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Training Manual

Jet
Aircraft
Maintenance
Fundamentals
ATA 21
Air Conditioning
JAR-66 Cat. A

Book No: JAMF ATA 21 CAT A


ATA 21 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
For Training Purposes Only

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, aircraft fly at very high altitudes mainly for economic reasons.
This presents some problems, because humans are not able to live in this
environment without help.
At an altitude of 40.000 ft feet the temperature is about --56_ C.
The air pressure is so low that there is not sufficient oxygen for human survival.
Therefore, the crew and passengers must be protected against freezing and
death.
The air conditioning system makes sure there is correct pressure in the cabin
to support life and it also ventilates the cabin to keep the temperature in a
comfortable range.
Now imagine an aircraft standing on the ground on a hot and sunny day with no
air conditioning.This would be uncomfortable and potentially life--threatening for
passengers on board. Also the equipment on the aircraft would be in danger of
overheating.
In summary, we can say the air conditioning system cools and heats the air. It
also ventilates the cabin and pressurizes the aircraft at high flight altitudes.
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1
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Figure 1 AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTIONS


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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES


The air conditioning system supplies pressurization to the whole passenger
compartment, the cockpit, all the cargo compartments and the avionic
compartment.
There are areas in the fuselage that are not pressurized and these are
separated by pressure bulkheads.
Areas that are not pressurized are the landing gear bays, the radome and the
tail cone and the tail cone.
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1
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Figure 2 PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES


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pressurizazion and zones cont.
Now let us enter the cabin of a B747--400.
It has a huge main deck and an upper deck where first class can be located.
Also, of course, it has a cockpit where people have to work and not to sleep!
Usually the air temperature is regulated to a lower temperature in the cockpit,
this is because the crew has to work. Also, the many electric and electronic
devices which cause heat in the cockpit make it necessary to keep the temper-
ature demand low.
On the upper deck an air temperature demand of abou 24_ C would be
comfortable for the few people located in first class who wish to sleep.
On the main deck an air temperature demand of, for instance, 20_ C would be
sufficient because there are many people sitting closely in this compartment.
The aircraft is divided into several zones so that the cabin areas can be heated
individually.
In this example of a B747--400 there are up to 7 cabin zones which are named
here with letters. Zone A is the first zone and is located on the main deck. This
is the position of zone B, Zone C, zone D and zone E.
On the upper deck there is zone U/D and the cockpit is zone F/D.
The number of zones depends on aircraft size.
For instance, on the Airbus A320 there are only 3 zones, the cockpit, the for-
ward zone and the aft zone.
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1
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Figure 3 AIRCRAFT ZONES


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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTION


The air conditioning system must make sure of 5 physical charactistics.
It must make sure that the air is fresh, clean, at a comfortable temperature, at
the correct humidity and at the correct pressure.
Lets look at each of these 5 characteristics in turn, the first one we will
consider is freshness.
There are regulations relating to freshness on board. These regulations state
that there is a minimum of fresh air which must be supplied to the cabin.
These regulations are stated in the F.A.R. and J.A.R which determines the
basic requirements for aircraft design.
The regulations say that, on average, an acceptable limit of fresh air to be
supplied is 0,283 m3 per minute per person. This is about 0,35 kg per minute
at sea level.
The regulations, therefore, make it necessary that the whole of the cabin air be
exchanged every 3 to 5 min., depending on the number of people in the air-
craft. This means, for example, that a B747, which has a cabin volume of
nearly 800 m 3 and 500 passenger seats, shifts a minimum 160 m3 of air in one
minute.
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

Freshness

For each person:


0,285 m3 min

0,35 kg/min
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for 500 people

Figure 4 REGULATIONS FOR AIRFRESHNESS


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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1
airconditioning function cont.
Now lets look at cleanliness.
The air must be clean. It must be free of all harmful or hazardous gases or
vapors.
Air filters are fitted to keep the air clean and at high altitudes for extra protec-
tion ozone converters are built in.
The temperature must be in a comfortable range. Most aircraft permit
temperature regulation in the range of about18_C to 30_C.

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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

Ozone Converter
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Air Filter

Figure 5 CLEANLINESS
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1
airconditioning function cont.
The humidity of the air on board an aircraft is a big problem.
Humidity depends on air temperature, the warm air holds more water than cold.
Near the ground there is a lot of humidity in the ambient air.
The temperature regulation cycle, causes the temperature to decrease
dramatically which results in water droplets.
To prevent the freezing of parts and valves and also to prevent fog and water
droplets in the cabin, this water is separated from the air.
However, at high flight altitudes the ambient air is very dry, so people feel
uncomfortable on long--range flights.
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

Correct
Humidity
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Grafik fehlt

Figure 6 HUMIDITY OF AIR


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ATA 21 Lesson 1
airconditioning function cont.
The last function of the air conditioning system we have to consider is
pressurization.
Pressurization has to be a compromise between passenger comfort and struc-
tural design.
The best condition for passenger comfort would be to pressurize the cabin to a
value which is similiar to ground conditions. This would not be best for the
aircraft.
The best condition for the aircraft structure would be no pressurization at all to
stress the structure. This, of course, would not be good for the passengers! If
you wish to find out more about the physical and medical aspects in relation to
people see Unit 35.
The regulations state that it is reasonable to pressurize the cabin to a value
which corresponds to an altitude of 8000ft (2400m). We say that the cabin is in
an altitude of 8000ft.
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

Pressurization
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Figure 7 PRESSURIZATION
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1

SYTEM LAYOUT
Here you see the principle layout of the air conditioning system.
The air supply comes from the pneumatic system.
The air conditioning system starts after the pack valve.
The air is cooled by two or more identical packs.Basic temperature and
humidity regulation are carried out in this area of the system.
The air conditioning system then mixes cooled air with hot air to give the de-
sired temperature in the conditioned compartments.
The air conditioning system also supplies the necessary cooling of panels,
batteries and electronic racks by ventilating them with air.
Finally, the conditioned air is distributed to the compartments.
The cabin and flight compartment are pressurized to supply a pressure
corresponding to all flight altitudes. This is regulated by the outflow valve.
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INTRODUCTION
ATA 21 Lesson 1
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Figure 8 SYSTEM LAYOUT


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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
ATA 21 Lesson 2

TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW


INTRODUCTION
In this lesson we will give you an overview of how the air conditioning system
does the temperature regulation.
The air used by the airconditioning system is bleed air from the pneumatic
system. This pneumatic air is flow regulated by the pack valves, which are
therefore also called flow control valves.
From the pack valves the air goes to the packs. The air conditioning packs cool
the pneumatic air to a basic temperature.
The cooled air then flows to a mixing unit. The mixing unit mixes the cold air
from the packs with recirculated cabin air. This is for reasons of economy,
because you get the same airflow in the cabin with a lower pack airflow.
The temperature of the air that leaves the mixing unit is finally adjusted by a
certain amount of hot air that comes from upstream of the packs. This hot air is
also called trim air.
You can also supply air to the mixing unit from an external airconditioning unit
on the ground.You connect this unit to a low pressure ground connector if you
dont want to use the packs on ground.
The temperature of the air that is now delivered to the cabin zones is regulated
in 2 steps.
Pack controllers regulate the temperature of the cold air that leaves the pack
and a zone controller regulates the amount of trim air that is mixed with the
cold air.
The zone controller regulates the temperature by comparing the actual cabin
temperature with a selected zone temperature set by the flight crew.
Each cabin zone has its own control loop.
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The zone controller also defines the temperature of the cool air and sends this
information to the pack controller.

