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35.2.

2Generalmultipointconstraints

Products:Abaqus/StandardAbaqus/ExplicitAbaqus/CAE
References

Kinematicconstraints:overview,Section35.1.1

*MPC

DefiningMPCconstraints,Section15.15.6oftheAbaqus/CAEUser'sGuide

Chapter24,Connectors,oftheAbaqus/CAEUser'sGuide
Overview

Multipointconstraints(MPCs):

allowconstraintstobeimposedbetweendifferentdegreesoffreedomofthemodeland

canbequitegeneral(nonlinearandnonhomogeneous).

ThemostcommonlyrequiredconstraintsareavailabledirectlybychoosinganMPCtypeandgivingthe
associateddata.TheavailableMPCtypesaredescribedbelowMPCsthatareavailableonlyin
Abaqus/Standardaredesignatedwithan(S).

InAbaqus/StandardtheconstraintscanalsobegivenbyusersubroutineMPC.

Linearconstraintscanbegivendirectlybydefiningalinearconstraintequation(seeLinearconstraint
equations,Section35.2.1).

InAbaqus/Explicitsomemultipointconstraintscanbemodeledmoreeffectivelyusingrigidbodies(see
Rigidbodydefinition,Section2.4.1).

SeveralMPCtypesarealsoavailablewithconnectorelements(Connectorelements,Section31.1.2).
Althoughtheconnectorelementsimposethesamekinematicconstraint,connectorsdonoteliminatedegrees
offreedom.

MPCconstraintforcesarenotavailableasoutputquantities.Therefore,tooutputtheforcesrequiredtoenforce
theconstraintspecifiedinanMPC,youshoulduseanequivalentconnectorelement.Connectorelementforce,
moment,andkinematicoutputisreadilyavailableandisdefinedinConnectorelementlibrary,Section
31.1.4.

IdentifyingthenodesinvolvedintheMPC

ForanyMPCtype,eithernodesetsorindividualnodescanbegivenasinput.Ifthefirstentryisanode,
subsequententriesmustbenodes.Ifthefirstentryisanodeset,subsequententriescanbeeithernodesetsor
singlenodes.Thelatteroptionisusefulifadegreeoffreedomateachofasetofnodesdependsonadegreeof
freedomofasinglenode,suchasmayoccurincertainsymmetryconditionsorinthesimulationofarigid
body.

Ifnodesetsareused,correspondingsetentrieswillbeconstrainedtoeachother.Ifsortednodesetsaregiven
asinput,youmustensurethatthenodesarenumberedsuchthattheywillmatchupcorrectlywhensorted.The
nodesinanunsortednodeset(seeNodedefinition,Section2.1.1)willbeusedintheorderthattheyare
givenindefiningtheset.

InAbaqus/Standardmultipointconstraintscannotbeusedtoconnecttworigidbodiesatnodesotherthanthe
referencenodes,sincemultipointconstraintsusedegreeoffreedomeliminationandtheothernodesonarigid
bodydonothaveindependentdegreesoffreedom.InAbaqus/Explicitarigidbodyreferencenodeoranyother
nodeonarigidbodycanbeusedinamultipointconstraintdefinition.

Abaqus/CAEusesconnectorstodefinemultipointconstraintsbetweentwopointsandconstraintstodefine
multipointconstraintsbetweenapointandslavenodesinaregion.Settosetmultipointconstraintsand
unsortednodesetsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

InputFileUsage:*MPC

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Usethefollowingoptionstodefineamultipointconstraintbetweentwopoints:
Interactionmodule:Connector Geometry CreateWireFeatureConnector
Section Create:ConnectionCategory:MPC,MPCtype:selecttypeConnector
Assignment Create:selectwires:Section:selectMPCconnectorsection

Usethefollowingoptionstodefineamultipointconstraintbetweenapointandslave
nodesinaregion:

Interactionmodule:Constraint Create:MPCConstraint:selectcontrolpointand
regionMPCtype:selecttype

Usewithtransformedcoordinatesystems

Localcoordinatesystems(seeTransformedcoordinatesystems,Section2.1.5)canbedefinedforanynodes
connectedtoMPCs.SomespecialconsiderationsapplyforuserdefinedMPCs,asdescribedinMPC,
Section1.1.14oftheAbaqusUserSubroutinesReferenceGuide.

Definingmultiplemultipointconstraintsatapoint

SeeKinematicconstraints:overview,Section35.1.1,fordetailsonhowmultiplekinematicconstraintsata
pointaretreatedinAbaqus/StandardandAbaqus/Explicit.

