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POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER : ANALYSIS &

SIMULATIONS

Technical Report

By
Vihang M. Dholakiya (10MEEE05)
Devendra P. Parmar (10MEEE07)

Under the Guidance of


Dr. S. C. Vora

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
NIRMA UNIVERSITY
AHMEDABAD 382 481
MAY 2012
Dedicated To
Mentor

Dr. S. C. Vora
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Technical Report entitled \POWER SYSTEM STA-
BILIZER : ANALYSIS & SIMULATIONS" submitted by Mr. Vihang M. Dholakiya
(10MEEE05) and Mr. Devendra P. Parmar (10MEEE07), is the record of work
carried out by them under my supervision and guidance. The work submitted has
in my opinion reached a level required for being accepted. The results embodied
in this project work to the best of my knowledge are satisfactory.
Date:

Project Guide
Dr. S. C. Vora
Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
Institute of Technology
Nirma University
Ahmedabad
Acknowledgements

We take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to our honorable guide
Dr.S.C.Vora for his invaluable guidance. It would have never been possible for us
to wok on this project without his technical support and continuous encourage-
ment. We consider ourself, extremely fortunate for having chance to work under
his guidance. In spite of his hectic schedule, he was always approachable and
spent his precious time to discuss problems. It has been a very learning and
enjoyable experi-ence to work under him.
We would like to acknowledge Mr. A. Ragaveniran et.al., authors of technical
paper titled as \MATLAB/Simulik-Based Modeling and Operation of Power
System Stabilizer" which provides us initial motivation for doing work in the area
of imple-mentation of power system stabilizer.
We would also like to thank all faculty members of Department of Electrical Engi-
neering, who have helped us during this project work. I wish to express my
thanks to other sta members of Electrical Department as well for their regular
help and co-operation during the project work. We heartily thankful sta member
of library for providing technical recourses for project work.
We would be specially thankful to our dear friend Narendra C. Mahavadia for
providing continuous help and motivational support during entire project work.
We never forget the time that we have spent with him during this tenure.
We are thankfull to our classmates for their invaluable help, suggestions and
support during the project work. We would like to thank all who have directly or
indirectly contributed to this project work.
Finally, We would like to thank The Almighty and express my deep sense of
rever-ence gratitude to our Parents and Family Members who have provided
support and blessings without which we wouldn't have reached at this stage.

- Vihang M. Dholakiya
- Devendra P. Parmar

i
Abstract

The extensive interconnection of power networks by weak tie-lines can restrict the
steady-state power transfer limits due to low frequency electromechanical
oscillations. The low frequency oscillations may result in interruptions in energy
supply due to loss of synchronism among the system generators and a ect
operational system economics and security. Further, in order to maintain steady state
and transient stability of syn-chronous generators, high performance excitation
systems are essential. The static exciters with thyristor controllers are generally used
for both hydraulic and thermal units. Such exciters are characterized by high initial
response and increased reliabil-ity due to advances in thyristor controllers and hence
have become one of the major problems in the power system stability area. As a
solution to this, the generators are equipped with Power System Stabilizers(PSSs)
that provide supplementary feedback stabilizing signals which is added to the
Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR). PSSs augment the power system stability limit
and extend the power transfer capability by enhancing the system damping of low-
frequency oscillations in the order of 0.2 to 3.0 Hz.

The report focuses on small signal performance analysis of Single Machine In nite
Bus(SMIB) as well as of multimachine power system. The dynamic behaviour of Ha
ron-Phillips model of excitation system with typical data is evaluated by devel-oping
MATLAB code for eigenvalue tracking analysis. The e ect of implementation of power
system stabilizer to SMIB system has been realized by time domain sim-ulations. In
the later part optimal placement of PSS is decided, because from the economic point
of view and to avoid redundancy, it is desired, not to employ PSS on individual
generators to overcome the problem of power system oscillations. The eigenvalue
analysis of the power system for various areas is used to determine the inter-area
and local mode frequencies and participation of the generators. It is also important to
identify the generator that shall be installed with PSS. A simulation study on well-
adopted test system is carried out, with various possibilities, to deter-mine the
optimal placement of the PSS. The observations of the certain analysis are helpful in
determining the PSS placement and are presented in the report.

ii
List of Figures

2.1 Classi cation of Power System Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


2.2 Phasor Representation of Electrical Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3 Synchronizing & Damping Torque Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 14

3.1 Ha ron- Phillips Model of Excitation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


3.2 Linearized SMIB Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3 Block Diagram of Linearized SMIB Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.4 Eigenvalue Loci for Variation in AVR Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.5 Basic Arrangement of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.6 Ha ron- Phillips Model of Excitation System with PSS . . . . . . . . 25
3.7 Operating Principle of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.8 General Structure of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.9 SMIB Model in MATLAB/SIMULINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.10 Rotor Angle Deviation Before Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.11 Speed Deviation Before Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.12 Rotor Angle Deviation After Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.13 Speed Deviation After Introducing PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.1 Single Line Diagram of Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


4.2 Speed Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Inter-Area Mode-
0.54 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.3 Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Local Mode-1.05 Hz . . . 39
4.4 Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System without PSS . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.5 Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Area-2 . . . . . . 40
4.6 Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Both Areas . . . . 40
4.7 MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.8 Block Diagram of PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.9 Power Flow from Area-1 to Area-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.10 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.11 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.12 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.13 Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

iii
List of Tables

2.1 Types of Swing Mode of Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


4.1 Network Statastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.2 Power Flow Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34


4.3 Line Flow Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.4 Summerized Power Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.5 Summerized Power Flow Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.6 E ects of PSS with Di erent Arrangement Scheme . . . . . . . . . . 37
B.1 Machine Data of Two Area Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

B.2 Line Data of Two Area Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


B.3 Load Data of Two Area Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.4 Exciter & PSS Data of Two Area Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

iv
Abbreviations

AVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Automatic Voltage Regulator


CPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous Power Flow
GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical User Interface
HVDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Voltage Direct Current
OPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimal Power Flow
PSAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power System Analysis Tool Box
PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power System Stabilizer
SMIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Machine In nite Bus System

Nomenclature
Gex(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exciter Transfer Function H . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of Inertia
KD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damping Co-e cient K E . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Exciter Gain
KS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synchronizing Co-e cient K P SS . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PSS Gain s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laplace Function T w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wash out Time Constant ! n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Natural Frequency !
r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Deviation
P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change in Power
Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Change in Rotor
Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damping Ratio . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase

v
Contents

Acknowledgements i
Abstract ii

List of Figures iii

List of Tables iv

Nomenclature/Abbreviations v

Contents vi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Problem Identi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


1.2 Objective of The Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Scope of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Outline of Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Power System Stability 4

2.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 Small Signal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3 Small Signal Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.1 Eigenvalue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.2 Synchronizing and Damping Torque Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3.3 Frequency Response and Residue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.4 Time Domain Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3 SMIB & PSS: Physical Aspects, Implementation & Analysis 17

3.1 Small Signal Performance of Single Machine In nite Bus System . . . 17


3.1.1 Formulation of He ron-Phillips Model of Excitation System for
Stability Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1.2 Linearized Model of Single Machine In nite Bus System . . . 19
3.1.3 Oscillatory Stability Assessment of SMIB . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1.4 Introducing PSS in AVR loop of SMIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

vi
vii

4 Optimal Placement of PSS in Multimachine Power System 32


4.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2 Test System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.3 Load Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.4 Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.4.1 System Behavior in Di erent Arrangement of PSS . . . . . . . 36
4.4.2 Mode Identi cation and Participation Analysis . . . . . . . . . 37
4.4.3 S-Domain Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.4.4 Time Domain Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5 Conclusions & Future Work 46

5.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.2 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

References 48
A IEEE Proceeding 49

B System Data 50

C Introduction to PSAT 2.1.6 52

C.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
C.1.1 Useful Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
C.1.2 PSAT Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
C.2 Starting Process of PSAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
C.3 Useful Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Index 58
Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Problem Identi cation

Power transactions are increasing day by day in restructured power systems. Re-
structured power system is therefore, expected to be operated at a greater variety of
operating points and closer to their operating constraints. The \low frequency os-
cillations" is one of the operational constraints which limit bulk power transmission
through power network. In such scenario, power system controls plays signi cant
role. Power system controls can contribute either positive or negative damping.
Generation control and particularly the generator voltage regulation can be signi cant
sources of negative damping. High gain in the generator voltage regulation can lead
to poor or negative damping of the oscillation. This problem has lead to the
implementation of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) to damp out the oscillations.

