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Establishment of the Shortest Route a Prototype for Facilitation in Road Network

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Prototype For Facilitation In Road Network

Sumaira Yousuf Khan, Nasir uddin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Farhan Mazhar, Abdul Mannan

Abstract: Calculating the shortest path between two locations in a road network is a significant problem in network analysis. Roads play a pivotal role in

day to day activities of masses live in places and areas. They travel for various purposes that are, to study, to work, to shop and to supply their goods

and the like, from one place to another place. Even in this modern era, roads remain one of the mediums used most frequently for travel and

transportation. Being ignorant of the shortest routes people sometimes have to travel long distances, consume extra precious time, money and bare

undesirable mental stress. Karachi is the second most populated and the seventh biggest city of the world. It is the central place of Pakistan, which is

famous for industry, banking, trade and economic activity, and there are places which frequently visit by the inhabitants for their miscellaneous

requirements. Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) is one of the departments that deal with taxation and revenue generation in the country. A common man

residing near or distant areas often visit FBR to settle their business / property and tax related issues. In order to facilitate the masses, an effort is being

made to develop a prototype based on Dijkstras Algorithm (DA) to establish a shortest route, that will help individuals in navigation and subsequently

alleviate difficulties faced by them in travelling/ road networks.

Index Terms: Dijkstras Algorithm (DA), Shortest Route, Optimal path, Network Design

Calculating the shortest path between two locations in a road the fastest path, quickest way and the lowest cost problem and

network is a vital issue that finds a wide range of applications so on [3]. There are several other algorithms that can be

in the fields of electric navigation, telecommunication, pipe utilized to find the shortest route and shortest distance

network designs, electricity, communication, urban planning, between two locations in a network. The DA is the theoretical

transportation planning, route guidance and so on [1,2]. The foundation to solve shortest path problem and is considered as

shortest route issue is a substantial problem in network the grandmother of all label setting algorithms [4, 5]. This

optimization, which sees the track between two nodes graphical search algorithm was published in 1959 and

(vertices) in a graph, in a manner that the amount of the invented by Edsger Dijkstra, a Dutch computer scientist in

weights of its constituent edges is minimized. It not only refers 1956. It gives solution of the single source shortest path

to the shortest distance in the general geographical problem with non-negative edges, path costs, creating a

significance, but also extends to other measures like time, shortest path tree for a graph. This algorithm is rather useful in

cost, safety and the capacity and so on. routing and other web related protocols. For a given source

vertex in the graph, the DA determines the path with minimum

cost (i.e. The shortest path) between that vertex and every

other vertex. It can likewise be applied for finding costs of the

shortest paths from a single source vertex to a single

destination vertex in a network by stopping the algorithm when

the shortest course to the destination vertex has been

obtained [7]. In literature, DA is considered as a classical and

antiquated algorithm for the shortest route problem (SRP). On

the basis of literature, it is generally accepted that different

variants of DA have been developed and a number of many

other efficient algorithm is implemented to solve one-to-one

______________________________ shortest path problem. It is simple, easy to understand and

implement, and highly efficient algorithm [13,14]. DA has been

Sumaira Yousuf Khan, Research fellow, Department of widely used in industrial transportation, emergency navigation

Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. and navigation planning, waste management, logistic

Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics and distribution and so on [9,10]. However, the most common

Statistics, College of Computer Science and applications of this algorithm are solving the mathematical

Information Systems, Institute of Business (graph) problems and finding the shortest route in personal

Management, Karachi, Pakistan. navigation to perform the analysis. Balstrom (2000) listed

E-mail: sumairayousuf.khan@gmail.com some of the applications of the same routine e.g. looking for

Nasir uddin Khan, PhD (Mathematics), Department of the nearest hospital, restaurant, jungle trekking on the

Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. mountains/hills, a petrol station, shopping place, identifying

Mushtaq Hussain, PhD (Mathematics), Department of the emergency exit doors for any disaster in a building [11]. In

Mathematics, University of Karachi, Director Research this paper, we applied DA in real road network to find an

Program , Preston University, Karachi, Pakistan optimal route between two nodes to achieve desired

Syed Farhan Mazhar , MS (Software Engineering and objectives. For a consistency of the study, we focused on two

