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# GMAT Full-Length Test 1

Directions:

1. Do not mark anything on the test paper (treat it as if it were computer screen). All answers have to be marked separately.
2. All scratch work has to be done on a separate sheet.
3. Answer each question. You cannot skip any question. You must mark answer to each question before proceeding to the next
question.
4. You cannot go back to any question / section.
5. You cannot change any answer once marked.
6. You must strive to finish the section. Unfinished section invites penalty.
7. Maintain decent pace throughout to be able to finish the section in the stipulated time.
8. If you finish a section before the stipulated time is over, please dont shift to the next section.
Section 1 Quantitative 37 questions 75 minutes

1. For students in class A, the range of heights is r and the greatest height is g. For students in class B, the
range of heights is s and the greatest height is h. Is the least height in class A greater than the least height in
class B?
(1) r < s (2) g > h

2. A hiker walking at a constant rate of 4 miles/hour is passed by a cyclist travelling in the same direction at a
constant rate of 20 miles/hour. The cyclist stops to wait for the hiker 5 minutes after passing her, while the
hiker continues to walk her constant rate. How many minutes must the cyclist wait until the runner catches
up?
(A) 6 2/3 (B) 15 (C) 20 (D) 25 (E) 26 2/3

## 3. If y > 0, what is the value of x? (1) |x 3| > y (2) |x 3| < y

4. Imagine an equilateral triangle ABC inscribed in a circle. If the length of arc ABC is 24, what is the
approximate diameter of the circle?
(A) 5 (B) 8 (C) 11 (D) 15 (E) 19

## 5. In a sequence an = an 1 + k, where 2 n 15 and k is a nonzero constant. How many terms in the

sequence are greater than 10?
1) a1 = 24 2) a8 = 10

## 7. If z y < x y < 0, is |x z| + |x| = |z|? (1) z < x (2) y < 0

8. This year Henry will save a certain amount of his income, and he will spend the rest. Next year Henry will
have no income, but for each dollar that he saves this year, he will have 1 + r dollars available to spend. In
terms of r, what fraction of his income should Henry save this year so that next year the amount he has
available to spend will be equal to half the amount that he spends this year?
(A) 1 / (r+2) (B) 1 / (2r+s) (C) 1 / (3r+2) (D) 1 / (r+3) (E) 1 / (2r+3)

9. In a demographic study, the population and total income of a certain region were estimated from other data,
and both estimates had upper and lower limits. At the time of the estimates, was the per capita income for
the region greater than \$16,500?
(1) The lower limit for the estimate of the population was 330,000 people.
(2) The lower limit for the estimate of the total income was \$5,500,000,000.

10. If M is a positive odd integer, what is the average of a certain set of M integers?
(1) The integers in the set are consecutive multiples of 3
(2) The median of the set of integers is 33

11. When a certain tree was planted, it was 4 ft tall, and the height of the tree increased by a constant amount
each year for the next 6 years. At the end of the 6th year, the tree was 1/5 taller than it was at the end of
the 4th year. By how many feet did the height of the tree increase each year?
(A) 3/10 (B) 2/5 (C) 1/2 (D) 2/3 (E) 6/5

12. A certain stock exchange designates each stock with a one, two, or three letter code, where each letter is
selected from the 26 letters of the alphabet. If the letters may be repeated and if the same letters used in a
different order constitute a different code, how many different stocks is it possible to uniquely designate with
these codes?
(A) 2951 (B) 8125 (C) 15600 (D) 16302 (E) 18278

13. If the prime numbers p and t are the only prime factors of the integer m, is m a multiple of p2t?
(1) m has more than 9 positive factors. (2) m is a multiple of p3

14. The positive integer k has exactly two positive prime factors, 3 and 7. If k has a total of 6 positive factors,
including 1 and k, what is the value of k?
(1) 32 is a factor of k (2) 72 is NOT a factor of k.

## 15. If K is a positive integer, is K the square of an integer?

(1) K is divisible by 4 (2) K is divisible by exactly four primes
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16. A rectangular circuit board is designed to have width w inches, perimeter p inches, and area k square inches.
Which of the following equations must be true?
(A) w2 + pw + k = 0 (B) w2 pw + 2k = 0
2
(C) 2w + pw + 2k = 0 (D) 2w2 pw 2k = 0
2
(E) 2w pw + 2k = 0

## 17. Are x and y both positive? (1) 2x 2y = 1 (2) x/y > 1

18. Two members of a club are to be selected to represent the club at a national meeting. If there are 190
different possible selections of the 2 members, how many members does the club have?
(A) 20 (B) 27 (C) 40 (D) 57 (E) 95

19. Each of the offices in a certain building has a floor area of 200, 300, or 350 square feet. How many offices
are on the first floor of the building?"
(1) There is a total of 9,500 square feet of office space on the first floor of the building
(2) Ten of the offices on the first floor have floor areas of 350 square feet each.

20. A certain library assesses fines for overdue books as follows. On the first day that a book is overdue, the total
fine is \$0.10. For each additional day that the book is overdue, the total fine is increased by \$0.30 or doubled,
whichever results in a lesser amount. What is the total for a book on the fourth day it is overdue?
(A) \$0.60 (B) \$0.70 (C) \$0.80 (D) \$0.90 (E) \$1.00

## 21. Is   3 = 3 x (1) x not equal to 3 (2) x |x| > 0

22. If n denotes a number to the left of 0 on the number line such that the square of n is less than 1/100, then
the reciprocal of n must be
(A) less than 10 (B) between 1 and 1/10 (C) between 1/10 and 0
(D) between 0 and 1/10 (E) greater than 10

23. Some of the students enrolled at college T are parttime students and the rest are fulltime. By what percent
did the number of fulltime students enrolled at college T increase from fall of 1999 to the fall of 2000?
(1) There were 50 more fulltime students enrolled at college T in the fall of 2000 than in the fall of 1999.
(2) The total number of students enrolled at college T increased by 5 percent from the fall of 1999 to the fall
of 2000.

24. In a certain year the United Nations total expenditures were \$1.6billion. Of this amount, 67.8 percent was
paid by the 6 highestcontributing countries, and the balance was paid by the remaining 153 countries. Was
Country X among the 6 highestcontributing countries?
(1) 56 percent of the total expenditures was paid by the 4 highestcontributing countries, each of which paid
more than Country X.
(2) Country X paid 4.8 percent of the total expenditures.

25. At a certain store, each notepad costs x dollars and each marker costs y dollars. If \$10 is enough to buy 5

26. A basket contains 5 apples, of which 1 is spoiled and the rest are good. If Henry is to select 2 apples from the
basket simultaneously and at random, what is the probability that the 2 apples will include the spoiled apple?
(A) 1/5 (B) 3/10 (C) 2/5 (D) 1/2 (E) 3/5

## 27. If the integer n is greater than 1, is n equal to 2?

(1) n has exactly two positive factors
(2) The difference between any two distinct positive factors is odd.

## 28. If n is an integer, is n odd?

(1) n/3 is divisible by 3 (2) 2n has twice as many factors as n

29. What is the average (arithmetic mean) height of the n people in a certain group?
(1) The average height of the n/3 tallest people in the group is 6 feet and 2 inches and the average height
of the remaining people in the group is 5 feet and 10 inches.
(2) The sum of the heights of the people is 178 feet and 9 inches.

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30. In the figure shown, what is the value of x?

(1) The length of line segment QR is equal to the length of the line segment RS.
(2) The length of line segment ST is equal to the length of the line segment TU.

31. Marta bought several pencils. If each pencil was either 23 cents or 21 cents, how many 23 cents pencil did
(1) Marta bought a total of 6 pencils.
(2) The total value of pencil Marta bought was 130 cents.

32. An employee of Company Z is an employee of either Division X or Division Y, but not both. If each division
has some parttime employees, is the ratio of the number of fulltime employees to the number of parttime
employees greater for division X than for company Z?
(1) The ratio of the number of fulltime employees to the number of parttime employees is less for Division
Y than for company Z.
(2) More than half of the fulltime employees of Company Z are employees of Division X, and more than half
of the parttime employees of Company Z are employees of Division Y
33.

The figure shows the top side of a circular medallion made of a circular piece of colored glass surrounded by
a metal frame, represented by the shaded region. If the radius of the medallion is r centimeters and the width
of the metal frame is centimeters, then in terms of s and r, what is the area of the metal frame, in square
centimeters?
(A) (r s)2 (B) (r2 s2) (C) 2 (r s) (D) r (2r s) (E) s (2r s)

34. Of the 1400 teachers surveyed 42% said that they considered engaging in research an essential goal. How
many of the teachers surveyed were women?
(1) In the survey 36% of the men and 50% of the women said that they considered engaging in research an
essential goal.
(2) In the survey 288 men said that they considered engaging in research an essential goal.