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
ATA 21 Lesson 2

Pack Mixing
Valve Unit
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Figure 9 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
ATA 21 Lesson 2
introduction cont.
The air conditioning controls are located on the overhead panel in the cockpit.
You will also find the indication displays in the cockpit.
The pack and zone controllers are located in the avionics compartment.
The low pressure ground connectors are located on the lower fuselage,
accessible by a door.
The air conditioning packs, the valves and the mixing unit are located in the
center wing box area.
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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
ATA 21 Lesson 2
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Figure 10 AIR CONDITIONING COMPONENT LOCATION


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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
ATA 21 Lesson 2
introduction cont.
The basic idea of cooling is that because heat is a form of energy it cannot be
made or destroyed, it can only be transformed.
Heat can only flow from an object to a cooler object.
There are three types of cooling device used on aircraft. They are the heat
exchanger, the vapor--cycle machine and the air--cycle machine.
Heat exchangers are very effective, but they do not have sufficient power to
cool all of the cabin air, especially on the ground.
Vapor--cycle machines are used in aircraft when engine bleed air is not
available.
The cooling principle is basically the same as in a refrigerator. An expansion
valve expands a special pressurized cooling fluid by a specific amount.
The special cooling fluid expands which results in the fluid becoming colder.
This cold fluid flows through an evaporator, which is a special heat
exchangerand is heated by the cabin air which flows across the evaporator. So
the result is that the cabin air temperature decreases.
The cooling fluid, which is now heated by the cabin air, changes its state from a
fluid to a gas.
The special cooling fluid, which is now a gas, is compressed in the compressor.
This compression gives the gas a higher temperature. This hot gas flows
through a condensor, which is a special heat exchanger.
In the condenser the special cooling gas is cooled down by ambient air. It
becomes liquid and the cycle starts again.
You can find vapor cycle machines on small aircraft with propellers, on aircraft
without an APU and on older aircraft.
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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
ATA 21 Lesson 2

COMPRESSOR
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Figure 11 VAPOR CYCLE MACHINE


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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
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introduction cont.
Air--cycle machines use bleed air which comes from the pneumatic system.
The air is under pressure and hot.
The hot, pressurized air flows into a compressor, which increases the pressure
and the temperature.
The heat exchanger receives hot air from the compressor.
The heat exchanger has ambient air flowing across it. Heat decreases but
pressure remains equal.
After the air has been through the heat exchanger, it flows into a turbine. Here,
the air which is now warm, but still highly pressurized, expands and cools.
This cold air then goes to the cabin.
Air--cycle machines are driven by the turbine.
The turbine and the compressor are mounted on one shaft.These machines
are used in most jet aircraft.
In the following lessons there are further details about air--cycle machines.
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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW
ATA 21 Lesson 2
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Figure 12 AIR CYCLE MACHINE


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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3

COOLING DESCRIPTION
COOLING PACK
The function of the cooling pack is to cool hot bleed air to a value given by the
pack controller.
The cooling pack has a pack valve, which is the tap of the pack, an ozone
converter which is located upstream of the pack valve and a heat exchanger
which usually has two units, the primary and secondary or main heat
exchanger.
There is also an air--cycle machine and a bypass valve also called temperature
control valve.
The cooling pack also has a ram air system which has ram air ducts with ram
air inlet and exit doors and a fan.
Cooling pack sensors sense the temperature in the pack and these permit the
pack to be controlled and monitored.
There is an anti--ice valve or sometimes an anti--ice function which eliminates
icing conditions in the water separator and so, of course, there is a water
separator.
The cooling pack has a pack check valve which is located downstream of the
water separator.
The pack check valve prevents backflow into the pack. Each pack has a pack
controller which controls pack operation.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 13 COOLING PACK


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OZON CONVERTER
The ozone converter is built in upstream of the cooling pack.
Ozone converters are found particularly in aircraft which fly at high altitudes,
because there is a lot of ozone in the atmosphere. Because ozone harms a
persons health, the function of the ozone converter is to minimize the amount
of ozone in the cabin.
The ozone converter minimizes the amount of ozone in the cabin by using a
catalyst which converts the ozone to harmless oxygen.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 14 CATALYTIC OZONE CONVERTER


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ATA 21 Lesson 3

PACK VALVE
The pack valve is a flow control valve, so it is sometimes named the pack flow
control valve or FCV.
It determines the amount of air going to the cabin.
For this reason it is located upstream of the air conditioning packs.
The pack valve is a venturi--type butterfly valve, which is controlled by a
solenoid. It is pneumatically operated and spring--loaded to closed.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 15 PACK VALVE


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packvalve cont.
The pack valves have also a shut--off function.
It is controlled to close from the fire handle, during engine start and from the
pack switch.
Each pack has its own pack switch. These switches are located on the air
conditioning panel in the cockpit. Our example shows the air conditioning panel
of an Airbus A320, which has 2 packs.
Please recognize that in the aircraft you must always follow a check list before
you switch on the pack switch. In a later lesson you will learn more about the
necessary precautions.
When a pack switch is operated the pack valve solenoid is de--energized and if
there is bleed air available the pack valve opens. Because of the fail--safe
philosophy, the pack valve also opens when the electrical power supply is
broken. Otherwise, if pneumatic power is not available the pack valve closes.
This is because the actuator spring closes the valve.
There is a microswitch built into the pack valve, it shows whether the pack
valve is fully closed or in the open position.
The pack valve also has a manual override which lets you fix the valve in a
closed position.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 16 PACK VALVE & SWITCH


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ATA 21 Lesson 3

PACK VALVE FUNCTION


The main function of the pack valve is to control the airflow to the cabin.
This is done with a regulating assembly.
The regulating assembly gets the airflow signal from a venturi tube.
From the aerodynamic unit you should remember that a venturi always
measures a mass flow.
Unfortunatly with a constant mass airflow to the cabin you get an increasing air
velocity when you fly higher because of the decreasing cabin pressure.
But for a high passenger comfort you need a constant velocity of airflow what
means that the volume of airflow must be constant. Therfore the valve gets a
correction signal from the cabin pressure to allow the regulation of the constant
volume of airflow.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 17 REGULATING ASSEMBLY


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packvalve function cont.
To clarify this for you, lets look at a diagram showing airflow into the cabin of
an narrow--bodied aircraft.
On the ground, the mass flow on this aircraft is about 1,1 kg/s and at 8000 ft,
which is the maximum permitted cabin altitude, the mass flow is about
0,86 kg/s.
The density of air at sea--level is about 1,225 kg/m3 and air density at 8000 ft
is about 0,96 kg/m3.
You can find volumetric flow by dividing the mass flow by density.
So at sea--level, the mass flow of 1,1 kg/s divided by the density of
1,225 kg/m3 gives volumetric flow of 0,9 m/3.
At 8000 ft the mass flow of 0,86 kg/s divided by the corresponding air density
of 0,96 kg/s gives volumetric flow of 0.9m 3/s.
So, as you can see, volumetric flow is constant at all cabin altitudes.
You probably remember, from the first lesson, that regulations require a mini-
mum of 0,283 m3/min per person in the cabin. So let us make sure that the
regulations are fulfilled here.
Our aircraft, which is an Airbus A 320, supplies 0.9m 3 of fresh air per second to
the cabin .
So first, lets convert the volume flow to minutes by multiplying by 60 s per min-
ute then divide by the assumed maximum number of persons, which is, for this
aircraft type 150, this gives us 0,36 m/3 per minute per person.
So this meets the regulations.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 18 AIRFLOW DIAGRAMM


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packvalve function cont.
Nowadays, air conditioning systems are able to save energy by adjusting the
airflow according to the number of passengers.
When the aircraft is fully loaded the total capacity of conditioned air is
necessary.
To change the airflow there is an air conditioning panel in the cockpit, where
you can select the necessary airflow.
If the aircraft is not fully loaded, all of the conditioned air is not necessary, so
the pushbutton is set to low flow and the pack valve closes partially.
If the aircraft is fully loaded, all of the conditioned air is necessary, so the
pushbutton is set to hi flow and the pack valve is more open.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 19 HI FLOW SELECTION


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packvalve function cont.
On some aircraft you can select high, normal or low airflow. When the pack
flow selector is on normal, this means that the cabin is receiving 100% airflow.
When the pack flow selector is in high--position, then the pack valves supply
the cabin with more than 100% percent airflow.
When the pack flow selector is in LO-position then the pack valves supply the
cabin with 80% airflow.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 20 PACK FLOW SELECTOR


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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3

HEAT EXCHANGER
Cooling in the cooling packs is a system of heat exchangers and a cooling
machine, the air--cycle machine, which we study in the next segment.
Modern packs have two heat exchangers to improve the cooling effect. So you
can see what the two heat exchangers look like we have separated them for
you.
They are named the primary heat exchanger and the secondary or main
heat exchanger.
Normally, as we have mentioned, the two heat exchangers are mounted
together so they appear to be one component.
The advantage of the two heat exchangers being mounted together is that only
one cooling duct is necessary.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 21 HEAT EXCHANGER


