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30 Apr 2017 Piotr Migda [machine-learning] [deep-learning] [overview]

see: tweet by Franois Chollet (the creator of Keras) with over 140 retweets

see: Facebook post by Kaggle with over 200 shares

see: like it? upvote it on the Hacker News :)

I teach deep learning both for a living (as the main deepsense.io instructor, in a Kaggle-

winning team1) and as a part of my volunteering with the Polish Childrens Fund giving

workshops to gifted high-school students2. I want to share a few things Ive learnt about

teaching (and learning) deep learning.

Whether you want to start learning deep learning for you career, to have a nice adventure

(e.g. with detecting huggable objects) or to get insight into machines before they take over3,

this post is for you! Its goal is not to teach neural networks by itself, but to provide an

overview and to point to didactically useful resources.

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 1/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

Dont be afraid of artificial neural networks - it is easy to start! In fact, my biggest regret is

delaying learning it, because of the perceived difficulty. To start, all you need is really basic

programming, very simple mathematics and knowledge of a few machine learning concepts.

I will explain where to start with these requirements.

In my opinion, the best way to start is from a high-level interactive approach (see also:

Quantum mechanics for high-school students and my Quantum Game with Photons). For

that reason, I suggest starting with image recognition tasks in Keras, a popular neural

network library in Python. If you like to train neural networks with less code than in Keras,

the only viable option is to use pigeons. Yes, seriously: pigeons spot cancer as well as

human experts!

Deep learning is a name for machine learning techniques using many-layered artificial

neural networks. Occasionally people use the term artificial intelligence, but unless you

want to sound sci-fi, it is reserved for problems that are currently considered too hard for

machines - a frontier that keeps moving rapidly. This is a field that exploded in the last few

years, reaching human-level accuracy in visual recognition tasks (among many other tasks).

Unlike quantum computing, or nuclear fusion - it is a technology that is being applied right

now, not some possibility for the future. There is a rule of thumb:

Pretty much anything that a normal person can do in <1 sec, we can now automate with AI.

- Andrew Ngs tweet

Some people go even further, extrapolating that statement to experts. Its not a surprise that

companies like Google and Facebook at the cutting-edge of progress. In fact, every few

months I am blown away by something exceeding my expectations, e.g.:

Shakespeare, Wikipedia entries and LaTeX articles

A Neural Algorithm of Artistic Style style transfer (and for videos!)

Real-time Face Capture and Reenactment

Colorful Image Colorization

Plug & Play Generative Networks for photorealistic image generation

Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer along with other medical diagnostic tools

Image-to-Image Translation (pix2pix) - sketch to photo

Teaching Machines to Draw sketches of cats, dogs etc

It looks like some sorcery. If you are curious what neural networks are, take a look at this

series of videos for a smooth introduction:

A Visual and Interactive Guide to the Basics of Neural Networks by J Alammar

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 2/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

These techniques are data-hungry. See a plot of AUC score for logistic regression, random

forest and deep learning on Higgs dataset (data points are in millions):

In general there is no guarantee that, even with a lot of data, deep learning does better than

other techniques, for example tree-based such as random forest or boosted trees.

Lets play!

Do I need some Skynet to run it? Actually not - its a piece of software, like any other. And

you can even play with it in your browser:

ConvNetJS for digit and image recognition

Keras.js Demo - to visualize and use real networks in your browser (e.g. ResNet-50)

Or if you want to use Keras in Python, see this minimal example - just to get convinced

you can use it on your own computer.

I mentioned basics Python and machine learning as a requirement. They are already

covered in my introduction to data science in Python and statistics and machine learning

sections, respectively.

For Python, if you already have Anaconda distribution (covering most data science

packages), the only thing you need is to install TensorFlow and Keras.

When it comes to machine learning, you dont need to learn many techniques before

jumping into deep learning. Though, later it would be a good practice to see if a given

problem can be solved with much simpler methods. For example, random forest is often a

lockpick, working out-of-the-box for many problems. You need to understand why we need to

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 3/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

train and then test a classifier (to validate its predictive power). To get the gist of it, start with

this beautiful tree-based animation:

Also, it is good to understand logistic regression, which is a building block of almost any

neural network for classification.

Mathematics

Deep learning (that is - neural networks with many layers) uses mostly very simple

mathematical operations - just many of them. Here there are a few, which you can find in

almost any network (look at this list, but dont get intimidated):

addition, multiplication,

convolutions to extract and process local patterns,

activation functions: sigmoid, tanh or ReLU to add non-linearity,

softmax to convert vectors into probabilities,

log-loss (cross-entropy) to penalize wrong guesses in a smart way (see also Kullback-

Leibler Divergence Explained),

gradients and chain-rule (backpropagation) for optimizing network parameters,

stochastic gradient descent and its variants (e.g. momentum).

you already know more than enough to start!