35. If x and y are positive integers and x = 8y + 12, what is greatest common divisor of x and y? Given u and z
are also positive integers.
(1) x = 12 u (2) y = 12 z

36. Lines n and p lie in the xy plane. Is the slope of the line n less than the slope of line p?
(1) Lines n and p intersect at (5, 1).
(2) The yintercept of line n is greater than yintercept of line p

37. For any positive integer n, the length of n is defined as the number of prime factors whose product is n. For
example, the length of 75 is 3, since 75 = 3 x 5 x 5. How many two digit positive integers have length 6?
(A) None (B) One (C) Two (D) Three (E) Four

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Section 2 - Verbal - 41 Questions, 75 minutes

1. Unlike the conviction held by many of her 3. Spanish poet Juan Ramn Jimnez, who won the
colleagues that genes were relatively simple and Nobel Prize for Literature in 1956, so embarrassed
static, Barbara McClintock adhered to her own in his later years by what he considered the
more complicated ideas about how genes might excessive sentiment in the poems in his first two
operate, and in 1983, at the age of 81, was collections, he destroyed every copy he could find.
awarded a Nobel Prize for her discovery that the A. so embarrassed in his later years by what he
genes in corn are capable of moving from one considered the excessive sentiment in the poems
chromosomal site to another. in his first two collections, he destroyed
A. Unlike the conviction held by many of her B. and was so embarrassed in his later years by what
colleagues that genes were relatively simple and he considered as the excessive sentiment in the
static poems in his first two collections that he
B. Although many of her colleagues were of the destroyed
conviction of genes being relatively simple and C. in his later years he was so embarrassed by what
static he considered as the excessive sentiment in the
C. Contrary to many of her colleagues being poems in his first two collections, destroying
convinced that genes were relatively simple and D. was so embarrassed in his later years by what he
static considered the excessive sentiment in the poems
D. Even though many of her colleagues were in his first two collections that he destroyed
convinced that genes were relatively simple and E. because he was so embarrassed in his later years
static by what he considered as the excessive sentiment
E. Even with many of her colleagues convinced of in the poems in his first two collections,
genes being relatively simple and static destroying

## 2. For protection from the summer sun, the Mojave

lived in open-sided, flat-topped dwellings known
as shades, each a roof of poles and arrowweed
supported by posts set in a rectangle.
A. each a roof of poles and arrowweed
B. each a roof of poles and arrowweed that are
being
C. with each being a roof of poles and arrowweed
D. with roofs of poles and arrowweed to be
E. with roofs of poles and arrowweed that are

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Q4 to Q6: 4. According to the passage, which of the following
The idea that equipping homes with electrical is true about the idea mentioned in line 1?
appliances and other modern household technologies A. It has been undermined by data found in time-use
would eliminate drudgery, save labor time, and surveys conducted by home economists.
increase leisure for women who were full-time home B. It was based on a definition of housework that
workers remained largely unchallenged until the was explicitly rejected by Vanek and Cowan.
womens movement of the 1970s spawned the C. It is more valid for the time period studied by
groundbreaking and influential works of sociologist Cowan than for the time period studied by Vanek.
Joann Vanek and historian Ruth Cowan. Vanek D. It is based on an underestimation of the time that
analyzed 40 years of time use surveys conducted by married women spent on housework prior to the
home economists to argue that electrical appliances industrialization of the household.
and other modern household technologies reduced the E. It inaccurately suggested that new household
effort required to perform specific tasks, but technologies would reduce the effort required to
ownership of these appliances did not correlate with perform housework.
less time spent on housework by full-time home
workers. In fact, time spent by these workers 5. The passage is primarily concerned with
remained remarkably constantat about 52 to 54 A. analyzing a debate between two scholars
hours per weekfrom the 1920s to the 1960s, a B. challenging the evidence on which a new theory is
period of significant change in household technology. based
In surveying two centuries of household technology in C. describing how certain scholars work countered a
the United States, Cowan argued that the prevailing view
industrialization of the home often resulted in more D. presenting the research used to support a
work for full-time home workers because the use of traditional theory
such devices as coal stoves, water pumps, and E. evaluating the methodology used to study a
vacuum cleaners tended to reduce the workload of particular issue
married-womens helpers (husbands, sons, daughters,
and servants) while promoting a more rigorous 6. The passage suggests that Vanek and Cowan
standard of housework. The full-time home workers would agree that modernizing household
duties also shifted to include more household technology did not
management, child care, and the post-Second World A. reduce the workload of servants and other
War phenomenon of being Moms taxi. household helpers
B. raise the standard of housework that women who
were full-time home workers set for themselves
C. decrease the effort required to perform household
D. reduce the time spent on housework by women
who were full-time home workers
E. result in a savings of money used for household
maintenance

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Q7 to Q10: 8. According to the passage, the advice referred to
In recent years, Western business managers have in the passage was a response to which of the
been heeding the exhortations of business journalists following?
and academics to move their companies toward long- A. A recent decrease in the number of available
term, collaborative strategic partnerships with their suppliers within the United States automobile
external business partners (e.g., suppliers). The industry
experts advice comes as a natural reaction to B. A debate within Western management circles
numerous studies conducted during the past decade during the past decade regarding the value of
that compared Japanese production and supply strategic partnerships
practices with those of the rest of the world. The link C. The success of certain European automobile
between the success of a certain well-known manufacturers that have adopted strategic
Japanese automaker and its effective management partnerships
of its suppliers, for example, has led to an D. An increase in demand over the past decade for
unquestioning belief within Western management automobiles made by Western manufacturers
circles in the value of strategic partnerships. Indeed, in E. Research comparing Japanese business practices
the automobile sector all three United States with those of other nations
manufacturers and most of their European competitors
have launched programs to reduce their total number 9. The author mentions the success of a certain
of suppliers and move toward having strategic well-known Japanese automaker most probably
partnerships with a few. in order to
A. demonstrate some of the possible reasons for the
However, new research concerning supplier success of a certain business practice
relationships in various industries demonstrates that B. cite a specific case that has convinced Western
business consultants that Japanese firms manage their practice
suppliers primarily through strategic partnerships is C. describe specific steps taken by Western
unjustified. Not only do Japanese firms appear to automakers that have enabled them to compete
conduct a far smaller proportion of their business more successfully in a global market
through strategic partnerships than is commonly D. introduce a paradox about the effect of a certain
believed, but they also make extensive use of market- business practice in Japan
exchange relationships, in which either party can turn E. indicate the need for Western managers to
to the marketplace and shift to different business change their relationships with their external
partners at will, a practice usually associated with business partners
Western manufacturers.
10. Which of the following is most clearly an example
7. The passage is primarily concerned with of the practice referred to in the last sentence of
A. examining economic factors that may have the passage?
contributed to the success of certain Japanese A. A department store chain that employs a single
companies buyer to procure all the small appliances to be
B. discussing the relative merits of strategic sold in its stores
partnerships as compared with those of market- B. An automobile manufacturer that has used the
exchange relationship same supplier of a particular axle component for
C. challenging the validity of a widely held several years in a row
assumption about how Japanese firms operate C. A hospital that contracts only with union
D. explaining why Western companies have been personnel to staff its nonmedical positions
slow to adopt a particular practice favored by D. A municipal government that decides to cancel its
Japanese companies contract with a waste disposal company and
E. pointing out certain differences between Japanese instead hire its own staff to perform that function
and Western supplier relationships E. A corporation that changes the food-service
supplier for its corporate headquarters several
times over a five-year period as part of a cost-
cutting campaign.