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AIR CYCLE MACHINE


Now lets look closely at the air--cycle machine.
Its primary components are the compressor, the turbine and the fan.
Lets follow the air through the cooling system and find out the function of the
air--cycle machine.
Hot pneumatic air flows from the pack valve to the primary heat exchanger
where it is cooled down.
Air then goes to the compressor and is compressed, increasing its pressure
and temperature.
The air then flows to the secondary or main heat exchanger where the
temperature is decreased, but the pressure stays the same.
The air then goes to the turbine where it expands, causing the pressure and
temperature to decrease. The air then goes to the cabin.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 22 AIR-CYCLE MASCHINE


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air zycle machine cont.
When the air expands in the turbine it turns the turbine wheel.
This turns also the compressor wheel and the fan wheel, because they are all
one component.
As the air--cycle machines components are air--carried no more lubrication is
necessary. You can see one tapping of the air bearing ventilation.
Once the process has started, air--cycle machines are self--sustaining if air is
available, because of this they are usually named boot--strap air--cycle
machines.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 23 CONSTRUCTION
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ATA 21 Lesson 3
air zycle machine cont.
You can now see the operation of the air--cycle machine again by looking at a
graph that shows the temperature and pressure dependence.
In our example the aircraft flies at an altitude of thirtynine thousand feet.
When pneumatic air goes to the pack valve it has a temperature of 200_ C and
a pressure of 45 psi.
After leaving the pack valve the pressure has changed but the temperature
stays the same.
After passing through the primary heat exchanger the air pressure is almost the
same but the temperature has decreased by about 70_ C.
After passing the compressor temperature and pressure increase.
The air then flows through the secondary or main heat exchanger where the
temperature decreases dramatically.
Now the turbine expands the air which causes the pressure and temperature to
decrease.
The pressure is now a little above the cabin pressure and the temperature is
below 0_C.
We explain how the pack outlet temperature becomes about 20_ C in the next
segment which deals with the bypass valve.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 24 OPERATION
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BYPASS VALVE
To adjust the temperature in the pack there is a turbine bypass valve built in.
This valve is also called temperature control valve in some aircraft types.This
valve determines the air mass to the turbine.
The more air that flows to the turbine, the higher the turbine speed and the
more the cooling effect.
The location of the bypass valve can change with aircraft type. Sometimes,
only the turbine is bypassed . If this is the case, a bypass check valve is built in
to bypass the compressor, so only part of the air is compressed.
Sometimes, you can find a bypass valve which bypasses the whole air--cycle
machine.
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ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 25 BYPASS VALVE


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bypass valve cont.
The bypass valve is a butterfly type valve with a manual override, which also
operates as a position indicator.
The bypass valve is always electrically operated.
The pack controller determines the opening range of the valve by using the
pack outlet temperature, you find out more about this later.
The bypass valve closes more when the turbine outlet temperature is too high
and its opens more when the temperature is too low.
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

Position Indicator
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and manuel Override

Figure 26 BYPASS VALVE


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ATA 21 Lesson 3

RAM AIR
The temperature in the cooling pack can be adjusted by the bypass valve, but
as we mentioned before, adjusting the ram air flow through the heat exchanger
influences the efficiency of the heat exchanger and therefore the temperature
in the cooling pack.
Here you can see a heat exchanger more closely.
The heat exchanger has a cooling air inlet and it has a cooling air outlet.
As ram air is used as cooling air, the air inlet is named the ram air inlet or R.A.I
and the air outlet is named the ram air outlet or exit or R.A.E.
Here you can see a different type of heat exchanger. On this type of heat
exchanger the principle is the same, but the airflow is different from the other
type.
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ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 27 HEAT EXCHANGER


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ram air cont.
Ram air is guided through ducts.The inlets and exits have adjustable doors.
Ram air door position affects the cooling effect of the heat exchangers.
When the doors are fully open the cooling effect of the heat exchangers is
highest. Here you see the two types of doors , they can be fully open,
modulating and fully closed.
Pack outlet temperature is determined by the position of the ram air inlet door,
the ram air exit door, and the bypass valve.
The ram air inlet is a naca--type air intake.
The movement of the ram air inlet door increases or decreases the size of the
naca scope. This movement lets more or less cooling airflow across the heat
exchangers.
The ram air outlet door is also adjustable. It can be just a flap or it can be a
louvre.
Ram air inlet and exit doors are opened and closed by electrically driven actua-
tors.
Potentiometers and limit switches --normally integrated into the actuators sup-
ply data for pack controller control and for indication functions.
The operation of the ram air doors with the bypass valve is shown in lesson 5
pack control.
A fan is found in the ram air system because on the ground there is no ram
effect. The fan is usually mounted on the same shaft as the compressor and
the turbine, so the fan runs when the pack is operative.
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COOLING DESCRIPTION
ATA 21 Lesson 3
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Figure 28 RAM AIR INLET / EXIT DOORS


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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6

DISTRIBUTION
INTRODUCTION
The cold air from the packs goes into the mixing chamber unit also called the
plenum chamber and is then distributed to the different zones in the aircraft.
The mixing unit is a large chamber, like a big duct which has ports for incoming
air and outgoing air.
The mixing unit lets the cold air from the packs mix with discharged cabin air. It
directs the mixed air through the primary supply ducts to the different aircraft
zones.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 29 MIXING UNIT


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6

AIR FLOW
Mixing unit location and output requirements are different on different aircraft
types.
You can see here the location of the mixing unit on a small aircraft, the Airbus
320. It only has 2 cabin zones to supply the forward zone and the aft zone.
From the mixing unit the air flows along the primary supply ducts that are
located horizontally along the fuselage. Then the air goes through riser ducts
which are located vertically along the fuselage.
The air finally goes to the zones through the outlets in the cabin.
The air for the cockpit supply goes through seperate ducts that you will look at
more closely later in the lesson.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Small Aircraft (e.g. A 320


Large Aircraft (e.g. B 747
Figure 30 AIR FLOW FROM MIXING UNIT
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
airflow cont.
In this example of an Airbus the passenger cabin air distrbution uses primary
supply ducts that are located on both sides of the cabin under the cabin floor.
From the primary supply ducts, small riser ducts go between the windows to
the outlets above and below the hatracks.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 31 PASSENGER CABIN AIR DISTRIBUTION


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
airflow cont.
Here you can see a distibution system that uses the same components, but
has a different layout.
In this example the air first goes through big riser ducts to the ceeling and is
then distributed by primary supply ducts.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 32 AIR DISTRIBUTION


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
airflow cont.
On some aircraft, the passengers have an individual air supply system.
The passengers individual air supply system, also named a gasper system, is
below the hatracks.
In this system you can adjust the outlets to change the quantity and direction of
the air.
The system is supplied by normal cabin air or an individual supply duct.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 33 PASSENGERS INDIVIDUAL AIR SYSTEM


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6

RECIRCULATION SYSTEM
As you have already seeen the mixing unit also gets discharged cabin air to
increase the airflow rate to the cabin.
This system is called recirculation system.
The system supports the airflow from the packs, so that the packs do not have
to run on high airflow each time. This reduces the operational costs of the
aircraft.
When the recirculation system is on there is an airflow through the mixing unit
and through the cabin.
The recirculation fans suck discharged cabin air from the underfloor area, clean
it with filters and feed it back into the mixing unit.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 34 RECIRCULATION SYSTEM


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
recirculation system cont.
Here you can see the location of the main components of a typical recirculation
system and what they look like: The air filters, the electrical recirculation fans
and the check valves that prevent a reverse airflow to the underfloor area.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 35 RECIRCULATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6

COCKPIT AIR
Now lets have a look at air distribution in the cockpit.
As the cockpit crew are responsible for the safety they need the very best
working conditions possible.
The cockpit area mainly gets fresh air from the packs. There are 2 different
ways to ensure that the cockpit only receives fresh air.
One way is to take air directly from the pack before it goes into the mixing unit.
The second method is the aerodynamic way. Here the air is taken from the
mixing unit but because of the location of the cockpit supply duct it gets only
fresh air.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 36 FRESH AIR TO THE COCKPIT


