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Lesson 3: Orientation to Management

Lesson 3 provides an overview of the challenging field of management. It explores the critical concepts
and processes utilized by managers to operate an organization. Managers get things done through
people, and general managerial functions include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. In todays
fast-paced environment, managers must not only effectively employ these four functions, but also keep up
in a dynamically changing and innovative global environment. The manager must be skilled in change
strategy as well as interpersonal skills. In this lesson, you will examine the nature of management and
build a tool box of critical knowledge and skills to face the challenges ahead. Finally, this lesson focuses
on researching career information related to management and the opportunities available.

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of Lesson 3, you should be able to:

Explain the four functions of management (planning, organizing, leading, and controlling).

Differentiate between the roles of management and the roles of leadership.

Discuss ethical decision making.

Describe the role of social responsibility within a corporate context.

Identify the elements of managing in a global environment.

Explore the barriers to and skills of effective communication.

Define conflict and describe the conflict management styles available to managers.

Explain the steps for successful negotiation.

Explain employee motivation based on theories of motivation.

Describe the key elements of building a high-performing team.

Explain the organizational change and innovation process.

Discuss the steps for effective time management.

Evaluate career opportunities in management.

What To Do Next
Lecture and Research Update
Click on the Lecture and Research Update link above to access your lesson lecture notes.
Vocabulary List
Click on the Vocabulary List link above to view vocabulary terms that are found in the Lecture and
Research Update for this lesson. Study and learn the meaning of each term and how to apply the
term to the content area and the real world.
Final Exam
After you have completed the readings in this lesson and feel comfortable with the material
presented, go to the Exams & Quizzes tool on the left navigation panel underneath the QUICK
LINKS section and complete the Final Exam 3_04.
Grading Criteria
Once you have completed these items, you have completed this course! We at Ashworth College
hope you have enjoyed this course and feel a sense of accomplishment, as you get closer to
earning your masters degree.

Lecture and Research Update

You will receive the greatest benefit from the following Lecture and Research Update if you first read this
narrative, review the assignment, then come back to this section and carefully reread this Lecture and
Research Update.
What is a manager? What does a manager do? According to Wikipedia (2015) management includes
planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization to accomplish the goal
or target.. This definition has been tailored by most people into another very well-accepted definition: A
manager is someone who gets things done through other people. Surely you have heard the old saying,
People are our most valuable resource or asset.
In todays business environment, the traditional mechanistic (stable, unchanging) bureaucratic
organizational structure and narrow divisions of work are becoming more organic (flexible, changing). In
order to succeed in todays fast-paced global environment, successful organizations must not only
provide excellence in customer service locally and abroad, but they must also continuously change and
revitalize to meet these demands. As a result, the traditional role of the manager is changing. Employees
are empowered, many times at all levels, to make decisions; teams and project management have
become commonplace in the 21st century organization. Consequently, in todays business environment,

Management seeks to ensure the best use of available resources in a specific, operational and strategic
context. Leadership seeks to identify the best operational and strategic context for the use of available
resources. For this purpose, the leader seeks to add to the organizational "machine" as much
organizational human content, transforming it into what it should be in reality: a community acting in
unison in order to achieve some common goals. (Dumitrascu, 2014)

Understanding the Managers Job

Most organizations have three levels of managers: top, middle, and first. Usually the top level of
management (think of the peak of a pyramid) is comprised of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), COO
(Chief Operating Officer), CFO (Chief Financial Officer), and the operational executives (e.g., marketing,
human resources, and research and development). The managers at the peak of the pyramid create the
road map for the organization in terms of overall strategy and operating policy. Top-level managers
depend on their ability to perceive the organization as a whole, on understanding how all the puzzle
pieces fit together, i.e., internal and external stakeholders, government regulations, environmental
concerns, etc. Mid-level managers are responsible for implementing the strategic plan and policies
developed by the top-level managers. This level of management is also responsible for coordinating the
activities of the first line of managers. The first-level managers supervise and coordinate the tasks that
facilitate the accomplishment of the strategic plan. These managers appear at the base of the pyramid
and typically have the largest span of control (numbers of people supervised). The first-level managers
must have the technical knowledge of the unit that is being coordinated. Although the need for human
relations skills applies to all levels of management, the middle and first levels will find that these skills are
critical. Empathy and social skill are critical if one is to gain the support of others and serve as a role
The Four Functions of Management
As mentioned previously, the managers job is to plan, organize, lead, and control in an effort to
accomplish the mission and achieve established goals. Regardless of level, all managers are responsible
for these four functions. How they carry out these functions is determined in some respect by their
position in the company. The following is a brief description of each of these functions.
Planning means deciding where the organization needs to go (goals) and developing the strategy
(activities) to get there. The planning process takes place within the context of the external
environment. This environment is comprised of the organizations competitors, customers, suppliers,
strategic partners, and regulators. For example, a fast-food chains competitors would be other fast-food
chains; its customers would be the people who purchase the chains food and beverage products; its
suppliers would be the soft drink companies and food product suppliers; its strategic partners may be
foreign partners, and its regulators may be the Food and Drug Administration or the World Health
According to Garson (2003), taking a trip can be a metaphor to describe the steps in the strategic
planning process.

