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Technique to improve the surface finish of

aluminium through facing.

Concept Design and Review Board


Report (CDRB Report)

Group members Supervisor


Khawaja Abdul Salam Mr. Ziauddin Siddqui
NUST201308167BPNEC40413S
Tayyab Bin Tahir
NUST201306914BPNEC40413S
Muhammad Junaid Sial
NUST2013035318BPNEC40413S
Gohar Ali Awan
NUST201305489BPNEC40413S

Pakistan Navy Engineering College


National University of Sciences and Technology
(2017)
Table of Contents
ABSTRACT.............................................................................................. 4
TERMINOLOGIES..................................................................................... 5
Spindle..................................................................................................... 5
Headstock................................................................................................. 5
Wear and Tear............................................................................................ 5
Fatigue..................................................................................................... 5
Corrosion.................................................................................................. 5
Arbor....................................................................................................... 5
CAM (Computer Aided Machining).................................................................5
Hardness................................................................................................... 5
Chips Formation......................................................................................... 5
Work piece................................................................................................ 5
Central Composite design (CCD).....................................................................6
Surface finish:............................................................................................ 6
Surface roughness:...................................................................................... 6
Lay:......................................................................................................... 6
Waviness:.................................................................................................. 6
Engineering Tolerances:................................................................................6
LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................... 7
LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................... 8
Table 7-1 Risk assessment table...................................................................8
Chapter 1.................................................................................................. 9
Introduction............................................................................................... 9
1.1 Opening Statement:................................................................................. 9
1.2 Problem Statement:................................................................................. 9
1.3 Scope of the Project:................................................................................ 9
1.4 Aim of Project:.................................................................................... 10
Chapter 2................................................................................................ 11
Surface Finish Method................................................................................11
2.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE................................................................11
2.2 WHAT IS MILLING............................................................................. 11
2.2.1 Face Milling..................................................................................... 11
2.2.2 Plain or Slab Milling...........................................................................11
2.2.3 Angular Milling.................................................................................12
2.2.4 Form Milling.................................................................................... 12
2.2.5 Straddle Milling................................................................................. 12
2.2.6 Gang Milling.................................................................................... 12
2.3 TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES..........................................................12
2.3.1 Knee Type........................................................................................ 12
2.3.1.1 Floor mounted Plain horizontal milling machine......................................12
2.3.2 Ram Type Milling Machines.................................................................13
2.3.2.1 Floor-mounted Universal Horizontal Milling Machine...............................14
2.3.2.2 Swivel Cutter Head Ram-type Milling Machine.......................................14
2.3.3 Bed Type Machines...........................................................................15
2.3.4 Planner Type................................................................................... 15
2.3.5 CNC Milling Machines......................................................................15
2.4 Parameters.......................................................................................... 16
2.4.1 Cutting Speed.................................................................................... 17
Speed Computation Formula........................................................................17
2.4.2 Feed............................................................................................... 17
2.4.3 Depth of Cut..................................................................................... 17
2.5 RESEARCH TECHNIQUE.....................................................................18
2.6 OTHER TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR MACHINING..................................18
2.6.1 Turning........................................................................................... 18
2.6.2 Hole Making..................................................................................... 18
2.6.3 Ultrasonic Machining..........................................................................19
2.6.4 Water Jet Machining...........................................................................19
2.6.5 Abrasive Water Jet Machining...............................................................19
2.6.6 Chemical Machining...........................................................................19
2.6.7 Electrochemical Machining...................................................................19
2.6.8 Electrical Discharge Machining..............................................................19
2.6.9 High Energy Beam Machining...............................................................20
2.4.9.1 Laser Beam Machining......................................................................20
2.4.9.2 Electron Beam Machining...............................................................20
2.4.9.3 Focused Ion Beam Technology.........................................................20
Chapter 3................................................................................................ 21
RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY.....................................................21
3.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 21
3.2 METHODOLOGY...............................................................................21
3.3 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT...................................................................22
3.4 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS............................................................25
Chapter 4................................................................................................ 27
TOOLING............................................................................................... 27
4.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 27
4.2 WHAT IS A TOOL...............................................................................27
4.1 TOOL MATERIALS.............................................................................28
4.2.1 Ferrous Tool Materials.........................................................................28
4.2.2 Nonferrous Tool Materials....................................................................28
4.2.3 Nonmetallic Tool Materials...................................................................29
4.3 TOOL WEAR...................................................................................... 30
4.4 TOOL LIFE........................................................................................ 30
Chapter 5................................................................................................ 33
WORK PIECE......................................................................................... 33
5.1 WORKPIECE MATERIAL GROUPS........................................................33
............................................................................................................. 33
5.2 ALUMINUM ALLOYS.........................................................................34
5.2.1 Wrought Alloys................................................................................. 34
5.2.2 Cast alloys........................................................................................ 40
Named alloys:.................................................................................... 42
5.3 WEIGHTING MATRIX:........................................................................42
5.4 RATING MATRIX:............................................................................... 43
Chapter 6................................................................................................ 44
6.2 CORROSION RESISTANCE..................................................................44
6.3 FRICTION......................................................................................... 44
6.4 LIGHT REFLECTION..........................................................................44
6.5 HEAT TRANSMISSION........................................................................45
6.6 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY............................................................45
Chapter 7................................................................................................ 45
PROJECT RISK ASSESSMENT...................................................................46
7.1 PROJECT RISK STATEMENT.............................................................47
APPENDIX-A: STATEMENT OF REQUIREMENT (SOR).................................48
ABSTRACT
Surface finish also known as surface texture is the measure of roughness of the
surface as defined by three main characteristics namely Lay, surface roughness,
and waviness. Surface finish is a very important parameter in many industries and
has effects on many of the physical properties of a material such as fatigue,
corrosion resistance, friction, wear and tear, light reflection, heat transmission and
electrical conductivity.

