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The country assigned to create an implementable solution on improving the standard of
living for the poor, was Equatorial Guinea. Referencing Part A of Project 2, Equatorial Guinea is
in a declining economic state, following a boom centered around natural gas and the oil
industry. This lack of diversification makes them extremely sensitive to the world's prices and
causes their Real GDP to fluctuate substantially over a year. Their political circumstance is no
better, at least 70% of the population lives in extreme poverty, with no access to clean sewage,
below even the standard set by the United Nations of $2 a day being the minimum income
amount for any standard of living. This is due to the corruption existent in the government under
the control of one man. A solution would then need to be both beneficial to the people and the
government. For it to ever look appealing to be implemented, it must also be profitable.
Equatorial Guinea has large potential for electrical generation. This could be achieved through
the utilization of hydroelectric plants spread across the many rivers that snake the country. If this
path of energy production was pursued then they could become an energy exporter, supplying
neighboring countries with electricity for a profit.
With this motivation in mind, we have selected the town of Mbini as the focus of our goal
to improve the standard of living. While only having a population of 14,000 people, it was
chosen over the denser populated areas due to the main problem in Equatorial Guinea being
the lack of an energy distribution network. The capital of Malabo even experiences rolling
blackouts due to the aged equipment in place. Targeting a new area to provide renewable
energy to would negate the cost of replacing the old equipment. This fresh start will be
beneficial for the local population, who currently has no access to any form of electricity. Mbini is
located at an advantageous spot, at the mouth of the Benito Riveri, one of the largest rivers
flowing to the sea in Equatorial Guinea. This provides the potential for Mbini to become a large
port city in the Bay of Guinea. The government and other relief organizations recognize this as
well. White Storm Capitol is an internal government agency focused on self-improvement that
has proposed something known as the Vision 2020 plan. This plan includes a primary focus on
converting Mbini to a major trading post. This special economic zone (SEZ), shows that
expected future infrastructural needs for the area, and electricity generation is needed, not only
for the benefit of the inhabitants, but for the country as a whole. The national electrical company
of Segesa, had the following to say about their own plan, “The government’s Horizon 2020 plan
has done a great deal to propel Equatorial Guinea toward its goals, however work still remains
to be done for the country to completely fulfill its potential. As the government has declared that
the process of providing reliable national access to electricity is one of Horizon 2020’s principal
strategies, Segesa, the national electricity company based in Malabo, proudly occupies a
central role in the development plan of Mbini and other SEZ’s.”
The above reasoning, and current government interest, shows that Mbini is a prime
location to being the revitalization of the standard of living for the citizens of Equatorial Guinea.
While the current population is far smaller, if Mbini were to achieve port status with access to the
Bay of Guinea, then it would have access to a market of over 350 million people in a given year.
The location of Mbini provides a perfect location for the utilization of a hydroelectric plant. Since
the town is situated right on the banks of this river, even with its expected rapid growth, a
hydroelectric plant at the isthmus of Benito Riveri would provide reliable energy for the
surrounding area. Further potential is evident when combining a hydroelectric plant with a
purification center, providing the surrounding areas with fresh drinking water. This plant could
even be modeled after the existing hydroelectric plant at Djibloho, which provides 120MW of
capacity to its surrounding areas. With the expectation of rapid growth, the focused benefit on
the country as a whole and its improvement being considered that of a direct relation to its
citizens; the provision of electricity would increase the standard of living exponentially by
introducing Mbini’s inhabitants to basic comforts through the construction of a hydroelectric
plant on the Benito Riveri.

2. The changes we plan on making center around the construction of a hydroelectric plant
on the River Benito combined with water purification technology. Once these changes are
implemented, focus can be shifted to the construction of a reliable electrical grid for the
distribution of energy nationwide. While the purifying aspect of the plant would provide fresh
water to the surrounding area and local inhabitants, while improving their standard of living, the
plant would still have a large net energy generation. This plant would be on a larger scale than
the one located at Djibloho and therefore produce more energy. The resulting abundance of
fresh water would result in an improvement of sanitation, provision of a sewage system, and
increase the health conditions of the immediate area. With the addition of this hydroelectric plant
to a nationally constructed electrical grid, (currently underdeveloped and unreliable), this plant
could provide electricity for a very large area, even reaching the city of Bata 45 Km away. The
provision of these improvements to the livelihood of the citizens is based on the government
promoted plan, Vision 2020. These changes would also provide incentive for Mbini to continue
to grow until it reaches its potential as a major port city and trade location contributing to the
world market.

