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MADE BY; EVA BEUTEN, MEIKE DAMEN, ANNIKA HOEBEN & IZA MIKOLAJCZYK

DIETARY GUIDELINES ACROSS THE WORLD

A3H

14-4-2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
General:.................................................................................................................................................. 2
Countries:................................................................................................................................................ 3
New Zealand........................................................................................................................................ 3
Canada................................................................................................................................................ 4
Greece................................................................................................................................................. 5
The Netherlands.................................................................................................................................. 7
Comparisons & differences:.................................................................................................................... 8
Our dietary guidelines:............................................................................................................................ 9
Extra:..................................................................................................................................................... 11
Sources:................................................................................................................................................ 12

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GENERAL:

What are dietary guidelines?


Dietary guidelines are messages based on science on how to eat healthy, how to maintain a healthy
lifestyle and how to prevent malnutrition. They express national nutrition recommendations. They are
usually applied for people over two years old.

Dietary guidelines show these recommendations into easy information that people can understand. The
guidelines are focused on commonly consumed food and portion sizes. Lots of guidelines look the
same in general: they promote plant foods like fruits and vegetables and encourage less fat, sugar and
salts. But if you take a closer look you can see that every guideline has its own aspects, depending on
the country.

Why do countries need dietary guidelines?


A good diet is the number one requirement you need for a healthy lifestyle. Most countries have one or
more problems with it. Diseases are coming through due to an unhealthy life. Examples are
malnutrition, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This combined with lowering physical
activity creates a serious problem.
Globalization and urbanization are causes of an unhealthier lifestyle. This is why, in dietary guidelines,
they promote traditional foods. Also, there were more products with low nutritional value available.
These changes focus on the need for a simple and regular diet that prevent diseases.

Dietary guidelines can be used to make measures for foods that are offered in public surroundings, for
example schools, offices, hospitals, prisons and restaurants. They can also be used to guide to food
industry for improvement on the quality of foods (reduce fats and salts).

Sustainability
Food production and consumption have nowadays a very big impact on the environment. The world
population is growing fast and we are using the planets resources. Therefore, the need to produce
foods more sustainable is necessary.
Firstly, food production is contributing to climate change. It is very bad for the environment. Secondly, a
lot of food is wasted and people overconsume food. To protect peoples health and the Worlds
environment is it very important to change to more sustainable foods and diets.

Instructions in the guidelines say that people should eat more plant foods and local foods, that people
shouldnt waste as much food as they do now, that people should eat less red meat, that people should
eat less processed foods and that they should drink less liquids containing sugar.

Diets that are good for the environment are nice for the ecosystems, acceptable in every culture, safe,
healthy and affordable.

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COUNTRIES:

New Zealand

What are the dietary guidelines for the country?


The dietary guidelines for New Zealand for a healthy diet for healthy adults are:
Maintain a healthy body weight by eating well and by daily physical activity.
Eat well by including a variety of nutritious foods from each of the four major food groups every
day.
o Vegetables and fruit
o Breads and cereals (preferably wholegrain)
o Milk and milk-products
o Lean meat, poultry, seafood, eggs or alternatives
Prepare foods or choose pre-prepared, drinks and snacks:
o with minimal added fat, especially saturated fat
o that are low in salt; if using salt, use iodized salt
o with little added sugar; limit your intake of high-sugar foods
Drink plenty of liquids each day, especially water.
If choosing to drink alcohol, limit your intake.
Purchase, prepare, cook and store food to ensure food safety.

Who wrote the report on the dietary guidelines?


The New Zealand Ministry of health has written the report, in collaboration with universities, on the
dietary guidelines. The report is published on the 28th of October in 2015. The document is written for
health practitioners and others who provide advice on nutrition and physical activity for New Zealand
adults.

Who funded the research and writing for the dietary guideline?
The research and the writing for the dietary guideline is funded by the Ministry of Health.

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Canada

What are the dietary guidelines for the country?

In this chart you can see what and how much to eat of it, for all ages.

