From the intersection obtained in Step 4,
tcp nominal thickness of cone at cone-to-cylinder move horizontally to the right and read the value of
junction, in. (mm) factor B.
tep effective thickness of conical section, in. (mm) Step 6. Using this value of B, calculate the value
p tr cos of the maximum allowable external working pressure
trp minimum required thickness of cone at cone- Pa using the following formula:
to-cylinder junction, in. (mm)
tsp nominal thickness used, of a cylindrical shell 4B
Pa p
or tube (for pipe, the tolerance requirements of 3(Do / t)
AF-105.2 shall apply), in. (mm)
yp cone-to-cylinder factor Step 7. For values of A falling to the left of the
p Ss Es for stiffening ring on shell applicable material-temperature line, the value of Pa
p Sc Ec for stiffening ring on cone can be calculated using the following formula:
p one-half the included (apex) angle of the cone
at the centerline of the head 2AE
Pa p
p value to indicate need for reinforcement at cone- 3(Do / t)
to-cylinder intersection having a half apex angle
60 deg. When , no reinforcement is Step 8. Compare Pa with P. If Pa is smaller than
required at the junction (see Table AD-360.3). P, select a larger value for t and repeat the design
procedure until a value for Pa is obtained that is equal
to or greater than P. An example illustrating the use
AD-310 CYLINDRICAL SHELLS AND of this procedure is given in G-112.
TUBES
AD-310.2 Cylinders Having Do / t Values < 10
The minimum required thickness of a cylindrical Step 1. Using the same procedure as given in AD-
shell or tube under external pressure, either seamless 310.1, obtain the value of B. For values of Do /t less
or with longitudinal butt joints, shall be determined by than four, the value of factor A can be calculated using
the following procedure. the following formula:
AD-310.1 Cylinders Having Do / t Values 10
Step 1. Assume a value for t and determine the 1.1
Ap
ratios L / Do and Do /t. (Do / t)2
Step 2. Enter Fig. G in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part
D at the value of L /Do determined in Step 1. For For values of A greater than 0.10, use a value of 0.10.

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AD-310.2 2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 AD-331

Step 2. Using the value of B obtained in Step 1, Step 4. Using the value of B obtained in Step 3,
calculate a value Pa1 using the following formula: calculate the value of the maximum allowable external
working pressure Pa using the following formula:

(D / t) 0.0833 B
2.167
Pa1 p
o Pa p B / (Ro / t)

Step 3. Calculate a value Pa2 using the following Step 5. For values of A falling to the left of the
formula: applicable material-temperature line, the value of Pa
can be calculated using the following formula:


2S 1
Pa2 p 1 0.0625E
Do / t Do / t Pa p
(Ro / t)2
where S is the lesser of 1.5Sm at design metal tempera-
ture from the applicable table in Subpart 1 of Section Step 6. Compare Pa obtained in Step 4 or 5 with
II, Part D, or 0.9 times the tabulated yield strength of P. If Pa is smaller than P, assume a larger value of
the material at design metal temperature from the t and repeat the design procedure until a value for Pa
applicable table in Subpart 1 of Section II, Part D. is obtained that is equal to or greater than P. An
Step 4. The smaller of the values of Pa1 calculated example illustrating the use of this procedure is given
in Step 2 or Pa2 calculated in Step 3 shall be used in G-113.
for the maximum allowable external working pressure
Pa. Compare Pa with P. If Pa is smaller than P, select
a larger value for t and repeat the design procedure AD-330 STIFFENING RINGS FOR
until a value for Pa is obtained that is equal to or CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
greater than P.
AD-331 Moment of Inertia for
Circumferential Stiffening Rings

AD-320 SPHERICAL SHELLS The required moment of inertia of the combined


ringshell section is given by the following formula:
The minimum required thickness of a spherical shell
under external pressure, either seamless or of built-up Do2 Ls (t + As / Ls )A
construction with butt joints, shall be determined by Is p
10.9
the following procedure.
Step 1. Assume a value for t and calculate the value The moment of inertia for a stiffening ring shall be
of factor A using the following formula: determined by the following procedure.
Step 1. Assuming that the shell has been designed
A p 0.125 / (Ro / t) and Do, Ls , and t are known, select a member to be
used for the stiffening ring and determine its cross-
Step 2. Using the value of A calculated in Step 1, sectional area As , and the value of Is defined in AD-
enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of 331. Then calculate B using the following formula:
Section II, Part D for the material under consideration.