Intelligent Systems), University of Alberta, Edmonton, different areas of the city i.e. Nagan Chowrnagi (NC) as a

Canada source or starting node and FBR (located at tower) as a

destination node. The first chosen area is one of the densely

Abdul Mannan, MSc (Mathematics), Department of

populated areas of Karachi, Pakistan. A large number of

Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

middle and lower-middle class resides there and its adjoining

41

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 5, ISSUE 09, SEPTEMBER 2016 ISSN 2277-8616

areas. On the other hand, the second chosen area is a Detail of the nodes is listed in table 3.1

business hub, which includes many national and international

offices like FBR. It is the supreme federal agency of Pakistan, List of Nodes Location of Nodes

which audits, enforces and collects revenue for the Node 1 Nagan Chowrangi (NC) - Source

Government of Pakistan and also conducts audits of taxpayers Node 2 KDA Chowrangi (KDAC)

[6].Therefore, a large number of people visit FBR regularly for Node 3 Sohrab Gothi (SG)

different purposes such as employee to work, people to

resolve their tax related issues, students and researchers to Node 4 Karimabad (KB)

gather information and to collect data used in their research Node 5 Nipa Chowrngi (NPC)

and so on. In this regard an effort has been made to find out Node 6 Nazimabad No. 4 (NZ)

the optimal path from NC to FBR by using DA. The remaining Node 7 Hassan Square (HS)

of the manuscript is arranged as; following the introduction Node 8 Mazar-e- Quaid (MZ)

section two discusses the methodology. In section 3 we Node 9 Financial Trade Center (FTC)

describe the problem. Then, in section 4 we consider the DA Node 10 Karsaz (KZ)

for obtaining the shortest route of a given network. Next, in Node 11 Federal Board of Revenue (FBR)

section 5 and 6, the analysis of the results and conclusion are - Destination

discussed.

Table 3.1 : Detail of Nodes

2. METHODOLOGY

DA is considered an appropriate in finding the optimal path 4. Solution of the Problem

between two nodes in a network. As such, it is used in this According to the DA we start with iteration I.

study to achieve the desired objectives. Iteration 1: Assign node 1 as PERL [0,-] i.e. the starting node.

Iteration 2: Nodes 2 and 3 are successors of node 1. Thus,

The description of the DA is as follows. the status of labeled nodes is

Let be the shortest distance from source node 1 to node i,

and the length of arc (i, j) is defined as (0). Then the Node Label Status

algorithm labels an immediate successor of node j as [ , i] = 1 [0 , - ] PER

2 [6 , 1] TEM

[ + , i], 0. 3 [4.4 , 1] TEM

The starting node is labeled as [0, -], which indicates the node

Between the two TEMLs [6, 1] and [4.4, 1], node 3 has the

has no predecessor. There are two types of labeling nodes in

minimum distance ( . Thus, node 3 is assigned

DA: temporary (TEM) and permanent (PER). If the shortest

route to a node can be determined, then the status of the as PER.

temporary label (TEML) is modified, and converted to PER.

Step I: Initialize by assigning a permanent label (PERL) [0, -] Iteration 3: Nodes 4 and 5 are successors of node 3, and the

to source node (node 1). Set i = 1, detail of labeled nodes is

Step II: (a) Calculate the TEMLs [ + , i], for every node j

that can be approached from node i, provided j is not PERL. If Node Label Status

node j is already assigned [ , k] through another node k and 1 [0 , - ] PER

if + , < , then node j is labeled as [ + , i] instead 2 [6 , 1] TEM

of [ , k]. 3 [4.4 , 1] PER

(b) If PERLs are assigned to all the nodes, stop. Or else, 4 [10, 3] TEM

choose the label [ , s] having the shortest distance (= ) 5 [10.7 , 3] TEM

among all the TEMLs. Set i = r and go to step I [8].