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
cockpit air cont.
The cockpit can become very cold in flight and sometimes very hot on the
ground because it has a large skin surface area and many windows.
This means that the cockpit needs a good air distribution system with many air
outlets to decrease these effects.
The air for the cockpit is distributed by a primary air supply duct that divides
into smaller riser ducts.
The riser ducts supply air to several different air outlets.
On some outlets the airflow direction and mass can be adjusted, this makes it
possible for the crew to optimize their work enviroment.
On other outlets only the air mass can be adjusted, this type is found, for
example, above the windows.
On some cockpit outlets you can switch on individual electrical heaters to
improve the comfort.
There are also elecrical heaters in the passengers cabin to heat fuselage areas
that can become very cold during flight.
Located for example in the door areas.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 37 AIR DISTRIBUTION COCKPIT


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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6

RAM AIR AND GROUND SUPPLY


On some aircraft types you find an emergency ram air inlet that can supply
fresh ambient air to the mixing unit when all packs fail during flight.
When you open the emergency ram air inlet during flight, it guides fresh
ambient air into the mixing unit via a check valve. In the mixing unit the air is
mixed with the recirculated cabin air and distributed to the different aircraft
zones.
The emergency ram air inlet has an electrical actuator which extends the inlet
flap into the ambient airflow.
When the aircraft is on the ground you can supply conditioned air to the mixing
unit from an external airconditioning unit via a ground connector port. This
means that, on the ground, it is not necessary to use the packs to get
conditioned air.
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DISTRIBUTION
ATA 21 Lesson 6
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Figure 38 EMERGENCY RAM AIR INLET


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL


INTRODUCTION The air source for the trim air system is usually downstream of the pack valves.
To understand the need for a zone temperature control system you should Remember that the pack valves are flow control and shut--off valves so the trim
remember the parameters that effect the cabin temperature. air is usually part of the calculated airflow for the cabin.
These are the ambient temperature, the radiation of the sun, the cabin When all packs are switched off the supply for the trim air system also stops,
insulation, he heat from equipment, the heat from the passengers and the because the trim air valves and the pressure regulating valve close. This
temperature and rate of the air that is supplied to the cabin. means that the cabin zones only get the recirculated cabin air and there is no
temperature control.
To compensate for all the different cooling and heating effects on the aircraft
zones we need a zone temperature control system.
The air supply to the zones must have different sources because of the
different conditions in each zone.
The cockpit usually gets fresh cool air directly from a pack.
The supply ducts for the cabin zones are connected to the mixing unit which
receives air from the packs and also usually from the recirculation system.
The air temperature in the mixing unit is different to the cockpit duct
temperature because of the recirculated cabin air. The mixing unit supplies all
cabin zones.

TRIM AIR SYSTEM


To allow for individual control of all zone temperatures you need a trim air
system.
Each zone has one or more electrically operated trim air valve that controls the
amount of hot air that is mixed with the cold supply air.
A variation in the trim air valve position changes the temperature in the zone
supply duct. The temperature depends on the amount of hot trim air that is
added.
For Training Purposes Only

A change of the trim airflow will not only change the temperature but also the
pressure in the trim air supply duct. This change would also affect the flow
through the other trim air valves.
To minimize this effect the trim air system has a pressure regulating valve.
The trim air pressure regulating valve maintains a stable pressure in the trim air
supply duct. It also has a shut--off function to isolate the trim air system, for
example when there is a failure.
When the trim air pressure regulating valve closes then all trim air valves also
close.

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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 39 TRIM AIR SYSTEM


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL


The Zone Temperature Control System work in automatic mode, but in many
aircraft types there is also a manual mode.
In the manual mode you can control the trim air valve directly with a
corresponding selector switch.
The switch is spring loaded in the center position, here labeled with OFF. When
you turn the switch, for example to the warm position, then the valve opens as
long as you hold the switch.
When you release the switch the valve stops in the new position.
When you select a new valve position the duct temperature changes quickly
and the cabin temperature changes slowly. Therefore you must monitor the
duct temperatures carefully to prevent a system overheat.
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 40 MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL


In the automatic mode a computer does the control and monitoring of the
system.
Usually it is called the zone controller.
You must only select the required zone temperature on the selector. Usually
you can select a temperature between 18C in the cool position and 30C in
the WARM position.
The zone controller receives the zone temperature demands from the
selectors and compares it with the actual zone temperature, which is measured
by temperature sensors in the cabin.
From the result of this comparison the computer calculates the temperature of
the supply duct that is necessary to reach the selected cabin temperature. This
is called the duct temperature demand.
From all duct temperature demands the controller selects the coolest demand,
because this defines the necessary pack outlet temperature also called the
pack temperature demand. This signal is used by the pack controllers to
control pack operation.
When duct temperature demands are identical, the coolest demand for the
pack temperature regulation comes from the passenger cabin zones.
The reason for this is that the air from the pack that enters the mixing unit must
be cooler, than the air that is needed for the cockpit supply duct, because of
the recirculated warm air from the cabin.
To take into account the effect of the recirculated air, the zone controller needs
a temperature feedback from the mixing unit.
When the cockpit supply duct temperature becomes the coolest demand, the
zone controller can use a temperature feedback from the cockpit duct to
improve the regulation.
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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

Zone Temperature Demands

Actual zone
Temperatures

Duct Temperature
Demand
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Figure 41 AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
automatic temperature control cont.
When you select a higher zone temperature demand then you need to add hot
trim air to the air in the supply duct.
For this task there is an automatic trim air control circuit which changes the
position of the trim air valve.
The new position of the valve is calculated from the difference between the
duct temperature demand and the actual duct temperature.
A damping circuit prevents temperature cycling and overshoot. The circuit uses
the rate of the temperature signal from the duct temperature sensor for the
damping calculation.
In some systems there is a special temperature rate sensor called the
anticipator which is used to carry out this task.
The trim air valve control circuits have also a duct temperature limitation circuit.
This circuit limits the duct temperature in our example to about 60C to prevent
a duct overheat.
There are identical trim air valve control circuits for each individual zone.
Some zone temperature controllers have additional circuits to compensate for
environmental changes during flight.
The first circuit is called the altitude correction. It compensates for the cooling
effects of decreasing cabin air humidity and outside temperature. This is done
by automatically adding a temperature value to the selected temperature of all
zones when the flight altitude increases.
The second circuit is the cruise correction. It compensates for reduced passen-
ger activity during cruise flight. This is done by giving an extra increase to the
passenger cabin temperature demand.
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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 42 TRIM AIR VALVE CONTROL CIRCUTS


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

PROTECTION CIRCUTS
The protection circuits of the zone temperature control system protect the
system from duct overheat in the event of component malfunctions or
miscontrol in manual mode.
The protection circuits are independent of the temperature control circuits. The
circuits can be either external or internal to the zone temperature controller.
The protection circuits use sensors or overheat switches in the air supply ducts
located downstream of the trim air valves.
When the duct temperature exceeds a critical level, which in this example is
about 90C, then the protection circuit becomes active. It triggers a crew alert
in the cockpit, for example a FAULT light in the control pushbutton.
At the same time the protection circuit automatically closes the trim air
pressure regulating valve. This also closes the trim air valves.
The hot trim air therefore stops independently of the failure source.
In some aircraft types you must indicate to the protection circuit that you have
recognized this failure condition by pressing the pushbutton which displays the
fault light.
When the trim air system is off, then the ducts are only supplied from the
packs and the recirculation system. This cools down all ducts.
When the duct temperature decreases below for example 70C, the FAULT
light extinguishes. This indicates that you can reactivate the zone temperature
control system.
When the trim air system is on again, the trim air pressure regulating valve and
the trim air valves move to the position that is defined by the zone temperature
control circuit.
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 43 PROTECTION CIRCUTS


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

COMPONENTS
The zone controller which is the main component is usually a digital computer.
It is located in the electric and electronic equipment compartment.
The other components are usually located behind the forward cargo
compartment.
All trim air valves in an aircraft are generally of the same valve type. They are
usually operated by an electrical stepper motor.
The valves have potentiometers and limit switches for position feedback and
for control and indication.
Usually, there is also a manual override and visual position indicator on the
valve.
The trim air system switches off completely when a trim air valve is blocked in
the open position or when the zone controller doesnt get a feedback signal
from a valve.
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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 44 TRIM AIR VALVE