This project focuses on the prospect of reducing cost of surface finish reducing
the cost of extra procedures such as polishing and chemical finishing by creating
the perfect blend between three parameter of CNC milling namely feed rate, depth
of cut and rpm to ensure a surface finish having value of 0.5 microns is achieved.
TERMINOLOGIES
Spindle
The spindle is present in interior of headstock and is driven with a belt
running from the motor pulley to a pulley on the back end of the spindle shaft.
The nose of the spindle is treaded on the outside to encounter chucks and tapered
on the inside to receive other accouterments.

Headstock

It contains the spindle in two preloaded ball bearings.

Wear and Tear


It is the gradual failure of cutting tool due to repeated operations.

Fatigue
It is the weakening of material or structural damage which occurs by
repeatedly applied loads.

Corrosion
It is the chemical reaction particularly oxidation of metal to convert it into
more stable form such as it oxides. It is natural process.

Arbor
It is a mechanical component on which is used as prolongation part of the
spindle in horizontal milling machine. It is accommodated on the spindle if
required. It holds the tool and moves it in accurate direction.

CAM (Computer Aided Machining)


It is computer software which is related to the machining or
manufacturing of work pieces.

Hardness
It is the measure of resistance of material to permanent change whenever
force is applied.

Chips Formation
Whenever machining operation is done on material the material is removed in
form of chips.
Work piece
It is the part or piece of material on which machining process are accomplished.

Central Composite design (CCD)


It is one of the type of Response surface methodology design used for the
statistical analysis of data and also used in our experiment.

Surface finish:
It is the deviation of a surface from a flat ideal plane and is a measurement of how
smooth a surface can be.

Surface roughness:
Surface roughness often shortened to roughness, is a component of surface
texture. It is quantified by the deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a
real surface from its ideal form. If these deviations are large, the surface is rough;
if they are small, the surface is smooth.

Lay:
Lay is the direction of the predominant surface pattern ordinarily determined by
the production method used. Lay can be defined by various patterns such as
vertical, horizontal, radial, cross hatched circular, isentropic and others.

Waviness:
Waviness is the measure of surface irregularities with a spacing greater
than that of surface roughness. These usually occur due to warping, vibrations, or
deflection during machining.