Move vertically to an intersection with the material- 3 PDo
Bp
temperature line for the design temperature (see AD- 4 t + As / L s
121.2). Interpolation may be made between lines for
intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value at Step 2. Enter the right-hand side of the applicable
A falls to the right of the end of the material-temperature material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D for
line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projec- the material under consideration at the value of B
tion of the upper end of the material-temperature line. determined in Step 1. If different materials are used
For values at A falling to the left of the material- for the shell and stiffening ring, then use the material
temperature line, see Step 5. chart resulting in the larger value for factor A in Step
Step 3. From the intersection obtained in Step 2, 4 or 5 below.
move horizontally to the right and read the value of Step 3. Move horizontally to the left to the material-
factor B. temperature line for the design metal temperature. For

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AD-331 PART AD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AD-340

values of B falling below the left end of the material- rings or the distance from the head-bend line to the
temperature line, see Step 5. second stiffening ring plus one-third of the head depth.
Step 4. Move vertically to the bottom of the chart (d) When internal plane structures perpendicular to
and read the value of A. the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, such as bubble
Step 5. For values of B falling below the left end trays or baffle plates, are used in a vessel, they may
of the material-temperature line for the design tempera- also be considered to act as stiffening rings provided
ture, the value of A can be calculated using the following they are designed to function as such.
formula: (e) Any internal stays or supports used shall bear
against the shell of the vessel through the medium of
A p 2B / E a substantially continuous ring.

Step 6. If the required Is is greater than that computed AD-333 Permissible Methods of Attaching
for the combined ringshell section I in Step 1, a new Stiffening Rings
section with a larger moment of inertia must be selected
and a new moment of inertia determined. If Is is smaller Stiffening rings shall be attached to either the outside
than I computed for the section selected, then that or the inside of the vessel by continuous welding (see
section should be satisfactory. Fig. AD-912.1). Where gaps occur in the stiffening
An example of the use of this procedure is given ring, the attachment weld shall conform to the details
in G-114. in Fig. AD-912.1 sketch (e).

AD-332 Arrangement of Stiffening Rings AD-340 CYLINDERS UNDER AXIAL


Stiffening rings shall extend completely around the COMPRESSION
vessel except as provided in (c)(1), (2), and (3) below. The maximum allowable compressive stress to be
(a) Any joints between the ends or sections of such used in the design of cylindrical shells and tubes
rings, as shown in Fig. AD-332.1 (A) and (B), and subjected to loadings that produce longitudinal compres-
any connection between adjacent portions of a stiffening sive stresses in the shell or tube shall be the smaller
ring lying inside or outside the shell, as shown in (C), of the following values:
shall be made so that the required moment of inertia (a) the maximum allowable stress intensity at design
of the combined ringshell section is maintained. For metal temperature from the tables in Subpart 1 of
a strut section, as shown in Fig. AD-332.1 (D), the Section II, Part D;
required moment of inertia shall be supplied by the (b) the value of the factor B determined from the
strut alone. applicable chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D,
(b) Stiffening rings placed on the inside of a vessel using the following definitions for the symbols on the
may be arranged as shown in Fig. AD-332.1 (E) and charts:
(F) provided that the required moment of inertia of Rop outside radius of cylindrical shell or tube, in.
the ring in (E) or of the combined ringshell section (mm)
in (F) is maintained within the sections indicated. Where tp minimum required thickness of cylindrical shell
the gap at (A) or (E) does not exceed eight times the or tube, in. (mm)
thickness of the shell plate, the combined moment of The value of B shall be determined from the applicable
inertia of the shell and stiffener may be used. chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D in the following
(c) Any gap in that portion of a stiffening ring manner.
supporting the shell, as shown in Fig. AD-332.1 (D) Step 1. Using the selected values of t and Ro, calculate
and (E), shall not exceed the length of arc given in Fig. the value of factor A using the following formula:
AF-130.3 unless additional reinforcement is provided as
shown in (C) or unless: A p 0.125 / (Ro / t)
(1) the length of unsupported shell arc does not
exceed 90 deg; and Step 2. Using the value of A calculated in Step 1,
(2) the unsupported shell arcs in adjacent stiffening enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of
rings are staggered 180 deg; and Section II, Part D for the material under consideration.
(3) the dimension L defined in AD-300.1 is taken Move vertically to an intersection with the material-
as the larger of the distance between alternate stiffening temperature line for the design temperature (see AD-