1. Where are we going? This step defines the mission (organizations purpose) and outlines the
organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis).

2. Where do we want to go? This step examines future trends, and sets long-term strategic goals for
the organization.

3. How will we get there? This step addresses the specific activities required to accomplish the
strategic goals.

4. Who will do the driving? This step identifies the organizational functions and personnel that will
accomplish the activities and tasks.

5. How much will it cost? This is the financial analysis of the strategic plan as well as the budgeting

Organizing means creating the structure needed to accomplish the organizations mission. Jafari & Maleki
(2013) say, Organizational structure determines the communications between various organization levels
to develop discipline in corporations and people implement the commands and decisions based on
appointed communications. (p. 252). Elements of organizational structure and design are the chain of
command, project teams, and span of control. Organizational structure can take on different forms. The
military would be an example of a bureaucratic structure. IBM is an example of a fluid structure, using
project teams organized to meet a clients needs.
Another element of organizing is the design of jobs, such as functional specialist or generalist. An
organization may group job responsibilities by function, such as marketing, finance, and human
resources. They may group job responsibilities by product, such as SUV, sedan, or truck. They may group
job responsibilities by customer or customer groups, for example, manufacturing, retail, and health
care. Finally, they may group job responsibilities by location, such as Middle East, Canada, and
Southwest. The design of the structure, jobs, and reporting relationships focuses on how the organization
can best serve their customers.
Leadership is the interpersonal influence that gets an individual or team to do what the leader wants
done, such as carrying out the strategic plan. Eisenhower suggested that leadership is the art of getting
someone else to do something you want done because the other person wants to do it. Leadership is the
process of guiding others, and the guidance may come from the formal leader (designated by the
organization, e.g., unit manager) and/or an informal leader who influences through special skills or
resources that meet the needs of the others.
Ideally, a manager is also a leader. Typically, leadership is a process of guiding others toward goal
accomplishment. Management is a rational assessment of a situation, the development of goals and
strategies, and the design, organization, direction, and control of activities required to attain the
goals. According to Garson (2004) there are several differences between leaders and managers as
shown in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1: The Differences between Leaders and Managers

To influence others to get the job done, leaders use power. According to French and Raven (1974), the
sources of power available to a leader are as follows.

1. Legitimate Power: Power granted by virtue of one's position

2. Reward Power: Control of rewards that are valued by another

3. Coercive Power: Ability to punish or physically or psychologically harm someone

4. Expert Power: Control over information

5. Referent Power: Power through identification

Also, according to Mastrangelo, A., R. Eddy, & Lorenzet (2014), Professional and personal leadership
are positively related to employee intentions to cooperate, personal leadership mediates the effect of
professional leadership on employee intentions to cooperate, and employees in the high-performing
organization rated all study variables higher than employees in the low-performing organization.(p. 604)
The fourth management function is control, whereby the manager ensures that everything is going
according to plan. More specifically, control uses measurements to obtain feedback that performance is
within acceptable limits and that the organization is moving towards its goals. A properly designed control
system (e.g., performance standards, production reports) helps the manager anticipate, monitor, and
respond to changing circumstances (Griffin, 2006). Earlier in this Lecture and Research Update, we used
the pyramid to describe the levels of management. We can use the same analogy for the control
process. Top-level managers monitor the strategic plan, middle managers monitor the complexity of the
organizational structure, and the first-level managers scrutinize the financial and operational activities
(Griffin, 2006).
Ten Skill Sets for the Successful Manager
Managers today face many challenges as they guide the fortunes of their companies. A few of the
challenges managers face include an erratic economy, diversity, globalization, new technology, and
greater demands from customers. In addition to the skills required in executing the four functions of
management, excellence is required in other arenas. Effectively managing people requires ten specific
skill sets: ethical decision making, managing social responsibility issues, managing in a global
environment, interpersonal communication, managing conflict, negotiation skills, motivation, developing
high performance teams, time management, and change management.
Ethical Decision Making
The Institute for Global Ethics explains that:

An organization formed without ethics is like a cabin built without nails: no matter how solid it may appear,
it will slowly crumble. A culture of ethics is what links people to those above, below, and beside them,
connections which, although invisible, make the whole organization immeasurably stronger.