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
components cont.
The trim air pressure regulating valve is a solenoid controlled and pressure
actuated valve.
When the solenoid is de--energized, the valve is closed by a spring.
When you energize the solenoid then the valve is openes by air pressure from
the pneumatic system.
The valve regulates the downstream pressure to ,for example, 4 psi above
cabin pressure.
The exact value depends on the aircraft type.
The valve position is always monitored by the zone controller by means of a
limit switch.
There is also often an pressure switch or sensor downstream of the valve
which monitors the trim air pressure.
Our example shows the trim air pressure regulating valve located inside the
pressurized area of the aircraft. In this case the valve receives cabin pressure
directly.
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

Pneumatic
Pressure
Cabin
Pressure
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Figure 45 TRIM AIR PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
components cont.
In this example which shows another aircraft type, there are 2 valves in the
unpressurized area near the packs.
In this case cabin pressure is supplied via pressure reference tubes.
Some valves have a second solenoid. It is energized when the duct
temperature increases to an overheat condition. This reduces the trim air pres-
sure and also the hot airflow.
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

Pneumatic
Pressure
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To Zone Controller

Figure 46 VALVE IN UNPRESSURIZED AREA


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
components cont.
Finally, we will have a look at the temperature sensors in the zone temperature
control system.
We can differentiate between 2 types of temperature sensor installation. The
duct temperature sensors and the zone temperature sensors. All sensors are
of the thermistor type.
The duct sensors measure the temperature of the airflow directly and send the
signal to the zone controller. If a sensor fails the zone controller usually closes
the corresponding trim air valve.
To prevent this some aircraft types have 2 sensors in one housing.
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 47 DUCT TEMPERATURE SENSOR


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
components cont.
The zone temperature sensors are installed in the cabin ceiling area.
There is 1 or more in each zone, depending on the size of the zone.
The sensors must be ventilated to measure the real temperature. In some
aircraft types this is done by an electrical fan.
Another way is for the sensors to be connected to the lavatory ventilation or the
equipment cooling system which draws air through the sensors.
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

Lavatory Ventilation Duct

Sensor Housing

Cabin Air
Inlet

Cockpit Zone Sensor Sensor


Housing
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Ceiling Air Inlet

Figure 48 ZONE TEMPERATURE SENSORS


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7

CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS


The main controls and indications are in the cockpit. The controls are on the
airconditioning panel, located on the overhead panel in modern aircraft and the
indications on the lower display of the central warning system.
Indications on a typical airconditioning system page:
Actual cabin temperature measured by the temperature sensors in the cabin.
Actual duct temperature measured by the duct temperature sensors.
Actual trim air valve position measured by the potentiometer inside the valve.
Valve symbol of the pressure regulating valve. This signal comes from the limit
switch. (here closed)
On the control panel there is a HOT AIR pushbutton used to switch on or
reset the trim air system. 3 control knobs for the zone temperature selection in
automatic mode.
Note that in this aircraft there is no manual mode.
To activate the airconditioning system on the ground. Electrical and pneumatic
power must be available and you have also to perform all safety precautions
specified by the check list. You must also make sure that a window or cabin
door is open to prevent pressure build--up in the cabin.
The trim air pressure regulation valve and the trim air valves stay in the closed
position, when the pack valves are closed.
The packs of some aircraft types start with a predetermined start sequence.
This can give you unexpected indications. For example the duct temperatures
decrease even with a higher temperature selection. This happens because the
trim air valves stay closed for a certain time to increase the airflow through the
packs. This gives a faster acceleration of the aircycle machine.
After several minutes the system reaches the stabilized situation.
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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 49 CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
controls and indications cont.
We will now have a look at the controls and indications on a wide bodied
aircraft, the 747.
The location of the components in the cockpit is the same as the A320 but
obviously they look different.
The temperature control knob for the cockpit, known here as the flight deck,
has an automatic and a manual mode.
There are 2 temperature indications for the cockpit on the EICAS display.
The left and smaller one gives the selected temperature and the right one gives
the actual temperature.
For the passenger zones there is a master temperature selector on the cockpit
panel with an automatic and an alternate mode
The selected master temperature is also shown on the display. During cruise
flight you can select individual passenger zone temperatures from a panel on
the purser station.
There is the trim air pushbutton which you can use to switch off the trim air
system manually and the zone reset pushbutton, which allows you to reset a
temperature control system fault, here indicated by the amber light. This must
be done for example when there has been an overheat or other system failure.
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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL
ATA 21 Lesson 7
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Figure 50 CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS ON 747


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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9

EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM


OVERVIEW
As you know, a modern aircraft uses many computers, electronic display
systems and other electric systems.
Most of this equipment is located in the cockpit and in the electric and
electronic compartment. This concentration of electric and electronic
components generates a lot of heat.
So the components need a cooling system to keep the temperature within an
acceptable range in order to prevent damage to the equipment.
A typical cooling system blows air around and through the electronic
components using a system of ducts and holes.
To cool the equipment you can use discharged cabin air or conditioned air from
the packs or air from outside the aircraft.
The hot air produced by the equipment is then transported directly out of the
aircraft or to the underfloor area from where it will be transported out of the
aircraft via the outflow valves or it is used to heat the forward cargo
compartment.
Sometimes the air remains in a closed loop and is reused after cooling by a
skin heat exchanger.
The equipment cooling system is completely independent of the air conditioning
system. It is usually fully automatic and controlled and regulated by its own
equipment cooling computer. But a manual override on the panel in the cockpit
is always avaiable.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The equipment cooling system uses electrically operated valves to control the
For Training Purposes Only

air flow for the different modes of operation. These valves work as shut--off
valves, but in some aircraft they can also be moved to a partially open position.
There are two similar fans in this cooling system which transports the air. They
guarantee system operation even if one fan is not operating.
Sometimes there is a skin heat exchanger installed which increases the cooling
efficiency. The skin heat exchanger is a duct or duct system directly under the
aircraft skin. It works as an air -- to -- air heat exchanger. Warm air flows
through this duct and is cooled by the cold skin when the aircraft is flying at
high altitudes.

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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9
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Figure 51 EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM


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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9
system components cont.
For abnormal situations such as smoke there are extra valves in the equipment
cooling systems.
For example there is an override valve.
When it is open the differential pressure forces the surrounding air through the
panels and equipment out of the aircraft.
In some aircraft types there is also an air conditioning inlet valve which allows
use of conditioned air for cooling the equipment.
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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9
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Figure 52 ABNORMAL SITUATIONS


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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9

AUTOMATIC OPERATION
Usually the equipment cooling system works automatically in two different
modes.
These modes depend mainly on the ambient temperature and whether the air-
craft is on the ground or in flight.
In automatic operation there are 2 normal modes.
One is called inboard, which means that the exhaust air goes to the underfloor
area or to the forward cargo compartment.
The second mode is called outboard, which means that the air goes out of the
aircraft.
The outboard mode is normally used on ground.
The electric equipment is cooled by air from outside the aircraft which enters
through the skin air inlet valve.
The 2 fans transport the air, which exits the aircraft via the extractor valve. All
other valves are closed.
When the outside temperature is so cold that the equipment could be damaged
by ice or humidity, cabin air is used instead of ambient air.
The inboard mode is normally used during flight, take off and landing. In this
mode the skin inlet and extractor valves are closed and discharged cabin air is
used.
In this inboard mode, as you can see, the air flows through the electric equip-
ment and then goes to the underfloor area or to the forward cargo compart-
ment.
During automatic operation, the equipment cooling system computer receives
all the data necessary to ensure that the equipment cooling system operates in
the best and safest way for the equipment.
In addition to the two modes shown, in some aircraft types there are several
For Training Purposes Only

other submodes available.


These Modes are defined by the manufacturer for each aircraft type.