1.2 Objective of The Work

The project work is aimed at the implementation of power system stabilizer with
appropriate parameters in single machine in nite bus system. E ect of power
system stabilizer implementation on system damping is also targeted. Further, for
multi machine power system, it is aimed that, the damping of power system
oscillations can be achieved with minimum No.of power system stabilizers
located at optimal locations.

1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2

1.3 Project Planning


Formation & analysis of Ha ron-Phillips model of excitation system.

Development of program in MATLAB for sweep analysis of exciter gain and


its e ect on system response.

c
Formation of SMIB in M AT LAB /SIMULINK.

E ect of PSS on response of SMIB system.


c
Formation of Kundur's Two Area System in M AT LAB /SIMULINK.

S-domain analysis of Kundur's Two Area System using Power System


Analysis Toolbox(PSAT).

Primary screening of generators for placement of PSS through participation


factors.

Time domain simulations of developed Kundur's Two Area System.

1.4 Scope of Work


The scope of the project work can be broadly outlined as below:

Realization of Ha ron-Philips Model of Excitation System.

E ect of PSS implementation on behavior of SMIB.

Eigenvalue analysis of Kundur's Two Area System in various PSS

arrangement. Participation factor analysis.

Response analysis in time domain for Kundur's Two Area System with
typical di erent cases.

Choice of optimal location of PSS based on observations of S-domain


analysis and time-domain simulations.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 3

1.5 Outline of Thesis

Chapter 1 introduces the main problem associated with the low frequency
oscillation damping by optimally placed PSS and the same is considered as the
objective of this work. The project planning and scope of work is also included.

Chapter 2 gives general background of power system stability. The detail


description of eigenvalue analysis method used for evaluating small signal per-
formance of power system is focused and the other methods are discussed brie y.

Chapter 3 includes the dynamic analysis of Hafron-Phillips model of excitation


system through eigenvalue tracking method. The e ect of implementation of
PSS in SMIB has also been analyzed by performing time domain simulations.

Chapter 4 discusses about optimal placement of PSS in multimachine power


system. The eigenvalue analysis of for Kundur's two area system is used to de-

termine the mode of oscillation and participation of the generators. A


simulation study on considered test system is carried out, with various PSS
arrangement, the optimal placement of the PSS is decided.

Chapter 5 comprises of conclusion and future work.


Chapter 2

Power System Stability

2.1 Background

Modern power system can be characterized by widespread system interconnections.


The interconnected power system is comprised of multiple machines connected by the
transmission network. The supply of reliable and economic electric energy is a major
determinant of industrial progress and consequent rise in the standard of living. In
practical terms this means that both voltage and frequency must be held within allow-
able tolerances so that the consumer's equipment can operate satisfactorily. Further,
with deregulation of power supply utilities, the power network has become a highway for
transmitting electric power from wherever it is available to places where required,
depending on the pricing that varies with time of the day. In such scenario, the anal-ysis
of dynamic performance and stability of power system has great importance.

The stability problem is concerned with the behavior of the synchronous machines under
perturbed conditions. If the perturbation does not involve any net change in power, the
machines should return to their original state and if an unbalance between the supply
and demand is created by perturbation, a new operating state should be achieved.
When the system changes its operating point from one stable point to the other,it is
mandatory that all interconnected synchronous machines should remain in synchronism.
i.e., they should all remain operating in parallel and at the same speed.

4
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 5

Thus, Power System Stability may be broadly de ned as that property of power
system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal
operating condition and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being
sub-jected to disturbance[1].
Although, stability of a system is an integral property of the system, for purposes
of the system analysis, it is mainly divided into following categories:

Steady State Stability relates to ability of synchronous machine to maintain


synchronism followed by small disturbances. e.g. gradually changing load.

Dynamic or Small Signal Stability concerns with the response of syn-chronous


machine to small perturbations that are oscillating in nature. If these

oscillations are of small amplitude, the system may be considered as small


signal stable, but if the amplitude of oscillations is of growing nature, with
the passage of time the system may lose its stability. Usually, heavy power
ow in trans-mission line or interaction of controller with system frequency is
responsible for small signal instabilities. The phenomenon is concerning
with few seconds to 10s of seconds of time period.

Transient Stability involves response of synchronous machine to large dis-


turbances such as application and clearing of faults, sudden load changes and
inadvertent tripping of transmission lines or generators. Such large disturbances
can create large changes in rotor speeds, power angles and power transfer. The
phenomenon is concerns with time period of 1 second or less.

The detailed classi cation of power system stability is depicted in the following
Fig.2.1 [1].The report focuses on the Small Signal Stability of power system.
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 6

Figure 2.1: Classi cation of Power System Stability


CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 7

2.2 Small Signal Stability

Small Signal Stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism
when subjected to small disturbances. A power system at a particular operating state
may be large disturbance unstable and still such a system may be operated with
insecurity with proper control and protective actions. But, if the system is small-signal
unstable at a given operating condition, it cannot be operated at all, because small
signal instability may result in steady increase in generator rotor angle due to lack of
synchronizing torque or in rotor oscillations of increasing amplitude due to insu cient
damping torque. Thus, small-signal stability is a fundamental requirement for the
satisfactory operation of power systems.The reasons for the system can become
small signal unstable are enlisted hereunder[3]:

Use of high gain fast acting exciters

Heavy power transfer over long transmission lines from remote generating plants

Power transfer over weak ties between systems which may result due to
line outages.

Inadequate tuning of controls of equipment such as generator excitation


systems, HVDC-converters and static var compensators.

Adverse interaction of electrical and mechanical systems causing


instabilities of torsional mode oscillations.

The issue of small signal instability in current scenario is generally because of


insu - cient damping of oscillations. In practical power system, the main types of
oscillations associated with small signal stability are as follows:

1) Swing Mode

2) Control Mode

3) Torsional Mode
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 8

Swing Mode of Oscillation


This mode is also referred to as electromechanical oscillations. For an n
gen-erator system, there are (n-1) swing (oscillatory) modes associated
with the generator rotors.The location of generators in the system
determines the type of swing mode.Hence, the swing mode of oscillation
can be further sub classi ed as shown in following Table 2.1 [3].

Table 2.1: Types of Swing Mode of Oscillations

Local Mode Inter-Unit(Intra-plant) Mode Inter-Area


These oscillations generally These oscillations These oscillations usually
involve one or more typically involve two or involve combinations of many
synchronous machines at a more synchronous synchronous machines on
power station swinging machines at a power one part of a power system
together against a plant swing against each swinging against machines
comparatively large power other. on another part of the system.
system or load center.
Freqency Range: 0.7 to 2 Hz Freqency Range: 1.5 to 3 Hz Freqency Range: 0.1 to 0.5 Hz

Control Modes of Oscillations


Control modes are associated with generating units and other controls.
Poorly tuned exciters, speed governors, HVDC converters and static var
compensators are the usual causes of instability of these modes.