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11. In 1992 outlaw fishing boats began illegally 13. Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium
harvesting lobsters from the territorial waters of transmitted to humans by deer ticks. Generally
the country of Belukia. Soon after, the annual deer ticks pick up the bacterium while in the larval
tonnage of lobster legally harvested in Belukian stage from feeding on infected whitefooted mice.
waters began declining; in 1996, despite there However, certain other species on which the
being no reduction in the level of legal lobster larvae feed do not harbor the bacterium.
fishing activity, the local catch was 9,000 tons Therefore, if the population of these other species
below pre-1992 levels. It is therefore highly likely were increased, the number of ticks acquiring the
that the outlaw fishing boats harvested about bacteriumand hence the number of people
9,000 tons of lobster illegally that year. contracting Lyme diseasewould likely decline.
Which of the following is an assumption on Which of the following, if true, most
which the argument depends? strengthens the argument?
A. The illegal lobster harvesting was not so extensive A. Ticks do not suffer any adverse consequences
that the population of catchable lobsters in from carrying the bacterium that causes Lyme
Belukias territorial waters had sharply declined by disease in humans.
1996. B. There are no known cases of a humans
B. The average annual lobster catch, in tons, of an contracting Lyme disease through contact with
outlaw fishing boat has increased steadily since white-footed mice.
1992. C. A deer tick feeds only once while in the larval
C. Outlaw fishing boats do not, as a group, harvest stage.
more lobsters than do licensed lobster-fishing D. A single host animal can be the source of bacteria
boats. for many tick larvae.
D. The annual legal lobster harvest in Belukia in 1996 E. None of the other species on which deer tick
was not significantly less than 9,000 tons. larvae feed harbor other bacteria that ticks
E. A significant proportion of Belukias operators of transmit to humans.
between 1992 and 1996. 14. Not one of the potential investors is expected to
make an offer to buy First Interstate Bank until a
12. Despite the growing number of people who merger agreement is signed that includes a
purchase plane tickets online, airline executives provision for penalties if the deal were not to be
are convinced that, just as one-third of bank concluded.
customers still prefer human tellers to automatic A. is expected to make an offer to buy First
teller machines, many travelers will still use travel Interstate Bank until a merger agreement is
agents. signed that includes a provision for penalties if the
A. growing number of people who purchase plane deal were
tickets online, airline executives are convinced B. is expected to make an offer for buying First
that, just as one-third of bank customers still Interstate Bank until they sign a merger
prefer human tellers to automatic teller machines, agreement including a provision for penalties if
many travelers will the deal was
B. growing number of people who purchase plane C. is expected to make an offer to buy First
tickets online, airline executives are convinced, Interstate Bank until a merger agreement be
just as one-third of bank customers still prefer signed by them with a provision for penalties if
human tellers to automatic teller machines, that the deal were
many travelers would D. are expected to make an offer for buying First
C. growing number of people purchasing plane Interstate Bank until it signs a merger agreement
tickets online, airline executives are convinced, with a provision for penalties included if the deal
just as one-third of bank customers still prefer was
human tellers as compared to automatic teller E. are expected to be making an offer to buy First
machines, many travelers will Interstate Bank until they sign a merger
D. fact that the number of people purchasing plane agreement including a provision for penalties if
tickets online is growing, airline executives are the deal were
convinced, just as one-third of bank customers
still prefer human tellers as compared to
automatic teller machines, that many travelers
would
E. fact that the number of people who purchase
plane tickets online are growing, airline executives
are convinced that, just as one-third of bank
customers still prefer human tellers compared
with automatic teller machines, many travelers
would
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15. Driving the steep road to the mountaintop Inca 17. As a large corporation in a small country, Hachnut
ruins of Machu Picchu is potentially dangerous and wants its managers to have international
hiking there is difficult. Now the Peruvian experience, so each year it sponsors
government is installing a cable car that will make management education abroad for its
access much easier, and hence result in a large management trainees. Hachnut has found,
increase in tourism. However, since the presence however, that the attrition rate of graduates from
of large numbers of tourists tends to accelerate this program is very high, with many of them
the deterioration of a site, installation of the cable leaving Hachnut to join competing firms soon
car is certain to result in harm to the ruins. after completing the program. Hachnut does use
Which of the following, if true, most performance during the program as a criterion in
seriously calls into question the argument? deciding among candidates for management
A. The daily number of tourists that are expected to positions, but both this function and the goal
take the cable car to Machu Picchu is smaller than of providing international experience could
the original resident population of Incas. be achieved in other ways. Therefore, if the
B. The construction of the cable car terminal at attrition problem cannot be successfully
Machu Picchu will require the use of potentially addressed, Hachnut should discontinue the
damaging heavy machinery at the site. sponsorship program.
C. Machu Picchu is already one of the most popular In the argument given, the two boldfaced
tourist sites in Peru. portions play which of the following roles?
D. Natural weathering will continue to be a more A. The first describes a practice that the argument
significant cause of the deterioration of Machu seeks to justify; the second states a judgment
Picchu than tourist traffic. that is used in support of a justification for that
E. The cable car will replace the tour buses whose practice.
large wheels and corrosive exhaust at present do B. The first describes a practice that the argument
significant damage to the site. seeks to explain; the second presents part of the
arguments explanation of that practice.
16. As the etched lines on computer memory chips C. The first introduces a practice that the argument
have become thinner and the chips circuits more seeks to evaluate; the second provides grounds
complex, both the power of the chips and the for holding that the practice cannot achieve its
electronic devices they drive have vastly objective.
increased. D. The first introduces a policy that the argument
A. the chips circuits more complex, both the power seeks to evaluate; the second provides grounds
of the chips and the electronic devices they drive for holding that the policy is not needed.
have E. The first introduces a consideration supporting a
B. the chips circuits more complex, the power of policy that the argument seeks to evaluate; the
both the chips and the electronic devices they second provides evidence for concluding that the
drive has policy should be abandoned.
C. the chips circuits are more complex, both the
power of the chips and the electronic devices they 18. The population of India has been steadily
drive has increasing for decades, and it will probably have
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both what is estimated as 1.6 billion people by 2050
the chips and the electronic devices they drive and surpass China as the worlds most populous
have nation.
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the A. it will probably have what is estimated as
chips and the electronic devices they drive have B. they are likely to have
C. the country will probably have
D. there will probably be
E. there will be an estimated

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19. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each 21. Scientists have made genetic modifications to
other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar cotton to increase its resistance to insect pests.
highlights an interesting and often overlooked According to farmers report, the amount of
feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary insecticide needed per acre to control insect pests
considerably on a spectrum of genetic was only slightly lower for those who tried the
relatedness. modified seed than for those who did not.
A. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each Therefore, since the modified seed costs more
other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar than ordinary seed without producing yields of
highlights an interesting and often overlooked higher market value, switching to the modified
feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary seed would be unlikely to benefit most cotton
considerably farmers economically.
B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other Which of the following would it be most
greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights useful to know in order to evaluate the
an interesting and often overlooked feature of argument?
fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary A. Whether farmers who tried the modified cotton
considerably seed had ever tried growing other crops from
C. With some fraternal twins resembling each other genetically modified seed
greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it B. Whether the insecticides typically used on
highlights an interesting and often overlooked ordinary cotton tend to be more expensive than
feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely insecticides typically used on other crops
considerable variation C. Whether for most farmers who grow cotton it is
D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other their primary crop
greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a D. Whether the farmers who have tried the modified
fact that highlights an interesting and often seed planted as many acres of cotton, on
overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely average, as farmers using the ordinary seed did
a considerable variation E. Whether most of the farmers who tried the
E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other modified seed did so because they had previously
greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact had to use exceptionally large quantities of
highlights an interesting and often overlooked insecticide
feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary
considerably 22. The violent crime rate (number of violent crimes
per 1,000 residents) in Meadowbrook is 60
20. In 1713, Alexander Pope began his translation of percent higher now than it was four years ago.
the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until The corresponding increase for Parkdale is only 10
completion, and that literary critic Samuel percent. These figures support the conclusion that
Johnson, Popes contemporary, pronounced the residents of Meadowbrook are more likely to
greatest translation in any language. become victims of violent crime than are residents
A. his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him of Parkdale.
seven years until completion, and that literary The argument above is flawed because it
critic Samuel Johnson, Popes contemporary, fails to take into account
pronounced A. changes in the population density of both
B. his translation of the Iliad, a work that took him Parkdale and Meadowbrook over the past four
seven years to complete and that literary critic years
Samuel Johnson, Popes contemporary, B. how the rate of population growth in
pronounced Meadowbrook over the past four years compares
C. his translation of the Iliad, a work that had taken to the corresponding rate for Parkdale
seven years to complete and that literary critic C. the ratio of violent to nonviolent crimes committed
Samuel Johnson, Popes contemporary, during the past four years in Meadowbrook and
pronounced it as Parkdale
D. translating the Iliad, a work that took seven years D. the violent crime rates in Meadowbrook and
until completion and that literary critic Samuel Parkdale four years ago
Johnson, Popes contemporary, pronounced it as E. how Meadowbrooks expenditures for crime
E. translating the Iliad, a work that had taken seven prevention over the past four years compare to
years to complete and literary critic Samuel Parkdales expenditures
Johnson, Popes contemporary, pronounced it