3. Equatorial Guinea’s geographical topography provides the potential for significant
energy generation through the means of hydropower for the country’s mainland. The Benito
Riveri runs through the entire mainland before emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. With many
large rivers like this one snaking throughout the country, it is estimated that Equatorial Guinea
has a hydroelectric potential up to 2.6 GW (Figure 1). Mentioned in the previous section, this
could be economically beneficial and cause the nation to become an energy exporter. Since the
majority of the nation's economy centers around natural gas and the oil industry, it would be
beneficial if we could create an economy also relying on the production of renewable energy.
The capital costs would be large but the pay off, through the exportation of energy, as well as to
the standard of living improvement to a large SEZ, would be monumental.

4. In attempting to provide electricity for a scaled population of 100 people in Equatorial
Guinea, the possibility of tidal power was investigated due to Mbini’s coastline location. For the
population it was assumed that each person would need a minimum of 400 W of capacity, which
would require 40,000 W of capacity total. Equatorial Guinea’s coastline has a maximum tidal
range of 1.42 meters during spring tide. Assuming a tidal basin was used to convert this tidal
range into power, the size of tidal basin needed was calculated. These calculations, which can
be referenced at the end of the document, show that to supply the population of 100 with 40,000
W of capacity requires a basin with an area of 88,185.7 meters squared. A natural basin of this
size, or even close to this size, does not exist on the coastline of Equatorial Guinea. A man
made basin of this size is very costly for the amount of power produced. Thus, tidal power is not
a feasible option, even for small populations in Equatorial Guinea.

The hydroelectric dam that we are scaling is for more than 100 people. This is due to the
expected growth of Mbini into a port city and based on the huge potential for hydroelectric
energy generation that exists. The scale of the dam was first determined by the length of the
Benito Riveri that runs into the ocean. This was scaled on google maps and can be seen in
Figure 2. The calculations on what energy should be expected from our dam, the number of
turbines, the overall dimensions, how many people it would supply, and the operating
conditions, were determined from looking at the local infrastructure at the Djibloho dam and at
the world's largest hydroelectric plant, the Three Gorges Dam. All of these dams, including the
one we are proposing, are gravity dams. This means that the river is blocked to raise the water
level, then as water is allowed to flow through it will turn turbines that in turn generate
consumable energy. A francis type turbine was selected since Equatorial Guinea has experience
working with these turbines, this is due to the ones at their Djibloho damn being 30 MW francis
turbines. We chose to use slightly larger turbines, with input pipe diameters of 10 meters, each
individually providing 50MW of energy. The end calculations show that our dam would produce
850MW of energy, and using the United Nations standard of living as 400W/person, we found
that our solution could provide energy to 2,125,000 people, the population of the whole nation is
757,014. This would make the country a large energy exporter and increase its economic
strength by adding diversity to the goods it provides the world, specifically its neighboring
countries. A project of this size would also provide jobs to the citizens of the country. With more
jobs, a stable supply of electricity, access to clean water, and if a water treatment plant was
combined with this dam, it would increase the standard of living for the indigenous population.
An industrial water treatment purification plants main purifying equipment would cost $4000
according to alibab.com. This would be a relatively small cost compared to the overall cost of
the hydroelectric plant and could be easily implemented on top of the renewable energy
solution. The equipment and materials needed for the dam would need to be imported mostly
however, due to how specialized of an economy Equatorial Guinea has with primary
infrastructural focus on natural gas and oil.
Attached are sample calculations detailing the comparison between gravity dams and the
decisions made to come to our final result of a dam that:
1. Is 1,200m long
2. Uses 17, 50MW Francis Type Turbines
3. Provides 850MW of power
4. Supplies 2,125,000 people
5. Storage using Large-scale CAES (Compressed air energy storage)
6. Height of 96.4m
7. Base width of 57.5m
8. Crest width of 20m
9. Material cost of $1.124 billion.
10. Input pipe diameter of 10m.
Figure 1: Map of Equatorial Guinea showing target location for development.
Figure 2: Map of Mbini, showing Dam location and width.
Figure 3: Energy rate to storage option comparison.

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