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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9
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Figure 53 MODES OF EQUIPMENT COOLING


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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9

OVERRIDE OPERATION
The override operation occurs for example when the equipment cooling system A ground crew call horn alerts the ground crew when the cooling air gets too
has a component failure or if smoke is detected. hot or a blower is not working correctly.
In these abnormal situations the cockpit crew gets an indication from the
controller. When this happens they must manually operate the cooling system.
If there is a component failure, for example if 1 fan is damaged then a low flow
situation is detected by a low flow detector. This low flow detector sends a
signal to the equipment cooling system computer. In this case, the cockpit crew
gets a caution message on the ECAM/EICAS display.
On some aircraft types a fault light is also displayed.
In our example the blower push button switch has to be pushed to close the
valves.
The equipment continues to be cooled by the one operational fan which moves
the air in a closed circuit around the equipment and by the surrounding air from
the cockpit.
On some aircraft this configuration is selected automatically.
The cooling efficiency can be increased by supplying conditioned pack air or by
using a skin heat exchanger.
If a smoke detector detects smoke you get a smoke warning in the cokpit, a
caution message appears on the ECAM/EICAS displays and on some aircraft a
fault light also illuminates.
When this happens the equipment cooling system must be set to the override
mode and the air sent out of the aircraft for safety.
There is further information in lesson 26--3 about smoke detection in the
equipment cooling system.
The switch or switches for putting the system in override operation are on the
ventilation panel.
For Training Purposes Only

You must press the blower and extract pushbutton switches to put the system
in override operation.
The override operation turns off the 2 fans opens the extractor valve and on
some aircraft also the air conditioning inlet valve. All other valves are closed.
The cabin differential pressure gives an air flow through the equipment and
causes the air to flow out of the aircraft.
The system operates in the same way if the two fans are damaged.

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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 9
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Figure 54 OVERRIDE OPERATION


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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM
ATA 21 Lesson 10

PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM


DEFINITIONS
As you probably already know from the aerodynamic lessons the atmospheric
pressure decreases with a function of increasing altitude.
Modern jet aircraft operate at altitudes of about 40000 ft.
Human beings prefer an atmospheric environment near sea--level, but they can
usually compensate the effects of decreasing pressure up to an altitude of
10000 ft. Therefore we need a pressurized aircraft cabin.
The cabin pressure is usually expressed by the cabin pressure altitude or cabin
altitude for short.
The aviation regulations for commercial aircraft limit the maximum cabin
altitude during flight to 8000 ft. This is a compromise between acceptable
environmental conditions and the structural stress applied to the fuselage as a
result of the pressurized cabin.
Atmospheric pressure is usually measured in hecto Pascal. But in the cabin
pressurization many values are given in psi, so we will mainly use the psi scale.
For example the pressure difference between the absolute pressure inside the
cabin and the ambient pressure, called differential pressure or delta p, is
measured in psi.
The differential pressure is the parameter for the structural stress from cabin
pressurization.
To make the amount of stress easier to understand you must calculate the
force that acts on 1m2 of fuselage area.
The standard dimension for force is the Newton and you should remember that
14.5 psi corresponds to 10 Newton per cm2. . This gives for a differential
pressure of 8.2 psi a force of about 56500 Newtons that act on 1m2.
For Training Purposes Only

This corresponds to a weight of 5.700 liters of water that act on the earth
surface that is 5.7 tons.

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3
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8,000

Figure 55 CABIN ALTITUDE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE


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definitions cont.
When the aircraft is on ground with open doors the ambient pressure and the
cabin pressure are the same.
Now the aircraft climbs to 40000 ft in 20 minutes. This means that the aircraft
has a positive rate of climb of 2000 ft /min, this is also called vertical speed.
In the same time the cabin has to climb only to 8000 ft. This is called the cabin
rate or cabin vertical speed. In our example the cabin climbs, with a positive
climb rate of 400 ft/min. This means that the pressure in the cabin decreases
at the same time
When there is a negative cabin rate, like during a descent, then the pressure
increases. This means that an increase of cabin altitude is always a decrease
of the cabin pressure and a decrease of cabin altitude is an increase of cabin
pressure.
The pressure changes and therefore the cabin rates must not exceed a certain
value for a longer period of time. This is because the human ear needs some
time to compensate for the pressure inside the inner ear. Therefore the positive
cabin rate should not exceed 500 ft /min and the negative cabin rate should
not exceed 300 ft/min per minute.
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Figure 56 CABIN RATE


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SYSTEM LAYOUT
As you have learned already the pressurized cabin gets a constant airflow from
the air conditioning system.
The pressure in the cabin is regulated by one or more outflow valves, which
limit the amount of air leaving the cabin. You can find the valves on the aft
fuselage or on some aircraft there is one aft valve and one forward valve.
Air also leaves the cabin via leakages and overboard vents for example from
the lavatories. This is taken into account by the control circuits.
The cabin pressure and therefore the cabin altitude is stable when the amount
of air which enters the cabin and the amount of air which leaves the cabin are
the same.
When pack number 2 is switched off the cabin air supply is decreased.
Without any reaction the cabin altitude increases.
To stabilize the cabin altitude you must also decrease the amount of air that
leaves the cabin.
When the outflow valves are driven to a more closed position the airflow that
leaves the cabin is decreased. This stabilizes the cabin altitude again at for ex-
ample 6000 ft.
Another parameter that influences the cabin pressure is the flight altitude,
because it determines the differential pressure at the outflow valves.
When the aircraft flies higher, for example at 40000 ft, the differential pressure
increases. This also increases the airflow through the outflow valves if they
stay in the same position. Therefore to hold the cabin altitude at the same level
you must drive the outflow valves toward closed.
Note that some aircraft types have a reduced maximum flight altitude when
only one pack is operating. This is for when you cannot hold the cabin altitude
even with fully closed outflow valves.
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Figure 57 CABIN PRESSURIZATION


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definitions cont.
Some aircraft types have an overboard shutoff valve instead of a forward
outflow--valve.
Usually the valve is closed and the recirculation fans suck the air from the for-
ward cabin underfloor area back into the distribution.
When the recirculation fans are switched off the valve opens to extract the air
from the forward area to overboard.
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Figure 58 OVERBOARD SHUTOFF VALVE


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PROTECTION FUNCTIONS
The aviation regulations require that pressurization systems have protection
functions.
They must prevent damage to the aircraft and injury to the people on board,
when the system has a failure or when extreme environmental conditions ap-
pear.
The protection functions must become active when there is an excessive cabin
altitude, or excessive differential pressure, or negative differential pressure.
When the cabin altitude increases above normal values -- 3 things must
happen at different altitudes.
Before reaching 10000 ft the flight crew gets a warning to put on the oxygen
masks.
At 14000 ft the oxygen masks are automatically released from the passenger
cabin ceiling.
At 15000 ft the outflow valves must close automatically and independently of
the normal control signal.
When the differential pressure increases the stress on the aircraft structure
also increases.
To prevent structural damage the aircraft must have at least 2 safety valves
also called positive pressure relief valves. You can find the valves for example
in the area of the aft pressure bulkhead.
The valves open against a spring when the differential pressure exceeds a
maximum allowed value. This value depends on the aircraft type and starts at
about 8.5 psi.
Below this value the valve closes again so that the differential pressure is
limited to this value.
A negative differential pressure means that the pressure in the cabin is lower
For Training Purposes Only

than the ambient pressure. This is very dangerous because the fuselage is only
constructed for a positive differential pressure.
A negative pressure relief valve prevents this, because it opens when the
ambient pressure is higher than the cabin pressure.
In some aircraft types you do not find a separate negative pressure relief valve,
because this is also a function of the safety valve. You will see this in more
detail later in this lesson.