InAbaqus/StandardMPCsareusuallyimposedbyeliminatingthedegreeoffreedomatthefirstnodegiven
(thedependentdegreeoffreedom).MPCtypesBEAM,CYCLSYM,LINK,PIN,REVOLUTE,TIE,and
UNIVERSALaresortedinternallybyAbaqus/StandardsothattheMPCinwhichanodeisusedasa
dependentnodeisthelastMPCthatusesthisnode.Therefore,groupsoftheseMPCscanbegiveninany
order.However,evenfortheseMPCs,anodecanbeusedonlyonceasadependentnode.Inothercases
dependentdegreesoffreedomshouldnotbeusedsubsequentlytoimposekinematicconstraintsthisgenerally
precludestheuseofthefirstnodeinanMPCdefinitionasanindependentnodeinanysubsequentmultipoint
constraint,equationconstraint,kinematiccouplingconstraint,ortieconstraintdefinition.

UsingMPCsinimplicitdynamicanalysis

InimplicitdynamicanalysisAbaqus/StandardenforcesMPCsrigorouslyforthedisplacements.Thevelocities
andaccelerationsarederivedfromthedisplacementswiththerelationsdefinedbythedynamicintegration
operator(seeImplicitdynamicanalysis,Section2.4.1oftheAbaqusTheoryGuide).ForlinearMPCs(such
asPIN,TIE,andmeshrefinementMPCs)andgeometricallylinearanalysisthevelocitiesobtainedinthisway
satisfytheconstraintexactly.However,theaccelerationssatisfytheconstraintonlyapproximately.Ifnonlinear
MPCs(suchasBEAM,LINK,andSLIDER)areusedingeometricallynonlinearanalysis,boththevelocities
andaccelerationssatisfytheconstraintonlyapproximately.Inmostcasestheapproximationisquiteaccurate,
butinsomecaseshighfrequencyoscillationsmayoccurintheaccelerationsofthenodesinvolvedinthe
MPC.

UsingnonlinearMPCsingeometricallylinearAbaqus/Standardanalysis

IfanonlinearMPCisusedinageometricallylinearAbaqus/Standardanalysis(seeGeneralandlinear
perturbationprocedures,Section6.1.3),theMPCislinearized.Forexample,ifMPCLINKisusedina
geometricallynonlinearAbaqus/Standardanalysis,thedistancebetweenthetwonodesofthelinkremains
constant.IfitisusedinageometricallylinearAbaqus/Standardanalysis,thedistancebetweenthetwonodesis
heldconstantafterprojectionontothedirectionofthelinebetweentheoriginalpositionsofthenodes.The
differenceshouldbenoticeableonlyifthemagnitudesoftherotationsanddisplacementsarenotsmall.

DefiningMPCsinausersubroutine

InAbaqus/StandardyoucandefinemultipointconstraintsinusersubroutineMPC.

ConstraintsdefinedinusersubroutineMPCcanonlyusedegreesoffreedomthatalsoexistonanelement
somewhereinthesamemodel.Forexample,ifamodelcontainsnoelementswithrotationaldegreesof
freedom,usersubroutineMPCcannotusedegreesoffreedom4,5,or6.Thislimitationcanbeovercomeby
addingasuitableelementsomewhereinthemodeltointroducetherequireddegreesoffreedom.Thiselement
canbeaddedsothatitdoesnotaffecttheresponseofthemodel.

Constraintsdefinedintheusersubroutineareappliedtothetransformeddegreesoffreedom.Aboundary
nonlinearityoccursinAbaqus/StandardwhenMPCsareactivated/deactivatedinausersubroutine.

InputFileUsage:*MPC,USER

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
Interactionmodule:CreateConnectorSection:selectMPCastheConnection
CategoryandUserdefinedastheMPCType

Interactionmodule:CreateConstraint:MPCConstraintselectUserdefinedasthe
MPCType

SpecifyingtheversionofusersubroutineMPC

Youmustspecifywhethertheusersubroutinewillbecodedindegreeoffreedommodeorinnodalmode.

InputFileUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
*MPC,USER,MODE=DOF
*MPC,USER,MODE=NODE

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
Interactionmodule:CreateConnectorSection:selectMPCastheConnection
CategoryandUserdefinedastheMPCType,chooseDOFbyDOForNodeby
Node

Interactionmodule:CreateConstraint:MPCConstraint:selectUserdefinedasthe
MPCType,chooseDOFbyDOForNodebyNode

Readingthedatafromanalternateinputfile

TheinputforanMPCdefinitioncanbecontainedinaseparateinputfile.

InputFileUsage:*MPC,INPUT=file_name

IftheINPUTparameterisomitted,itisassumedthatthedatalinesfollowthe
keywordline.