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Fig. AD-332.1 2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

FIG. AD-332.1 VARIOUS ARRANGEMENTS OF STIFFENING RINGS FOR


CYLINDRICAL VESSELS SUBJECTED TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE

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AD-340 PART AD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AD-360.1

121.2). Interpolation may be made between lines for TABLE AD-350.2


intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value at VALUES OF SPHERICAL RADIUS FACTOR Ko FOR
A falls to the right of the end of the material-temperature ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD WITH PRESSURE ON
line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projec- CONVEX SIDE
Interpolation Permitted for Intermediate Values
tion of the upper end of the material-temperature line.
For values at A falling to the left of the material- Do / 2ho ... 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2
temperature line, see Step 4. Ko ... 1.36 1.27 1.18 1.08 0.99
Step 3. From the intersection obtained in Step 2,
move horizontally to the right and read the value of Do / 2ho 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0
Ko 0.90 0.81 0.73 0.65 0.57 0.50
factor B. This is the maximum allowable compressive
stress for the values of t and R used in Step 1.
Step 4. For values of A falling to the left of the
applicable material temperature line, the value of B
can be obtained using the following formula:
ellipsoidal heads shall be the equivalent outside spherical
radius taken as Ko Do in the corroded condition.
B p AE / 2
AD-350.3 Torispherical Heads. The minimum re-
Step 5. Compare the value of B determined in Step quired thickness of a torispherical head having pressure
3 or 4 with the computed longitudinal compressive on the convex side, either seamless or of built-up
stress in the cylindrical shell or tube using the selected construction with butt joints, shall not be less than that
values of t and Ro. If the value of B is smaller than determined by the same design procedure as is used
the computed compressive stress, a greater value of t for spherical shells in AD-320, except that the value
must be selected and the design procedure repeated of Ro for torispherical heads shall be the outside radius
until a value of B is obtained which is greater than of the crown portion of the head in the corroded
the compressive stress computed for the loading on condition.
the cylindrical shell or tube.

AD-360 CONICAL SHELLS AND HEADS


The required thickness of a conical head or section
AD-350 FORMED HEADS under pressure on the convex side, either seamless
The minimum required thickness at the thinnest or of built-up construction with butt joints, shall be
point after forming of hemispherical, ellipsoidal, or determined in accordance with AD-360.1 or AD-360.2.
torispherical heads under pressure on the convex side3 Stiffening rings shall be in accordance with AD-360.3.
(minus heads) shall be determined by the appropriate
AD-360.1 Cone Angle 60 deg
rules or formulas in the following subparagraphs.
(a) Cones Having DL /te Values 10
AD-350.1 Hemispherical Heads. The minimum re- Step 1. Assume a value for te and determine the
quired thickness of a hemispherical head having pressure ratios Le /DL and DL/te.
on the convex side shall be determined in the same Step 2. Enter Fig. G in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part
manner as given in AD-320 for determining the mini- D at a value of L /Do equivalent to the value of Le /DL
mum required thickness for a spherical shell. determined in Step 1. For values of Le /DL greater than
50, enter the chart at a value of Le /DL p 50.
AD-350.2 Ellipsoidal Heads. The minimum required Step 3. Move horizontally to the line for the value
thickness of an ellipsoidal head having pressure on the of Do /t equivalent to the value of DL /te determined
convex side, either seamless or of built-up construction in Step 1. Interpolation may be made for intermediate
with butt joints, shall not be less than that determined values of DL /te . From this point of intersection move
by the same design procedure as is used for spherical vertically downwards to determine the value of factor A.
shells in AD-320, except that the value of Ro for Step 4. Using the value of A calculated in Step 3,
enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of
3 Section II, Part D for the material under consideration.
Pressure on the convex side may be caused by either internal
pressure or external pressure, depending upon the orientation of the Move vertically to an intersection with the material-
head as it is attached to the shell. temperature line for the design temperature (see AD-