Torsional Mode of Oscillations


These oscillations involve relative angular motion between the rotating
elements (synchronous machine rotor, turbine, and exciter) of a unit, with
frequencies ranging from 4Hz and above. Instability of torsional mode may
be caused by interaction with excitation controls, speed governors and
series capacitor compensated transmission lines.

Of these oscillations, local mode, intra-plant mode, control mode and torsional
mode are generally categorized as local problems as it involves a small part of
the system. Further, inter-area mode oscillations are categorized as global
problems and have widespread e ects.
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 9

2.3 Small Signal Stability Analysis

There are mainly four techniques which are used to analyze the small signal
stability of power system:

a. Eigenvalue Analysis

b. Synchronizing and Damping Torque Analysis

c. Frequency Response and Residue Based Analysis

d. Time domain Simulations

2.3.1 Eigenvalue Analysis

In this report ,of the above methods, Eigenvalue Analysis is used to study oscillatory
behavior of power systems and hence has been described in detail. The system is
linearized about an operating point and typically involves computation of eigenvalues,
eigenvectors, participation factors and system modes from state-space representation of
power system model. This can also be termed as \Small Signal Stability Analysis" or
\Modal Analysis". Technique employed in this report for studying oscillatory modes is
also based on eigenvalue analysis. Initially, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are derived.
From this, modes of oscillations and participation factor of particular generator are found
out. It gives preliminary idea about possible location of PSS. The derivation of
eigenvalues and participation factor can be found in [1] and can be brie y explained as
follows: Linear approximation of power systems can be characterized by the following
state-space equations:

_ (2.1)
x=A x+B u

_ (2.2)
y=C x+D u

Where,
x is the state vector of length equal to the number of states n
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 10

y is the output vector of length m


u is the input vector of length r
A is the (n n) state matrix B is
the input matrix of (n r)
C is the output matrix of (m n)
D is the feed forward matrix of (m r)
Eigenvalues of the system state matrix is available from the characteristic
equation of the state matrix A. It can be expressed as

det(A I) = 0 (2.3)

For each of the eigenvalues, there are two sets of orthogonal eigenvectors,
namely the left and right eigenvectors, satisfying the following equations:

Ai= i i (2.4)
iA = i i
(2.5)

Where,
th
i, is the i eigenvalue i is the right eigenvector corresponding to i i is the left
eigenvector corresponding to i

Eigenvalue & Stability of Power System

The time-dependent characteristic of a mode corresponding to an eigenvalue i is


it
given by e . Therefore, the stability of the system is determined by the eigenvalues
analysis. Real eigenvalues are associated with non-oscillatory modes, whereas the
complex ones, appearing in conjugate pairs, correspond to oscillatory modes - one
mode for each pair. If the eigenvalue of an oscillatory mode is expressed as,

i = j! (2.6)
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 11

The damping coe cient which gives the rate of decay of amplitude of the
oscillation is given by,
= p (2.7)
2 2
+!
and the frequency of oscillation in Hz is determined by,
f= ! (2.8)

A negative real part of the eigenvalue represents positive damping coe cient that is,
decaying oscillation, and the positive real part indicates negative damping, i.e.,
increasing oscillation. The right eigenvector of a mode gives an idea about how this
mode is distributed among di erent states of the system and hence known as Mode
Shape. Based on this idea, if a mode is found to be distributed among speci c state
variable of generating units in di erent areas, then that mode can be identi ed as a
local mode or inter-area mode. Typically, rotor speed is used as the test state
variable for mode shape analysis in inter-area oscillation study[1] , [4].

Participation Factor is a measurement of relative participation of any state


variable in any speci c mode. It is mathematically expressed as the multiplication
th
of left and right eigenvectors. For example, participation factor p ki of any k state
th
variable in any i mode can be measured as[1],

p = (2.9)
ki kiik

Where,
th th
ki is the k entry of the right eigenvector of i mode ik
th th
is the k entry of the left eigenvector of i mode
Thus, participation factors are the sensitivities of the eigenvalues to changes in the
diagonal elements of the state matrix. They indicate possible locations where a stabilizer
may e ectively control the mode of concern[8]. Eigenvalue or modal analysis describes
the small-signal behavior of the system about an operating point, and does not take into
account the nonlinear behavior of components such as controller's limits at large system
perturbations. Further, design and analysis carried out using various
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 12

indices such as participation factors, may lead to many alternate options. These
options need to be veri ed by time-domain simulations.

Advantages of Eigenvalue Analysis

i) Separate identi cation of modes of oscillations

ii) Root loci plotted with variations in system parameters or operating conditions
provide valuable insight into the dynamic characteristics of the system.

iii) Using eigenvectors coherent groups of generators which participate in a


given swing mode can be identi ed.

2.3.2 Synchronizing and Damping Torque Analysis

The synchronous operation of generators is generally dealing with balance


between the input mechanical torque and output electrical torque of each
machine. The change in electrical torque of alternator following small perturbation
can be illustrated through following equation:
Te = Ts + TD ! (2.10)

Where,

Ts is the component of torque change in phase with the rotor angle pertur-
bation and is referred to as the synchronizing torque component.

Ts is the synchronizing torque coe cient.

TD ! is the component of torque in phase with the speed deviation and is


referred to as the damping torque component.

TD is the damping torque coe cient.

The nature of system oscillations to small perturbation depends on both the com-
ponents of electrical torque. The response of generator without automatic voltage
regulator (constant eld) can result into instability due to lack of su cient synchro-
nizing torque. Such instability is known as non-oscillatory instability. Further, the
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 13

presence of automatic voltage regulator can also result in instability with oscillations
having nature of continuously growing amplitude. Such instability is known as oscilla-
tory instability. Both types of instabilities are illustrated in following Fig.3.1 [1]. This
analysis assumes that the rotor angle and the speed deviations oscillate sinusoidally.
Hence this can be represented by phasors as depicted in Fig.2.2

Figure 2.2: Phasor Representation of Electrical Torque

From the above gure the damping torque component can be written as

TeD = Te cos (2.11)

And synchronizing torque component can be written as

TeS = Te sin (2.12)

If either or both damping and synchronizing torques are negative, i.e., if TeD <
0 and/or TeS < 0, then the system is unstable. A negative damping torque im-plies
that the response will be in the form of growing oscillations, and a negative
synchronizing torque implies monotonic instability.
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 14

Figure 2.3: Synchronizing & Damping Torque Stability Analysis


CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 15

2.3.3 Frequency Response and Residue Analysis

Frequency response is characterization of a systems transfer function between a


given input and output. Frequency response methods allow a deeper insight into
small-signal dynamics and have widespread use in the design of power system
controllers. Frequency response can also be measured directly, even in a power
system. Residues give the contribution of a mode to a transfer function. They
also give the sensitivity of the corresponding eigenvalue to a positive feedback
between the output of the transfer function and its input. Thus, residues are
useful to get an idea of which modes will be a ected most by feedback. An
advantage of using residues in such analysis is that it takes into account the
transfer function structure of the excitation system unlike participation factors.
However, evaluation of residues dependent on the speci c input/output
combinations and may be computationally intensive for large systems.

2.3.4 Time Domain Solutions

Time domain techniques provide an exact determination of stability of non-linear


systems both for small and large disturbances. The choice of disturbance and
selection of variables to be observed in time response are critical. If the input is not
chosen properly, there is possibility that the substantial excitation of the important
modes may not be achieved. The observed response may contain many modes and
the poorly damped modes may not be so dominant. The solution is highly a ected by
the modeling of the components. Larger systems may have a number of inter-area
modes of similar frequencies, and it is quite di cult to separate them from a response
in which more than one is excited. Therefore, for a large power system it is not
possible to identify any desired mode and study their characteristics.