And in this day and age of eroded public trust, ethics are more important than ever. After the mortgage-
loan debacle, after Enron, after decades of botched recalls and profit-driven decisions and environmental
tragedies, people often assume organizations don't care about them. Trust is no longer given freely. Once
an organization has earned the public's trust, however, that connection becomes its most valuable asset.
Ethical organizations are popular, and that translates to unwavering, long-term consumer loyalty.

(Retrieved from:

Decision making is the ability to choose one alternative from among a set of alternatives. The process of
making decisions includes accurately defining the problem, identifying a variety of alternative solutions,
choosing the most appropriate solution, implementing the solution, and following up (measuring and
evaluating) to ensure that the problem has been resolved. Looking at different ways to make decisions
helps us contrast those decision-making techniques with ethical decision making. For example, managers
often may not have complete information, may be constrained by their own values and unconscious
reflexes, skills, and habits (bounded rationality), and may tend to search for alternatives only until one is
found that meets some minimum standard of sufficiency (satisficing). When managers use incomplete
information, bounded rationality, and satisficing, the solution/decision may not serve the best interests of
the organization.
Ethical wrongdoing in business and government has reached epidemic proportions. Ethics are a persons
individual beliefs about what is right and wrong. Managers must make decisions by taking actions that will
be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical.
Ethical issues arise in conflicts between a managers duties to the owners and his or her own interests,
and between financial issues of socially responsible investments and the accuracy of reported financial
documents. Employees face ethical issues when they are asked to carry out assignments they consider
unethical. A good rule of thumb is that an activity approved of by most members of the organization and
customary in the industry is probably ethical. When a manager recognizes that an ethical issue exists and
openly discusses it and asks for guidance and the opinions of others, she or he enters the realm of ethical
decision making (Ferrell & Fraedrich, 1997).
Managing Social Responsibility Issues
Social responsibility, unlike ethics (which comprise individual decisions and behaviors) is the obligation of
an organization to maximize its positive impact on society and minimize its negative impact. There are
three categories of social responsibility.
1. Economic: The economist Milton Friedman suggests that it is the moral duty of an organization to
be profitable. Social responsibility encompasses how a company relates its economic decisions
to stockholders, consumers, employees, the community, and the physical environment.

2. Competition: Sometimes during intense competition, managers feel threatened regarding the
survival of a product, for example, and make some choices that are not acceptable business
practices. Examples include corporate espionage to steal ideas, focusing cigarette advertising on
children, etc.

3. Legal: Laws regulating business conduct ensure that society is protected. For example, the
Sherman Antitrust Act prohibits monopolies; the Environmental Protection Act protects the
environment from toxic waste in the air and water, and the Equal Pay Act prohibits discrimination
in pay based on sex.

Although it may seem that no one would oppose social responsibility, there are those who feel it is not the
organizations role to be responsible. Arguments for and against social responsibility appear in Table 3-2.

Table 3-2: The Arguments For and Against Social Responsibility

Managers must become more cognizant in the area of social responsibility due to increasing awareness
of consumers. Social responsibility must be part of the strategic plan whether it is legal compliance and/or
philanthropic giving.
Managing in a Global Environment
One significant challenge for the international manager is the cultural environment and how it affects
business. Managing employees from different countries can have a direct impact on business practices
(e.g., management style, religious holidays). It is imperative that the manager develop an understanding
of the culture and the ability to manage diversity whether it is at home or abroad. Culture is a product of
the values and norms that people use to guide and control their behavior. Values determine what people
think is good and right, as well as the goals they choose to pursue. Values specify the norms that
prescribe the appropriate behaviors for reaching these desired goals. Embedded in management beliefs
are values and norms stemming from culture.
According to Hofstede (1991) culture is analogous to software of the mind. The sources for mental
programming are from the individuals social environment and life experiences (p. 42). Culture, used in a
broader sense, refers to the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one
group or category of people from another (Hofstede, 1991, p. 42). Culture is learned behavior that
usually operates below the level of consciousness because it involves taken-for-granted assumptions
about how an individual perceives, thinks, feels, and behaves.
Organizational culture is typically the integration of societal and organizational values, attitudes,
assumptions, and expectations. The manager as an expatriate or when supervising non-Americans may
be faced with cultural differences that manifest in attitudes about authority, conception of self, ways of
dealing with conflict, relationship between the individual and the group, concepts of masculinity and
femininity, strategies for dealing with uncertainty, and the expression of feelings.
Interpersonal Communication
Communication is defined as sending a message that the other person receives with the same
understanding that the sender intends. We learn to talk at an early age by imitation. Effective
interpersonal skills with those outside of our families and close friends, however, are rarely taught, and as
a result, our communication is often non-productive. The ability to effectively communicate our ideas, our
products, and ourselves is necessary for success. When managers communicate well, they build
relationships, trust, respect, and synergy, eliminate many mistakes, encourage motivation, and reduce
stress brought on by misunderstanding.
Although the process may seem simple, it is important for the manager to be aware of some sender-
caused barriers as well as some receiver-caused barriers to communication, listed in Tables 3-3 and 3-4.

