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# Lecture Notes in

## FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE P(n, n) = n!

PERMUTATIONS OF THINGS NOT ALL
If a thing can be done in any of m different ways DIFFERENT
and then a second thing can be done in any of n different
ways, it follows that the total number of different ways The number of permutations P of n things taken
in which the first and then the second thing can be done all at a time, where n1 of the objects are alike and the
is m times n. others distinct, is
n!
Exercises: P= n1 !
1. How many two-digit numbers can be made with the
digits 2, 4, 6, 8 if (a) repetitions are allowed; (b) no This formula may be extended to the cases
digit is to be repeated in a number? where there are two, three, or more groups like objects
2. How many three-digit numbers can be made with the among the n objects. Thus
digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 if (a) repetitions are allowed; (b) no n!
digit is to be repeated in a number? P= n1 ! n 2 ! n3 ! . ..
3. How many four-digit numbers, each less than 5000,
can be formed with the digits 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 if (a)
repetitions are allowed; (b) no repetitions are Exercises:
allowed? 1. Evaluate (a) P(7, 1); (b) P(7, 3); (c) P(7, 4); (d) P(7, 7)
4. How many committees consisting of 1 freshman, 1 2. Show that (a) P(5, 4) = P(5, 5); (b) P(6, 5) = P(6, 6);
sophomore, and 1 junior can be selected from 40 (c) P(n, n 1) = P(n, n).
freshmen, 30 sophomores, and 25 juniors? 3. Find the number of permutations, each with 7 letter,
5. Five boys are in a room which has 4 doors. In how which can be made with the letters in (a)
many different ways can they leave the room? WYOMING; (b) KENTUCKY; (c) WASHINGTON.
6. How many signals can be made with 5 different kinds 4. Find how many even numbers of three digits each can
of flags placed on a flagpole one under the other from be made with the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 if digits may be
the highest by using (a) all the flags, (b) exactly four repeated.
of the flags? 5. Seven songs are to be given in a program. In how
7. In how many ways can 3 people be seated in a room many different orders could be rendered?
where there are 7 seats? 6. In how many ways can 8 books be arranged on a shelf
8. Four couples are to eat at a round table with the men if a certain 3 are (a) not be separated; (b) not to be
and women alternating. If the hostess reserves a separated and left in a particular order?
place for herself, in how many ways can she assign 7. Five different mathematics books, 4 different physics
seats to the others? books, and 2 different history books are to be placed
9. A club has 21 members. In how many ways can a on a shelf with the books of each subject together.
president and a vice-president be elected from the Find the number of ways in which the books can be
group if no member is eligible for both positions? placed.
10. Towns A and B are connected by 3 roads and towns 8. Find the number of permutations which can be formed
B and C by 4 roads. In how many ways can one drive by using all the letters in (a) ALABAMA; (b)
from A to B to C and return to A via B if (a) the same ARKANSAS; (c) MISSISSIPPI.
road is not to be traveled twice; (b) the same road 9. In how many ways is it possible for 10 customers to
may be traveled twice? buy 5 cans of peaches, 3 cans of pineapple, and 2
11. Six books with different titles have green covers and cans of tomatoes if each customer gets 1 can?
three books with different titles have red covers. In 10. Find the number of ways 2 half dollars, 4 quarters,
how many ways can the nine books be arranged on a and 6 dimes can be distributed among 12 boys if each
shelf if (a) the red books are not to be separated, (b) gets a coin?
the green books are not to be separated, (c) books of 11. Seven children join hands and form a circle. In how
the same color are to be kept together? many ways could the circle be formed? In how many
ways could they make a line?
12. Five boys and five girls form a line with the boys
PERMUTATIONS and girls alternating. Find the number of ways of
making the line. How many different ways could
An arrangement of objects in a definite order is they form a circle in which the boys and girls
called a permutation of the objects. alternate?
13. In how many ways can 8 persons be seated at a
Number of permutations of n things taken r at a time round table if a certain 2 are (a) to sit next to each
P(n, r) = n (n 1) (n 2) . . . (n r +1) other; (b) not to sit next to each other?
n!
P(n, r) = ( nr ) !
COMBINATIONS