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Cockpit Warning

Outflow Valves close

Exessive Differential Pressure


For Training Purposes Only

Negative
Negative Differential Pressure Pressure
Relief
Valve

Figure 59 EXCESSIVE CABIN ALTITUDE OR PRESSURE


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protection functions cont.
Pressure differences can also happen between different pressurized areas
inside the aircraft.
For example between the airtight cargo compartments and the underfloor area.
To prevent damage to walls you can find equalization valves in these
compartments.
The valves are springloaded flapper valves that open when there is a small
pressure difference.
In the event of a rapid pressure change the equalization valves are not large
enough. Therefore additional blowout panels blow out of their frames and allow
pressure equalization. This can happen for example in a rapid decompression
or an explosion.
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Figure 60 EQUALIZATION VALVES


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CONTROL AND INDICATION


In the cabin pressurization systems on modern aircraft the control panel is on
the overhead panel in the cockpit.
The main indications appear on the system synoptic of the ECAM or EICAS.
Here we will use the ECAM display as an example.
The cabin pressurization system usually works in 3 different modes, the
automatic mode, the semiautomatic mode and the manual mode.
In the automatic mode, the system operates fully automaticaly and requires no
manual inputs.
On the system display the indication of the landing field elevation has changed
from auto to manual and shows the selected value of 2000 ft.
Cabin pressurization is controlled in the auto and semi automatic mode by one
of the 2 redundant cabin pressure controllers, also called CPC.
When 1 controller fails the other controller takes over control and you can see
the result on the system display.
In the semi automatic mode the system operates primarily automatic but needs
some manual inputs, for example you must select the landing field elevation.
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Figure 61 INDICATION
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control and indication cont.
When both cabin pressure controllers fail the flight crew gets a failure message
and must select the manual mode.
The manual mode always has priority over the automatic modes even when the
controllers are ok.
In manual mode you directly control the outflow valves with a toggle switch.
The switch is springloded to neutral.
In our example the aircraft flies at 30000 ft with a stable cabin altitude of
6000 ft. This means that the cabin vertical speed is zero and the differential
pressure is about 7.4 psi and the outflow valve is partially open.
As long as you hold the toggle switch in the up position the outflow valve drives
to open at about 3_ /s . This decreases the cabin pressure which, increases
the cabin altitude with a positive cabin vertical speed until a new stabilized
situation is reached.
As long as you hold the toggle switch in the down position the outflow valve
drives to closed at about 3_/s. This increases the cabin pressure which,
decreases the cabin altitude with a negative cabin vertical speed until a new
stabilized situation is reached.
Normaly you should only toggle the manual control switch for short periods to
prevent rapid pressure changes.
You have now seen all indications of the cabin pressurization system in the
manual mode.
In the automatic modes the same indications are used.
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Figure 62 CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER


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DITCHING MODE
In some aircraft types you can find a ditching pushbutton on the control panel.
You can use this button to isolate the cabin from entering water during an
emergency landing on sea
When you press the ditching pushbutton you close all valves below the flotation
line of the aircraft, and also the pack valves, so water cant enter the aircraft via
these valves.
When the negative pressure relief valve is located below the flotation line, as in
our example, a standpipe prevents water entering the cabin.
When you press the ditching pushbutton with the aircraft on the ground you
must be very careful, because the closing valves can injure personnel that are
near the valves.
You must also ensure that the cabin is not pressurized by an external air
conditioning unit, because an uncontrolled cabin pressure can build up .
Note that the equipment cooling is also effected when their valves are closed.
During the aircraft normal ground time the outflow valves are fully open to
prevent unintended cabin pressurization.
You can see on the indication that the valves for the equipment cooling system
are also open.
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Figure 63 DITCHING MODE


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AUTOMATIC MODE
As you already know a cabin pressure controller automatically controls the
normal pressurization.
To do this the controller uses the atmospheric ambient pressure. It receives the
pressure from the air data system or from a static port. It also uses the cabin
pressure from a direct pressure port on the controller.
The controller converts pressure signals into altitudes.
For an average value it uses the references of the international standard atmo-
sphere which you know from other units such as aerodynamics and oxygen.
To get exact values you must take into account the actual weather conditions
which influence the pressure. This is acheived by a reference pressure signal
called the barometric correction.
In modern aircraft either the flight management or the air data system delivers
this signal automatically.
On other aircraft you must select this barometric correction value on the
pressurization panel.
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BAROMETRIC
CORRECTION
Figure 64 AUTOMATIC MODE
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automatic mode cont.
To study the normal operation of the cabin pressurization system we look at the
cabin altitude in relation to the flight altitude during different phases of a flight.
We start our flight with the aircraft parked on the ground. During this time the
pressurization system works in the ground mode.
The controller usually gets the ground information automatically from the air /
ground sensing system.
On some older aircraft types you must set a switch on the control panel to the
ground position to go to the ground mode. In the ground mode the outflow
valves are commanded to the fully open position to prevent unintended cabin
pressurization.
The result is that the aircraft and the cabin altitude are the same as the airport
elevation, which is 1000 ft in our example .
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1000 ft
Sea
Level

Figure 65 GROUND MODE


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automatic mode cont.
When take off is initiated the pressurization system starts the pre
pressurization mode.
This situation is usually detected on the ground by the throttle position and the
engine parameters.
On some aircraft types pre pressurization starts when the aircraft accelerates
to a certain speed.
On aircraft with the flight ground switch on the panel you must select the flight
position to start the pre-pressurization. The pre-pressurization mode increases
the cabin pressure which decreases the cabin altitude to below the airport
elevation.
The higher cabin pressure stabilizes the fuselage, as shown in our example
with perkies balloon. It also proves that there are no air leaks from the cabin,
for example at the doors. It also prevents pressure fluctuations during aircraft
rotation when the airflow hits open valves.
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T/O
For Training Purposes Only

-Throttles
-Engine
Parameters
-Aircraft
Sea Speed
Pre-Pressurization
Level
Figure 66 PRE-RESSURIZATION MODE
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automatic mode cont.
When the aircraft leaves the ground the air ground logic activates the climb
mode.
Modern pressurization systems have an internal and an external climb mode.
In the internal climb mode the controller calculates the cabin rate in proportion
to the aircraft altitude rate, so that at the maximum flight altitude, here for
example 40000 ft, you reach the maximum cabin altitude of 8000 ft. This mode
is therefore also called proportional mode.
A disadvantage of the internal mode is that the cabin rate is sometimes high
and changes during the climb which is not comfortable for the passengers.
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Sea Climb
Level

Figure 67 INTERNAL CLIMB MODE


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automatic mode cont.
In the external climb mode the controller calculates a smooth and constant
cabin rate. This is more comfortable for the passengers.
This calculation is based on information from the flight management system
which calculates the time to reach the top of climb.
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Time to
TOC
For Training Purposes Only

Sea
Time to Reach
Level

Figure 68 EXTERNAL CLIMB MODE


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automatic mode cont.
2 abnormal situations can stop the external climb mode:
When there is no flight management data available the pressure controller
automatically switches to the internal mode.
When the pilot interrupts the climb and the aircraft starts to descend the
controller activates the abort mode. In this mode the cabin altitude is
automatically decreased to the value for a landing at the take off airport. This
decreases the workload for the pilots during an unplanned flight abortion.
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Sea
Level

Figure 69 ABORT MODE


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automatic mode cont.
In normal flights the cruise phase follows the climb phase.
The pressure controller switches to the cruise mode when the aircraft reaches
the top of the climb or when the pilot stops the climb early for example due to
advice of air traffic control.
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Top of Climb
For Training Purposes Only

Sea
Level

Figure 70 CRUISE PHASE


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automatic mode cont.
In cruise mode the cabin altitude is regulated to a determined level.
Normally the pressure controller uses the cabin altitude with the maximum dif-
ferential pressure because this gives the best passenger comfort.
A safety margin allows to keep a constant cabin altitude even when the aircraft
makes small altitude changes.
When the planned cruise altitude is lower than the maximum flight altitude, for
instance during short flights, than the cabin altitude is also calculated with the
maximum differential pressure.
Only when the cabin altitude for landing will be higher than the cabin altitude for
maximum differential pressure than the cabin altitude for landing is already
used as the cabin cruise altitude.
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Max P

SAFETY
MARGIN
For Training Purposes Only

Sea Sea
Level Level

Figure 71 CRUISE MODE


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automatic mode cont.
When the aircraft begins to descend the controller starts the descent mode.
This mode can work again in either internal or external mode, with basically the
same functions as the climb mode.
In the external descent mode the controller needs additional data from the flight
management system. These are the landing field elevation which is the
elevation of the landing airport and the time to arrival, which is the time to fly
from the top of descent to the airport.
The final cabin altitude is calculated to between 100 and 200 ft below the field
elevation. This is for the same reason already shown for the pre pressurization
mode.
The internal descent mode is used when FMS data is not available. In this
situation you must select the field elevation manually, which you learned in the
semi--automatic operation.
The cabin rate is recalculated in proportion to the aircraft altitude rate.
After touchdown, which is detected by the air ground logic, the controller
switches back to the ground mode. This means that the outflow valves drive to
the fully open position which depressurizes the cabin over a defined time
period.
In aircraft with the flight--ground switch you must select the ground position
after touchdown to activate the ground mode.
In aircraft with 2 cabin pressure controllers the controller in command is
changed at touchdown
The standby controller becomes the active one and vice versa.
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Sea
Level

