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# Fleming's left-hand rule

gives you the direction of the force that acts on a current if you know the magnetic field.

This rule applies to motors, i.e. devices which use currents in a magnetic field to generate
motion. It derives its validity from the Lorentz force,

F=qvB
in which the current goes with the charge's velocity and the induced motion is along the direction
of the force. This is why this rule coincides with the left-hand rule used in cross-products in
general.
b. synchronous speed is the speed at which the magnetic field rotates. Depending on motor
design, the actual mechanical speed may be equivalent (synchronous motor) or slightly smaller
(asynchronous motor).

## Sync. Speed (in RPM) = 120 x Frequency (Hz) / # poles

For example, consider a motor with 4 poles operating at 60 Hz:

## Sync. RPM = 120 x 50 / 4 = 1,500 RPM

c. Slip in an induction motor can be defined as the difference between the flux
speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is
always less than its synchronous speed.
It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented
by the symbol S.

d. Major equipment :

## Generators: The function of the generator is to convert mechanical energy

from the turbine to electrical energy to supply electrical loads

## Transformers: The main function of a transformer is to convert AC electric energy

from one voltage level to another while minimizing the losses in the transformation
process.

Voltage and Current transducer: transformer with a sufficiently small turn ratio, which
converts a high-voltage signal to a low-voltage one.

Switches, Circuit breakers, and disconnect switches: The most common are those used to turn
certain pieces of equipment such as lights, pumps, or instruments on and off. A switch that is turned to the
on position (closed) allows electricity to pass through, whereas turning it off (opening it) breaks the
electrical circuit and stops the flow of electrons.

In a low-power

environment, the switches are not much different from those in everyday use