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AD-360.1 2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 AD-360.3


121.2). Interpolation may be made between lines for 2S 1
Pa2 p 1
intermediate temperatures. DL / te DL / te
In cases where the value of A falls to the right of
the end of the material-temperature line, assume an
intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper
end of the material-temperature line. For values of A where
falling to the left of the material-temperature line, see Sp the lesser of two times the maximum allowable
Step 7. stress value at design metal temperature, from
Step 5. From the intersection obtained in Step 4, the applicable table in Subpart 1 of Section II,
move horizontally to the right and read the value of Part D, or 0.9 times the yield strength of the
factor B. material at design temperature, psi (kPa)
Step 6. Using this value of B, calculate the value Step 4. The smaller of the values of Pa1 calculated
of the maximum allowable external working pressure in Step 2 or Pa2 calculated in Step 3 shall be used
Pa using the following formula: for the maximum allowable external working pressure
Pa. Compare Pa with P. If Pa is smaller than P, select
a larger value for t and repeat the design procedure
4B
Pa p until a value for Pa is obtained that is equal to or
3(DL / te)
greater than P.
Step 5. Provide adequate reinforcement of the cone-
Step 7. For values of A falling to the left of the to-cylinder juncture according to AD-360.3.
applicable material-temperature line, the value of Pa
can be calculated using the following formula:
AD-360.2 Cone Angle > 60 deg. When of the
cone is greater than 60 deg, the thickness of the cone
2AE shall be the same as the required thickness for a flat
Pa p
3(DL / te) head under external pressure, the diameter of which
equals the largest diameter of the cone, or shall be
Step 8. Compare the calculated value of Pa obtained designed by special analysis in accordance with AD-
in Step 6 or 7 with P. If Pa is smaller than P, select 360.3(e).
a larger value for t and repeat the design procedure
until a value of Pa is obtained that is equal to or AD-360.3 Rules for Reinforcement of Cone-to-
greater than P. Cylinder Junction Under External Pressure
Step 9. Provide adequate reinforcement of the cone- (a) The formulas of (b) and (c) below provide for
to-cylinder juncture according to AD-360.3. the design of reinforcement, if needed, at the cone-to-
(b) Cones Having DL / te Values < 10 cylinder junctions for reducer sections and conical heads
Step 1. Using the same procedure as given in (a) where all the elements have a common axis and the
above, obtain the value of B. For values of DL /te less half apex angle 60 deg. Subparagraph (e) below
than 4, the value of factor A can be calculated using provides for special analysis in the design of cone-to-
the following formula: cylinder intersections with or without reinforcing rings,
including those where is > 60 deg.
1.1 In the design of reinforcement for a cone-to-cylinder
Ap
(DL / te)2 juncture, the requirements of AD-551 for reinforcement
material strength for nozzles are applicable to reinforce-
ment for a cone-to-cylinder juncture.
For values of A greater than 0.10, use a value of 0.10.
Step 2. Using the value of B obtained in Step 1, (b) Reinforcement shall be provided at the junction
calculate a value Pa1 using the following formula: of the cone with the large cylinder for conical heads
and reducers without knuckles when the value of
obtained from Table AD-360.3 using the appropriate
(D / t ) 0.0833 B
2.167
Pa1 p ratio P/Ss is less than . Interpolation may be made
L e
in the Table.
The cross-sectional area of the reinforcement ring
Step 3. Calculate a value Pa2 using the following shall be at least equal to that indicated by the following
formula: formula:

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AD-360.3 PART AD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AD-360.3

TABLE AD-360.3 Step 2. Enter the right-hand side of the applicable


VALUES OF FOR JUNCTIONS AT THE LARGE material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D for
CYLINDER FOR 60 deg the material under consideration at the value of B
P/Ss 0 0.002 0.005 0.010 0.02 determined by Step 1. If different materials are used
, deg 0 5 7 10 15 for the shell and stiffening ring, use the material chart
P/Ss 0.04 0.08 0.10 0.125 0.15 resulting in the larger value of A in Step 4 below.
, deg 21 29 33 37 40 Step 3. Move horizontally to the left to the material-
P/Ss 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Note (1) temperature line for the design metal temperature. For
, deg 47 52 57 60 values of B falling below the left end of the material-
NOTE: temperature line, see Step 5 below.
(1) p 60 deg for greater values of P/Ss. Step 4. Move vertically to the bottom of the chart
and read the value of A.
Step 5. For values of B falling below the left end
of the appropriate material-temperature curve, the value


kQ L D L tan 1 PD L 2Q L
A rL p
2S s
1
4 2Q L
(1) of A can be calculated using the formula A p 2B /Er.
For values of B falling above the appropriate material-
temperature line, the design shall be adjusted by either
When the thickness of both the reducer and cylinder changing the configuration, or changing the stiffener
exceeds that required by the applicable design formulas, ring size or location, such that B is reduced to a value
the minimum excess thickness may be considered to below or at the appropriate material-temperature curve.
contribute to the required stiffening ring in accordance For values of B having multiple values of A, such as
with the following formula: when B falls on a horizontal portion of the curve, the
smallest value of A shall be used.
Step 6. Compute the value of the required moment
2 cos
DLts DLtc
AeL p (ts t) + (tc tr) (2) of inertia from the formula for Is. For the combined
2
ringshellcone section:
Any additional area of stiffening which is required
ADL2 ATL
shall be situated within a distance of DLts /2 from Is p
10.9
the junction of the reducer and the cylinder. The centroid
of the added area shall be within a distance of 0.5
Step 7. Determine the available moment of inertia
DLts /2 from the junction. I of the combined ringshellcone section.
The stiffening ring at the cone-to-cylinder junction
Step 8. Evaluate the equation
shall also be considered as a stiffening ring.
The moment of inertia for a stiffening ring at the large
I Is
end shall be determined by the following procedure.
Step 1. Assuming that the shell has been designed
If the equation is not satisfied, a new section with
and DL, LL, and t are known, select a member to be
a larger moment of inertia must be selected, and the
used for the stiffening ring and determine cross-sectional
calculation shall be done again until the equation is met.
area ATL. Then calculate factor B using the following
formula: The requirements of AD-332 and AD-333 are to be
met in attaching stiffening rings to the shell.

3 FL DL
Bp (c) The stiffening ring shall be provided at the
4 ATL
junction of the conical shell of a reducer without a
flare and the small cylinder. The cross-sectional area
where
of the stiffening ring shall be at least equal to that
FL p PM + f1 tan indicated by the following formula:

DL tan LL DL2 Ds2 kQs Ds tan


Mp + + ** Ars p (3)
4 2 6DL tan 2 Ss

When the thickness of either the reducer or cylinder


** For some of the terms of the equations, it may be necessary to exceeds that required by the applicable design formula,
convert millimeters to meters to obtain a rational result in SI units. the thickness may be considered to contribute to the

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AD-360.3 2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 AD-360.4

required reinforcement ring in accordance with the when B falls on a horizontal portion of the curve, the
following formula: smallest value of A shall be used.
Step 6. Compute the value of the required moment