Of all these methods, eigenvalue or modal analysis is widely used for analyzing
the small-signal stability of power system due to advantages described earlier in
this section.
CHAPTER 2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 16

2.4 Summary

The chapter provides general introduction to basic concepts of power system stability
including a discussion of classi cation,de nitions of related terms in brief. The details
regarding small signal stability analysis includes eigenvalue analysis along with other
methods to evaluate small signal performance of power system in simpli ed manner.
Chapter 3

SMIB & PSS: Physical Aspects,


Implementation & Analysis

3.1 Small Signal Performance of Single Machine In nite


Bus System
In order to analyze the small signal stability of SMIB, following methodology has
been adopted:

A) Formulation of He ron-Phillips Model of Excitation System for Stability Studies

B) Linearized Model of Single Machine In nite Bus System

C) Oscillatory Stability Assessment of SMIB

D) Introducing PSS in AVR loop of SMIB

3.1.1 Formulation of He ron-Phillips Model of Excitation System


for Stability Studies

The third-order model of the synchronous machine can be represented as a block dia-
gram shown in Fig.3.1. The basis for the model presented here, which was originally
proposed by He ron and Phillips, is the \Single Machine In nite Bus" (SMIB) setup. By
introducing a number of new constants, a very compact notation is achieved. The

17
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS18

model is useful to directly implement a simpli ed representation of an SMIB system,


including the mechanical dynamics, eld winding, and excitation system. This im-
plementation can be used directly for stability studies. In the present case, a generic
simpli ed representation of the excitation system is used. Detailed descriptions and
common variants of these systems can be found in [1]. All quantities presented

Figure 3.1: Ha ron- Phillips Model of Excitation System

are in per unit. The mechanical system is represented by the system inertia and
the damping constant, where the torque balances Tm Te is considered as an input
and the incremental torque angle as an output. The electrical part of the system
consists of three main parts:

a. The composition of the electrical torque (in uenced by over constant K 1 and
the internal incremental voltage eq over constant K2),

b. The e ect of the eld winding (determined by the eld winding constant K 3 and
in uenced by over constant K4),

c. The e ect of the excitation system (in uenced by over constant K 5 and eq
over constant K6).
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS19

The excitation system itself is modeled by a rst-order transfer function including


the ampli cation factor KA and the time constant TA.

Interpretation of K-constants

The constants K1 to K6 shown in block diagram describe internal in uence factors


within the system and can be found by a comparison of coe cients with the equations
governing the synchronous machine dynamics. While K 1 and K2 are derived from the

computation of the electric torque, K 3 and K4 have their origin in the eld voltage

equation. K5 and K6 come from the equation governing the terminal voltage magni-
tude. The detailed derivation of K-constants is given in chapter 12 of P. Kundur.
K1 - In uence of torque angle on electric torque
K2-In uence of internal Voltage on electric torque
K3- eld winding constant
K4-In uence of torque angle on eld voltage
K5-In uence of torque angle on terminal voltage
K6-In uence of internal voltage on terminal voltage

3.1.2 Linearized Model of Single Machine In nite Bus Sys-tem

Figure 3.2: Linearized SMIB Model

Fig.3.2 shown above is representation of single machine connected to large power


system through transmission line. For any condition, the magnitude of in nite bus voltage

EB remains constant when machine is perturbed. Considering classical model of


synchronous generator and neglecting stator resistance, linearization of system
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS20

equations gives state space equation as follows:


dt 2 3 =2 2H 2H 32 3 + 2 2H 3 Tm (3.1)
K K
1
d !r
D S
!r
4 5 4 0 54 5 4 0 5
!0

Block diagram representation of linearized system is depicted in following


gure3.3: where,

Figure 3.3: Block Diagram of Linearized SMIB Model

KS=Synchronizing torque coe cient in pu torque/rad


KD=Damping torque coe cient in pu torque/rad
H =Inertia Constant in MW sec/MVA
!r=Speed Deviation in pu =Rotor
angle deviation in elec. rad
s=Laplace operator
!0=Rated speed in elec. rad/sec
The characteristic equation for the system can be given as

2 =0 (3.2)
s + KD s + K s ! 0
2H 2H
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS21

Comparing this with general characteristic equation

2 2 (3.3)
s + 2 !ns + !n = 0
Natural frequency of oscillation is

!n = r (3.4)
s
!
k
2H

and damping ratio is 1


KD

= (3.5)
2

p
Ks2H!0
a. As the synchronizing torque coe cient K s increases, the natural frequency
in-creases and the damping ratio decreases.

b. An increase in damping torque coe cient KD increases the damping ratio

c. An Increase in inertia constant decreases both natural frequency and


damping ratio.

3.1.3 Oscillatory Stability Assessment of SMIB

Dynamic Performance Evaluation of AVR Loop and Stability of SMIB System

Under heavy loading condition, the modern regulator-exciter system introduces


neg-ative damping and may lead to oscillatory instability. For the sake of small
signal stability analysis, a typical single machine in nite bus bar system given as
example in book titled as \ Power System Dynamics-Stability and Control" by
K.R. Padiar has been considered [2]. The system data considered are as follows:

Pg =1.1 Vt = Eb =1.0 KD=0 T3=6.0 sec KE=200 TE=0.05 sec


K1 = 0.0345 K2 = 2.2571 K3 = 0.4490 K4 = 0.1826 K5 =-0.0649 K6 =1.0613
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS22

In order to evaluate dynamic performance of SMIB in small signal instable


condition, Eigenvalue Tracking approach has been adopted.

Eigenvalue Tracking Analysis

As discussed in chapter 1 that the eigenvalues computed from the system state
matrix can be helpful to predict the system stability.From the data shown in the
above table, a MATLAB code has been developed to analyze the behaviour of

system against gain variation from K E=0 to KE=400. It is possible to express the
system equations in the state space form. From the block diagram, shown in
Fig.3.1, the following system equations and state matrix are derived.

x = [A]x + [B]Vref (3.6)

T (3.7)
x = [!r fdEfd]
2 K1 0 K 0 3
K D
2

6 0 ! 0 7
2
[A] = K4 1 1 (3.8)
6 H 0 0 7
2H 2H
6 7
T3 T3K3 T3
0
K K K K
6 E 5 E 6 1 7
6 7
T5 TE

6 TE 7

4 5

B = [0 0 0 KE ]T (3.9)
TE
The damping term KD, is included in the swing equation. The eigenvalues of the
matrix should lie in left half plane in the`s' plane for the system to be stable. The

e ect of various parameters for example, here e ect of variation in K E is examined


from eigenvalue analysis. It is to be noted that the elements of matrix [A] are
dependent on the operating condition.
The loci of the complex critical eigenvalues for the considered case is shown in Fig.3.4.
It is observed that, when K5 < 0, the increase in AVR gain beyond K E=4 results in

oscillatory instability. Although the locus turns around as KE is further increased,but


CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS23

still it remains in the right hand plane only. Further,there is only one of the critical
eigenvalues is shown in Fig.3.4. The other is the complex conjugate whose locus
is the mirror image about the real axis. Thus, it can be realized from the analysis
that the fast acting AVR with higher gains are creating oscillatory instability in the
power system. In order to avoid such situation, the e ect of implementation of
PSS in small signal unstable system is discussed in subsequent sections.