These are messages involving the chart:


Eat at least one dark green and one orange vegetable each day.
Enjoy vegetables and fruit prepared with little or no added fat, sugar or salt.
Make at least half of your grain products whole grain each day.
Choose grain products that are low in fat, sugar or salt.
Drink skim, 1% or 2% milk each day.
Select lower fat milk alternatives.
Eat at least two food guide servings of fish each week. * Health Canada provides advice for
limiting exposure to mercury from certain types of fish
Select lean meat and alternatives prepared with little or no added fat or salt.
Enjoy a variety of foods from the four food groups.
Satisfy thirst with water!
Drink water regularly. Its a calorie-free way to quench your thirst. Drink more water in hot
weather or when you are very active.
Include a small amount (3045 ml) of unsaturated fat each day. This includes oil used for
cooking, salad dressings, margarine and mayonnaise.

Who wrote the report on the dietary guidelines?


The Ministry of Health Canada wrote the guidelines in 2011, it was renewed from the earlier guides.
The newest nutrition guidelines are called: Canadas Food Guide.

Who funded the research and writing for the dietary guideline?
Canada's first food guide was introduced in July 1942 it was called the Official Food Rules. They were
developed by the Nutrition Division of the federal government in collaboration with the Canadian
Council on Nutrition.

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Greece

What are the dietary guidelines for the country?

The food pyramid is developed to illustrate the Greek guidelines. It is divided into three levels of
consumption: daily consumption (wholegrain cereals and products, fruits, vegetables, olive oil and dairy
products), weekly (fish, poultry, olives, pulses, nuts, potatoes, eggs and sweets) and monthly (red
meat).
Consume a variety of fruit and vegetables every day.
Consume a variety of grains every day. Prefer whole grains.
Opt for low fat dairy.
Reduce the consumption of red meat. Choose lean cuts. Avoid processed meat.
Consume Seafood (fish and shellfish) often. Choose fatty fish and prefer small fish.
Consume legumes often (e.g. beans, peanuts)
Choose olive oil as your first choice of fat.
Reduce consumption of sugar, salt and products that contain them.
Engage in physical activity every day. Maintain a normal weight.
Drink plenty of water.

Who wrote the report on the dietary guidelines?


The report on the dietary guidelines of Greece were written by the ministry of Health.

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Who funded the research and writing for the dietary guideline?
The Greek dietary guidelines were published in 1999. The guidelines were developed by the ministry of
health, the WHO Collaborating Center for Food and Nutrition Policies at the University of Athens
Medical School and non-governmental organizations.

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The Netherlands

What are the dietary guidelines for the country?


The dietary guidelines for the Netherlands are represented by a circle. In Dutch this circle is called the
Schijf van Vijf. In this circle diagram you can find the 5 different groups of food you have to take in
daily. There are 4 different groups and one beverage group. A beverage group is a group with drinks.
Especially water, tea or other non-alcoholic drink. The four other groups are groups with food. The
different groups are:
Vegetables and fruit: eat at least 250 grams of vegetables and 2 pieces of fruit.
Cereals and potatoes: eat at least 90 grams of bread each day.
Fish, legumes, meat, egg and dairy: Eat one serving of fish weekly, limit the consumption of red
meat, eat legumes weekly (e.g. beans, peanuts).
Fats: use everyday a bit of oil and butter. Limit the use of butter and use preferably oil.
To maintain a healthy lifestyle, you should eat and drink everything named above. These are the
recommendations that The Netherlands Nutrition Centre has made up with other experts. The dietary
guidelines also are:
Limit salt intake to 6 grams.
Minimize consumption of sugar-containing foods and drinks.
Have physical exercise regularly.

Who wrote the report on the dietary guidelines?


An expert committee has developed an advisory report which describes the current level of knowledge
about the relationship between diet and chronic disease and makes associated recommendations
about a healthy dietary pattern. They got assistance from the Netherlands Nutrition Centre, the National
Institute of Public Health and the Environment for example.
Based on the guidelines evolved from the report, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre was responsible for
developing the relevant public information materials and the food guide (Schijf van Vijf).

Who funded the research and writing for the dietary guideline?
The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Ministry of
Public Health, Welfare & Sport.