Engineering Tolerances:
Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation
in physical dimensions, properties, parameter (temperature, humidity).
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1 Floor mounted plain horizontal mill


Figure 2-2 Vertical vs. Horizontal milling machine
Figure 2-3 CNC Milling Machine
Figure 3-1 Step 1 in minitab
Figure 1-2 minitab tutorial continue.(step 2)
Figure3-3 Step 3 in minitab
Figure 3-4 A 3D surface plot sample.
Figure 3-5 Contour plot sample between one independent and one dependent
variable.
Figure 5-1 work piece material
Figure 5-2 Al alloys [2]
Figure 5-3 Al alloys [2]
Figure 5-4 Aluminium alloys [2]
Figure 2 Al alloys 4000 series [2]
Figure 5-6 Al alloys 5000 series [2]
Figure 5-7 Al alloys 6000 series [2]
Figure 5-8 Al alloys 7000 series [2]
Figure 5-9 Al alloys 8000 series [2]
Figure 5-11 cast alloys of aluminum [2]
Figure 5-10 mixed table of Al alloys [2]
LIST OF TABLES

Table 4-1 Weighting Matrix of Tool


Table 4-2 Rating Matrix of Tool
Table 5-1 Weighting Matrix of Alloys of Aluminum
Table 5-2 Rating Matrix of Alloys of Aluminum
Table 7-1 Risk assessment table
Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 Opening Statement:
Surface roughness is usually the irregularity in the
components of the metal surface. It depicts the state of the machined surface.
These irregularities are admissible up to very low tolerances. Achievement of a
smooth surface finish is an important measure for quality of a product and can
greatly reduce the wear and tear of different parts of the machinery as well as
optimizes the production cost. Many mechanical properties like fatigue behavior,
resistance to corrosion etc. and the functional attributes like friction, light
reflection, heat transfer and electrical conductivity and all these properties depend
on surface roughness. For decades studies have been done in optimization of
various controlling parameters to achieve maximum possible surface finish. One
of the renowned method is using the Response Surface Method (RSM).

1.2 Problem Statement:


The quality of any given part is commonly defined through
using one or more dimensional and surface roughness tolerances during
production. The part has to conform to these specifications or it will be discarded.
The problem lies that the initial machining of parts dont produce sufficient
surface finish to conform to these specification and costly procedures have to be
done to meet requirements which in turn increases overall expenses and the
selling price of the product.

1.3 Scope of the Project:


The project entails the use of three parameters namely feed rate,
depth of cut and rpm on the material Aluminum 6061 grade S using diamond
cutter tool to reach the surface finish of 0.5 microns. The project will devise a
relationship between these three parameters.

1.4 Aim of Project:


The aim of this project is to build a relation between 3 cutting
parameters of CNC milling machine i.e. cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut,
to obtain optimum surface finish on metal in machining process. Whole
experimental study will be done on aluminum. The mentioned parameters and
surface finish will be shown on a graph using Response Surface Methodology
software Minitab. Surface roughness can lead to decrease in machine life.
Sometimes very tight tolerances and prime surface finish is required in work piece
due to requirement of machine in which part is going to be fitted.
Chapter 2

Surface Finish Method

2.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE


Milling machines are the invention of Eli Whitney and
using them he produced different parts of muskets. Although these machines were
in their raw form at that time but they produced parts with good accuracy that
could not be done with hand tools. As milling machines made advancements they
were being produced with heavier arbors and with the of introduction high speed
and carbide cutters production was made faster and with improved accuracy,
better finish parts were made. Today we have made Computer Numerical
Controlled Machines which have improved the error percentages and in turn have
provided us with best surface finished products.

2.2 WHAT IS MILLING


In milling, there is a rotating tool with many edges and
moves relative to the stationary work piece for generating a smooth surface finish.
In milling the direction of the feed is usually perpendicular to the tool rotation.
The milling machine does a large number of operations for example finishing a
flat surface or drilling and it can also perform complex processes such as
producing helical gears. The following are the types of milling
2.2.1 Face Milling
Face milling is done on flat surface which are at a 90 degree angle
to the axis of the cutter. The cutters used for face milling are the face milling, end
milling and side milling cutters. The type of cutter depends upon the work piece.
Angled surfaces can also be using face milling
2.2.2 Plain or Slab Milling
Plain milling is done on surfaces that are parallel to the axis of the
cutter. A plain cutter is usually used for plain milling and deeper cuts can be made
if the cutter is narrower.