Abaqus/CAEUsage:ReadingdatafromanalternateinputfileisnotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

MPCsformeshrefinement

LINEAR ThisMPCisastandardmethodformeshrefinementoffirstorderelements.Itapplies
toallactivedegreesoffreedomattheinvolvednodesincludingtemperature,pressure,
andelectricalpotential.
InAbaqus/Explicititmightbepreferabletouseasurfacebasedtieconstraint(see
Meshtieconstraints,Section35.3.1)formeshrefinement,particularlywhenoneor
moreofthemeshestobeconstrainedinvolveshellelementswiththickness.
ThisMPCisastandardmethodformeshrefinementofsecondorderelements.It
appliestoallactivedegreesoffreedomattheinvolvednodeswiththeexceptionof
temperaturedegreesoffreedomincoupledtemperaturedisplacementanalysisand
(S)
QUADRATIC coupledthermalelectricalstructuralanalysisandtopressuredegreesoffreedomin
coupledporepressureanalysis.Forrefinementusingsecondorderporepressureor
coupledtemperaturedisplacementelements,thePLINEARorTLINEARMPCmust
beusedinconjunctionwiththisMPC.
ThisMPCisastandardmethodformeshrefinementoffirstordersolidelementsin
BILINEAR (S) threedimensions.Itappliestoallactivedegreesoffreedomattheinvolvednodes
includingtemperature,pressure,andelectricalpotential.
ThisMPCisastandardmethodformeshrefinementofsecondordersolidelementsin
threedimensions.Itappliestoallactivedegreesoffreedomattheinvolvednodeswith
theexceptionoftemperaturedegreesoffreedomincoupledtemperaturedisplacement
CBIQUAD(S) analysisandcoupledthermalelectricalstructuralanalysisandtopressuredegreesof
freedomincoupledporepressureanalysis.Forrefinementusingporepressureor
coupledtemperaturedisplacementelementsinthreedimensions,thePBILINEARorT
BILINEARMPCmustbeusedinconjunctionwiththisMPC.
ThisMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeQUADRATICMPCformesh
refinementofsecondorder,fullycoupledporefluidflowdisplacementelements.It
PLINEAR(S) appliestopressuredegreesoffreedomonly.Foracousticanalysisitappliesthesame
constraintastheLINEARMPC.
ThisMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeQUADRATICMPCformesh
refinementofsecondorder,fullycoupledtemperaturedisplacementandfullycoupled
TLINEAR(S) thermalelectricalstructuralelements.Itappliestotemperaturedegreesoffreedom
only.ForheattransferanalysisitappliesthesameconstraintastheLINEARMPC.
ThisMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeCBIQUADMPCformeshrefinement
ofporefluidflowdisplacementelementsinthreedimensions.Itappliestopressure
PBILINEAR(S) degreesoffreedomonly.Foracousticanalysisitappliesthesameconstraintasthe
BILINEARMPC.
ThisMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeCBIQUADMPCformeshrefinement
offullycoupledtemperaturedisplacementandfullycoupledthermalelectrical
TBILINEAR(S) structuralelementsinthreedimensions.Itappliestotemperaturedegreesoffreedom
only.ForheattransferanalysisitappliesthesameconstraintastheBILINEARMPC.
UsingmeshrefinementMPCswithshellorbeamelements

TheAbaqus/StandardshellelementsS4R5,S8R5,S9R5,andSTRI65useapenaltymethodtoenforce
transverseshearconstraintsontheedgesoftheelement.TheuseofmeshrefinementMPCsLINEARand
QUADRATICmay,therefore,leadtooverconstrainingorshearlockingofthebendingbehavior.Graded
meshes,usingthetriangularelementsasnecessarytocreateatransitionzone,arerecommendedformesh
refinementwiththeseelements.

TheshearflexiblebeamelementsinAbaqus/StandardsuchasB31orB32willalsolockifusedasstiffeners
alongameshlinewherethemeshrefinementMPCsareused.

ForshellelementsinAbaqus/ExplicittherotationaldegreesoffreedomarenotconstrainedbytheLINEAR
MPCtherefore,ahingeisformedalongthelinedefinedbytheconstrainednodes.
UsingMPCtypeLINEAR

MPCtypeLINEARisastandardmethodformeshrefinementoffirstorderelements.However,in
Abaqus/Explicititmightbepreferabletouseasurfacebasedtieconstraint(seeMeshtieconstraints,Section
35.3.1)formeshrefinement,particularlywhenoneormoreofthemeshestobeconstrainedinvolveshell
elementswiththickness.
ThisMPCconstrainseachdegreeoffreedomatnodeptobeinterpolatedlinearlyfromthecorresponding
degreesoffreedomatnodesaandb(seeFigure35.2.21).

Figure35.2.21LINEARtypeMPC.

Inputdata

Givethenodesp,a,andbasshowninFigure35.2.21.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
LINEAR,p,a,b

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MeshrefinementmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeQUADRATIC

MPCtypeQUADRATICisastandardmethodformeshrefinementofsecondorderelements.ThisMPCtype
isavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

ThisMPCconstrainseachdegreeoffreedomatnodep(wherepiseither or )tobeinterpolated
quadraticallyfromthecorrespondingdegreesoffreedomatnodesa,b,andc(Figure35.2.22).Forcoupled
temperaturedisplacement,coupledthermalelectricalstructural,orporepressureelements,onlythe
displacementdegreesoffreedomareconstrained.

Figure35.2.22QUADRATICtypeMPC.