If your last contact with mathematics was in high-school, dont worry. Its mathematics is

simple to the point that a convolutional neural network for digit recognition can be

implemented in a spreadsheet (with no macros), see: Deep Spreadsheets with ExcelNet. It

is only a proof-of-principle solution - not only inefficient, but also lacking the most crucial part

- the ability to train new networks.

The basics of vector calculus are crucial not only for deep learning, but also for many other

machine learning techniques (e.g. in word2vec I wrote about). To learn it, I recommend

starting from one of the following:

book with fully interactive figures

Applied Math and Machine Learning Basics: Linear Algebra from the Deep Learning

book

Linear algebra cheat sheet for deep learning by Brendan Fortuner

Since there are many references to NumPy, it may be useful to learn its basics:

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 4/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

At the same time - look back at the meme, at the What mathematicians think I do part. Its

totally fine to start from a magically working code, treating neural network layers like LEGO

blocks.

Frameworks

There is a handful of popular deep learning libraries, including TensorFlow, Theano, Torch

and Caffe. Each of them has Python interface (now also for Torch: PyTorch).

So, which to choose? First, as always, screw all subtle performance benchmarks, as

premature optimization is the root of all evil. What is crucial is to start with one which is easy

to write (and read!), one with many online resources, and one that you can actually install on

your computer without too much pain.

Bear in mind that core frameworks are multidimensional array expression compilers with

GPU support. Current neural networks can be expressed as such. However, if you just want

to work with neural networks, by rule of least power, I recommend starting with a framework

just for neural networks. For example

Keras

If you like the philosophy of Python (brevity, readability, one preferred way to do things),

Keras is for you. It is a high-level library for neural networks, using TensorFlow or Theano as

its backend. Also, if you want to have a propaganda picture, there is a possibly biased (or

overfitted?) popularity ranking:

The state of deep learning frameworks (from GitHub metrics), April 2017. - Franois

Chollet (Keras creator)

If you want to consult a different source, based on arXiv papers rather than GitHub activity,

see A Peek at Trends in Machine Learning by Andrej Karpathy. Popularity is important - it

means that if you want to search for a network architecture, googling for it (e.g. UNet

Keras ) is likely to return an example. Where to start learning it? Documentation on Keras is

nice, and its blog is a valuable resource. For a complete, interactive introduction to deep

learning with Keras in Jupyter Notebook, I really recommend:

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 5/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

Visualizing parts of Convolutional Neural Networks using Keras and Cats by Erik Reppel

Deep learning for complete beginners: convolutional neural networks with Keras by

Petar Velikovi

Handwritten Digit Recognition using Convolutional Neural Networks in Python with

Keras by Jason Brownlee (Theano tensor dimension order6)

There are a few add-ons to Keras, which are especially useful for learning it. I created ASCII

summary for sequential models to show data flow inside networks (in a nicer way than

model.summary() ). It shows layers, dimensions of data (x, y, channels) and the

number of free parameters (to be optimized). For example, for a network for digit recognition

it might look like:

Input ##### 32 32 3

Conv2D \|/ ------------------- 896 0.1%

relu ##### 32 32 32

Conv2D \|/ ------------------- 9248 0.7%

relu ##### 30 30 32

MaxPooling2D Y max ------------------- 0 0.0%

##### 15 15 32

Dropout | || ------------------- 0 0.0%

##### 15 15 32

Conv2D \|/ ------------------- 18496 1.5%

relu ##### 15 15 64

Conv2D \|/ ------------------- 36928 3.0%

relu ##### 13 13 64

MaxPooling2D Y max ------------------- 0 0.0%

##### 6 6 64

Dropout | || ------------------- 0 0.0%

##### 6 6 64

Flatten ||||| ------------------- 0 0.0%

##### 2304

Dense XXXXX ------------------- 1180160 94.3%

relu ##### 512

Dropout | || ------------------- 0 0.0%

##### 512

Dense XXXXX ------------------- 5130 0.4%

softmax ##### 10

You might be also interested in nicer progress bars with keras-tqdm, exploration of

activations at each layer with quiver or converting Keras models to JavaScript, runnable in a

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 6/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

TensorFlow

If not Keras, then I recommend starting with bare TensorFlow. It is a bit more low-level and

verbose, but makes it straightforward to optimize various multidimensional array (or, well,

tensor) operations. A few good resources:

Learn TensorFlow and deep learning, without a Ph.D. by Martin Grner

TensorFlow Tutorial and Examples for beginners by Aymeric Damien (with Python 2.7)

Simple tutorials using Googles TensorFlow Framework by Nathan Lintz

In any case, TensorBoard makes it easy to keep track of the training process. It can also be

used with Keras, via callbacks.

