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You are on page 1of 31

H ow

ACSL

Contest #4

Contest 4 Topics

Intermediate:

Graph Theory no powers greater than two - 2

Digital Electronics up to three variables - 2

Assembly Language no loops - 1

Senior:

Graph Theory - 2

Digital Electronics - 2

Assembly Language with loops - 1

Graph Theory

Graph Theory

Graph - A collection of vertices and edges

Edge - A connection between two vertices

Vertices are also known as nodes

Can be represented in many ways, one of which is as a set of

edges and vertices:

Vertices {A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M}

Edges {AG, AB, AC, LM, JM, JL, JK, ED, FD, HI, FE, AF, GE}

Graph Theory

Path - A list of vertices in which successive vertices are

connected by edges in the graph.

BAFEG is a path from B to G in the graph below

Order is important! Follow the order they are listed

Simple path - A path with no repeated vertex

BAFEGAC is not a simple path

Graph Theory

A graph is connected if there is a path from every vertex to

every other vertex in the graph. In other words, I could travel

from any node to any other node by following some path.

A graph that is not connected is made up of smaller

connected components.

A cycle is a path where the first and last vertex are the same

(NO REPEAT NODES IN THE PATH)

A graph with no cycles is called a tree

Since there is only one path between all nodes, a tree on N vertices

contains N-1 edges

Spanning trees are graphs or subgraphs that contain all the

vertices in a graph

Graph Theory

A group of disconnected trees is called a forest

Directed graphs are graphs which have directions

associated with each edge, so they can only be traversed

one way

Graph Theory

A dag is a directed acyclic graph, or a directed graph with

no cycles

Denoting V as the number of vertices and E as number of

edges:

E can range from V to V2 or (V) (V-1) in undirected graphs

Graphs with all possible edges between nodes are

complete, those with relatively few edges are sparse, and

those with most edges are dense

Graph Theory

Adjacency matrices are sometimes used to represent

connections between nodes in a graph.

The nodes are placed on two axes, and then numbers are

used to represent if there exists an edge between two nodes

0 is no edge, 1 means there is an edge

Other numbers can be weighted edges

src: http://www.stoimen.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/5.-Undirected-Graph-Adjacency-Matrix.png

Graph Theory

Graph Theory

Graph Theory

counted: AB is a cycle,

BCD, and CD, so there are

3 cycles.

Graph Theory

Graph Theory

You could count the paths by hand, coming up with 1 path of length

2 and 3 paths of length 4. Or could could build an adjacency matrix

and use power rules to find the connections of length 2 and 4:

Digital Electronics

Know the schematic symbols

You really only need to memorize NOT, AND, and OR

BUFFER doesnt really mean anything

The little circle to the right of a symbol always means NOT

The difference between OR and XOR (and NOR and XNOR) is the

extra line on the left of the XOR symbol

Translate schematic into a Boolean equation

Go from right to left and use parentheses

When the line diverges that means the same quantity is used for

multiple separate operations

After that, its more or less the same as Boolean Algebra

Refer to last months presentation to review properties and laws

Digital Electronics

Digital Electronics

Digital Electronics

Sample Problem 1

Digital Electronics

Sample Problem 1: Solution

Digital Electronics

Sample Problem 2

Digital Electronics

Sample Problem 2: Solution

Assembly

Extremely low-level programming language, with very little

abstraction

Translated to machine code (1s and 0s) by an assembler

ACSL has created their own variant of assembly, which

they call ACSL Assembly Language, or AAL

Rules of AAL:

Numbers are cut off, not rounded (e.g. 14 / 5 = 2)

Numbers can range from -999,999 to 999,999

All operations are performed modulo 1,000,000 (e.g. 999,998 plus 7

equals 5)

Programs are executed sequentially unless branches are specified

Assembly

There is an invisible variable called an accumulator (ACC)

that stores the results of each operation

All assembly lines take the following format:

OPCODEs are abbreviations for actions, like MULT, ADD,

etc.

labels are used to denote locations

LOCs are either references to labels, or immediate data

used by the OPCODE

Assembly

List of OPCODEs:

Assembly

List of OPCODEs:

Assembly

Sample Problem:

Assembly

Sample Problem:

Assembly

Sample Problem:

Assembly

Sample Problem:

Assembly

Sample Problem:

Assembly

Sample Problem:

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