Inputdata

Givethenodesp,a,b,andcasshowninFigure35.2.22,wherepiseither or .
InputFileUsage:*MPC
QUADRATIC,p,a,b,c

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MeshrefinementmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeBILINEAR

MPCtypeBILINEARisastandardmethodformeshrefinementoffirstordersolidelementsinthree
dimensions.ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

ThisMPCconstrainseachdegreeoffreedomatnodeptobeinterpolatedbilinearlyfromthecorresponding
degreesoffreedomatnodesa,b,c,andd(Figure35.2.23).

Figure35.2.23BILINEARtypeMPC.

Inputdata

Givethenodesp,a,b,c,anddasshowninFigure35.2.23.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
BILINEAR,p,a,b,c,d

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MeshrefinementmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeCBIQUAD

MPCtypeCBIQUADisastandardmethodformeshrefinementofsecondordersolidelementsinthree
dimensions.ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

ThisMPCconstrainseachdegreeoffreedomatnodeptobeinterpolatedbyaconstrainedbiquadraticfrom
thecorrespondingdegreesoffreedomattheeightnodesa,b,c,d,e,f,g,andh(Figure35.2.24).Forcoupled
temperaturedisplacement,coupledthermalelectricalstructural,orporepressureelements,onlythe
displacementdegreesoffreedomareconstrained.

Figure35.2.24CBIQUADtypeMPC.
Inputdata

Givethenodesp,a,b,c,d,e,f,g,andhasshowninFigure35.2.24.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
CBIQUAD,p,a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MeshrefinementmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypesPLINEARandTLINEAR

ThePLINEARMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeQUADRATICMPCformeshrefinementofsecond
order,fullycoupledporefluidflowdisplacementelements.

TheTLINEARMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeQUADRATICMPCformeshrefinementofsecond
order,fullycoupledtemperaturedisplacementandfullycoupledthermalelectricalstructuralelements.

TheseMPCtypesareavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

TheseMPCsconstraintheporepressure(PLINEAR)ortemperature(TLINEAR)degreeoffreedomatnode
ptobeinterpolatedlinearlyfromthedegreesoffreedomatnodesaandb(Figure35.2.25).

Figure35.2.25PLINEARandTLINEARMPCs.

Inputdata

Givethenodesp,a,andbasshowninFigure35.2.25.
InputFileUsage:UsethefollowingoptiontodefineaPLINEARMPC:
*MPC
PLINEAR,p,a,b

UsethefollowingoptiontodefineaTLINEARMPC:

*MPC
TLINEAR,p,a,b

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MeshrefinementmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypesPBILINEARandTBILINEAR

ThePBILINEARMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeCBIQUADMPCformeshrefinementofpore
fluidflowdisplacementelementsinthreedimensions.

TheTBILINEARMPCcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeCBIQUADMPCformeshrefinementoffully
coupledtemperaturedisplacementandfullycoupledthermalelectricalstructuralelementsinthree
dimensions.

TheseMPCtypesareavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

TheseMPCsconstraintheporepressure(PLINEAR)ortemperature(TLINEAR)atnodeptobeinterpolated
bilinearlyfromtheporepressureortemperatureatnodesa,b,c,andd(Figure35.2.26).

Figure35.2.26PBILINEARandTBILINEARMPCs.

Inputdata

Givethenodesp,a,b,c,anddasshowninFigure35.2.26.

InputFileUsage:UsethefollowingoptiontodefineaPBILINEARMPC:
*MPC
PBILINEAR,p,a,b,c,d

UsethefollowingoptiontodefineaTBILINEARMPC:

*MPC
TBILINEAR,p,a,b,c,d

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MeshrefinementmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

MPCsforconnectionsandjoints

BEAM Providearigidbeambetweentwonodestoconstrainthedisplacementandrotationat
thefirstnodetothedisplacementandrotationatthesecondnode,correspondingtothe
presenceofarigidbeambetweenthetwonodes.
CYCLSYM(S) Constrainnodestoimposecyclicsymmetryinamodel.
ConstraintwonodesofELBOW31orELBOW32elementstogether,wherethecross
ELBOW(S) sectionaldirection, ,changes(seePipesandpipebendswithdeformingcross
sections:elbowelements,Section29.5.1).
Provideapinnedrigidlinkbetweentwonodestokeepthedistancebetweenthetwo
LINK nodesconstant.Thedisplacementsofthefirstnodearemodifiedtoenforcethis
constraint.Therotationsatthenodes,iftheyexist,arenotinvolvedinthisconstraint.
Provideapinnedjointbetweentwonodes.ThisMPCmakesthedisplacementsequal
PIN
butleavestherotations,iftheyexist,independentofeachother.
REVOLUTE(S) Providearevolutejoint.
Keepanodeonastraightlinedefinedbytwoothernodes,butallowthepossibilityof
SLIDER
movingalongthelineandallowthelinetochangelength.
TIE Makeallactivedegreesoffreedomequalattwonodes.
UNIVERSAL(S) Provideauniversaljoint.
Allowthevelocityattheconstrainednodetobeexpressedintermsofvelocity
componentsatthethirdnodedefinedinalocal,bodyaxissystem.Theselocalvelocity
VLOCAL(S) componentscanbeconstrained,thusprovidingprescribedvelocityboundaryconditions
inarotating,bodyaxissystem.
SeeConnectors:overview,Section31.1.1,forelementbasedversionsofseveraloftheseMPCsfor
connectionsandjoints.