10
Q23 to Q25:
Companies that must determine well in advance of the 23. Which of the following most accurately describes
selling season how many unites of a new product to the function of the last sentence in the passage?
manufacture often underproduce products that sell A. To cite a situation in which the aggregate demand
well and have overstocks of others. The increased is more important than the distribution of demand
incidence in recent years of mismatches between among SKUs
production and demand seems ironic, since point-of- B. To refute an assertion about the side effects of
sale scanners have improved data on consumers flexible manufacturing
buying patterns and since flexible manufacturing has C. To illustrate an assertion about companies ability
enabled companies to produce, cost-effectively, small to forecast demand
quantities of goods. This type of manufacturing has D. To provide an example of ways in which
greatly increased the number of new products companies address the difficulties of forecasting
introduced annually in the United States. However, demand
frequent introductions of new products have two E. To note an exception to the authors assertion
problematic side effects. For one, they reduce the about distributing demand among SKUs
average lifetime of products; more of them are neither
at the beginning of their life (when prediction is 24. The passage suggests which of the following
difficult) or at the end of their life (when keeping about divided demand among a growing number
inventory is expensive because the products will soon of SKUs?
become obsolete). For another, as new products A. It has increased the average lifetime of products.
proliferate, demand is divided among a growing B. It has resulted from retailers attempts to predict
number of stock-keeping units (SKUs). Even though demand more accurately and avoid both
manufacturers and retailers can forecast aggregate understocks and overstocks.
demand with some certainty, forecasting accurately C. It has decreased the use of flexible manufacturing
how that demand will be distributed among the many by companies.
SKUs they sell is difficult. For example, a company D. It has not increased the expense of keeping
may be able to estimate accurately the aggregate inventory of certain products.
number of shoes it will sell, but it may be uncertain E. It has not prevented companies from predicting
about which specific types of shoes will sell more than aggregate demand with some certainty.
other types.
25. According to the passage, which of the following
has led to growth in the number of new products
introduced in the United States each year?
A. Reduced average lifetime of products
B. Increased ability to forecast aggregate demand
C. More cost-effective ways of keeping inventory for
products
D. Cost-effective production of small quantities of
goods
E. Increased ability to divide demand among a
number of SKUs and to forecast how that
demand will be distributed among those SKUs

11
26. Tourists have long complained that hotel 29. Lacking information about energy use, people
accommodations in Midville are too expensive. tend to overestimate the amount of energy used
Starting last year, the city council, hoping to by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and
attract more tourists, lowered the hotel tax rate to must be turned on and off and underestimate that
5 percent of room charges. By the end of last used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water
year, Midville had taken in no less money from heaters.
hotel taxes than it did the year before, so an A. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and
examination of the hotel records will show that must be turned on and off and underestimate that
more tourists stayed in city hotels last year than B. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and
the year before. must be turned on and off and underestimate it
Which of the following is an assumption on when
which the argument depends? C. equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must
A. The tourists who stayed in Midville hotels last year be turned on and off and underestimate it when
were aware that the hotel tax rate had been D. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be
lowered. turned on and off and underestimate that
B. The average price of hotel accommodations in E. visible equipment, such as lights, that must be
Midville was not significantly higher than in hotels turned on and off and underestimate it when
in other cities either last year or the year before.
C. The average length of a tourists stay in Midville 30. Each year red-winged blackbirds stop in a certain
hotels was not longer last year than it had been region of Midland Province on their spring and fall
the year before. migrations. In the fall, they eat a significant
D. There were significantly more efforts to publicize portion of the provinces sunflower crop. This year
Midville as a tourist destination last year than Midland farmers sought permits to set out small
there had been the year before. amounts of poisoned rice during the blackbirds
E. On average, tourists in Midville did not spend spring stop in order to reduce the fall blackbird
significantly more on meals last year than they did population. Some residents voiced concern that
on hotels accommodations. the rice could threaten certain species of rare
migratory birds. Nevertheless, the wildlife agency
27. In Scotland, the number of wild salmon have been approved the permits.
reduced because of uncontrolled deep-sea and Which of the following, if true, most helps
costal netting, by pollution, and by various other to justify the wildlife agencys approval of
threats to the fishs habitat. the permits, given the concerns voiced by
A. number of wild salmon have been reduced some residents?
because of uncontrolled deep-sea and coastal A. In the region where the red-winged blackbirds
netting stop, they are the first birds to be present in the
B. number of wild salmon is reduced because deep- spring.
sea and coastal netting is not controlled B. The poison that farmers want to use does not kill
C. numbers of wild salmon has been reduced birds but rather makes them incapable of
because of uncontrolled deep-sea and coastal producing viable eggs.
netting C. Since rice is not raised in Midland Province, few
D. wild salmons numbers are reduced by deep-sea species of birds native to the province normally
and coastal netting that is not controlled eat rice.
E. wild salmons numbers have been reduced by D. Without the permit, any farmers shown to have
uncontrolled deep-sea and coastal netting set out poison for the blackbirds would be heavily
fined.
28. Many of the earliest known images of Hindu E. The poison that farmers got approval to use has
deities in India date from the time of the Kushan no taste or smell that would make it detectable by
empire, fashioned either from the spotted birds.
sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan gray schist.
A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted
sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted
sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted
sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted
sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the
spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

12
31. At an orientation meeting, the travelers were told
that a visa, a landing card, and evidence of
inoculation against typhoid fever would be needed
by each of them.
A. a visa, a landing card, and evidence of inoculation
against typhoid fever would be needed by each of
them
B. they would need a visa, a landing card, and
evidence of their being inoculated against typhoid
fever
C. they would need evidence of being inoculated
against typhoid fever and a visa and landing card
D. they would each need a visa, a landing card, and
evidence of inoculation against typhoid fever
E. they would need visas, landing cards, and
evidence of inoculation against typhoid fever for
each of them

## 32. The town of Enderton is located in an area where

forest fires are quite common. During dry periods
and periods of persistent winds, when even a
spark can result in a fire that spreads over many
acres, the danger of fire there is particularly
serious. To help prevent forest fires in the area,
the town government plans to post a ban on
outdoor fires when such conditions prevail.
Which of the following, if true, provides the
strongest indication that the towns plan
will have at most a minor effect on the
annual number of forest fires in the
Enderton area?
A. Most of the tourists who visit the forests
surrounding Enderton also visit Enderton itself.
B. Although there are county fire fighters available to
combat forest fires in the area, Enderton itself has
no professional fire fighters.
C. Very few forest fires in the Enderton area result
from fires deliberately set by arsonists.
D. Nearly all forest fires in the Enderton area are the
result of lightning strikes.
E. The number of forest fires in the Enderton area
has not increased significantly in the last several
years.

13
Q33 to Q36:
Until recently, zoologists believed that all species of 33. It can be inferred from the passage that the
phocids (true seals), a pinniped family, use a different females of all phocid species differ from the
maternal strategy than do otariids (fur seals and sea females of all otariid species in that the female
lions), another pinniped family. Mother otariids use a phocids
foraging strategy. They acquire moderate energy A. have shorter lactation periods
stores in the form of blubber before arriving at B. consume more food during lactation
breeding sites and then fast for 5 to 11 days after C. consume a higher proportion of fat stores
birth. Throughout the rest of the lactation (milk D. forage for food occasionally during their lactation
production) period, which lasts from 4 months to 3 periods
years depending on the species, mother otariids E. deplete a smaller percentage of their fat stores
alternately forage at sea, where they replenish their during their lactation periods
fat stores, and nurse their young at breeding sites.
Zoologists had assumed that females of all phocid 34. The primary purpose of the passage is to
species, by contrast, use a fasting strategy in which A. present evidence that several phocid species use
mother phocids, having accumulated large energy the maternal fasting strategy
stores before they arrive at breeding sites, fast B. explain why the maternal strategy typically used
throughout the entire lactation period, which lasts by phocids is different from the maternal strategy
from 4 to 50 days depending on the species. However, used by otariids
recent studies on harbor seals, a phocid species, found C. argue that zoologists current understanding of
that lactating females commenced foraging harbor seals maternal strategy is incorrect
approximately 6 days after giving birth and on average D. describe an unexpected behavior observed in
made 7 foraging trips during the remainder of their harbor seals and propose an explanation that may
24-day lactation period. account for that behavior
The maternal strategy evolved by harbor seals may E. describe evidence concerning the maternal
have to do with their small size and the large strategy of the harbor seal and suggest that the
proportion of their fat stores depleted in lactation. harbor seal belongs to the otariid rather than to
Harbor seals are small compared with other phocid the phocid family
species such as grey seals, northern elephant seals,
and hooded seals, all of which are known to fast for 35. According to the passage, until recently zoologists
the entire lactation period. Studies show that mother believed which of the following about all phocid
seals of these species use respectively 84 percent, 58 mothers?
percent, and 33 percent of their fat stores during A. Their fasting periods after giving birth were
lactation. By comparison, harbor seals use 80 percent typically shorter than those of otariids.
of their fat stores in just the first 19 days of lactation, B. Their lactation periods were generally as long as
even though they occasionally feed during this period. those of comparably sized otariids.
Since such a large proportion of their fat stores is C. They acquired only moderate energy stores in the
exhausted despite feeding, mother harbor seals clearly form of blubber before arriving at breeding sites.
cannot support all of lactation using only energy stored D. They depleted less than a third of their stored
before giving birth. Though smaller than many other body fat during lactation.
phocids, harbor seals are similar in size to most E. The replenished their fat stores only after their
suggesting that the ringed seal, a phocid species that
is similar in size to the harbor seal, may also use a 36. The author of the passage mentions ringed seals
maternal foraging strategy. most probably in order to
A. provide an example of a phocid species that fasts
throughout its entire lactation period
B. provide an example of a phocid species whose
maternal strategy is typical of phocid species
C. provide an example of a phocid species that may
deplete an even higher proportion of its fat stores
during lactation than harbor seals do
D. support the assertion that harbor seals are smaller
than many other phocids
E. support the assertion that harbor seals maternal
strategy may be related to their small size