2.2.3 Angular Milling


When surface being milled is at an angle to the axis of the cutter. The
cutter used for this type of operation is usually a single angled cutter and the angle
varies from 45 to 60 usually in the multiples of 5.
2.2.4 Form Milling
When milling is done to form surfaces with irregular outline. This type
of milling is done by form milling cutters which are shaped according the surface
required.
2.2.5 Straddle Milling
When two or more upright surfaces are machined in a single feed and
this is achieved with two side milling cutters.
2.2.6 Gang Milling
When two or more milling cutters are applied to the same surface.

2.3 TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES


The milling machines can be divided on the basis of the
axis of the spindle whether it is vertical or horizontal. They are also classified as
Knee Type, Ram Type, Manufacturing Type and Planner Type.

2.3.1 Knee Type


Knee type machines are supported by a knee made which
is mounted vertically on the milling column and fixed where the milling head and
milling spindle are properly adjusted.

2.3.1.1 Floor mounted Plain horizontal milling machine


The floor-mounted plain horizontal
milling machine has the following parts
Adjustable overhead arms
Arbor supports(these support the arbor along the overhead arm)
Power table feed lever
Power cross feed lever
Cross transverse handwheel
Rapid transverse lever
Vertical hand crank
Power vertical feed lever
Rear power table feed lever
Table transverse handwheel
Spindle speed selector
Over arm positioning shaft

Figure 2.1 Floor Mounted Plain Horizontal Mill

2.3.2 Ram Type Milling Machines


The ram-type is distinguished by how the spindle is mounted on to the column.
Allowing the positioning of the milling cutting tool frontward or rearward in a
horizontal plane. The two-common ram types used are the floor-mounted
universal milling machines and the swivel cutter head ram-type milling machine.
2.3.2.1 Floor-mounted Universal Horizontal Milling Machine
The difference between a universal horizontal milling
machine and a plain horizontal milling machine is in the tuning of the worktable
and the performing different `special milling operations using different
accessories. it has a worktable that rotates on the saddle with respect to the axis of
the milling machine spindle, permitting workpieces to be adjusted in relation to
the milling cutter.

2.3.2.2 Swivel Cutter Head Ram-type Milling Machine


The cutter head comprising the milling machine spindle is
accompanied with ram. The cutter head has the ability to spin from a vertical to a
horizontal spindle posture, or can be clipped at any required angular position
between the vertical and horizontal. The saddle and knee are driven for vertical
and cross feed adjustment; the worktable can be either hand driven or power
driven at the operator's selection.
Figure 2.2 Vertical Vs Horizontal Mill(Ram Type)

2.3.3 Bed Type Machines


In this type of machining the table is mounted on a fixed bed
instead of a knee. And because of the rigidity it offers it can be used for heavy
cutting loads.

2.3.4 Planner Type


The planner types are similar to bed type machines but
have several cutters and heads to mill various surfaces.

2.3.5 CNC Milling Machines


CNC milling is a class of computer numerical controlled
(CNC) machining. These machines are the most common used type of CNC
machine. CNCs can be classified on the basis of the number of axis they can
work on. The X and Y axis represent the horizontal movement of the work-piece
while the Z axis represents the perpendicular motion while W represents
crosswise motion across a vertical plane. Most milling machines come in 3 to 5
axes and perform well in X,Y and Z axes. The new machines, such as the 5-axis
milling machine requires CAM programming for giving the best performance due
to the extremely complex geometries involved in the process. These machines are
giving the best results effectively giving us shapes which would have been
impossible manually. CNCs come with a device which is used for providing
cutting fluid during the process of machining.
CNC machining as can produce a high number of parts and with the declining
costs of tooling CNCs have been made more affordable. Although in large
productions the product is usually of a simple design. But a CNC can produce a
large number of different products with complex geometries. CNCs are helpful
where precision is required.
Although all materials can be milled or drilled with CNC mostly these machines
are used on metals. During milling and cutting it is necessary to carefully selected
to avoid problems. So the hardness of the work piece and tool must be calculated
before performing the machining operation.