Figure 3.4: Eigenvalue Loci for Variation in AVR Gain

3.1.4 Introducing PSS in AVR loop of SMIB

Basics of Power System Stabilizer

Apart from providing fast control of the terminal voltage, high performance excitation
systems are essential for maintaining steady state and transient stability of modern
synchronous generators. It is observed that fast acting exciters with high gain AVR
can contribute to oscillatory instability in power systems. This type of-instability is
characterized by low frequency (0.2 to 2.0 Hz) oscillations which can persist or even
grow in magnitude for no apparent reason. A cost e ective and satisfactory solution
to the problem of oscillatory instability is to provide damping for generator rotor
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS24

oscillations. This is conveniently done by providing Power System Stabilizers


(PSS) which are supplementary controllers in the excitation systems. The basic
function of PSS is to add damping to the generator rotor oscillations by
controlling its excitation using auxiliary stabilizing signal.
The basic arrangement of PSS along with the generator controls is depicted in Fig.3.5.
In this arrangement, speed change of generator is taken as input to PSS and its out-put
is added to the reference input of AVR to change the excitation voltage.

Figure 3.5: Basic Arrangement of PSS

The theoretical basis for PSS can be illustrated by extended block diagram of He
ron-Phillips model of excitation system as depicted in 3.6 As the purpose of PSS
is to introduce damping torque component, a logical signal to use for controlling

generator excitation is the speed deviation !r.


CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS25

Figure 3.6: Ha ron- Phillips Model of Excitation System with PSS

Power System Stabilizer adds damping to generator rotor oscillations by


controlling its excitation using an auxiliary stabilizing signal. The stabilizer does
so by producing component of electrical torque in phase with the rotor speed
deviation. Fig. 3.7 shows the operating principle of PSS.

Figure 3.7: Operating Principle of PSS


CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS26

From the above gure it can be clearly visualize that due to stabilizing signal
provided by PSS in phase with speed deviation, the electrical torque is shifted
from third to rst quadrant, means becomes positive from negative in magnitude.

General Structure of PSS


The block diagram of basic structure of power system stabilizer is depicted in

Figure 3.8: General Structure of PSS

Fig.3.8.It consists of gain block, washout circuit, dynamic compensator, and lim-iter.
The functions of each of the components of PSS are given in subsequent sections.

1) PSS Gain
Stabilizing gain KP SS determines the amount of damping introduced by PSS.
Ideally, PSS gain is set to get the maximum damping of the oscillatory modes.
However, due to practical considerations, high gain may not be always the
best option and may cause excessive ampli cation of stabilizer input signal. In
general, the gain value is set such that it results in satisfactory damping of
critical system modes without compromising the stability limits.

2) Washout Circuit
The washout circuit is provided to eliminate steady-state bias in the output of PSS
which will modify the generator terminal voltage. The PSS is expected to respond
only to transient variations in the input signal, say rotor speed and not to the dc o
sets in the signal. The washout circuit acts essentially as a high pass
lter and it must pass all frequencies that are of interest. If only the local modes are
of interest, the time constant Tw can be chosen in the range of 1 to 2. However,
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS27

if inter area modes are also to be damped, then Tw must be chosen in the range of 10

to 20. The value of Tw = 10 is necessary to improve damping of the inter area


modes[1]. There is also a noticeable improvement in the rst swing stability when

Tw is increased from 1.5 to 10. The higher value of T w also improved the
overall terminal voltage response during system islanding conditions.

3) Lead-Lag Compensator
Lead-Lag compensator block provides the suitable phase lead to compensate
for the phase lag between the exciter input and generator electrical
torque.The dy-namic compensator, used in practice, is made up of several
multiple stages of lead-lag compensators depending upon the requirement of
phase compensation to be provided.

4) PSS Output Limits


Stabilizer output voltage is limited between typical maximum and minimum
val-ues to restrict the level of generator terminal voltage uctuation during
transient conditions. Large output limits ensure maximum contribution of
stabilizers but generator terminal voltage may face large uctuation.The main
objective in select-ing the output limits of PSS is to allow maximum forcing
capability of stabilizer, while maintaining the terminal voltage within desired
limits. Most commonly used value of the maximum limit is between 0.1 to 0.2
p.u. , while minimum limit is taken between -0.05 and -0.1 p.u.

5) Input of PSS
Many signals, like rotor speed deviation, frequency deviation, change in load
angle, change in electrical power etc are possible to use as input signal to
PSS. However, from practical point of view, the following three types of input
signals are most commonly used as input to power system stabilizer:

Rotor Speed Deviation ( !)

Frequency Deviation ( f)

Electrical Power Deviation ( P)


CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS28

Though in practice, the speed deviation signal is used as input to PSS, it is in-
herently sensitive to torsional modes of oscillations in the frequency range of 8
to 20 Hz, which can lead to negative damping for torsional mode. Hence, It
also advisable to use torsional lter-typically a low pass lter- for avoiding
interaction of PSS with torsional mode of oscillations.

Time Domain Simulations of SMIB with PSS

The test system discussed in the previous section has also been used to realize the
impact of PSS installation in SMIB.The SIMULINK model of the test system is
depicted in Fig.3.9. From the Fig3.10. and Fig.3.11 of rotor angle deviation and
speed deviation respectively, it can be inferred that, in absence of su cient stabilizing
control the system has become oscillatory instable. The oscillations of growing
nature has been found that leads the test system to be small signal instable.

After introducing properly tuned PSS in AVR loop, it can be visualize from Fig.3.12
and Fig.3.13 of rotor angle deviation and speed deviation respectively, that the
system oscillations have been su ciently damped out in short period of time.

Figure 3.9: SMIB Model in MATLAB/SIMULINK


CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS29

Figure 3.10: Rotor Angle Deviation Before Introducing PSS


Figure 3.11: Speed Deviation Before Introducing PSS
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS30

Figure 3.12: Rotor Angle Deviation After Introducing PSS


Figure 3.13: Speed Deviation After Introducing PSS
CHAPTER 3. SMIB & PSS: PHYSICAL ASPECTS, IMPLEMENTATION & ANALYSIS31

3.2 Summary

The chapter provides basic analysis on e ect of AVR gain on power system
stability that produces power system oscillations of increasing amplitude.For the
purpose of analysis, typical SMIB system has been linearized to get the
eigenvalues for di erent values of AVR gain. Further, the damping of low
frequency oscillations is achieved by properly tuned PSS. The chapter provide s
platform for implementation of power system stabilizer in multimachine power
system which is discussed in subsequent chapter.
Chapter 4

Optimal Placement of PSS in


Multimachine Power System

4.1 Background

The enhancement of damping of low frequency oscillations in multimachine power


systems by the application of a PSS has become a matter of great attention. It is
much more signi cant in current scenario where many large and complex power
systems frequently operate close to their stability limits. Though, there is common
perception that the application of PSS is almost a mandatory requirement on all
generators, the use of high price PSS with each and every generator is constrained
by economical limits. In view of the potentially high cost of using a PSS and to
assess its e ectiveness in damping poorly damped oscillatory modes to achieve
better stability, identi cation of the optimum site of PSS is an important task.

4.2 Test System Description

Fig.4.1 shows the two-area benchmark power system which is developed by


P.Kundur considered for choosing optimal location of PSS.
The system contains eleven buses and two areas, connected by a weak tie between bus
7 and 9. Each area consists of two generators, each having a rating of 900 MVA and 20
kV. Inertia constant of area-1 generators is 6.5sec and of area-2 generators is

32
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM33

6.17 5sec. Totally two loads are applied to the system at bus 7 and 9. Two shunt
capacitors are also connected to bus 7 and 9 as shown in the gure below. For the
comparisons of the obtained results with that available in literature, the frequency
of operation is chosen as 60 Hz.