Table 3-3: The Sender-Caused Barriers to Communication

Table 3-4: The Receiver-Caused Barriers to Communication

Some other general barriers to communicating effectively may include the noise level, temperature, other
physical distractions, distance (inability to hear or see message being sent), and the employee-manager
relationship (influences due to roles, personality differences, and culture expectations).
To communicate more efficiently, the sender should practice the following:

1. Use words carefully and avoid the use of abstract words

2. Use repetition and, when possible, parallel channels of communication

3. Send congruent verbal and non-verbal messages

4. Use appropriate timing to ensure your message is received

5. Employ a positive listening attitude

Managing Conflict
Conflict is a situation in which two or more people disagree over issues of organizational substance
and/or experience some emotional antagonism with each other. Conflict is an unavoidable part of
management. Typically, conflict develops when one is competing with others for labor, resources,
equipment, facilities, or money. In addition, conflicts often arise out of differing priorities, a
misunderstanding of roles and responsibilities, technical opinions, and personality clashes. Sometimes
conflicts can produce beneficial results; however, more often they can be detrimental to you and your
organization's success if not planned for and properly resolved. How well you handle conflicts and
negotiate an equitable solution for both parties has a direct bearing on your success as a manager.
Guiding principles in resolving conflict include listening, preserving self-respect and dignity, stating ones
case, and expecting to change ones behavior. Table 3-5 lists some dos and suggestions for resolving

Table 3-5: The Dos and Suggestions for Resolving Conflict

The way each person handles conflicts depends in a large part on his or her personality, but new
approaches can be learned. One method of solving conflict is not appropriate for all situations, and the
effective manager must discern and use the method most appropriate for each situation. Two of the keys
to successful conflict management are to use good communication skills and avoid the common barriers
to communication.
Negotiation Skills
Negotiation is defined as back-and-forth communication to reach agreement, when some interests are
shared and some are opposed. Negotiation is something that everyone does, almost daily. The goal of
negotiation is to use an efficient process to obtain optimal agreement and strengthen
relationships. Negotiation encompasses the following characteristics.

1. It is a process in which at least one person tries to persuade another to change his or her ideas or

2. Parties may belong to different cultures (different organizations, countries, etc.) and may not
share the same thinking, feeling, and behaving.

3. Global negotiations contain all of the complexity of domestic negotiations, with the added
dimension of cultural diversity.
4. Negotiating effectively across cultures is one of the single most important global business skills.

5. Use effective interpersonal communication skills when dealing with others.

6. Apply critical thinking to the process of negotiation.

When planning for negotiation, it is advisable for the manager to take proactive steps to ensure success
and avoid some too-common mistakes shown in Table 3-6.