UsingMPCtypeBEAM

MPCtypeBEAMprovidesarigidbeambetweentwonodestoconstrainthedisplacementandrotationatthe
firstnodetothedisplacementandrotationatthesecondnode,correspondingtothepresenceofarigidbeam
betweenthetwonodes.

Figure35.2.27BEAMtypeMPC.

Inputdata

GivethenodesaandbasshowninFigure35.2.27.
InputFileUsage:*MPC
BEAM,a,b

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
Interactionmodule:CreateConnectorSection:selectMPCastheConnection
CategoryandBeamastheMPCType

Interactionmodule:CreateConstraint:MPCConstraintselectBeamastheMPC
Type

Constrainingabeamstiffenertoashell

Thegeneralmethodofusingabeamasastiffeneronashellistodefinethebeamandshellelementswith
separatenodes.ThesenodescanthenbeconstrainedtoeachotherusingBEAMtypeMPCs.

Amoreeconomicalway,whenapplicable,istousethesamenodeforthebeamnodeandtheshellnodeand
thendefinetheoffsetofthecenterofthecrosssectionofthebeaminthebeamsectiondata.Figure35.2.28
showsaTshapedstiffenerattachedtoashell,usingtheIbeamcrosssection.Thisisdonebysettingl(see
Beamcrosssectionlibrary,Section29.3.9)equaltothedistancebetweenthenodeandtheundersideofthe
lowerflangeandsettingthethicknessofthetopflangetozero.Thisapproachcanbeusedwithallbeam
elementsthatuseTRAPEZOID,I,orARBITRARYbeamsections.

Figure35.2.28Stiffenedshell.

UsingMPCtypeCYCLSYM

MPCtypeCYCLSYMisusedtoenforceproperconstraintsontheradialfacesboundingasegmentofacyclic
symmetricstructure(seeFigure35.2.29).ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

MPCtypeCYCLSYMimposesthecyclicsymmetrybyequatingradial,circumferential,andaxial
displacementcomponents(androtations,ifactive)atthetwonodes(aandb).Thesymmetryaxiscanbe
definedbytheoriginalcoordinatesoftwoadditionalnodes(candd)thatdonotneedtobeconnectedtoany
elementinthestructure.Scalardegreesoffreedom(suchastemperature)aremadeequal.

Figure35.2.29MPCtypeCYCLSYM.
Inputdata

Givethenodesa,b,and(optionally)nodecand/ordthatdefinetheaxisofsymmetryasshowninFigure
35.2.29.Nodesetnamescanbeusedinsteadofthenodesaandb.Ifneithercnordisgiven,theglobalzaxis
istakentobetheaxisofcyclicsymmetry.Ifonlynodecisgiven,thesymmetryaxispassesthroughcandis
paralleltotheglobalzaxis.Thus,nodedisnotneededintwodimensionalcases.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
CYCLSYM,a,b,c,d

Abaqus/CAEUsage:CyclicsymmetrymultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeELBOW

MPCtypeELBOWconstrainstwonodesofELBOW31orELBOW32elementstogether,wherethecross
sectionaldirection, ,changes(seePipesandpipebendswithdeformingcrosssections:elbowelements,
Section29.5.1).ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

Figure35.2.210ELBOWtypeMPC.

Inputdata

GivethenodesaandbasshowninFigure35.2.210.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
ELBOW,a,b

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
Interactionmodule:CreateConnectorSection:selectMPCastheConnection
CategoryandElbowastheMPCType

Interactionmodule:CreateConstraint:MPCConstraintselectElbowastheMPC
Type

UsingMPCtypeLINK

MPCtypeLINKprovidesapinnedrigidlinkbetweentwonodestokeepthedistancebetweenthenodes
constant,asshowninFigure35.2.211.Thedisplacementsofthefirstnodearemodifiedtoenforcethis
constraint.Therotationsatthenodes,iftheyexist,arenotinvolvedinthisconstraint.

Figure35.2.211MPCtypeLINK.

Inputdata

GivethenodesaandbasshowninFigure35.2.211.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
LINK,a,b

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
Interactionmodule:CreateConnectorSection:selectMPCastheConnection
CategoryandLinkastheMPCType

Interactionmodule:CreateConstraint:MPCConstraintselectLinkastheMPC
Type

UsingMPCtypePIN

MPCtypePINprovidesapinnedjointbetweentwonodes.ThisMPCmakestheglobaldisplacementsequal
butleavestherotations,iftheyexist,independentofeachother,asshowninFigure35.2.212.