14
37. Shoppers in sporting goods stores, unlike in 39. Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than
department stores, do very little impulse are fungi, in the form of carbon dioxide, and
shopping, not buying a pair of skis and a converting it to energy-rich sugars.
boomerang when they come in for a basketball, A. Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than
but they leave with a basketball only. are fungi
A. in department stores, do very little impulse B. Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than
shopping, not buying a pair of skis and a fungi
boomerang when they come in for a basketball, C. Plants are more efficient than fungi at acquiring
but they leave with a basketball only carbon
B. in department stores, shop impulsively very little; D. Plants, more efficient than fungi at acquiring
someone who comes in for a basketball will leave carbon
with a basketball only and not also buy a pair of E. Plants acquire carbon more efficiently than fungi
skis and a boomerang as well
C. those in department stores, do very little impulse 40. Which of the following most logically
shopping, do not buy a pair of skis and a completes the argument given?
boomerang when they come in for a basketball, People in isolated rain-forest communities tend to
but leave with only a basketball live on a largely vegetarian diet, and they eat little
D. those in department stores, do very little impulse salt. Few of them suffer from high blood pressure,
shopping; someone who comes in for a basketball and their blood pressure does not tend to increase
will leave with a basketball only and not buy a pair with age, as is common in industrialized countries.
of skis and a boomerang as well Such people often do develop high blood pressure
E. department stores, shop impulsively very little; when they move to cities and adopt high-salt
someone will not buy a pair of skis and a diets. Though suggestive, these facts do not
boomerang when they come in for a basketball establish salt as the culprit in high blood pressure,
but will leave with only a basketball however, because ________.
A. genetic factors could account for the lack of
38. The total market value of real estate in Altonville increase of blood pressure with age among such
has steadily declined over the past four years. people
This decline has meant that the overall figure on B. people eating high-salt diets and living from birth
which the citys property tax is basedthe in cities in industrialized societies generally have a
assessed value of that real estatehas also tendency to have high blood pressure
declined. Moreover, the percentage of assessed C. it is possible to have a low-salt diet while living in
value that was paid as property taxes to the city a city in an industrialized country
did not change during this period. D. there are changes in other aspects of diet when
The information above most strongly such people move to the city
supports which of the following? E. salt is a necessity for human life, and death can
A. Money collected from property taxes provided occur when the body loses too much salt
most of Altonvilles revenue during the past four
years. 41. Scientists have dated sharp-edged flakes of stone
B. The percentage of Altonvilles overall revenue that found in the fine-grained sediments of a dry
was collected from property taxes did not change riverbed in the Afar region of Ethiopia to between
over the past four years. 2.52 and 2.60 million years ago, pushing back by
C. Altonville officials had proposed raising property more than 150,000 years the earliest date when it
tax rates during the past four years but never did is known that humans made stone tools.
so because of strong opposition from property A. when it is known that humans made
D. The total amount of revenue that Altonville has C. at which humans are known to have made
collected from property taxes has declined over D. that humans are known to be making
the past four years. E. of humans who were known to make
E. During the past four years, Altonville officials also
did not increase tax rates on other sources of
revenue such as retail sales or business profits.

15
Quant could well be shorter than that of class b.

1. C insufficient
2. C
3. B (together)
4. C greatest height in class a = g - r
5. B greatest height in class b = h - s
6. B the given inequalities imply that g - r > h - s
7. D sufficient
8. E
2. C
9. E
10. C
Sol
11. D
12. E after the cyclist passes the pedestrian, their relative
13. B rate is 16 miles/hr (20 - 4, since they're traveling in
14. D
the same direction): in other words, the cyclist is going
15. E
to get 16 miles farther ahead of the pedestrian each
16. E
hour. so, in five minutes, which is 1/12 hour, the
17. C
18. A cyclist will go (16 mi/hr)(1/12 hr) = 4/3 miles ahead of

## 19. C the pedestrian.

20. D
21. B then, the cyclist must wait for the pedestrian to walk
22. A 4/3 mile. this takes t = d / r = (4/3 mi) / (4 mi/hr) =
23. E 1/3 hr = 20 minutes.
24. E
25. E
26. C 3. B
27. B
28. B Sol
29. A
30. C 1. |x - 3| > y
31. B Taking numbers:
32. D x: -2, 1 both can satisfy the above equation.
33. E Insufficient.
34. A
35. B 2. |x - 3| < - y
36. C
Since |x-3| is an absolute value, the smallest it can go
37. C
is 0.
And since y is given to be >0, thus - y will give a
negative value which will cause the equation to fall
apart unless it is 0.
1. C

(2) so |x-3| = 0.
the greatest height in class a is taller than its x = 3.
counterpart in class b, but we know nothing about the
ranges; if class a has a wider spread, its least height
16
4. that since k is non-zero, and hence all the terms in the
series will be DISTINCT).

## It could a(1) to a(7) if k is negative, and a(9) to a(15)

if k is positive.

Hence ans is b
Sol 6.

## Arc Length ABC, if you draw it correctly inscribed in a

Sol
circle, represents 2/3 of the circle's circumference, not
1/3. So there are two minor arcs measuring 120 Lets take (1)
degrees, 120/360 + 120/360 = 1/3 +1/3 = 2/3 of y<x
2piR.
y 2 -4
Now solving for the approx. value for the Diameter: x42

## 24 = 2/3 2piR Substitute in the equation

divide both sides by 2/3:
36=2piR |x-y|>|x|-|y|
divide both sides by pi
36/3.14 = 2R = diameter Using the above values,
|2|>|4|-|2| First Column Values
Diameter is approx. 11
Not true
|2-(-4)|>|2|-|-4| Second Column Values
|6|>2-4
6>-2 --True

5. Hence A is Insuff

Sol (2)
xy<0 which means either x or y should be negative
If a(n) = a(n-1) + k, then a(1), a(2),.....a(15) is an
arithmetic progression. x 7 -7
y -3 3
Statement (2) says a(8) = 10
Substitute the values in the eq
a(8) is the middle term and hence the Median of this |x-y|>|x|-|y|
series. The number k can be positive or negative. If k
is negative, then the numbers a(1), a(2) etc. will be in |10|>|7|-|-3|
descending order and if it is positive, then the series 10>4
will be in ascending order. No matter what, there will
be 7 terms which will be greater than 10 (Please note |-7-3|>|-7|-|3|
17
|-10|>-7-3 let x = the amount henry saves this year
10>-10 then 1 - x = the amount he spends
so
Hence Suff next year he will have (1 + r)x dollars to spend = x +
rx
Hence B
the problem tells us that this quantity has to be half of
(1 - x).
7. D so
(1 - x)/2 = x + rx
Sol

since both ZY and XY are both less than 0, this implies double both sides: 1 - x = 2x + 2rx

## that Z and X are both negative or positive (depending

on value of y) segregate terms involving x from those not involving
x: 1 = 3x + 2rx

if Y is negative:
Z and X are both positive. Since ZY < XY, this means factor out x: 1 = x(3 + 2r)

X<Z.

if Y is positive:
Z and X are both negative. Since ZY < ZX, this means
X>Z. 9.

## Each statement alone is clearly not enough... we are

trying to determine if income/population > 16,500 so
Now, statement 1 says that Z<X. This means that Y is
we need to have values for the numerator and the
positive.
denominator. So it's either C or E.

## |X-Z| + |X| = |Z| -> Z-X + X = Z -> YES

This is greater than \$16,500. However, the given
values are both lower limits. If we increase the
Statement 2:
numerator while keeping the denominator constant,
Y < 0. This implies that X<Z.
income per capita will certainly increase. If, instead,
we increase the denominator, the income per capita
will decrease. A slightly larger value for the population
|X-Z| + |X| = |Z| -> X-Z + X = Z -> NO
would bring it down below \$16,500. Not knowing what
the upper limit for the population is what makes it
insufficient
Therefore, both statements are sufficient

10.
8.

10.
Sol

18
Sol There are one, two, or three letter code:
(1) Insufficient. No way to know the mean. Consider
one set {3, 6, 9} and another {6, 9, 12}. one letter code: 26 choices
(2) Insufficient. Knowing that there is an odd number two letter code: 26 X 26 (as the letters may be
of terms in the set and that the median is 33 does not repeated)
tell us what the mean is. three letter code: 26 x 26 x 26
(1&2) Sufficient. In an ordered set with an odd
number of terms, the median is equal to the "middle" (26) + (26 x 26) + (26 x 26 x 26) = 18278
term. Moreover, in an equally distributed set of
13. B
integers (like this one... consecutive multiples of 3) the
median will equal the mean itself Sol

## Ans: You basically have to find out if there is another

"p" in m's prime box. So far, we know that m's prime
11.
box has at least one p and one t in it. They are the
When the tree was planted, it was 4 feet tall.
only distinct primes, but there could be several ps and
It then grows by a constant amount each year
ts....
for 6 years. Call this constant amount 'x'.