Since min {6, 10, 10.7} = 6. Thus, the status of TEML [6, 1] at

3. Problem Formulation node 2 is changed to PER ( ).

The given network provides routes with their distances in Iteration 4: Nodes 4 and 6 are successors of node 2, so the

Kilometers [12] between area 1 (node 1) and ten other areas status of labeled nodes is

(nodes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11). The selected nodes are

those areas of Karachi, Pakistan which is traversed more Node Label Status

frequently. So, we consider this road network to implement the

DA to obtain the shortest path from node 1 to node 11. 1 [0 , - ] PER

2 [6 , 1] PER

6

6 7

4.5

4.5

3 [4.4 , 1] PER

3.4

6.6 5.1

10 4 [9.2, 2] TEM

1

6

2

3.2

4 15.6 5 [10.7 , 3] TEM

5.7

9

6 [10.5 , 2] TEM

8 11

4.4 5.6

3

6.3

5

14.3

8.3

Node 4s TEML [10, 3] in iteration 3 is modified to [9.2, 2] in

9 iteration 4 indicating that a smaller distance has been

Fig 3.1: Network Diagram determined through node 2. Since min {9.2, 10.7, 10.5} = 9.2

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( ). 8 [17.1 , 6] TEM

9 [25 , 10] TEM

Iteration 5: Node 7 is a successor of node 4 and the status of 10 [17.1 , 7] TEM

labeled nodes is

Since min {17.1, 25, 17.1} = 17.1 so the status of TEML [17.1,

Node Label Status 7] at node 10 is converted to PER ( ).

1 [0 , - ] PER

2 [6 , 1] PER Iteration 9: Node 11 is the successor of node 10. So the

3 [4.4 , 1] PER status of labeled nodes updated

4 [9.2, 2] PER

5 [10.7 , 3] TEM Node Label Status

6 [10.5 , 2] TEM 1 [0 , - ] PER

7 [12.6 , 4] TEM 2 [6 , 1] P ER

3 [4.4 , 1] P ER

Since min {10.7, 10.5, 12.6} = 10.5 the status of node 6 is 4 [9.2, 2] PER

converted to PER ( ). 5 [10.7 , 3] PER

6 [10.5 , 2] PER

Iteration 6: Nodes 7 and 8 are the successors of node 6, so 7 [12.6 , 4] PER

the status of labeled nodes is changed as 8 [17.1 , 6] TEM

9 [25 , 10] TEM

Node Label Status 10 [17.1 , 7] PER

1 [0 , - ] PER 11 [32.7 , 10] TEM

2 [6 , 1] PER

3 [4.4 , 1] PER Since min {17.1, 25, 32.7} = 17.1 the status of node 8 is

4 [9.2, 2] PER converted to PER ( ).

5 [10.7 , 3] TEM

6 [10.5 , 2] PER

7 [12.6 , 4] TEM

8 [17.1 , 6] TEM

Iteration 10: Node 11 is the successor of node 8. Thus, the

detail of labeled nodes is

Since min {10.7, 12.6, 17.1} = 10.7 the status of TEML [10.7,

3] at node 5 is converted to PER ( ).

Node Label Status

1 [0 , - ] PER

Iteration 7: Nodes 7 and 9 are the successors of node 5, and

then the detail of labeled nodes is 2 [6 , 1] PER

3 [4.4 , 1] PER

Node Label Status 4 [9.2, 2] PER

1 [0 , - ] PER 5 [10.7 , 3] PER

2 [6 , 1] PER 6 [10.5 , 2] PER

3 [4.4 , 1] PER 7 [12.6 , 4] PER

4 [9.2, 2] PER 8 [17.1 , 6] PER

5 [10.7 , 3] PER 9 [25 , 10] TEM

6 [10.5 , 2] PER 10 [17.1 , 7] PER

7 [12.6 , 4] TEM 11 [26.1 , 8] TEM

8 [17.1 , 6] TEM

9 [25 , 5] TEM Node 11s TEML [32.7, 10] in iteration 9 is modified to [26.1, 8]

in iteration 10 indicating that a smaller distance has been

obtained through node 8. Between [25, 10] and [26.1, 8], node

Since min {12.6, 17.1, 25} = 12.6 the status of node 7 is

9 has the smallest distance.Thus, the status of node 9 is

converted to PER ( ).

changed to PER ( ).

Iteration 8: Nodes 8 and 10 are the successors of node 7.

Iteration 11: Now node11 is the only TEML left.