Figure35.2.212MPCtypePIN.
Inputdata

GivethenodesaandbasshowninFigure35.2.212.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
PIN,a,b

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
Interactionmodule:CreateConnectorSection:selectMPCastheConnection
CategoryandPinastheMPCType

Interactionmodule:CreateConstraint:MPCConstraintselectPinastheMPC
Type

UsingMPCtypeREVOLUTE

ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

Arevolutejointisajointinwhichrelativerotationisallowedbetweentwonodesaboutanaxisthatrotates
duringthemotion(seeFigure35.2.213).Theaxisofthejointisdefinedintheinitialconfigurationastheline
fromnodebtonodec.Ifthesenodesarecoincident,theaxisisassumedtobetheglobalzaxis.Therotationof
thejointaxisisthatofnodeb.

Therelativerotationinthejointisasinglevariableandisstoredasdegreeoffreedom6atnodec.Thisdegree
offreedomcanbeusedwithothermembersinthemodel,butcautionshouldbeusedbecauseofthe
nonstandarduseofdegreeoffreedom6.Forexample,aSPRING1element(aspringtoground)mightbe
attachedtothisdegreeoffreedom.Sincethedegreeoffreedommeasuresarelativerotation,thisspringwould
thenbeatorsionalspringbetweennodesaandb.

ThedisplacementsatnodeaarenotconstrainedbytheREVOLUTEMPCtobethesameasthedisplacements
atnodeb.Thus,thejointdefinitionmustusuallybecompletedeitherbyusingaPINtypeMPCbetweennodes
aandborbyusingsuitablestiffnessmembersbetweenthesetwonodes.

AnexampleofarevolutejointandapplicationoftheREVOLUTEMPCisprovidedinRevoluteMPC
verification:rotationofacrank,Section1.3.8oftheAbaqusBenchmarksGuide.SeeRevolutejoint,
Section6.6.3oftheAbaqusTheoryGuide,formoredetailsonrevolutejoints.

Figure35.2.213Revolutejoint.
Inputdata

Givethenodesa,b,andcasshowninFigure35.2.213.Degreeoffreedom6atnodecdefinestherelative
rotationbetweennodesaandbtherefore,thisdegreeoffreedomdoesnotobeythestandardconventionfor
degreesoffreedominAbaqus.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
REVOLUTE,a,b,c

Abaqus/CAEUsage:RevolutejointmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeSLIDER

MPCtypeSLIDERkeepsanodeonastraightlinedefinedbytwoothernodesbutallowsthepossibilityof
movingalongthelineandallowsthelinetochangelength.

Whentransitioningfrommultiplelayersofsolidelementstoshells,itisoftendesirabletoconstrainthenodes
onthefreeedgeofthesolidelementstoremaininastraightline.(Thisconstraintisconsistentwithshell
theory.)TheSLIDERMPCcanperformthisfunctionwithoutrestrainingthethinningbehaviorofthesolid
layers.TheSSLINEARMPCisthenusedtoattachtheshellelementtothisedge.

InAbaqus/StandardwhenaSLIDERMPCisusedwithoneoftheshellsolidMPCsSSLINEAR,SS
BILINEAR,orSSFBILINEARitmustbegivenfollowingtheshellsolidMPCs.

Inputdata

ForeachnodepshowninFigure35.2.214andFigure35.2.215,givethenodesp,a,andbforeachlineof
nodesthatshouldremainstraight.ForeachnodeqshowninFigure35.2.214,givethenodesq,c,andd,and
soonforeachlineofnodesthatshouldremainstraight.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
SLIDER,p,a,b
SLIDER,q,c,d

Abaqus/CAEUsage:SlidermultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

Figure35.2.214SLIDERtypeMPCusedatashellsolidintersection.
Figure35.2.215SLIDERtypeMPCusedtomodelatelescopingbeam.
UsingMPCtypeTIE

MPCtypeTIEmakestheglobaldisplacementsandrotationsaswellasallotheractivedegreesoffreedom
equalattwonodes.Iftherearedifferentdegreesoffreedomactiveatthetwonodes,onlythoseincommon
willbeconstrained.

MPCtypeTIEisusuallyusedtojointwopartsofameshwhencorrespondingnodesonthetwopartsaretobe
fullyconnected(zippingupamesh).Forexample,whenameshisgeneratedonacylindricalbody,the
solutionatthenodesat0andthoseat360mustbethesame.Thiscanbedoneeitherbyrenumberingthe
nodesononeofthemeshextremesorbyusingthisMPCforeachpairofcorrespondingnodes,asshownin
Figure35.2.216.

Figure35.2.216ExampleofuseofTIEMPC.