## 1) tells you nothing about the number of Ps -

Now: 4
insufficient.
1 year: 4+x
2) if m is a multiple of p^3, m's prime box has at least
2 years: 4+2x
3 factors of p. pxpxp = p^3 = a factor of m, or m is a
3 years: 4+3x
multiple of p^3.
4 years: 4+4x
5 years: 4+5x
So, with statement (2), we know sufficiently that m IS
6 years: 4+6x
a multiple of (p^2)t, because we know there exists 2
Ps and one t in m's prime box. This is based on the
At the end of the 6th year, it was 1/5 taller
Factor Foundation Rule. Any possible product
than at the end of the 4th year. This means
combination of the m's prime factors are also factors
the 6th year height is 6/5 times the 4th year
of m, or m is also a multiple of these product
height (1 + 1/5 = 6/5).
combinations (m would also be a multiple of p*t and
p*p*p*t.
(6/5)*(4+4x) = 4+6x

## Solving for x, you get 2/3. The trees grows by

14.
2/3 every year Ans. D
Sol

## Use the rule: For a given number all the combinations

12. of its prime factors are factors of that number.
K has 6 factors: 1, 3, 7, _, _, k (4 factors are known)
Answer is E 7x3 is also a factor by the above rule.
so the factors are : 1, 3, 7, 21, _, k

Sol Statement 1
3^2 is factor, so the last unknown factor is 9.
19
so the factors are : 1, 3, 7, 21, 9, k
There are two 3s and one 7 as prime factors: so the
number is 3x3x7 = 63 17.
SUFFICIENT
Sol
Statement 2
7^2 is NOT a factor of k. (so only one 7 as a For A) 2x 2y = 1 > x y = 1/2. You can have
primefactor).
0 (1/2) = No or You can have +1 (+1/2) = Yes.
The missing factor will have to formed with other
So A is insufficient.
primefactor : so 3x3 is last missing factor.
There are two 3 and one 7 as prime factors: so the For B) x/y > 1 > Either X and Y are both + or X
number is 3x3x7 = 63 and Y are both negative. So B is insufficent. NOTE: |x|
SUFFICIENT > |y|.
For A+B. Have x and y be positive and make it work
with equation A. So +1 (+1/2) = 1/2 Yes.be
15.
negative and make it work with equation B. So 1 (
y) = 1/2. y = (3/2) which is > |x|. So you will see that
Sol Statement 1:
two negatives cannot work because it violtates the rule
We know k is a + integer so...
that x/y > 1. So for A+B the answer is yes.
k = 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 ....
INSUFFICIENT since the square root of some of those
numbers is an integer (4, 16), but others aren't (8, 12,
etc). 18.

Statement 2:
Sol Let's say n is the number of members in the club.
k is divisible by 4 primes (label them p1-4), so we
There are 190 ways to select 2 members out of n.
know 4 primes are factors of k...
n! / (2! * (n2)!) = 190
1) so k could equal p1*p2*p3*p4. The square root of
n * (n1) = 190 * 2!
the product would not be an integer.
n * (n1) = 380
2) however, if k was equal to (p1*p2*p3*p4)^2, then
380 = 2*2*5*19 = 20 * 19
the square root would be an integer.
INSUFFCIENT.
Statement 1 + 2:
For a number to be divisible by four, it must be
19.
divisible by 2 TWICE. So we know that 2 is one of the
four prime factors. However, that doesn't provide us You can follow your gut to the conclusion that answer
with any more info, so... 1 is insufficient i.e., that there are a ridiculously
The answer is E. huge number of ways of making the sum total of 9500
out of a collection of 200's, 300's, and 350's. Also, #2
16.
is clearly insufficient by itself, because there could be
SOL any number of offices (as long as it's more than ten).
taking the two together, just subtract the 3500 square
Lets us assume length = l
feet taken up by the ten offices in question, and you
w*l = k (area) or l=k/w
have 6000 square feet left. therefore, the question is
2w+2l=p (perimeter)
now something like this: 'is there more than one way
substitute l in second equation...
to make 6000 out of a combination of 200's and
2w+2k/w=p is same as 2w^2-pw+2k=0 (E) :)
300's?' (the previous sentence has been edited from

20
its prior version, which mistakenly still considered the n is negative so n < 1/10...i think

## possibility of more 350's)

the answer to that question is definitely yes reciprocal of n = 1/n therefore 1/n < 10

23.
Ans:
20.

Sol (1)
no indication of the size of the student body
First day fine = \$0.10
insufficient
2nd day fine = 0.10*2 = 0.20 (doubled or +0.30,
whichever results in lesser amount) So total for the
(2)
book on 3rd day = 1st day fine + fine calculated on
no differentiation between parttime and fulltime
2nd day = 0.10 + 0.20 = 0.30 Similarly, 3rd day fine students
= 0.30*2 or 0.30 + 0.30 both results to 0.60. So total insufficient
for the book on 4th day = 0.30 + 0.60 = 0.90. The
(together)
21. we still don't know anything about the # of parttime
students, which is an essential contributor to the 5%
|x 3| = (x 3) if (x 3) is positive or 0, and |x 3| increase mentioned in statement (2)
= (3 x), the opposite, if (x 3) is negative or 0. examples:
notice that in the two statements in the case that x 3
if there are 0 parttime students in both years, then
= 0, but both of them happen to be true and
the # of fulltime students has increased by 5%
consistent (because positive 0 and negative 0 are the
if the # of fulltime students has increased from 0 to
same number). Therefore, the question prompt can be
50 but the # of parttime students has remained
rephrased as, is (x 3) negative or 0? constant at 1000 (so that 50 is 5 percent of the
which can then be rephrased again, to, is x < 3? enrollment), then the # of fulltime students has
once you have that rephrase, the statements are a lot grown by infinity%
easier to handle. it becomes clear that (2) is sufficient: ...and anything in between
if x is negative, then it's definitely less than

22.
24.
Ans:
first, realize that the \$1.6bn figure is irrelevant, since
everything else in the problem is stated purely in
Tough one to follow. I feel like my mind just got off a terms of percentages. therefore, you should
roller coaster after that one. concentrate only on percentages.

## "If n denotes a number to the left of 0 on the number (2) alone

line" = n is negative
to try to make country x NOT in the top six,
distribute the percentages as evenly as possible: it's
the square of n is less than 1/100. so what must the possible that each of the six highestcontributing
square of n look like? 1/101, 1/1000 2/3000 etc... countries paid 67.8/6 = 11.3 percent of the total. if
that were the case, then country x, at 4.8%, would be
lower than sixth place.
what kind of negative numbers squared will give us to try to get country x INTO the top six, make the
that result? n could be 1/11, 1/100 etc distribution as lopsided as possible: say one country
paid 60% of everything. then country x could be

21
second at 4.8%, and the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th place let's make notepads cost a penny each (which
countries could combine to pay 67.8 64.8%. definitely satisfies both criteria), and make markers \$3
INSUFFICIENT each. then \$10 is not enough for four of each.
(b) make everything really cheap
if everything costs a penny, then \$10 will buy you
(1) alone
whatever you want.
taken alone, this condition only tells you that country x
is in fifth place or lower.
INSUFFICIENT

(together) 26.
the fifth and sixthplace countries together paid out
67.8 56 = 11.8 percent of the total. at this point the
strategy is roughly the same as for statement (2)
alone: Ans: 4/5C2 = 4/10 = 2/5

## to try to make country x NOT in the top six,

distribute the percentages as evenly as possible: the 27.
fifth and sixthplace countries could both have
contributed 11.8/2 = 5.9 percent. this would mean Answer: B
country x = not in the top six.
to try to get country x INTO the top six, let the fifth (1) Insufficient: N has exactly two positive
place country pay 11.8 4.8 = 7 percent; therefore factors, hence any prime would fit the
country x is in sixth place. constraint
(2) Sufficient: Any number would have 1 and
INSUFFICIENT itself as factors. Hence, N has to be even in
order for N1 to be odd.