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COMPARISONS & DIFFERENCES:
We have compared the countries we have chosen. Due to the comparisons we could answer the
following questions:

What are the similarities between the dietary guidelines of your choice?
The dietary guidelines of the Netherlands and of New Zealand look a lot like each other. In both
countries the dietary guidelines say that your diet should contain vegetables and fruit, grains such as
bread, potatoes, meat, eggs and dairy products.
Furthermore, the dietary guidelines of all countries say that your diet should contain vegetables and
fruit, prefer oil as fat, not too much salt, have enough physical activity, drink enough and regularly
water, minimize the consumption of sugar-containing foods and drinks and grains and cereals.

We can conclude that there are a lot of similarities within those countries. Almost all countries have
those dietary guidelines. There only are small differences between countries. The differences we found
within the countries we chose, are stated below.

What are the differences between the dietary guidelines of your choice?
All the guidelines are a bit different from each other, but Greece is a lot different than the other
countries. They avoid red meat. People in Greece are thought to consume seafood and legumes.
Legumes are not required in the other guidelines. In the other guidelines potatoes are preferred to be
taken daily but in Greece they only have to take it once per week. In a week they also need to eat
olives, pulses and nuts.
In Canada they prefer meat only 1-3 times a week. In New Zealand and The Netherlands they prefer it
once a day.

What do you think are the causes of the similarities and differences between the dietary
guidelines of your choice?
We think the dietary guidelines can differ a lot, because of the different climates. In Greece for example,
the people have to adapt to the sun and the heat that occurs over there a lot more often. The countries
also adapt their dietary guidelines to the local foods and the food that is produced in their own
countries. Example: in China a lot of rice is produced, the people over there eat a lot of rice compared
to Europe and the Netherlands.

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OUR DIETARY GUIDELINES:

Our guideline is divided into three levels of consumption:

Most important and consumed daily

Less important and consumed daily or weekly

Occasionally or daily in small amounts

Explanation about the infographic and further tips:

Try to eat a lot of fruits, at least 3 pieces per day. Apple is the most healthiest and very easy on
the go!

Vegetables are very important, try to eat 300 grams a day. A tip to eat varied vegetables is to eat
vegetables in different colours (carrots, tomatoes, bell peppers and cucumbers for example).

Water keeps the body in balance and is also the most healthy beverage possible. We
recommend on average two liters a day.
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With eating dinner it is important to vary your foods. Try to combine all the daily
recommendations in one meal.

Meat can be eaten daily if wanted, but try to avoid red meat and processed meat. Fish is
recommended weekly, preferably oily fish.

Grains are important, preferably whole grains. Healthy spreads are for example eggs, avocado,
sandwich spreads, vegetables like tomato, cucumber and lettuce, fruits and nuts.

Try to avoid too much cheese. Cheese is dairy but still contains a lot of fats. Dairy is very
important so you can take milk or yoghurt instead. That way, you still consume dairy but without
the unnecessary fats.

For adults we recommend one cup of coffee a day. It is useful for a lot of things. For children we
do not recommend coffee.

Try to avoid consuming products with lots of salts. Recommended is 5 grams per day. A lot of
people go over this limit because salt is processed in a lot of foods: it makes it tasty. You can
find salts in processed meats and vegetables, cheese, pizzas and meals that are ready-made.

Tip: To avoid eating too much salts, you should stop eating packed-meals. The longer you can
keep a products well in a fridge, the more salt is processed in it.

When taking a snack, choose one with a low amount of fats and carbohydrates. A smart option
would be yoghurt, fruits and vegetables (cucumber, carrots or bell pepper).

Where is your dietary advice based on?


We did a lot of research on different guidelines from different countries. We think all countries adapt
their dietary guidelines to their climate and the food that is mainly produced in their country. We also
think it is difficult for us to make up our own dietary guidelines, because our opinion is being influenced
by the way we are raised. We are raised in the Netherlands and so our dietary guidelines look a lot like
the guidelines of the Netherlands.

The guideline has to be similar to the ones in Europe. That way, we stick to the European culture and
therefore the guideline is easier to follow. Making a guideline that is based on the one in Japan for
example would not be smart because the people in the Netherlands and Europe arent used to eating
that kind of foods.