Other

Theano is similar to TensorFlow, but a bit older and harder to start. For example, you need to

manually write updates of variables. Typical neural network layers are not included, so one

often uses libraries such as Lasagne. If youre looking for a place to start, I like this

introduction:

At the same time, if you see some nice code in Torch or PyTorch, dont be afraid to install

and run it!

Datasets

Every machine learning problem needs data. You cannot just tell it detect if there is a cat in

this picture and expect the computer to tell you the answer. You need to show many

instances of cats, and pictures not containing cats, and (hopefully) it will learn to generalize it

to other cases. So, you need some data to start. And it is not a drawback of machine

learning or just deep learning - it is a fundamental property of any learning!

Before you dive into uncharted waters, it is good to take a look at some popular datasets.

The key part about them is that they are popular. It means that you can find a lot of

examples what works. And have a guarantee that these problems can be solved with neural

networks.

MNIST

Many good ideas will not work well on MNIST (e.g. batch norm). Inversely many bad ideas

may work on MNIST and no[t] transfer to real [computer vision]. - Franois Chollets tweet

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 7/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

Still, I recommend starting with the MNIST digit recognition dataset (60k grayscale 28x28

images), included in keras.datasets. Not necessary to master it, but just to get a sense that it

works at all (or to test the basics of Keras on your local machine).

notMNIST

Indeed, I once even proposed that the toughest challenge facing AI workers is to answer

the question: What are the letters A and I? - Douglas R. Hofstadter (1995)

A more interesting dataset, and harder for classical machine learning algorithms, is

notMNIST (letters A-J from strange fonts). If you want to start with it, here is my code for

notMNIST loading and logistic regression in Keras.

CIFAR

If you want to play with image recognition, there is CIFAR dataset, a dataset of 32x32 photos

(also in keras.datasets). It comes in two versions: 10 simple classes (including cats, dogs,

frogs and airplanes ) and 100 harder and more nuanced classes (including beaver, dolphin,

otter, seal and whale). I strongly suggest starting with CIFAR-10, the simpler version.

Beware, more complicated networks may take quite some time (~12h on CPU my 7 year old

Macbook Pro).

More

Deep learning requires a lot of data. If you want to train your network from scratch, it may

require as many as ~10k images even if low-resolution (32x32). Especially if data is scarce,

there is no guarantee that a network will learn anything. So, what are the ways to go?

use really low res (if your eye can see it, no need to use higher resolution)

get a lot of data (for images like 256x256 it may be: millions of instances)

re-train a network that already saw a lot

generate much more data (with rotations, shifts, distortions)

Creating a new neural network has a lot in common with cooking - there are typical

ingredients (layers) and recipes (popular network architectures). The most important cooking

contest is ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge, with recognition of hundreds

of classes from half a million dataset of photos. Look at these Neural Network Architectures,

typically using 224x224x3 input (chart by Eugenio Culurciello):

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 8/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

Circle size represents the number of parameters (a lot!). It doesnt mention SqueezeNet

though, an architecture vastly reducing the number of parameters (e.g. 50x fewer).

A few key networks for image classification can be readily loaded from the keras.applications

module: Xception, VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, InceptionV3. Some others are not as plug &

play, but still easy to find online - yes, there is SqueezeNet in Keras. These networks serve

two purposes:

they are great candidates for retraining (so-called transfer learning), when using

architecture along with pre-trained weights)

Retina blood vessel segmentation with a convolution neural network - Keras

implementation

Deep Learning Tutorial for Kaggle Ultrasound Nerve Segmentation competition,

using Keras

A Neural Algorithm of Artistic Style

Neural Style Transfer & Neural Doodles implemented in Keras by Somshubra

Majumdar

A Brief History of CNNs in Image Segmentation: From R-CNN to Mask R-CNN by Dhruv

Parthasarathy

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 9/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

How to train your Deep Neural Network - how many layers, parameters, etc

Infrastructure

For very small problems (e.g. MNIST, notMNIST), you can use your personal computer -

even if it is a laptop and computations are on CPU.

For small problems (e.g. CIFAR, the unreasonable RNN), you might be still able to use a PC,

but it requires much more patience and trade-offs.

For medium and larger problems, essentially the only way to go is to use a machine with a

strong graphic card (GPU). For example, it took us 2 days to train a model for satellite image

processing for a Kaggle competition, see our:

Deep learning for satellite imagery via image segmentation by Arkadiusz Nowaczyski

The easiest, and the cheapest, way to use a strong GPU is to rent a remote machine on a

per-hour basis. You can use Amazon (it is not only a bookstore!), here are some guides:

mentee

Running Jupyter notebooks on GPU on AWS: a starter guide by Francois Chollet

Further learning

I encourage you to interact with code. For example, notMNIST or CIFAR-10 can be great

starting points. Sometimes the best start is to start with someones else code and run it, then

see what happens when you modify parameters.

CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition by Andrej Karpathy and

the lecture videos

When it comes to books, there is a wonderful one, starting from introduction to mathematics

and machine learning learning context (it even covers log-loss and entropy in a way I like!):

Deep Learning, An MIT Press book by Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio and Aaron

Courville

Alternatively, you can use (it may be good for an introduction with interactive materials, but

Ive found the style a bit long-winded):

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 10/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

Other materials

There are many applications of deep learning (its not only image recognition!). I collected

some introductory materials to cover its various aspects (beware: they are of various

difficulty). Dont try to read them all - I list them for inspiration, not intimidation!

General

The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Recurrent Neural Networks by Andrej Karpathy

How convolutional neural networks see the world - Keras Blog

What convolutional neural networks look at when they see nudity Clarifai Blog

(NSFW)

Convolutional neural networks for artistic style transfer by Harish Nrayanan

Dreams, Drugs and ConvNets - my slides (NSFW); I am considering turning it into a

longer post on machine learning vs human learning, based on common mistakes

Technical

Yes you should understand backprop by Andrej Karpathy

Transfer Learning using Keras by Prakash Vanapalli

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) in 50 lines of code (PyTorch)

Minimal and Clean Reinforcement Learning Examples

An overview of gradient descent optimization algorithms by Sebastian Ruder

Picking an optimizer for Style Transfer by Slav Ivanov

Building Autoencoders in Keras by Francois Chollet

Understanding LSTM Networks by Chris Olah

Recurrent Neural Networks & LSTMs by Rohan Kapur

Oxford Deep NLP 2017 course

List of resources

How to Start Learning Deep Learning by Ofir Press

A Guide to Deep Learning by YN^2

Staying up-to-date:

r/MachineLearning Reddit channel covering most of new stuff

distill.pub - an interactive, visual, open-access journal for machine learning

research, with expository articles

my links at pinboard.in/u:pmigdal/t:deep-learning - though, just saving, not an

automatic recommendation

@fastml_extra Twitter channel

GitXiv for papers with code

dont be afraid to read academic papers; some are well-written and insightful (if you

own Kindle or another e-reader, I recommend Dontprint)

Data (usually from challenges)

Kaggle

AF Classification from a short single lead ECG recording: the PhysioNet/Computing

in Cardiology Challenge 2017

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 11/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

Thanks

I would like to thank Kasia Kulma, Martina Pugliese, Pawe Subko, Monika Pawowska and

ukasz Kidziski for helpful feedback on the content and to Sarah Martin for polishing my

English.

If you recommend a source that helped you with your adventure with deep learning - feel

invited to contact me! (@pmigdal for short links, an email for longer remarks.)

The deep learning meme is not mine - Ive just I rewrote from Theano to Keras (with

TensorFlow backend).

1. NOAA Right Whale Recognition, Winners Interview (1st place, Jan 2016), and a fresh

one: Deep learning for satellite imagery via image segmentation (4th place, Apr

2017).

NSFL project - constructing a neural network for detecting trypophobia triggers, see e.g.

grzegorz225/trypophobia-detector and cytadela8/trypophobia_detector.

3. It made a few episodes of webcomics obsolete: xkcd: Tasks (totally, by Park or Bird?),

xkcd: Game AI (partially, by AlphaGo), PHD Comics: If TV Science was more like REAL

Science (not exactly, but still its cool, by LapSRN).

Sciences by Eugene Wigner (1960), one of my favourite texts in philosophy of science.

Along with More is Different by PW Andreson (1972) and Genesis and development of a

scientific fact (pdf here) by Ludwik Fleck (1935).

5. If your background is in quantum information, the only thing you need to change is to

. Just expect less tensor structure, but more convolutions.

6. Is it only me, or does Theano tensor dimension order sound like some secret convent?

Before you start searching how to join it: it is about the shape of multi-dimensional

arrays: (samples, channels, x, y) rather than TensorFlows (samples, x, y,

channels) .

Tweet

Like Share 474 people like this. Be the first of your friends.

HN Submission/Discussion

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 12/13

5/20/2017 Learning Deep Learning with Keras

http://p.migdal.pl PhD in quantum physics; based in Warsaw,

Poland. Believing in side projects, active in

stared gifted education, developing the Quantum

pmigdal Game and working as a data science instructor

at deepsense.io.

learning, JavaScript for data visualization.

Currently focusing on deep learning.

http://p.migdal.pl/2017/04/30/teaching-deep-learning.html 13/13

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