Figure 4.1: Single Line Diagram of Test System

The three step methodology adopted for deciding optimal location of PSS is
as follows. Power System Analysis Toolbox-PSAT is used to carry out the
following analysis:

(i) Load Flow Analysis

(ii) Linear (S-Domain) Analysis

(iii) Time Domain Simulations

4.3 Load Flow Analysis

Power ow analysis provides information regarding active and reactive power along
with other pertinent information such as bus bar voltage levels, e ect of inphase and
quadrature boost voltages on system loading, reactive power compensation. The
stability of the power system is related to the de ciency or redundancy in generation
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM34

against particular load demand, power ow through transmission lines and various
operating constraints. Before executing eigenvalue analysis, to know the status
of the system, means weather the system is operating closer to operating
constraints or not, load ow analysis is performed on the above described system.
The detailed system data is shown in AppendixB. and results achieved by power
ow in PSAT are shown in table hereunder:

Table 4.1: Network Statastics

Elements No.
Buses 11
Lines 7
Generators 4
Transformers 4
Loads 2

Table 4.2: Power Flow Results

Bus V Phase Phase P gen Q gen P load Q load


[p.u.] [rad] [degree] [p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.]
Bus 01 1.03 0.35252 20.19 7 1.7917 0 0
Bus 02 1.01 0.18237 10.44 7 2.2053 0 0
Bus 03 1.03 -0.11868 -6.79 7.1871 1.6911 0 0
Bus 04 1.01 -0.29607 -16.96 7 1.8571 0 0
Bus 05 1.0074 0.23984 13.74 0 0 0 0
Bus 06 0.98044 0.06428 3.68 0 0 0 0
Bus 07 0.96516 -0.08171 -4.68 0 0 9.67 -1
Bus 08 0.9532 -0.32301 -18.5 0 0 0 0
Bus 09 0.97616 -0.55941 -32.05 0 0 17.67 -2.5
Bus 10 0.98614 -0.41348 -23.69 0 0 0 0
Bus 11 1.0094 -0.23416 -13.41 0 0 0 0
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM35

Table 4.3: Line Flow Results

From Bus To Bus Line P Flow Q Flow P Loss Q Loss


[p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.]
Bus5 Bus6 1 7 0.97147 0.12314 1.1882
Bus6 Bus7 2 13.8769 1.1086 0.20163 1.9997
Bus7 Bus8 3 2.0132 0.05628 0.04811 0.304
Bus8 Bus9 4 1.9651 -0.24772 0.04706 0.29145
Bus11 Bus10 5 7.1871 0.83471 0.12855 1.242
Bus9 Bus10 6 -13.8549 1.4263 0.20361 2.0192
Bus7 Bus9 7 1.992 0.0526 0.09499 0.58713
Bus1 Bus5 8 7 1.7917 0 0.82022
Bus2 Bus6 9 7 2.2053 0 0.88004
Bus4 Bus10 10 7 1.8571 0 0.85693
Bus3 Bus11 11 7.1871 1.6911 0 0.85641

Table 4.4: Summerized Power Flow Analysis

Synchronous Machine P[MW] Q[MW] Et [p.u.] Angle[degree]


G1 700 185 1.03 20.2
G2 700 235 1.01 10.5
G3 719 176 1.03 -6.8
G4 700 202 1.01 -17

Observations and interpretation of above results can be enlisted as fol-


lows:

Load angle variations in generator rotor angles

Power ows from area-1 to area-2 through two ties lines: (1) connected
between buses 7 and 9 (2) connected as bus 7 to 8 and 8 to 9.

No power mismatch

Oscillations can be predicted due to tie line power ow and generator rotor
angle variations.

Provides base data to develop state matrix of the system.


CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM36

Table 4.5: Summerized Power Flow Results

Total Generation
Real Power [p.u.] 28.1871
Reactive Power [p.u.] 7.5453
Total Load
Real Power [p.u.] 27.34
Reactive Power [p.u.] -3.5
Total Losses
Real Power [p.u.] 0.84709
Reactive Power [p.u.] 11.0453

4.4 Linear Analysis


After performing load ow analysis, S-domain analysis of the test system is carried out
in typical test conditions.The analysis gives eigenplots for di erent cases considered
and from the movement of eigenvalues, the stability of the considered power system is
predicted.The system is said to be stable if the eigenvalues are far from the imaginary
axis. The system is considered to be in critically damped conditions if eigenvalues
are situated on imaginary axis itself. The eigenvalues in right half of the S-plane
represents unstable mode of oscillations. This has been realized in subsequent sections
of this chapter.

4.4.1 System Behavior in Di erent Arrangement of PSS

In order to discuss the impacts of di erent stabilizer arrangement on the power


oscil-lation damping, the following test conditions have been considered:

(1) No PSS;

(2) Install PSS in area-1 at G1 & G2;

(3) Install PSS in area-2 at G3 & G4;

(4) Install PSS in both areas at all generators.

The observations for the above cases are achieved by small perturbation at bus-8 for
the duration of 0.05s. In the corresponding situations, the small signal stability for
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM37

the inter-area oscillation has been analyzed in detail with the eigenvalues
analysis method using PSAT Toolbox. PSAT is an add-on MATLAB toolbox for
electric power system analysis and control. PSAT includes power ow,
continuation power ow, optimal power ow, small-signal stability analysis and time
domain simulation. All operations can be assessed by means of Graphical User
Interfaces (GUIs) and a Simulink-based library provides a user friendly tool for
network design[9].The details of PSAT is given in AppendixC.

4.4.2 Mode Identi cation and Participation Analysis

As a result of eigenvalue analysis, frequency and mode of oscillations have been


iden-ti ed using the report of small signal analysis in PSAT. It can be illustrated as
hereunder:

Table 4.6: E ects of PSS with Di erent Arrangement Scheme

Study case Inter-Area Mode Area-1 Local Mode


Frequency (Hz) Damping Ratio Frequency (Hz) Damping Ratio
Case-1 0.59 0.0378 1.085 0.0822
1.054 0.08232
Case-2 0.55 0.1 1.08 0.082
1.16 0.122
Case-3 0.60 0.144 1.19 0.122
1.05 0.083
Case-4 0.61 0.103 1.19 0.122
1.15 0.122

As shown in Table 4.6, four di erent cases have been compared to check the
suitable positioning of power system stabilizer in the test system to damp out
local as well as inter area mode of oscillations. The four di erent cases are as
mentioned before in this section.
The generators participating in the inter-area mode of oscillation, on installation of PSS,
o er di erent frequency of inter-area oscillation. This can be well observed in Table 4.6.
As the frequency of oscillation increases, the damping of oscillation is more e ective due
to presence of PSS. From the values of damping ratio shown in Table
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM38

4.6, it can be inferred that, the local & inter area both the modes of oscillations can
be damped de nitely by placing PSS in both the areas. For damping of local mode
oscillations, there are three choices. One can follow the either of choice from case
no. 2, 3 and 4. The value of damping ratio that we get for local as well as inter area
mode, in case 1, is comparatively smaller than the other cases. Hence it is not
considered as a suitable choice for installation of PSS. In case no. 4 PSS is installed
at all generators. Although it gives best damping e ect, but it will result in redundancy
of no. of PSS used. So, in this report case no. 3 has been considered as suitable
choice for placement of PSS, because it provides su cient damping to local as well
as inter area mode of oscillations. It is being worth noted that the generators of Area-
2 are participating signi cantly only in inter area mode for considered cases. They
have negligible contribution to local mode oscillations. Hence, not depicted in Table
4.6. Further this can also be realized from the plot of speed participation factor v/s
generator no. shown in Fig.4.2 and 4.3.Resembling plots can be possible for other
modes of frequency for various cases.