Table 3-6: Planning for Negotiation: The Steps to Take and Mistakes to Avoid
Reaching a satisfying, optimal agreement using an efficient process that strengthens relationships usually
characterizes ongoing relationships where both parties try for a win-win agreement. A successful
negotiator uses not only the plan for negotiation listed in Table 3-6 but also the dos and suggestions for
resolving conflict listed in Table 3-5. Additionally, a successful negotiator plans his or her strategy ahead
of time.
Motivation is an internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior. These forces or drives
cause us to behave in a particular way. The key assumption underlying motivation is that employees start
a job motivated. Research indicates that in the first three months of employment, employees make a
turnover decision; that is, they decide if they like the job and/or the company and want to stay. To achieve
motivation and high performance, the managers role starts with clear goals for the new
employee. Employees want to know what a good job looks like. Good performance is a journey not a
destination. When managers create a supportive, problem-solving work environment, provide necessary
resources to perform tasks, and reward and encourage high performance consistent with objectives,
employees are usually motivated.
Motivation works best when based on self-governance, when employees are treated fairly, given timely
and honest feedback, and when rewards are salient to the individual. Peter Drucker said that a manager
must manage under the assumption that he/she needs the employees more than they need the
manager. Managing a diverse workforce suggests that applying motivation principles vary for different
people, i.e., different strokes for different folks. Managers may tend to give feedback, rewards, etc.,
based upon their own needs and/or experiences. When we supervise others in a diverse culture, it is
important to observe/learn about individual differences. For example, it would not be motivational to give
Asians the Employee of the Month award in front of the entire department. Asians are from a collectivist
culture and would probably be very embarrassed; they may feel that the team deserved the award, not
the individual.
Developing High-Performing Teams
As organizations become more decentralized and customer focused, the manager must have the skills to
bring together a group of experts and build high-performing teams. High-performing teams share common
goals; members may be from various backgrounds, and they may face ambiguous situations in which
values may conflict. They must also choose from among various ways to achieve the same goals,
perform complex tasks requiring high degrees of interdependence and cooperation among the team
members, and need the highest level of performance for the team to achieve its stated goals. The
challenge for the manager is to take a group of individuals and create an environment in which the
members will work together in a collaborative and synergistic manner to achieve their team goals. To do
this, the manager must make the goals of the team clear and understandable to all members, and the
manager must get each member to buy-in to the goals.
In order for the manager to facilitate the teams movement from getting acquainted (norming), through the
various stages of development, he or she must be aware of the characteristics of each stage. The four
stages of team development are identified in Table 3-7.

Table 3-7: Developing High-Performing Teams

Forming, Norming, Storming, and Performing
The process is fluid, and, with good team leadership, the team can focus on the goals. The manager will
direct the teams activities toward a shared vision, encourage member involvement and open
communication, promote feedback and self-discipline, and cultivate respect. Key indicators of a high-
performing team are the teams ability to achieve impressive and satisfying results repeatedly with a
sustained collective performance beyond the sum of individual member contributions (Garson, 2002).
Time Management
The pressure of their workload, people challenges, and deadlines haunt most managers. Good time
management enables the manager to reduce stress and bring more balance into his or her life. Time
management equals getting control. Improved time management techniques will lead to enhanced
productivity, better human relations, and more control over lifes requirements. The first step is to analyze
how time is currently spent. For a representative period of time (e.g., every Tuesday and Thursday for a
month) keep track of how time is spent using a Time Log. After this information is collected, use the
questions in Table 3-8 to help analyze the data and to ensure that time is spent on high priority,
mission/goal-related activities.
Table 3-8: Analyzing the Time Spent on Tasks
To improve your time management skills, research recommends implementing the following six principles.

1. Define Your Mission: The mission is the purpose of your job. What is the reason for your
existence? How does your job help to carry out the organizations mission and strategic plan?

2. Establish Your Goals: What are the key result areas (high priorities) for your job? Set specific and
measurable goals for the priorities.

3. Make a Daily To-Do List: For each goal, identify the tasks that have to be accomplished to get the
job done. Assign priorities to each task and devise a daily plan. Consolidate your time by using
large units of uninterrupted time (when possible); put discretionary time into the largest possible
units, and be a once-handler.

4. Delegate Tasks: Empower your employees by assigning them meaningful tasks.

5. Establish Controls: Identify performance indicators for yourself and for the delegated assignments
along with deadlines. Manage your time by cutting back on unproductive demands, prune,
consolidate, learn to say no, and let go of treasured habits that may not be efficient and

6. Follow Up: Set up feedback mechanisms to ensure that the work is being executed in a timely
fashion as well as achieving quality standards.