## Number of permutations of n things taken all at a time

Lecture Notes in
Math 123e (Advance College Algebra) Engr. KISSA P. BANAWIS
A part or all of a set of objects is called a and those which oppose the happening. Although the
combination. A combination differs from a permutation treatment will be elementary, the principles introduced
in that it does not involve the order of selection or the are fundamental in the theory of probability.
arrangement of the members.
The sample space S for an experiment is the set
Theorem. If C(n, r) stands for the number of of all possible outcomes of the experiment.
combinations of n things taken r at a time (r n), then
Any subset of a sample space is called an event,
n ( n1 ) ( n2 ) . .. (nr+ 1) which is usually denoted by E.
C(n, r) = r!
The probability of the occurrence of an event E
Or, alternatively, is given by
n(E)
n! P(E) = n( S)
C(n, r) = r ! ( nr ) !
Exercises:
Exercises: 1. If one card is removed at random from a standard
1. Evaluate (a) C(31, 2); (b) C(26, 3); (c) C(24, 4); (d) deck of 52 playing cards, find the probability that the
C(13, 5). card will be (a) a heart, (b) one of the black suits, (c)
2. How many different ways can a tennis team of 4 be a red jack.
chosen from 17 players? 2. If a die is cast, find the probability that it falls (a) 1 or
3. Nine points, no three of which are on a straight line, 2 face up, (b) 4, 5, or 6 face up.
are marked on a blackboard. How many lines, each 3. A baby places the wooden digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, in a row.
through 2 of the points, can be drawn? How many What is the probability that the number thus formed
triangles are determined by the points? is (a) less than 20,000, (b) more than 40,000?
4. Seven different coins are tossed simultaneously. In 4. If a pair of dice are tossed, find the probability that the
how many ways can 3 heads and 4 tails come up? sum of the spots appearing up is (a) 3, (b) 8, (c) 7.
5. In how many ways can a court of 9 judges make (a) a 5. If two cards are drawn simultaneously from a deck of
5 to 4 decision; (b) a majority decision? 52 cards, what is the probability that they are both
6. A committee of 7 is to be composed of 4 Republicans 3s?
and 3 Democrats. Find the number of choices if 7 6. Five pennies are tossed simultaneously. Find the
Republicans and 8 Democrats are available for probability that they fall with (a) all heads up, (b) 4
appointment. heads and 1 tail up, (c) 2 heads and 3 tails up.
7. How many different groups of 9 baseball players can 7. A committee of 5 is chosen by lot from a group of 5
be chosen from 3 who play only as pitchers, 2 who seniors and 4 juniors. Find the probability that the
play only as catchers, and 14 who play in any committee will have (a) 3 seniors and 2 juniors, (b) 2
position other than pitcher or catcher? seniors and 3 juniors.
8. Find the number of ways of selecting 9 balls from 6 8. Three cards are drawn from a deck of 52 cards. Find
red balls, 5 white balls, and 4 blue balls if each the probability that they are (a) hearts, (b) of the same
s3election consists of 3 balls of each color. suit, (c) of different suits.
9. Find how many sums of money, each consisting of 3 9. If 8 men draw for partners from 8 cards which have
or more coins, can be formed from 6 different kinds the names of their wives, find the probability that
of coins. each man will draw the name of his wife.
10. Find the number of ways in which a librarian can 10. A bag contains 6 green marbles, 7 black marbles and
check out 8 different kinds of books to two students 8 yellow marbles. If 9 marbles are drawn at random
so that each gets 4 books. Suggestion: Find the from the bag, find the probability that 2 are green, 3
number of ways of giving 4 books to the first student. are black, and 4 are yellow.
11. In how many ways can 12 people be separated into
two groups of 5 and 7?
12. Find the number of different ways that 13 cards can PROBABILITIES IN THE UNION AND
be dealt from a standard 52-card deck. INTERSECTION OF EVENTS
13. How many different sums of money can be formed
by choosing one or more coins from a collection Theorem. If E1 and E2 are any events in a sample space
consisting of a penny, a nickel, a dime, a quarter, and S, then
a half dollar? P(E1 or E2) = P(E1 U E2) = P(E1) + P(E2) - P(E1 E2)

## If the occurrence of an event E1 does not affect

PROBABILITY the occurrence of another event E2 is said to be
independent of event E1. If, however, event E2 is affected
In our study of probability, we indicate precisely by the prior occurrence of event E1, then E2 is said to be
those conditions which favor the happening of an event dependent on E1.