Any food or drinks we take enters the digestive system once placed in the mouth where mechanical digestion

of foods by chewing and grinding occur. Chemical digestion of simple starch carbohydrates begin when it mixes up with the salivary amylase enzyme also called ptyalin secreted by salivary glands as stimulated by food smell, appearance and taste. Mechanical digestion turns solid foods into a bolus which is swallowed passing through the pharynx to esophagus which is a muscular tube pushing down the bolus into the stomach with the peristaltic movement. . A stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular saclike organ of the gastrointestinal tract which secretes about 2-3 liters of gastric acids which includes pepsin, gastric juice and hydrochloric acid which helps in the mechanical digestion of food. The stomach is where the swallowed food and liquid goes as the muscle of its upper part called the sphincter relaxes to accept swallowed materials. The swallowed food bolus and fluids then mix up with the stomach digestive juice breaking them down into a liquid form known as acid µchyme' in the lower third of the stomach. The stomach's acidity inhibit further carbohydrate breakdown while chemical digestion of protein by pepsin begins. With the peristaltic action, the stomach empties its contents slowly into the small intestine. The small intestine is a coiled tube about 6 meters long and is about 2-3 centimeters wide which contains intestinal juice, pancreatic juice, and bile produced by the liver. Chemical digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids continues and is completed in this part and the soluble nutrients - sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids are absorbed. The upper part of the small intestine is the duodenum which is the most active in digestion. Fat digestion is usually completed when it reaches the lower third part called ileum. Most absorption occurs in the duodenum and the second part of stomach called jejunum. Small intestine is where the final stages of chemical enzymatic digestion occur and where almost all nutrients are absorbed. Large intestine is an arch-like structure around the convolutions of the small intestine which parts include the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. It is a part where the unusable and indigestible particles of foods are pushed through from the small intestine. Water and some electrolytes reabsorption occur in this part. Bacterial fermentation takes place and the feces are formed. The lower part of the large intestine is the rectum where feces are temporarily stored until it is pushed through the anus for elimination as the anal sphincter opens.

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