Inputdata

GivethenodesaandbasshowninFigure35.2.216.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
TIE,a,b

Abaqus/CAEUsage:Useoneofthefollowingoptions:
Interactionmodule:CreateConnectorSection:selectMPCastheConnection
CategoryandTieastheMPCType

Interactionmodule:CreateConstraint:MPCConstraintselectTieastheMPC
Type

UsingMPCtypeUNIVERSAL

ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

Auniversaljointisajointinwhichrelativerotationisallowedbetweentwonodes,abouttwoaxesthatare
connectedrigidly,andeachofwhichrotateswiththerotationofoneendofthejoint(seeFigure35.2.217).
Suchajointmightbeusedtocoupletwoshaftsthathaveanangularmisalignment.Thefirstaxisofthejoint,
whichisattachedtonodeb,isdefinedintheinitialconfigurationasthelinefromnodebtonodec.Ifthese
nodesarecoincident,theaxisisassumedtobetheglobalzaxis.Thesecondaxisofthejointisatrightangles
tothefirstaxisandisintheplanedefinedbythefirstaxisandnoded.

Therelativerotationsinthejointarestoredasdegreeoffreedom6atthenodescandd.Thesedegreesof
freedomcanbeusedwithothermembersinthemodel,butcautionshouldbeusedbecauseofthenonstandard
useofdegreeoffreedom6.Forexample,aSPRING1element(aspringtoground)mightbeattachedtooneof
thesedegreesoffreedom.Sincethedegreeoffreedommeasuresarelativerotation,thisspringwouldthenbea
torsionalspring,restrainingthatcomponentofrelativerotation.

ThedisplacementsatnodeaarenotconstrainedbytheUNIVERSALMPCtobethesameasthe
displacementsatnodeb.Thus,thejointdefinitionmustusuallybecompletedeitherbyusingaPINtypeMPC
betweennodesaandborbyusingsuitablestiffnessmembersbetweenthesetwonodes.

SeeUniversaljoint,Section6.6.4oftheAbaqusTheoryGuide,formoredetailsonuniversaljoints.

Figure35.2.217Universaljoint.

Inputdata

Givethenodesa,b,c,anddasshowninFigure35.2.217.Degreesoffreedom6atnodescandddefinethe
relativerotationinthejointtherefore,thesedegreesoffreedomdonotobeythestandardconventionfor
degreesoffreedominAbaqus.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
UNIVERSAL,a,b,c,d

Abaqus/CAEUsage:UniversaljointmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeVLOCAL

ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

AsshowninFigure35.2.218,MPCtypeVLOCALconstrainsthevelocitycomponentsassociatedwith
degreesoffreedom1,2,and3atafirstnode(a)tobeequaltothevelocitycomponentsatathirdnode(c)
alonglocal,rotatingdirections.Theselocaldirectionsrotateaccordingtotherotationatasecondnode(b).In
theinitialconfigurationthefirstlocaldirectionisfromthesecondtothethirdnodeoftheMPC(frombtoc,as
indicatedbythearrowsinFigure35.2.218),oritistheglobalzaxisifthesenodescoincide.Theotherlocal
directionsarethendefinedbythestandardAbaqusconventionforsuchdirections(seeConventions,Section
1.2.2).InFigure35.2.218thisMPCisappliedtonodesd,e,andfinthesamemanner.

MPCtypeVLOCALcanbeusefulfordefiningacomplexmotionwithinamodel.Forexample,theMPCcan
beusedtomodelthesteeringofanautomobileinadynamicanalysisforwhichtheresultinginertialeffectsare
ofinterest.SeeLocalvelocityconstraint,Section6.6.5oftheAbaqusTheoryGuide,formoredetailsonthe
localvelocityconstraint.

Figure35.2.218Localvelocityconstraint.

Inputdata

Givethenodewhosevelocitycomponentsareconstrained(nodeaordinFigure35.2.218),thenodewhose
rotationdefinestherotationofthelocaldirections(nodeboreinFigure35.2.218),andthenodewhose
velocitycomponentsareintheselocaldirections(nodecorfinFigure35.2.218).Nodesaandb(ordande)
canbethesame.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
VLOCAL,a,b,c
VLOCAL,d,e,f

Abaqus/CAEUsage:LocalvelocitycomponentmultipointconstraintsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

MPCsfortransitions

Constrainashellnodetoasolidnodelineforlinearelements(S4,S4R,S4R5,C3D8,
SSLINEAR
C3D8R,SAX1,CAX4,etc.).
SS Constrainashellnodetoasolidnodelineforedgelinesonquadraticelements(S8R,
(S)
BILINEAR S8R5,C3D20,C3D20R,SAX2,CAX8,etc.).
SSF Constrainamidsidenodeofaquadraticshellelement(S8R,S8R5)tomidfacelineson
BILINEAR(S) 20nodebricks(C3D20,C3D20R,etc.).

Modelingashelltosolidelementtransition

TheSLIDER,SSLINEAR,SSBILINEAR,andSSFBILINEARMPCsallowforatransitionfromshell
elementmodelingtosolidelementmodelingonashellsurface.Thismodelingtechniquecanbeusedtoobtain
solutionsatshellsolidintersectionsorotherdiscontinuities,wherethelocalmodelingshouldusefullthree
dimensionaltheorybuttheotherpartsofthestructurecanbemodeledasshells.Theshelltosolid
submodelingcapability(Submodeling:overview,Section10.2.1)andthesurfacebasedshelltosolid
couplingconstraint(Shelltosolidcoupling,Section35.3.3)canalsobeusedtoobtainmoreaccurate
solutionsinsuchcases,withconsiderablylessmodelingeffort.