Figure 4.2: Speed Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Inter-Area Mode-
0.54 Hz
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM39

Figure 4.3: Participation Factor v/s Generator No. For Local Mode-1.05 Hz

4.4.3 S-Domain Plots

Figures shown below are eigenvalues plots for the two-area test system with di
erent stabilizer arrangements. From Fig.4.4, it can be seen that as for the open
loop system without any installed stabilizer, there is some margin of stability. By
installing the stabilizers in area-2, oscillation modes have been suppressed, and
hence system is enhanced greatly which is shown in Fig. 4.5. If we install the
stabilizers in both the areas, the inter-area mode and two local modes can attain
high damping and lower oscillation frequency shown in Fig.4.6.
Figure 4.4: Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System without PSS
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM40

Figure 4.5: Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Area-2

Figure 4.6: Eigenvalues of Two Area Test System with PSS in Both Areas

4.4.4 Time Domain Simulations

For the veri cation and realization of concept of small signal oscillations, a two area
c
model described earlier has been developed using M AT LAB /SIMULINK software
as shown in 4.7. In this model, standard p.u. model of generator is considered. The
generator parameters in per unit on the rated MVA and kV base and the details of
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM41

exciter parameter, Step-up transformer, transmission line & load are as per
Kundur's Two Area test system .

Figure 4.7: MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of Test System

Details of power system stabilizers employed are as in block diagram in Fig.4.8.


The simulations were carried out and various analysis results are depicted
pictorially for clarity.

Figure 4.8: Block Diagram of PSS

The power system stabilizer model is with single input of the rotor speed

deviation. The damping is mostly determined by the gain K S=20, and the
following sub-block of wash out circuit has the high-pass ltering function to
ensure the stabilizer has the relative better response on the speed deviation.
There are also lead-lag transfer func-tions to compensate the phase lag between
the excitation model and the synchronous machine.
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM42

Power Flow Plots

In order to represent the concerned oscillation e ects, the time domain analysis
for the test system has been performed. Fig.4.9 shows the simulation results on
the line power ow from area 1 to area 2.
It can be observed that the arrangement on stabilizer installation for every machine
in both areas has the best damping e ects on inter-area oscillation, which is in unison
with the dominant eigenvalues analysis results discussed in earlier section.

If there is no stabilizer for machines in both areas, the inter-area oscillation is un-
avoidable. The power transfer for such a case would reach to 800 MW with signi
cant oscillations. This leads to stresses in a weakly coupled tie line. System will
be highly oscillatory and hence may result into instability.

Figure 4.9: Power Flow from Area-1 to Area-2

Comparative analysis of the oscillations between areas indicate that installing the
stabilizers for G3 and G4 in area-2 is a relative optimal solution to damp the inter-
area oscillations. For this particular location of PSS, the constant active power ow is
identi ed as 413 MW from area-1 to area-2. Thus by proper placement of PSS and
tuning, constant power ow and damped inter area oscillations is achieved.
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM43

Per Unit Speed Deviation Plots

Figure 4.10 to Fig.4.13 shown below are simulation results of per unit speed
deviation of each generator in both areas. The results are achieved for perturbed
test system to analyze the behavior of power system stabilizer at various
locations.Cases considered for analysis are same as mentioned in section IV.
For case-1, it is clearly visible from the Fig.4.10, that both the generators of a par-
ticular area deviate in reasonably in harmony. As expected, generators of both the
areas are oscillating in opposite direction. Further the system does not stabilize even
after long time; generators continue to oscillate around a particular operating point.

Figure 4.10: Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-1

For cases 2 and 3 as evident from Fig.4.11 and 4.12, generators of speci c area
are oscillating in particular direction where as in case-4, Fig.4.13 all the
generators are oscillating in unison.
Further it is observed from Fig.4.11 that choice of area-1 as location of PSS is resulting
in damped oscillation. But constraint with this arrangement of PSS is that PSS is taking
long time of around 25 to 30 seconds to mitigate the oscillation completely.

In case-4, if PSS is introduced in both areas at every generator, it is de nite from


the Fig.4.13 that the oscillations must die out within very short duration of 6 to 7
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM44

Figure 4.11: Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-2

seconds. But at the same time it is not favorable situation because placing PSS
at every generator has a redundancy in the solution.

Figure 4.12: Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-3

For better choice which is optimized one is case-3. In this case PSS are installed
at both the generators of area-2. As shown in Fig. 4.12, the oscillations are
mitigated in about 10 sec.
CHAPTER 4. OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF PSS IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEM45

Figure 4.13: Per Unit Speed Deviation for Case-4

4.5 Summary

This chapter presents the power system stabilizer with the consideration of local and
inter-area mode of oscillations, to damp the potential power oscillation. Based on
this, the eigenvalues analysis method has been adopted to analyze the damping e
ects of various arrangement schemes of such stabilizer. The case study on the
typical 4-machines 2-area test system shows that although the best arrangement
scheme that install the stabilizer for every machine and area can obtain the best
oscillation damping e ect, it is not the economical solution scheme especial to the
large power networks, and the scheme that arrange stabilizer for one area is the
optimal arrangement with the consideration of economical factor.
Chapter 5

Conclusions & Future Work

5.1 Conclusions

The small perturbation stability characteristics of a single machine supplying an


in-nite bus through external impedance have been explored by means of
eigenvalue tracking analysis giving insights into e ects of automatic voltage
regulator gain, and stabilizing functions derived from speed and working through
the voltage reference of the voltage regulator. An attempt has been made to
understand basic concepts that explain the stability phenomena and e ect of
implementation of PSS in power system.
Further, the stabilizing signals obtained from the PSS help mitigating the inter-area
and local mode oscillations. Studies on PSS placement has been an interest. Using
eigenvalues analysis and from the participation factors of the generators for di erent
modes, optimal solution to PSS placement was desired. The simulation studies car-
ried out on a test system indicated speci c generators, when supplemented by PSS,
helps mitigating oscillations reasonably fast. The work is done on the test system
with identical PSS and optimal solution for the system is proposed, based on which
further extension to actual systems after the zone and area formation seems
feasible. Thus, it is concluded from the results that by performing S-domain analysis,
the op-timal location of the PSS in multi-machine system can be decided. The time-
domain results in the said cases shall be no di erent than the S-domain results.

46
CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS & FUTURE WORK 47

5.2 Future Work

As an extension to the presented work, it is suggested to observe results of


employing PSS with various gains and design to achieve quicker oscillation mit-
igation, avoid speed deviations, which may give better insight.

The future researches on the arrangement rules with evolutionary algorithm and
the coordinated FACTS device to obtain the better power oscillation damping
e ects can be concerned and performed.
References

[1] ] Prabha Kundur, \Power System Stability and Control," The EPRI Power
Sys-tem Engineering Series, 1994, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-063515-3.

[2] K.R.Padiyar, \Power System Dynamics Stability and Control," B.S


Publications, 2002, ISBN: 81-7800-024-5.

[3] K.N.Shubhanga, \Manual for a Multimachine Transient Stability Programme,"


Version 1.0.

[4] M. Klein, G.J.Rogers, and P.Kundur, \A Fundamental Study of Inter-Area Os-


cillations," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol.6, no-3, Aug. 1991, pp. 914-921.

[5] Liao Quing n, Liudichen, Zeng Cong, Ying Liming, Cui Xue. \Eigen value
sen-sitivities of excitation system, model and parameters," 3rd IEEE Conf.
On In-dustrial Electronics and Applications, June-2008, pp. 2239-2243.

[6] F.P.DeMello and C.Concordia, \Concepts of Synchronous Machine Stability


as A ected by Excitation Control," IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and
Systems, PAS-88, Apr. 1969, pp.316-329.

[7] Gurunath Gurrala, \Power System Stabilizer Design for Interconnected power
System," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol.25, no.2, May 2010, pp. 1042-1051.