## 2 has two factors (1 and 2). Rule holds. 4 has three

25.
factors (1, 2 and 4). Rule doesn't hold. Same is true
for any even number greater than two. Hence, B is
ans:
sufficient.
try to attack the problem from a conceptual standpoint
first. there are 2 issues:
the absolute prices of the items (if they're dirt
cheap, then \$10 will be good enough regardless)
28.
whether a marker is more expensive than a notepad I is not sufficient
marker, and wondering whether that transaction will n could be 6 (that is divisible by 3). Is n odd? No
cause you to go over the \$10) n could be 9 (that is divisible by 3). Is n odd? Yes

Elim A and D
notice that choice (2), which means that each notepad
costs \$10/11 = \$0.91 or less, IMPLIES choice (1). that
n could be 1, which has one factor; 2n would be 2,
makes the following choices impossible, without even
which has two factors; is n odd? Yes
looking at the problem:
n could be 2, which has two factors; 2n would be 4,
* A is impossible (because if (1) is sufficient then (2) which has three factors. Oops, can't use this combo of
must also be sufficient) numbers (has to make statement 2 true, and this
* C is impossible (because (1) and (2) together is the combo doesn't)
same thing as just (2))
What's going on here?
general rule: 2n will be divisible by 2 and also by
let's just consider EXTREME cases: whatever number 2n is.
If I make n an even number, even numbers are
(a) make the markers really expensive already divisible by 2. So 2n will only be divisible by
one new number, equal to 2n. That is, I add only one

22
new factor for 2n. In quad. PQSU, if we know Angle(SQP) (assume a)
Any even number, by definition, has at least two and Angle(SUP) (assume b) or if we know their sum
factors 1 and 2. So I would need to add at least two then X can be calculated, because
more factors to double the number of factors. But I
can't the setup of statement 2 only allows me to add we know 90 + a + b + x = 360...(1)
one new factor if n is even. So I can never make
statement 2 true using an even number for n. from statement (1) we know Angle RQS = Angle RSQ (
QR=RS) and Angle(RSQ) = 180 a
from statement (2) we know Angle SUT = Angle TSU
29. (ST = UT) and Angle(TSU) = 180 b

## Ans: A Since RT is a straight line, we know x + 180a + 180

b = 180 or x (a+b) = 180 or (a+b) = x + 180

## Looking at statement (2) first, we see that it is not 31.

sufficient, because the average (arithmetic mean) of Soln. B.
a group of numbers is defined as (sum of data) / (#
1) Marta bought a total of 6 pencils -- obviously
of data points). With statement (2), we only have INSUFFICIENT
the numerator of this expression (the # of people in
2) The total value of pencil Marta bought was 130
the group is unknown), so we can't figure out the cents, which means 21m+23n = 130, where
average. m and n are integers. Let's try solve this
equation.

Looking at statement (1) alone, we can set up the 130 is not divisible by either 21 or 23, so m >= 1, n
average as follows: >= 1, and we have:
21(m-1) + 23(n-1) = 130-21-23 = 86, which again is
Average = (sum of data points) / (# of data points)
not divisible by either 21 or 23, so m >= 2, n
= [(n/3)(74.5) + (2n/3)(70)] / (n) < note that I >= 2, and we have:
used inches here, so I won't have to write in more 21(m-2) + 23(n-2) = 86-21-23 = 42, which is divisible
by 21 but not 23. Hence, we have m = 4, n =
fractions than necessary (trying to write fractions on 2. -- SUFFICIENT
this forum is not fun)
= [(1/3)(74.5) + (2/3)(70)] / (n)
There's no need to simplify further, because the 'n'
is gone: you get one number. Therefore, this 32.

## statement is sufficient. Ans: D

Division X Division Y
Note that, if you have the averages of all the Company Z (total)
FRACTIONS or PERCENTAGES of a group, then Full time p a
you'll be able to calculate the overall average of the c
group. This is a worthwhile fact to memorize for the
Part time q b
data sufficiency problems.
d

## Question is is pd > cq?

30.
a/ b < c / d
Ans: C
23
c p / d q < c/d Two equations and two unknowns

## cd dp < cd cq So we can get it.

dp < cq

dp > cq 35.

so S. Ans: B

P > c/2 amd b > d/2 mean d q > d/2 means d/2 > q Statement (1) tells us that 12 is a divisor of x. What
does it tell us about y?
D > 2q
12u = 8y + 12
So pd > cq so ii is also S
(multiple of 12) = 8y + (multiple of 12)

## 8y must be a multiple of 12.

Logically this problem will be much faster.
Therefore, y must be a multiple of 3 and 3 is a divisor
Since two ratios are combining to give a third ratio if of y. 3 might be the greatest common divisor of x and
one of the ratios is less that the final then the other y. But y might have other divisors too (e.g., 6 or 12).
has to be more than the final so i is S Insufficient.
And from second we can see that since full time in X is Statement (2) tells us that 12 is a divisor of y.
more than half that of Z and part time is less that hal
that of Z so obviously the ratio of full time to part time What does it tell us about x?
of X will be more than in Z.
x = 8(12z) + 12

## x = (multiple of 12) + (multiple of 12)

33.
x must be a multiple of 12.
Ans: E
12 is a divisor of x.
2 2
Pi (( r +s ) r ) = pi (s) (2r + s)

34.
So 12 is a common divisor of x and y. But is it the
Ans: A greatest common divisor?

## Two set matrix immediately u can see u have two

equations and two unknowns,
RULE: If one number is b units away from another
Best to do number, and b is a factor of both numbers, the
greatest common factor of the two numbers is b. (If
you want to really understand this, then think about
why. Otherwise, just remember the rule.)
W M

## Engaging career .5W + .36M

= .42*1400 x (one number) is 12 units away from 8y (another
number). 12 is a factor of x and 8y. Therefore, 12 is
Not engaging career
the GCF of x and 8y. The GCF of x and y cant be
Total W + bigger than the GCF of x and 8y. Thus, we can be
M = 1400 assured that 12 is the GCF of x and y. Statement (2)
alone is SUFFICIENT.

24
36.

## Ans: The smallest prime number is two, so the first

thing I try is six 2's (2*2*2*2*2*2) which equals
Statement 1 gives us one common point: (5,1) 64. I know I can't get anything smaller than that,
because two is the smallest prime. My next
Statement 2 tells us the yintercept of n is greater
thought, then, is how to create the nextsmallest
than the yintercept of p. The yintercept is where a
possibility. To do that, I want to keep as many 2's
particular line crosses the yaxis. The corresponding
as possible, but I have to change at least one of
point for that line is (0,y) with y representing the y
them to get a different product. The next smallest
intercept.
prime after 2 is 3, so I substitute a 3 for one of
If n's yintercept is greater than p's, then the value y the 2's (2*2*2*2*2*3) which equals 96. That's still
is greater for n than for p. If you sketch a coordinate within the stated boundaries of the problem.
plane, place the point (5,1) on the plane, and then
arbitrarily sketch some points along the yaxis:
The next smallest possibility can be calculated by
1) try a pair above the y=1 line, with the higher
replacing one more 2 with a 3. If I think about it, I
labeled n and the lower labeled p. In this case, the
can tell that doing this will put me over 99 (though
two slopes are negative, and the slope of n is more
if I'm not sure, I can do the math to check) so
negative than the slope of p. That is, n's slope is
I'm done. There are two possibilities.
smaller than p's slope. Answer the question: Yes.

## 2) try a pair below the y=1 line, with the higher

labeled n and the lower labeled p. In this case, the The key is to think about this logically and within
two slopes are positive, and the slope of n is closer to the boundaries so that you know you've found all
zero than the slope of p. That is, n's slope is smaller of the possibilities.
than p's slope. Answer the question: Yes.

3) you can also try some pairs where one or the other
(n or p) has a yintercept of 1. In each case, you'll
continue to see that n's slope is always smaller than
p's slope. *****

## Alternatively much easier. Answer key verbal:

C.

(1a)/ 5 (1 b) / 5 1. D
2. A
A > b so a < b so (1a)/ 5 < ( 1b )/ 5 for sure. 3. D
4. A
5. C
37. 6. D
7. C
Ans: 8. E
9. B
They give us the boundaries; we just have to 10. E
understand what they mean. First, I'm only using 11. A
2digit positive integers, so 10 to 99 inclusive. 12. A
Second, I'm only using prime numbers. Third, I 13. C
need to have a length of 6, so I need to multiply 6 14. A
prime numbers together. 15. E
25
16. B that technology would reduce time required, not
17. D effort required.
18. C
19. B
20. B
21. E 5. C; basically, the passage is not even remotely
22. D concerned with any of the other choices.
23. C
24. D
25. D
26. C 6. D; A-passage has nothing to do with servants and
27. E helpers; B-passage states that the standard WAS
28. E raised by technology; C-did not decrease TIME, but
29. D may have decreased effort (independent of time); E-
30. A
expenditures as function of technology was never
31. D
33. A
34. D
35. E
7. C; again, basically, none of the other choices even
36. E
come close.
37. D
38. D
39. C
40. D 8. E; the advice is the result of "numerous
41. C
studies...that compare Japanese production and
supply practices with those of the rest of the world." E
Explanations restates this sentence.