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The foods that are promoted in the guideline should mostly be foods that are produced in the
Netherlands and are not exported from other countries. By means of this the guideline sticks with local
foods. Globalization is a cause of an unhealthier lifestyle, so we want to reduce this.

The build-up from our guideline is based on, among others, Spains guideline. They divide it into daily
consumptions, weekly consumptions and occasionally consumptions. We based our guideline also on
three levels because we think this is smart. You can very easily see which foods are daily necessary to
obtain a healthy lifestyle and which foods are healthy but only necessary once a week.

Which sources did you use to support your dietary advice?

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/features/which-countries-have-the-
healthiest-diets-a6971466.html

https://www.kidney.org/news/ekidney/june10/Salt_june10

https://authoritynutrition.com/coffee-good-or-bad/

https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/eat/calories.htm

http://www.voedingscentrum.nl/nl/gezond-eten-met-de-schijf-van-vijf.aspx

http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/good-nutrition-should-guidelines-differ-for-men-and-
women

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EXTRA:
The WHO is a Constitution that came into force on the 7th of April in 1948. This Date is now celebrated
as World Health Day every year. There are now 7000 people working in 150 country offices, in 6
regional offices and their headquarters in Geneva.
The WHO is an abbreviation for World Health Organization. WHO directs and coordinates international
health within the United Nations system. The WHO thus belongs to/falls within the United Nations.
The main goal of the WHO is to build a better, healthier future for people all over the world.

Food safety
You need food safety for good nutrition and health which are linked to a sustainable development.
WHO concludes that 1 in 10 people fall ill and 125,000 children under 5 years of age die from
foodborne diseases.

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SOURCES:

General:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Food-based dietary guidelines,
Background, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-dietary-guidelines/background/en/

Canada:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Food-based dietary guidelines -
Canada, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-based-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/canada/en/

Greece:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Food-based dietary guidelines -
Greece, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-based-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/greece/en/

Olive tomato (2011-2017). Eat like Greek? Greek dietary guidelines - a better choice, retrieved from the
World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.olivetomato.com/eat-like-greek-greek-dietary-guidelines-a-better-choice/

New Zealand:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Food-based dietary guidelines - New
Zealand, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-based-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/new-zealand/en/

Ministry of Health. Eating and Activity Guidelines for New Zealand Adults, retrieved from the World
Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/eating-and-activity-guidelines-new-zealand-adults

The Netherlands:
Mijnwoordenboek.nl (2017). Vertalen, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.mijnwoordenboek.nl/vertaal/EN/NL/beverage

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Food-based dietary guidelines - The
Netherlands, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-based-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/netherlands/en/

Voedingscentrum. The Netherlands Nutrition Centre, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of
March 2017:
http://www.voedingscentrum.nl/nl/service/english.aspx

Our dietary guidelines:


National Kidney Foundation (2016). Top 10 tips for reducing salt in your diet, retrieved from the World
Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:
https://www.kidney.org/news/ekidney/june10/Salt_june10

Harvard Health Publications (2010-2017). Good nutrition: Should guidelines differ for men and women,
retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March 2017:

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http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/good-nutrition-should-guidelines-differ-for-men-and-
women

Independent. Which countries have the healthiest nutrition, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the
9th of March 2017:
http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/features/which-countries-have-the-
healthiest-diets-a6971466.html

Authority Nutrition. Coffee: good or bad?, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 14th of April 2017:

https://authoritynutrition.com/coffee-good-or-bad/

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Healthy Eating Plan, retrieved from the World Wide Web on
the 14th April 2017:

https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/eat/calories.htm

Voedingscentrum. Gezond eten met de Schijf van Vijf, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 14th
of April 2017:

http://www.voedingscentrum.nl/nl/gezond-eten-met-de-schijf-van-vijf.aspx

Extra:
World Health Organization (2017). Food safety, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March
2017:
http://who.int/foodsafety/en/

World Health Organization (2017). About WHO, retrieved from the World Wide Web on the 9th of March
2017:
http://www.who.int/about/en/

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