Figure 2.3 CNC Milling Machine

2.4 Parameters
There are different parameters that effect the surface
finish of a product using milling. The following are the parameters effecting the
surface finish of milled product
2.4.1 Cutting Speed
The cutting speed is in meters per minute which the
circumference covers. The rpm of the spindle depends upon the size of the cutter.
The best speed is obtained according to the material being used and the size and
type of the cutter and also the fluid being used. The following are some factors
that determine the speed of the cutter
The cutters having positive rake cut easily than those without rake thus
can be operated with higher speeds.
Cutters having angles run slow than plain cutters.
Sharp cutters can cut more than blunt so can be operated at higher speeds
A large supply of cutting oil can enable the operator to operate at higher
speeds
The type of surface finish required
The rigidity of the machine and work setup

Speed Computation Formula


RPM = (CSx4)/D
RPM= Revolutions Per Minute
CS= Cutting Speed (Feet per Minute)
D= Diameter(Meters)

2.4.2 Feed
Feed is the speed at which the work piece passes the cutting tool and
it is used to know the time for the process. The following are the factors that can
determine the feed of the process accordingly
The feed depends upon the depth and the width of the cut.
The type of cutter being used
The sharpness of the cutter
The material of the workpiece
It also depends on the strength and uniformity of the workpiece
The type of finish required
The power and the rigidity of the machine, the device that is holding the
workpiece and the tooling setup

2.4.3 Depth of Cut


The depth of cut is defined as how deep the cutter should cut the
workpiece. The depth of cut is always kept more during the roughing of the
surface which will speed up the process. While during the finishing the depth of
cut is kept small to get a nice smooth surface finish.

2.5 RESEARCH TECHNIQUE


The RSM research technique was
developed during the 1950s initially it was developed to model experimental
responses but in the year of 1987 it was changed to modelling of numerical
experiments by Box and Draper. The research technique being used is the
Response Surface Methodology(RSM). RSM is a set of statistical and
mathematical techniques used in the development of a function in which we get
the response y from the respective inputs of different parameters.

y = f (x) + E
In which according to our project
Y= Surface Roughness
X= Input parameters such as Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut

2.6 OTHER TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR MACHINING


2.6.1 Turning
Turning is one of the most basic of metallic abbreviating operations.
In turning, a work piece is turned around its axis of rotation while single-point
cutting tools are coursed into it, shearing away undesirable material and making
the desired part. Turning can occur on both extraneous and internal surfaces to
create an axially-symmetrical contoured component part.

2.6.2 Hole Making


Drilling, the most common of hole making processes, consumes half of the
cutting tools used in all chip making processes. In most cases, the drill produces a
rounded hole by rotational activity, digging a fixed work piece.
When hole making is done on a lathe, the drill is fixed while the work rotates.
Since most of the cutting and chip generation occurs in the enclosed space of the
hole, lubrication is crucial. Coolants lubricate the cut, cool down the bore point,
and facilitate flush away chips.
2.6.3 Ultrasonic Machining
In ultrasonic machining the the tool is oscillated at a high
frequency i.e. with flowing slurry and tool is provided with a uniform force and
the oscillatory motion of the tool is responsible rubbing of the abrasive grains
with workpiece and the material removed moves along the slurry.

2.6.4 Water Jet Machining


Water Jet Machining involves water flow at speeds upto
1400m/s and fluid rate is upto 2.5l/min. The kinetic energy of the water reduces to
zero when it strikes the surface of the metal and the kinetic energy turns into
pressure energy and when the pressure is higher than the strength of the material it
erodes the surface causing a cavity.

2.6.5 Abrasive Water Jet Machining


The water jet carries abrading particles such as silicon carbide,
therefore augmenting material removal rate. Metallic materials can be cut.
Particularly suitable for heat-sensitive materials.

2.6.6 Chemical Machining


Chemical machining is the simplest chip less machining
basically it is an etching process and it is the oldest nontraditional machining
process. The material is removed from the surface by chemical reactions where
the agents reacting are acid or alkaline solutions usually.

2.6.7 Electrochemical Machining


In ECM material removal is done by anodic dissolution
along with a fast-moving electrolyte. In the process the anode is the workpiece
while cathode is the tool and flowing electrolyte sweeps the material removed and
the workpiece after the process is the mirror image of the tool.

2.6.8 Electrical Discharge Machining


In the EDM process the metal is cut the discharging of
electric current again the tool is the cathode and the anode is the workpiece.
Thousands of sparks are produced per second with each spark producing a crater
and removing the material and the required final shape can be obtained.
2.6.9 High Energy Beam Machining
It has the following two types.