1. D; A-misplaced modifier; B-
wordy/awkward/"being"; C-"being"; E-idiom,
9. B; "The link between the success of a certain well-
"convinced of" and "being."
known Japanese automaker and its effective
management of its suppliers, for example, has led to
an unquestioning belief within Western management
2. A; B-E are gone because no verb is needed or circles in the value of strategic partnerships." B
acceptable in the underlined part of the sentence. restates this assertion.

3. D; A-clause needs a verb (was) and a relative 10. E; The final sentence of the passage refers to
pronoun (that); B-"and" turns the sentence into one "market-exchange" relationships, which essentially
long subject with no predicate; C-run-on sentence; E- amounts to having no definitive loyalty to any
"destroying" is incorrect tense, also, "..considered particular partnership, "strategic" or otherwise. E
as..." is idiomatically incorrect. illustrates the concept of buying "whatever is on sale."

4. A; B-no definition of housework was rejected; C- 11. A; there are two possible explanations for the
concurrent 40-year time period studied by each; D-no drop in the legal lobster harvest yield--either, the
underestimation is mentioned--in fact, constancy at outlaw fishing boats are taking the difference or the
52-54 hours per week is stated; E-passage suggested total lobster population has decreased markedly. In
order for the outlaw fishing boats to take the
26
difference, the total population must remain 17. D; A-the practice noted in first BF is questioned by
constant. That's the assumption, and it is stated in the second BF--argument does not attempt to support
Choice A. If the illegal lobster harvests prior to 1996 or justify anything; B-the only thing this argument
were so extensive that the total lobster population in seeks to explain is why the practice noted in the first
Belukian waters suffered a marked decline, then there BF is unnecessary; C-second BF suggests policy noted
is no reason to expect that the 9000 ton discrepancy in first BF should be discontinued, not that it cannot
in the legal harvest in 1996 is the result of anything meet its objective; E-first BF is not a consideration
other than fewer total lobsters available for harvest. supporting a policy, it IS the policy.

12. A; there's nothing wrong with A, so, even if any of 18. C; A-wordy, awkward & confusing, and
the other choices were grammatically correct (which "...estimated as..." is idiomatically incorrect; B-
they aren't), we're obligated to take the original. pronoun number error "they" is plural, refers
incorrectly to singular "population;" D-second clause
needs a subject to work with the latter part of the
13. C; A-argument has nothing to do with the sentence; E-same problem as D.
presence or absence of adverse consequences to
ticks, resulting from the Lyme bacterium; B-irrelevant-
-disease transmitted through ticks--transmission from 19. B; A-"The fact..." is almost always wrong, also
mice is never discussed (nor is it possible); D-tends to "...resembling...and others looking..." is incorrect use
strengthen the argument, but not as much as C; E- of the progressive tense; C-"it" has no clear referent,
irrelevant--argument only concerns the Lyme plus the construction is awkward; D-combines the
bacterium. problems of A, C, and D; E-awkward and confusing,
plus final dependent clause needs relative pronoun
with this construction, "...namely that they vary..."
14. A-nothing wrong here; NOTE: "Not one..." is not
equivalent to "None...;" B-"offer for..." idiomatically
incorrect; C-"...agreement be signed..." incorrect 20. B; A-"...taking him seven years..." is incorrect use
attempt at the subjunctive (I can't think of an instance of the progressive tense, plus it's awkward and
where "be," alone, not preceded by "to" would be confusing; C-incorrect use of the past perfect tense
correct); D-incorrect plural tense "are," and idiom, "...a work that had taken seven years..." and
"offer for...;" E-incorrect plural tense "are" and "to be "...pronounced it as..." is idiomatically incorrect; D-
making" is wordy and awkward---"...expected to "...took seven years until completion..." is
make..." is better. idiomatically incorrect and "...pronounced it as..." is
redundant and awkward; E-same problems as C and
D.
15. E; A-obviously irrelevant; B-strengthens the
argument; C-doesn't really effect the argument; D-
irrelevant--argument deals with deterioration due to 21. E is the best choice. If the farmers who tried
tourism, not weather. modified seed had had to use very large quantities of
insecticide, then even slightly lower amounts of
insecticide used per acre as a result of the marginal
16. B advantage of planting modified cotton seed could
translate into significant savings, perhaps, beyond the
difference in expense of the modified seed over
regular seed.

27
singular and require the singular form of the verb,
"has;" B-verb tense error, "...is reduced..." should be
22. D; What if the rate of violent crime in
"...has been reduced...;" C-"...numbers of..." is always
Meadowbrook prior to four years ago was, say, 1 (per
wrong; D-verb tense error, "...numbers are reduced..."
1000 residents) and the rate of violent crime in should be "...have been reduced...," as found in E.
Parkdale was 100 (per 1000 residents). The respective
percentage increases would not support the
conclusion which the argument makes. D represents
28. E; A-problem of parallelism---needs the bolded
this possibility.
addition to work "...either from the spotted sandstone
of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist;" B-
problem of A, but reversed---this construction would
23. C; The last sentence in the passage says that a
need to lose the second "from"---"...fashioned from
company may be able to accurately predict aggregate
either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
demand without having the ability to accurately Gandharan grey schist;" C-changes the original
predict the demand for specific items within the meaning and needs the second "from" to remain
aggregate. This is a statement about the companies' parallel; D-the addition of "and" requires the auxiliary
ability to forecast demand---C. verb "...were fashioned...," which is what we find in E.

## 24. E; The final sentence, once again, makes this 29. D

assertion. The other statements are not made in the
passage. 30. A; B-clearly, the ultimate effect is the same--this is
no justification for approving the permits; C-the
argument concerns migratory species, not local
25. D; The answer can be found in the first paragraph, species; D-irrelevant; E-totally irrelevant. If the
"...since flexible manufacturing has enabled blackbirds are the first birds to show up in the spring,
companies to produce, cost-effectively, small then they could (theoretically) be poisoned without
quantities of goods. This type of manufacturing has effecting the later arrival of the rare species.
greatly increased the number of new products
introduced annually in the United States."
31. D; A-passive phrasing and "them" is confusing; B-
"...evidence of their being inoculated..." is wordy and
26. C; A-tourists' awareness of tax rate is irrelevant; awkward and "being" is almost always wrong; C-
B-prices in other cities are irrelevant; D-this is in line "evidence of being" again, "...evidence of
with the conclusion of the argument, but it is not an inoculation..." is better and we find it in D; E-wordy,
assumption of the argument; E-spending on meals is awkward, redundant.
irrelevant. If the average length of tourists' stays in
Midville hotels was longer last year than the year
before, then the revenue from hotel taxes might, 32. D; Obviously, if the nearly all of the forest fires in
conceivably, remain constant or even increase, even if the area are the result of lightning strikes, then
FEWER tourists visited Midville. C points out this banning outdoor fires probably won't do much to
possibility--an assumption upon which the argument reduce the annual number of forest fires (although it
depends. might be useful in preventing an increase).

27. E; A-subject-verb agreement error, "...the number 33. A; Otariids--"...the rest of the lactation
of wild salmon have...," is incorrect. "The number..." is period...lasts from 4 months to 3 years...." Phocids--
28
"...the entire lactation period, which lasts from 4 to 50 prevail despite changes in diet; B-irrelevant, as the
days...." argument addresses people native to isolated rain-
forest communities; C-irrelevant, as the argument
addresses potential dietary CAUSES of high blood
34. D; "Until recently, zoologists believed...Zoologists pressure; E-true, but the argument has nothing to do
had assumed...However, recent studies...found with the consequences of failing to replenish salt.
that..."---unexpected behavior explained.

## 41. C; A-"...is known... is incorrect in terms of tense,

35. E; "Zoologists had assumed that females of the plus the construction is awkward; B-tense and
phocid species, by contrast, use a fasting strategy...," construction; D-"...known to be making..." is incorrect
which means that they must wait to replenish their fat usage of the progressive tense and implies that
store until after lactation has ended. humans continue to make stone tools; E-incorrectly
implies that all humans who make stone tool were of
the same vintage.

suggesting that the ringed seal, a phocid species that
is similar in size to the harbor seal, may also use a
maternal foraging strategy."

## 37. D; A-incorrect comparison--should be "...unlike

those in department stores...," plus the construction is
awkward and confusing; B-incorrect comparison,
again, plus "...shop impulsively very little..." is
awkward; C-corrects the comparison problem, but
creates a run-on sentence; E-problems similar to A
and B.

## 38. D; There is no support for any of these statements

in this argument with the exception of D.

## 39. C; A-awkward comparison between plants and

fungi as a result of the placement of "at acquiring
carbon;" B-still awkward; D-no verb; E-construction
does not work with the latter, non-underlined, part of
the sentence.

## 40. D; We need something which points out that

other dietary changes besides an increase in salt
intake, occurring as a result of moving to the city,
could explain the increased incidence of high blood
pressure. D gives it to us. A-genetic factors could still
29