Figure 72 DESCENT MODE


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OUTFLOW AND SAFETY VALVES


Outflow valves have independent electrical motors with gears and position
sensors.
The outflow valve in our example has 3 motors, 2 AC motors and 1 DC motor.
Only 1 motor can be active at a time.
Outflow valves of modern aircraft also have electronic circuits that convert
digital signals from the pressure controllers into analog control signals for the
2 AC motors.
When cabin pressure controller number 1 is active AC motor number 1 drives
the outflow valve. AC motor number 2 is disabled by a brake.
When cabin pressure controller number 2 is active AC motor number 2 drives
the outflow valve. AC motor number 1 is disabled by a brake.
When the cabin pressurization system is switched to manual mode the
DC motor is used. This allows manual pressure control at any time even when
only DC power is available from the electrical power system
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Figure 73 OUTFLOW VALVES


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outflow and safety valves cont.
Here you can see a safety valve which has an overpressure and negative
pressure relief function.
The valve has the following main parts: A controller assembly and a diaphragm
assembly which is normally pressed by a spring to the valve body.
Please note, the valve only works correctly if the airflow is not blocked.
Sensitive parts are the filter, the fixed orifice and the static pressure port.
During normal operation the valve is kept closed by the spring force which is
assisted by the cabin pressure. This ensures no air can go from the cabin to
ambient and vice versa.
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Figure 74 SAFETY VALVE


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outflow and safety valves cont.
When the positive differential pressure limit is exceeded the controller
assembly vents the control chamber to ambient.
This decreases the pressure above the diaphragm which allows the cabin
pressure on the lower side to lift the diaphragm assembly. This releases the
excessive cabin pressure to ambient.
When there is a negative differential pressure the higher ambient pressure lifts
the diaphragm assembly, so that ambient air can enter the cabin. This
equalizes the different pressures.
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Figure 75 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE


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CABIN PRESSURE LEAKAGE TEST


During this test you pressurize the cabin to a pressure which is about 4 psi
higher than the ambient pressure.
This gives a very high absolute cabin pressure which is not reached during the
normal operation of the aircraft. This pressure can damage pressure sensitive
equipment inside the pressurized area of the aircraft.
Pressure sensitive equipment includes computers with pressure ports, oxygen
regulators and masks, sensitive pressure switches and fluid tanks for example
water tanks and auxiliary fuel tanks.
To prevent damage to equipment always follow the instructions in the
maintenance manual very carefully.
For example you must remove pressure sensitive components such as the
oxygen regulator and masks. You must also remove components like this
computer which has cabin pressure ports or you must seal the cabin pressure
ports as shown here on the pressure switch.
Components that are connected to external pressure ports such as the air data
computer must have airtight connections to the pitot static system.
You must also protect the liquid tanks against pressure damage, for example fill
the water tanks.
You must also ensure all aircraft skin outlets are closed to pressurize the cabin.
This means you have no normal equipment cooling. This can cause overheat-
ing in electrical and electronic equipment
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Figure 76 LEAKAGE TEST


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cabin pressure leakage test cont.
Prior to pressurization inform other personnel and put safety barriers in
position.
This keeps people out of the working area and prevents for example that any-
body tries to open a door from the outside.
On some aircraft types you can find a red warning light on the door which
illuminates when the cabin is pressurized.
You can do the pressurization with special external equipment via the low
pressure ground connector. In this example no personnel is needed inside the
cabin or cockpit to monitor the pressurization.
Another possibility for pressurization is to use normal pressure sources for
example the APU and switch on the packs. In this case 2 personnel must be in
the cockpit for safety reasons to operate and monitor the system. These
personnel must be healthy and must not have influenza.
You need also a person outside the aircraft with an interphone connection to
monitor the aircraft and cockpit personal.
Before the pressurization starts you must switch on the aircraft beacon lights.
The pressurization is done in the manual mode which you have already seen
in this lesson.
Always use the aircraft type related test procedure in chapter 5 of the
maintenance manual and the additional company related procedures.
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Figure 77 SAFETY BARRIERS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ATA 21 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . 1 AUTOMATIC OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
OVERRIDE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SYSTEM LAYOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
SYTEM LAYOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 PROTECTION FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 CONTROL AND INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 DITCHING MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
COOLING DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 AUTOMATIC MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
COOLING PACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 OUTFLOW AND SAFETY VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
OZON CONVERTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 CABIN PRESSURE LEAKAGE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
PACK VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
PACK VALVE FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
HEAT EXCHANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
AIR CYCLE MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
BYPASS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
RAM AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
AIR FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
RECIRCULATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
COCKPIT AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
RAM AIR AND GROUND SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
TRIM AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
PROTECTION CIRCUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1 AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Figure 36 FRESH AIR TO THE COCKPIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Figure 2 PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Figure 37 AIR DISTRIBUTION COCKPIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Figure 3 AIRCRAFT ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 38 EMERGENCY RAM AIR INLET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Figure 4 REGULATIONS FOR AIRFRESHNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 39 TRIM AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Figure 5 CLEANLINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 40 MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Figure 6 HUMIDITY OF AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 41 AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . 83
Figure 7 PRESSURIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Figure 42 TRIM AIR VALVE CONTROL CIRCUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 8 SYSTEM LAYOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 43 PROTECTION CIRCUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 9 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 44 TRIM AIR VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Figure 10 AIR CONDITIONING COMPONENT LOCATION . . . . . 21 Figure 45 TRIM AIR PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE . . . . . . . 91
Figure 11 VAPOR CYCLE MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 46 VALVE IN UNPRESSURIZED AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Figure 12 AIR CYCLE MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Figure 47 DUCT TEMPERATURE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Figure 13 COOLING PACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Figure 48 ZONE TEMPERATURE SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Figure 14 CATALYTIC OZONE CONVERTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Figure 49 CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Figure 15 PACK VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Figure 50 CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS ON 747 . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Figure 16 PACK VALVE & SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 51 EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Figure 17 REGULATING ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Figure 52 ABNORMAL SITUATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Figure 18 AIRFLOW DIAGRAMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Figure 53 MODES OF EQUIPMENT COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Figure 19 HI FLOW SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Figure 54 OVERRIDE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Figure 20 PACK FLOW SELECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 55 CABIN ALTITUDE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE . . . . . 111
Figure 21 HEAT EXCHANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 56 CABIN RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Figure 22 AIR-CYCLE MASCHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Figure 57 CABIN PRESSURIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Figure 23 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 58 OVERBOARD SHUTOFF VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Figure 24 OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Figure 59 EXCESSIVE CABIN ALTITUDE OR PRESSURE . . . . . 119
Figure 25 BYPASS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Figure 60 EQUALIZATION VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Figure 26 BYPASS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Figure 61 INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Figure 27 HEAT EXCHANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Figure 62 CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Figure 28 RAM AIR INLET / EXIT DOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Figure 63 DITCHING MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Figure 29 MIXING UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Figure 64 AUTOMATIC MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Figure 30 AIR FLOW FROM MIXING UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Figure 65 GROUND MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Figure 31 PASSENGER CABIN AIR DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . 63 Figure 66 PRE-RESSURIZATION MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Figure 32 AIR DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Figure 67 INTERNAL CLIMB MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Figure 33 PASSENGERS INDIVIDUAL AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . 67 Figure 68 EXTERNAL CLIMB MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Figure 34 RECIRCULATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Figure 69 ABORT MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Figure 35 RECIRCULATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . 71 Figure 70 CRUISE PHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 71 CRUISE MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Figure 72 DESCENT MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Figure 73 OUTFLOW VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Figure 74 SAFETY VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Figure 75 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Figure 76 LEAKAGE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Figure 77 SAFETY BARRIERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155