2.4.9.1 Laser Beam Machining


In laser beam machining we add energy to make electrons jump
to higher energy orbit Electron relaxes and moves to equilibrium at
ground-state energy level Emits a photon in this process (key laser
ingredient) Two mirrors reflect the photons to and fro and excite further
electrons One mirror is partially reflective to permit some light to
infiltrate: creates constrict laser beam.

2.4.9.2 Electron Beam Machining


A stream of electrons is started by a voltage differential at the
cathode. The concavity of the cathode grid concentrates the stream
through the anode. The anode enforces a potential field that speeds up the
electrons. The electron stream is then force through a valve in the electro
beam machine. The beam is concentered onto the surface of the work
material, heating, melting, and vaporizing the material. The entire
operation takes place inwards a vacuum chamber because a collision
betwixt an electron and an air particle causes the electrons to veer off
course. LBM does not require vacuum as the size and mass of a photon is
numerous times smaller than the size of an electron.

2.4.9.3 Focused Ion Beam Technology


Ga+ ion beam raster over the surface similar to SEM Milling of
small holes and modifications in the structures can be done Most
instruments combine nowadays a SEM and FIB for imaging with high
resolution, and accurate control of the progress of the milling Process is
performed in vacuum.
Chapter 3

RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION
It is important to improve the performance of the systems and to
increase the yield of the processes without increasing the cost. This is refer to as
optimization. There is a parameter change in the general practice of determining
the optimal operating conditions while keeping the others at a constant level. This
is called one-variable-at-a-time technique. The major disadvantage of this
technique is that it does not include interactive effects among the variables and,
eventually, it does not depict the complete effects of the parameters on the
process. Also it is very time taking process. In order to overcome this problem,
optimization studies can be carried out using Response Surface methodology
(RSM).

3.2 METHODOLOGY
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a set of
mathematical and statistical techniques for empirical model building. It is very
beneficial for developing, improving, and optimizing the processes in which a
response (output) is effected by several variables and the goal is to optimize that
response. An experiment is a series of tests, called runs, in which changes are
made in the input variables which in turn effect the output. RSM has important
application in the design, simulation and formulation of new products as well as
in the betterment of existing product design. It depicts the influence of
independent variables alone or in combination on the process. In addition to
analyzing the effects of independent variables this experimental methodology also
generates a mathematical model. The application of RSM is to give optimized
response by reducing the cost of expensive analysis and saving time and effort
also.

3.3 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT


The very first step in any research is to design the experiment.
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) will be used for this purpose. A
mathematical relation between input and output parameters is developed. It saves
time and efforts by reducing the number of experiments. A software named
minitab is RSM software which is usually used for statistical analyses.
A central composite design method (CCD) of RSM is used to generate different
values. The largest and the lowest values of parameters are to be put into the
software and it will generate number of combinations or say runs which need to
be perform. The reason we are using this software is that it will significantly
reduce time and effort by reducing the number of experiments that need to be
performed. The number of experiments are depend upon input parameters and
calculated by following equation. If we are taking k no. of factors than number of
experiments designed by RSM is equal to
k
2 +2 k +6

For example our research is based upon 3 parameters i.e. cutting speed, feed rate
and depth of cut. Than RSM design 20 number of runs as

23 +2(3)+ 6=20

For now just to see how Minitab works, select -1 to +1 (by default) range of every
factor and see how it generates combinations.
Below is step by step explanation.
1. First of all select stat option from top bar. There select DOE (design if
experiment) followed by Response Surface and click on create response
surface design. (fig 1)
2. Here select design type. As shown in figure below select central
composite design. Also select number of factors or variables (3 in current
scenario). (fig 2)
3. Then press Entre key and 20 combinations will be generated. (fig 3)
Figure 3.1 Step 1 in Minitab

Figure 3.2 Minitab tutorial continue.(step 2)


Figure 3.3 Step 3

The range of set parameters will be chosen by considering the previous work in
this field. The range varies from experiment to experiment. Following are the
samples of two projects mostly identical to this project having different ranges.