[8] M.Klein, G.J.Rogers, S.Moorty, P.Kundur, \Analytical Investigation of Factors


In uencing Power System Stabilizer Performance," IEEE Trans. on Energy
Con-version , vol.7, no.3, Sept. 1992, pp. 382 - 390.

[9] Federico Milano, \Documentation for Power System Analysis Toolbox


(PSAT)," 2004.

48
Appendix A

IEEE Proceeding

[1] Devendra P.Parmar, Vihang M.Dholakiya, and Santosh C.Vora, \Optimal


Place-ments of Power System stabilizers: Simulation studies on Test System",
nd
Presented at 2 International conference of Current Trends in Technology
(NUiCONE'11) at Nirma University, Ahmedabad , ISBN No.: 978-1-4577-2169-4 .

49
Appendix B

System Data

The system consist of two similar area connected by a weak tie line. Each area con-
sists of two coupled units, The parameters of system as depicted in below tables.

Machines Data:

Table B.1: Machine Data of Two Area Test System


Gen. MVA Xd Xd' Xd" Tdo' Tdo" Xq Xq' Xq" Tqo' Tqo"
No Rating (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) Sec. Sec. (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) Sec. Sec.
1 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05
2 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05
3 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05
4 900 1.8 0.3 0.25 8.0 0.03 1.7 0.55 0.25 0.4 0.05

Inertia constant of Area-1 machines are 6.5 (for G1 & G2), Area-2 machines are
6.125 (for G3 & G4). Each step up transformer has an impedance of 0 + j0.15
p.u. on 900 MVA and 20/230 kV base, and has an o -nominal ratio of 1.0.

Line Data:
The Transmission system nominal voltage is 230 kV. The parameters of the lines
in per unit on 100 MVA, 230 kV base are shown in below Table:

50
APPENDIX B. SYSTEM DATA 51

Table B.2: Line Data of Two Area Test System


From Bus To Bus Length km r pu/km xl pu/km bc pu/km
5 6 25 0.0001 0.001 0.00175
6 7 10 0.0001 0.001 0.00175
7 8 110 0.0001 0.001 0.00175
8 9 110 0.0001 0.001 0.00175
7 9 220 0.0001 0.001 0.00175
9 10 10 0.0001 0.001 0.00175
10 11 25 0.0001 0.001 0.00175

Load Data:
The load and reactive power supplied by the shunt capacitors at buses 7 and 9
are as follows:

Table B.3: Load Data of Two Area Test System


Bus No. PL (MW) QL (MVAr) QC (MVAr)
7 967 100 200
9 1767 100 350

Exciter and PSS Data:

Table B.4: Exciter & PSS Data of Two Area Test System
KA = 200 TR = 0.01 KST AB = 20.0 TW = 10.0
T1 = 0.05 T2 = 0.02 T3 = 3.0 T4 = 5.4
Appendix C

Introduction to PSAT 2.1.6

PSAT is free and open Source software particularly suited for analysis of Power
Sys-tems Stability and Control. The PSAT is a MATLAB toolbox for electric power
systems analysis and Simulation. All the operation can be accessed by means of
graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and Simulink based library provides an user
friendly tool for network design.

C.1 Overview

PSAT core is power ow routines, once the power ow has been solved, further
static and/or dynamic analysis can be performed.Following analysis performed in
PSAT tool box.

Optimal Power ow (OPF)

Continuous Power Flow (CPF) / Voltage Stability Analysis

Small Signal Stability analysis

Time domain Simulations

PMU Placement

Graphical user Interface (GUIs)

Graphical Network Construction (CAD)

52
APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 53

C.1.1 Useful Features

Mathematical model & utilities

Bridges to other Programs

Data format conversion capability

C.1.2 PSAT Utilities

Simulink library for drawing network.

GUIs For settings system and routine

parameters. GUI for plotting results.

Filters for converting data to and from other formats.

C.2 Starting Process of PSAT


Prilimary steps of PSAT applications in analysis of Power Systems Problems:

a. PSAT Installation

b. Launching PSAT

c. Loading data

d. Running Power ow program

e. Displaying results

f. Saving results

g. Setting
APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 54
F PSAT Installation

a. Download PSAT version from site :


http://www.uclm.es/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat.htm

b. Requirements : >> Matlab 6.5

c. Installation

Extract Zip le in a good location

Open Matlab

Add PSAT's path to Matlab default path

Launching of PSAT

Type psat.m in MATLAB command window: >> psat.m

This will create all the structures required by the toolbox , then opens psat GUI.

Loading data

Almost all operations require that a data le is loaded. To load a le, Load only a
data le:

Menu File/Open/Data File

Short cut <Ctr-d>

Load a saved system:

File/Open/Saved System

Short cut <Ctr-y>


APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 55

The data le can be either a .m le in PSAT format or a .mdl Simulink model


created with the PSAT library. If the source is in a di erent format supported by
the PSAT format conversion utility, rst perform the conversion in order to create
the PSAT data le.

Running Power ow Program


To run the power ow routine:

Menu Run/Power Flow

Short cut <Ctr-p>

It is not necessary to load again the data le every time it is modify, because the
last version of the data le is read each time the power ow is performed. The data
are updated also in case of changes in the Simulink model originally loaded.

Other Analysis

After solving the rst power ow, the program is ready for further analysis,
such as CPF , OPF , ...

Each of these procedures can be launched from the tool-bar or the menu-
bar of the main window.

Displaying Results
Results can be generally displayed in more than one way, either by means of a
graph-ical user interface in MATLAB or as a ASCII text le.

These routines only create a text report:

Standard Power ow (in a .txt , .xls or .tex le)


APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 56

PMU placement (in a .eig le)

SSSA (Small Signal Stability analysis) (in a .pmu le)

Saving Results
To save actual System status in a .mat le :

Menu File=Save=Current

System Shortcut <Ctrl-a>

All global structures used by PSAT are stored in this le which is placed in the
folder of the current data le. all static computations allow to create a report in a
text le that can be stored and used later.

Settings
The main settings of the system are directly included in the main window:

Base frequency

Base Power

Start & End Simulation Time

static and dynamic tolerance

Maximum number of iterations

Other general settings

Menu Edit=General Settings or <Ctr-k>

Network Design
PSAT allows drawing electrical schemes by means of pictorial blocks. To launch
PSAT library
APPENDIX C. INTRODUCTION TO PSAT 2.1.6 57

click on Simulink icon in the menu-bar,

the menu Edit=Network=Edit Network

or the short cut <Ctr-s>.

PSAT comes with variety of procedures for static and dynamic analysis, several
mod-els of standard and unconventional devices, a complete GUI, and a
Simulink-based network editor. These features make PSAT suited for both
educational and research purposes.

C.3 Useful Links


Following links related to power systems:

a. http://www.engin.umich.edu/group/ctm/ : Control Tutorial for MATLAB

b. http://www.dmoz.org/Science/Technology/Software for Engineering/ Electrical


Engineering/Power Distribution/ : Open Software for Power Systems

c. http://www.uclm.edu/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat.htm :PSAT software


down-load

d. http://www.ece.mtu.edu/faculty/ljbohman/peec/Dig Rsor.htm : Opensource


Educational Software (Power Engineer Education Committee)

e. http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/electricmotors.html : Electri-
cal Motor and Generator Fundamental Tutorial
~
f. http://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/trivedi/latex.htm : Help on Latex Software

g. http://www.latex-project.org
Index

Classi cation of Power System Stability, 5

Eigenvalue Analysis Method, 9


Eigenvalue Tracking Analysis, 22

General Structure of PSS, 26

Ha ron-Phillips Model of Excitation System,


18

Interpretation of K-constants, 19

Small Signal Stability, 7


Synchronizing and Damping Torque Analy-
sis, 12

58