2 cos (t t ) +
Ds tc Ds ts of inertia from the formula for Is. For the combined
Aes p c r (t t) (4)
2 s ringshellcone section:

Any additional area of stiffener which is required


ADs2 ATS
shall be situated within a distance Ds ts / 2 from the Is p
10.9
junction, and the centroid of the added area shall be
within a distance 0.5Ds ts / 2 from the junction.
The stiffening ring at the cone-to-cylinder junction Step 7. Determine the available moment of inertia
shall also be considered as a stiffening ring. I of the combined ringshellcone section.
The moment of inertia for a stiffening ring at the small Step 8. Evaluate the equation:
end shall be determined by the following procedure.
Step 1. Assuming that the shell has been designed
and Ds , Lsm, and t are known, select a member to be I Is
used for the stiffening ring and determine cross-sectional
area ATS. Then calculate factor B using the following
formula: If the equation is not satisfied, a new section with
a larger moment of inertia must be selected, and the
calculation shall be done again until the equation is met.

3 Fs D s
Bp
4 ATS The requirements of AD-332 and AD-333 are to be
met in attaching stiffening rings to the shell.
where (d) The reinforcement of reducers not described in
AD-210, such as those made up of two or more conical
frustums having different slopes, may be designed in
Fs p pN + F2 tan accordance with (e) below.
(e) For conical sections with the half apex angle
Ds tan Lsm DL2 Ds2 greater than 60 deg, and as an alternative to the rules
Np + + provided in (b) and (c) above, the design may be based
4 2 12Ds tan
on special analysis such as numerical methods or the
beam-on-elastic-foundation analysis of Timoshenko,
Step 2. Enter the right-hand side of the applicable Hetenyi, or Watts and Lang. The stresses at the junction
material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D for shall meet all of the allowable stress limits of this
the material under consideration at the value of B Division. The effect of shell and cone buckling on the
determined by Step 1. If different materials are used required area and moment of inertia at the joint shall
for the shell and stiffening ring, use the material chart also be considered in the analysis. The theoretical
resulting in the larger value of A in Step 4 below. buckling pressure of the junction shall be at least 3.3
Step 3. Move horizontally to the left to the material- times the allowable external design pressure of the
temperature line for the design metal temperature. For junction.
values of B falling below the left end of the material-
temperature line, see Step 5 below. AD-360.4 Toriconical Heads and Shell Sections.
Step 4. Move vertically to the bottom of the chart The required thickness of a toriconical head having
and read the value of A. pressure on the convex side, either seamless or of built-
Step 5. For values of B falling below the left end up construction with butt joints within the head, shall
of the appropriate material-temperature curve, the value not be less than that determined from AD-360.1 or
of A can be calculated using the formula A p 2B /Er. AD-360.2, with the exception that Le shall be determined
For values of B falling above the appropriate material- as follows.
temperature line, the design shall be adjusted by either (a) For sketch (c) in Fig. AD-300.1,
changing the configuration, or changing the stiffener
ring size or location, such that B is reduced to a value


below or at the appropriate material-temperature curve. L DL + Ds
Le p r1 sin 1 +
For values of B having multiple values of A, such as 2 DLs

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AD-360.4 PART AD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AD-370

(b) For sketch (d) in Fig. AD-300.1,


Dss L DL + Ds
Le p r 2 sin 2 +
DL 2 DL

(c) For sketch (e) in Fig. AD-300.1,

Dss L (DL + Ds)


Le p r1 sin 1 + r 2 sin 2 +
DLs 2 DLs

NOTE: Nomenclature is as defined in Fig. AD-300.1.

AD-360.5 Eccentric Cones. The thickness of an


eccentric cone shall be taken as the greater of the two
thicknesses obtained using both the smallest and largest
in the calculations.

AD-370 OPENINGS IN SHELLS AND


HEADS
Openings in shells and heads convex to pressure
shall comply with the requirements of AD-520.

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