InAbaqus/StandardtheMPCusageassumesthattheinterfacebetweentheshellandsolidelementsisa
surfacecontainingthenormalstotheshellalongthelineofintersectionofthemeshes,sothatthelinesof
nodesonthesolidmeshsideoftheinterfaceinthenormaldirectiontothesurfacearestraightlines.(Linea,
, ,,binFigure35.2.214andlines , ,, inFigure35.2.219toFigure35.2.220shouldbe
straightlines.)Italsoassumesthatthenodesofthesolidelementsarespaceduniformlyontheinterface
surfaceasindicatedinFigure35.2.214andFigure35.2.219toFigure35.2.220.Foreachshellnodeonthe
edgeuseMPCtypeSSLINEAR,SSBILINEAR,orSSFBILINEAR,asappropriate,toconstraintheshell
nodetothecorrespondinglineorfaceofsolidelementnodesthroughthethickness.Then,useaSLIDERMPC
toconstraineachinteriornodeonthelinethroughthethicknesstoremainonthestraightlinedefinedbythe
bottomandtopnodesofthatline.Foranexample,seeMultipointconstraints,Section5.1.17oftheAbaqus
VerificationGuide.

TheSSBILINEARandSSFBILINEARMPCsarenotintendedforusewiththevariablenodesolidelements
(C3D27,C3D27H,C3D27R,andC3D27RH).

InAbaqus/StandardMPCsSSLINEAR,SSBILINEAR,andSSFBILINEAReliminatealldisplacement
componentsandtwooftherotationcomponentsattheshellnode,andtheSLIDERMPCeliminatestwo
displacementcomponentsateachinteriorsolidelementnodeintheinterface.Therefore,anyboundary
conditionsneededattheinterface(suchasthoserequiredwhentheshell/solidinterfaceintersectsasymmetry
plane)shouldbeappliedonlytothetopandbottomnodesonthesolidelementsideoftheinterface.

UsingMPCtypeSSLINEAR

MPCtypeSSLINEARconstrainsashellcornernodetoalineofedgenodesonsolidelementsforlinear
elements(S4,S4R,orS4R5C3D8,C3D8RSAX1CAX4etc.).

Theconstrainednodesneednotlieexactlyontheselines,butitissuggestedthattheybeincloseproximityto
thelinesformeaningfulresults.

Figure35.2.219SSLINEARtypeMPC.4nodeshellsto8nodebricks.

Inputdata

Givetheshellnode,S,thenthelistofnodesalongthecorrespondinglinethroughthethicknessinthesolid
elementmesh.InAbaqus/Explicitonlytwosolidnodescanbegiven.ReferringtoFigure35.2.219,in
Abaqus/StandardgiveS, , ,, ,andinAbaqus/ExplicitgiveS, , ,where .Theshellnode
numbermustbedifferentfromthesolidmeshnodenumbers.

InputFileUsage:InAbaqus/Standardusethefollowingoption:
*MPC
SSLINEAR,S, , ,,

InAbaqus/Explicitusethefollowingoption:

*MPC
SSLINEAR,S, ,

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MultipointconstraintsfortransitionsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeSSBILINEAR

MPCtypeSSBILINEARconstrainsacornernodeofaquadraticshellelement(S8R,S8R5)toalineofedge
nodeson20nodebricks.ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

Theconstrainednodeneednotlieexactlyontheline,butitissuggestedthatitbeincloseproximitytotheline
formeaningfulresults.

Figure35.2.220SSBILINEARtypeMPC.Cornerof8nodeshelltoedgeof20nodebricks.

Inputdata

Givetheshellnode,S,thenthelistofnodesalongthecorrespondinglinethroughthethicknessinthesolid
elementmesh.ReferringtoFigure35.2.220,giveS, , ,, .Theshellnodenumbermustbedifferent
fromthesolidmeshnodenumbers.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
SSBILINEAR,S, , ,,

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MultipointconstraintsfortransitionsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.

UsingMPCtypeSSFBILINEAR

MPCtypeSSFBILINEARconstrainsamidsidenodeonaquadraticshellelement(S8R,S8R5)toalineof
midfacenodesonsolid20nodebricks.ThisMPCtypeisavailableonlyinAbaqus/Standard.

Theconstrainednodeneednotlieexactlyontheline,butitissuggestedthatitbeincloseproximitytotheline
formeaningfulresults.

Figure35.2.221SSFBILINEARtypeMPC.Midsideof8nodeshelltosurfaceof20nodebricks.
Inputdata

Givetheshellnode,S,thenthelistofnodesonthesolidface,intheorder , ,, asshowninFigure
35.2.221.

InputFileUsage:*MPC
SSFBILINEAR,S, , ,,

Abaqus/CAEUsage:MultipointconstraintsfortransitionsarenotsupportedinAbaqus/CAE.