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Lecture 5-14-09

World War I and its effects on Japan

- Ends in 1918; also the year in which Japan joins many troops to put down the
Bolshevik Revolution
- World War I helps recover the Japanese economy. However, followed by
- During recession, rice prices double.--> Leads to riots, seize rice, goes to
homes of the affluent and steal their stuff; 25,000 people arrested, 1000
people get shot.
- The cabinet falls because of these riots. Get Hara-Kei
- 1919 March First Movement (Mass demonstrations in Korea)
o Brutally put down, but the government enacts change. (Cultural policy)
- Reasons for the killing of Koreans in Japan
o Bolshevik Revolution, rice riots, leftists, Korean uprisings


- No longer Backwater, like Germany or France

- One of the major industrial countries in the world.
- Daily life is presenting people with so much change
- 50% of the population is living in cities leads to new social practices, new
patterns of work, new gender roles, new entertainment
- Not so much consumer consumption, actually
- Women (Out and about)
o Main workers for the textile production
o 30-50 % of the workers in all industries
o Most were recruited from rural communities
o Different from Meiji (Kicked into the house) women were more
- Signs of division in society
o Poverty on the streets
o Division leads to anxiety


- Major Japanese painter

- Used oil painting but later moved into Nihonga (Japanese style but with
Western flare)
- Moga- modern girls
- During this time, only 1% of women were wearing Western style clothing
while 60% of the men were in suits.

Kanto Earthquake (1923)

- 63 % homes lost in Tokyo

- 142,807 people dead
- Martial law declared
- Osugi Sakae and Ito were murdered in the aftermath; beaten to death and
tossed down a well
- Koreans were murdered too.
- Blamed the Koreans, leftists, labor union leaders, and anyone seen as
different for the deaths in the earthquakes.
- People bought posters and pictures commemorating these incidents.
- Lots of homeless people
- Some people viewed the countryside as an anchor to the Japanese culture,
while those in Edo scoffed at this.
- Many people were living in the Barracks. Artists see the

Women (Out and About)

- Kishidause to paint using oils

- Militarancy of women changed into Modern women was a way to control
the women
- Moga Modern girl
- 1935- The Young Womens Patriotic Association celebrates Akihitos first
o All dressed very uniform

1936- government policy pushed by midlevel military figures; killing prime ministers

Showa Restoration

- The Meiji constitution the emperor is in charge, sovereignty, in charge of

the military
- A lot of fantasies of martial law a way to have the emperors will be realized
- Biggest coup attempt 1936 2, 26 It almost succeeds.
- 1929- Great Depression contributed to the sense of unease.
- Women, colonial violence, financial issues Bolshevik Revolution?