Thus the detail of labeled nodes is modified

Node Label Status

Node Label Status

1 [0 , - ] PER

1 [0 , - ] PER

2 [6 , 1] PER

2 [6 , 1] PER

3 [4.4 , 1] PER

3 [4.4 , 1] PER

4 [9.2, 2] PER

4 [9.2, 2] PER

5 [10.7 , 3] PER

5 [10.7 , 3] PER

6 [10.5 , 2] PER

6 [10.5 , 2] PER

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7 [12.6 , 4] PER models in optimization and their applications in practice (Vol. 36).

8 [17.1 , 6] PER John Wiley & Sons.

9 [25 , 10] PER

10 [17.1 , 7] PER [3] Zhang, F., Qiu, A., & Li, Q. (2005). Improve on Dijkstra shortest

11 [26.1 , 10] TEM path algorithm for huge data. Chinese academy of surveying

and mapping: China.

So its status is converted to PER ( ). Because it

[4] Jahan, S., & Hasan, M. S. (2011). A comparative study on

does not lead to any other node . algorithms for shortest-route problems and some

extensions. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

Iteration 12: IJBAS-IJENS, 11, 167-177.

Node Label Status [5] Dijkstra, E. W. (1959). A note on two problems in connexion with

1 [0 , - ] PER graphs.Numerische mathematik, 1(1), 269-271.

2 [6 , 1] PER

3 [4.4 , 1] PER [6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Board_of_Revenue_(Pakis

4 [9.2, 2] PER tan)

5 [10.7 , 3] PER

6 [10.5 , 2] PER [7] Magzhan, K., & Jani, H. M. (2013). A review and evaluations of

7 [12.6 , 4] PER shortest path algorithms. International journal of scientific &

8 [17.1 , 6] PER technology research,2(6).

9 [25 , 10] PER

10 [17.1 , 7] PER [8] Taha, H. A. (1982). Operations Research: An Introduction (For

11 [26.1 , 10] PER VTU). Pearson Education India, p 219-222

Therefore, the shortest route of the discussed road network is [9] Gogoncea, V., Murariu, G., & Georgescu, L. (2010). The Use of

Dijkstra's Algorithm in Waste Management Problem. Annals of

(11) [26 .1 , 8] (8) [17.1 , 6] (6) [10.5 , 2 ] Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Mathematics, Physics

Theoretical Mechanics, 196-200.

(2) [6 ,1 ] (1)

[10] Xiao-Yan, L., & Yan-Li, C. (2010, August). Application of Dijkstra

5. EMPIRICAL RESULTS Algorithm in Logistics Distribution Lines. In Third International

With the help of DA, the shortest route/optimal path has been Symposium on Computer Science and Computational

calculated from node 1 (NC) to node 11 (FBR) and the Technology (ISCSCT10), Jiaozuo, PR China (pp. 048-050).

required route is 1 2 6 8 11 with a total length of [11] Balstrm, T. (2000). Identifying least cost routes in mountainous

26.1 Km. Thus, the masses residing in NC and its surrounding terrain. In2000 Esri User Conference Proc.(cd-rom Titel). ESRI.

areas may follow this route NC KDAC NZ MQ FBR.

The route so established will be extremely valuable and [12] https://www.google.com/maps/@37.0625,-95.677068,4z

address all the difficulties being faced by the people while

travelling to their desired destinations and spend substantial [13] Dreyfus, S. E. (1969). An appraisal of some shortest-path

money which is a burden on the pockets of financially hard- algorithms.Operations research, 17(3), 395-412.

pressed people.

[14] Cherkassky, B. V., Goldberg, A. V., & Radzik, T. (1996). Shortest

paths algorithms: Theory and experimental

6. CONCLUSION evaluation. Mathematical programming, 73(2), 129-174.

In this study, we considered a real application of the classical

Dijkstras Algorithm for searching for an optimal path, i.e. the

shortest route between two important places of the mega city

Karachi, Pakistan, has been established. This practice of

identifying the shortest path for transportation purpose in the

fast developing environment is also considered essential, as it

minimizes transportation cost, reduce time and distance. It

further gives reliability and flexibility in movement, particularly

in natural calamities, disasters, accidents and enable ones to

make the right decision for the best route in certain

conditions.

REFERENCES

[1] Ahuja, R. K., Magnanti, T. L., & Orlin, J. B. (1988). Network

flows (No. MIT-WP-2059-88). ALFRED P SLOAN SCHOOL OF

MANAGEMENT CAMBRIDGE MA.

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