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# Heather McCabe

CST 311
Final Exam

1. Determine the shortest path using Dijkstras algorithm from node v to all other
nodes in the network. You need to draw a table similar to the one shown in class and
clearly illustrate all the steps. You will not get credit for just writing the final

D(w), D(x),
Step N D(t),p(t) D(u),p(u) D(y),p(y) D(z),p(z)
p(w) p(x)
1 v 4,v 3,v 4,v 3,v 8,v
2 v,u 4,v 4,v 3,v 8,v
3 v,u,x 4,v 4,v 8,v 11,x
4 v,u,x,t 4,v 8,v 11,x
5 v,u,x,t,w 8,v 11,x
6 v,u,x,t,w,y 11,x
7 v,u,x,t,w,y,z

## 2. What is the difference between routing and forwarding? (1 point)

Routing is a network-wide process through which an end-to-end route between a source
and a destination is determined. Forwarding is a node-specific process of transferring a
packet from an incoming interface to an outgoing interface.

## 3. What is the 32-bit equivalent of the IP address 223.2.7.61? (1 point)

11011111 00000010 00000111 00111101
4. Write the largest possible subnet mask if three routers 223.2.7.7, 223.2.7.1 and
223.2.7.5 are all in the same subnet. (2 points)
223.2.7.1/29

5. How big is the MAC address space? Compare it against the IPv4 address space? (2
points)
MAC Address Space = 248 = 281,474,976,710,656
IPv4 Address Space = 232 = 4,294,967,296
The MAC address space is 65,536 times bigger than the IPv4 address space.

6. What is the main difference between non-persistent and persistent HTTP? (1 point)
In non-persistent HTTP, a new TCP connection must be established for each server
request (such as each individual image on a webpage). In persistent HTTP, the TCP
connection remains open for multiple server requests (such as all the images on a web
page).

7. Why is an ARP query sent within a broadcast frame? Why is an ARP response sent
within a frame with a specific destination MAC address? (2 points)
The host making the ARP query does not know whom or where the destination target is
on its LAN, so it must ask all of the clients on the LAN through a broadcast message. The
response is sent within a frame with a specific destination MAC address because the
response is only directed to the client that made the request, whose MAC address can be
known from the request itself.

8. Describe TCP congestion control namely the slow start, congestion avoidance and
fast recovery phases. (2 points)
In the slow start phase, the congestion window is increased exponentially by MSSN
where N is the number of transmissions. When the congestion window reaches a target
threshold, it enters the congestion avoidance phase and increases the congestion window
and target threshold more slowly, by 1 MSS per transmission. If a loss is detected it goes
into fast recovery phase, in which the congestion window is reset to 1 MSS, the target
threshold is halved, and slow start begins again.
9. Consider the scenario in the figure below, in which three hosts are each connected to
a router by a 100 Mbps link, with an near-zero ms propagation delay. That router
in turn is connected to another router over a 30 Mbps link with a 50 ms propagation
delay, and that latter router is connected to two remote logging servers, each over a
20 Mbps link with a 10 ms propagation delay.

Suppose one of the hosts sends a message directly to one of the remote logging
servers. The message is 10K bits long. What is the end-to-end delay from when the
message is first transmitted by the host to when it is received at the remote server?
Assume that the request goes directly to the server, that there are no queuing delays,
and that node (router) packet-processing delays are also zero. (3 points)
50ms + 10ms = 60 ms

10. Describe the primary function of DNS, DHCP and NAT. (3 points)
DNS translates human-friendly hostnames into IP addresses.
DHCP automatically assigns IP addresses to clients on a local area network.

## 11. Describe the ALOHA protocol. (2 points)

The ALOHA protocol is a random access collision-handling protocol. When two clients
are transmitting on the same link at the same time and they detect a collision, they both
stop transmission and then wait a semi-random amount of time before checking that the
link is available and attempting to retransmit. The probability of attempting to retransmit
decreases with further collisions. The amount of time that the client waits is 512 bit times
multiplied by a random factor from (1,2,, 2k) where k is the number of collisions.
12. Host A is sending Host B a large file over a TCP connection. Assume Host B has no
data to send Host A. Host B will not send acknowledgments to Host A because Host
B cannot piggyback these acknowledgements on data. True or False? (1 point)
False

13. Suppose Host A sends a few TCP segments back to back to Host B over a TCP
connection. The first segment has sequence number 90; the second has sequence
number 110. (2 points)
a) How much data is in the first segment?
20 bytes
b) Suppose that the first segment is lost but the second segment arrives at B. In the
acknowledgment that Host B sends to Host A, what will be the acknowledgment
number?
90

14. Consider the application layer protocol SMTP. What transport layer protocol does