Change Management
To pass through the gateway to power, a leader in todays economy must be able to facilitate change and
build business units that operate through decentralized business teams. The rapidly changing conditions
in the global marketplace of the new millennium have made unprecedented demands on organizational
leaders. The new marketplace requires far-reaching visions of the future, radical rethinking of purpose,
and a dramatic ability to effectively respond to change. Competitive supremacy will require organizations
to be more innovative, constantly learning, responding quickly and efficiently, and redesigning its
infrastructure to meet the demands of consumers. Organizational change programs require a shift in
thinking and frequently lead to changes in the way the organization is managed. Often the management
team is the change agent as well as the target of change. Managers may have to change their behavior
and how they work if there is to be effective change at the operational level. Organizations dont change
people do.
Career Opportunities in Management
The opportunities for employment in management are numerous and diverse. Where you decide to
concentrate your efforts and abilities is totally based on your desires and personal needs. Current
opportunities in management include business teachers and business operations research analysts.
According to the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), the U.S. Department of Labor projects both
fields to grow by up to 22% between 2012 and 2022. These are just two of the many exciting
opportunities where your graduate degree can take you places you never expected. O*NET provides a
wealth of information regarding the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the opportunities
One place to look for possible career opportunities is O*NET, the Occupational Information Network
( O*NET is an online database that provides information about the types of
jobs available in a particular field or industry, the average salaries paid in those positions (to include data
by state), and projected growth rates. This site, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor, provides
statistical data used by millions of employers, workers, and students around the globe to make informed
decisions about career choices, training and education, and employment. O*NET provides a wealth of
information that can assist you in performing a wide range of tasks that you may encounter.
You may be curious about the number and types of jobs available to you upon completion of your
graduate degree. A simple inquiry on O*NETs quick search feature using the Find Occupations link
reveals a list of jobs categories from which to choose. For example, Figure 3-1 shows the Find
Occupations page ( where you can perform a quick search using Business
Teachers as your search topic. The search results are illustrated in Figure 3-2. To further explore and
gather other related job-specific data, click the link for the job title in which you are interested. For
illustration purposes, we will use the business teacher occupation.

Figure 3-1: O*NET Find Occupations Web Page

Figure 3-2: Search Results for Business Teachers
Figure 3-3: Results for Business Teachers
Scrolling down the Summary Report page (Figures 3-3 and 3-4) show all of the information related to
being a business teacher: tasks typically performed; knowledge, skills and abilities needed; and typical
work activities. Additionally on this screen, you should notice the Wages & Employment section. At the
bottom of the Summary Page is the salary information for your specific job search, the current number of
people employed in that particular field, projected field growth, and the projected needs for the future
(Figure 3-4).

Figure 3-4: Link for State Data

This opens a new page titled National and State Trends. This page shows both state and national wage
and trend data for comparison. This provides you, the student, with additional information with which you
can make job decisions. Do you want to move to where the money is, where there is more opportunity, or
both? Use O*NET to get the latest information, helping you to make the decisions that will affect your life
now and in the future.
In Closing
We hope this Lecture and Research Update has provided you with some insight into the functional and
interpersonal skills needed to be a winning manager. You will meet the challenge through your future
studies at Ashworth College.
In summary, the manager who is a real pro is creative and innovative, is continuously learning, is a
strategic thinker, flexible, resilient, a conflict manager, aware of and open to diversity, a team builder, a
change manager, serves the internal and external customer, decisive, a problem-solver, and has excellent
interpersonal skills. With hard work, you will meet the challenge. Good luck!
Lecture and Research Update Bibliography
Anonymous (n.d.) Our Approach: Why Ethics matters. Institute for Global Ethics, Retrieved on December
14, 2015 from:
ORGANIZATIONS. Knowledge Horizons. Economics, 6.1, 57-59.
Ferrell, O. C., & Fraedrich, J. (1997). Business ethics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
French, J., & Raven, B. (1974). A comparative analysis of power and preference, in J.T. Tedeschi
(Ed.), Prospectives on social power. Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine Publishing.
Garson, B. (2002). Building high performing teams. Atlanta: Garson & Associates.
Garson, B. (2003). Strategic planning. Atlanta: Garson & Associates.
Garson, B. (2004). Leadership for supervisors. Atlanta: Garson & Associates.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Culture and organizations (software of the mind). London: McGraw Hill.
Jafari, M and Maleki, M. (May 2013). Organization Structural Dimensions Effects on Knowledge
Management: A Review. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 5.2,
Mastrangelo, A., R. Eddy, E., and J. Lorenzet, S. (2014). The relationship between enduring leadership
and organizational performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 35.7, 604-590.
Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2015). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from

Vocabulary List
You will find the following vocabulary terms in the Lecture and Research Update for this lesson. Study
and learn the meaning of each term and how to apply the term to the content area and the real world.
Coercive Power Expert Power Organizing
Conflict Interpersonal Communication Organizational Culture
Control Leadership Planning
Culture Legitimate Power Referent Power
Decision Making Management Reward Power
Delegate Motivation Social Responsibility
Ethics Negotiation Values