1) The range of machining parametric quantity is 0.1-0.2 mm/rev,


124-207 m/min, and 0.05-0.8 mm for feed rate, cutting speed and
depth of cut respectively. Best values of parameters are
0.1mm/rev, 165.5m/min and 0.85mm for feed rate, cutting speed
and depth of cut respectively. Best values of parameters
are0.1mm/rev, 165.5m/min and 0.85mm for feed rate, cutting
speed and depth of cut respectively. [1]
2) The values of said three parameters taken for the study are:
cutting speed range - 500 to 1500 rpm, feed range - 50 to 70
mm/rev and depth of cut range - 0.5 to 1.5mm [2]

The maximum surface finish which was obtained in these experiments was 0.6
microns.
As our objective is to obtain 0.5 microns or under optimized conditions up to 0.3
microns. So we will set these research papers as reference and set our range of
selected parameters (feed rate, depth of cut and spindle speed) accordingly.

3.4 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS


The obtained surface finish values will be represented graphically generated by
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) of MiniTab software. Contour and 3D
surface graphs will be used to find required surface roughness value.

Figure 3.4 3-D Surface Plot Sample.


Figure 3.5 Contour plot sample between one independent and one dependent variable.
Chapter 4

TOOLING

4.1 INTRODUCTION
Tooling which is also called as machine tooling is the process of
acquiring the manufacturing components and machines needed for production.
Cutting tool or cutter is any tool which is used to remove material from the work-
piece by means of shear deformation. Cutting can be accomplished by single-
point or multipoint tools.

4.2 WHAT IS A TOOL


A tool is simply a machine for shaping or machining metal or other
rigid materials. Usually it is carried out by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or
other forms of deformation. Machine tools use some sort of tool that does the
cutting or shaping. All machine tools have some source of constraining the work
piece and provide a guided movement of the parts of the machine. Thus the
relative movement between the work piece and the cutting tool (toolpath) is
controlled as well as constrained by the machine to some extent, rather than being
entirely "freehand".
Following are some of the examples of Machine tool
1. Broaching machine
2. Drill press
3. Gear shaper
4. Hobbing machine
5. Hone
6. Lathe
7. Screw machines
8. Milling machine
9. Shear (sheet metal)
10. Shaper
11. Saws
12. Planer
13. Stewart platform mills
14. Grinding machines
Etc.
4.1 TOOL MATERIALS
The following are some of the materials for tool
production

4.2.1 Ferrous Tool Materials


Ferrous tool materials have iron as a basic metal and include the
carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels, and cast irons. Ferrous tool materials are
applicable in the cast, hot-rolled, cold-rolled, or ground condition.
Carbon steels comprehend mostly iron and carbon, with small amounts of
additional alloying elements. They are have low, medium, and high carbon
content ranging from 0.05% to 1.5%.
Alloy steels are carbon steels with other alloying elements added to improve
specific mechanical properties. These elements include manganese, silicon,
nickel, molybdenum and chromium.
Tool steels are comprised of high carbon, high strength alloys with additional
elements that deliver characteristics necessary for specific tool purposes. There
are seven basic families of tool steels:
Water-hardening steels
Cold-work steels
Shock-resisting steels
High-speed steels
Hot-work steels
Plastic mold steels
Special-purpose steels
Cast iron is an alloy of iron containing from 2% to 4% carbon, 0.5% to 3%
silicon and 0.4% to 1% manganese. Other elements include phosphorus and
sulfur. Some other alloying elements may be added depending on the properties
required. Cast iron is in gray, nodular, malleable, white, and alloy forms. 4.2

4.2.2 Nonferrous Tool Materials


Nonferrous tool materials have a basic metal other than iron mostly aluminum,
carbide, and cermet.
Aluminum is used in special tooling. Advantages to using aluminum are its high
strength-to-weight ratio, nonmagnetic properties, corrosion resistance, and
relative ease in machining and forming.
Carbide is a powder metallurgy product. It is made of hard carbide particles
bonded together by a metal binder. Typical carbides are tungsten, titanium,
tantalum, and niobium etc. Most carbide tools have additional coatings, including
titanium carbide, titanium nitride, aluminum oxide etc.
Cermet is a very hard material. It consists of titanium carbide or titanium nitride
along with a nickel or cobalt binder. Cermet tools are used primarily for semi- or
final-finish machining processes.

4.2.3 Nonmetallic Tool Materials


Nonmetallic tool materials are used mainly for limited parts production. They
are also applicable where the cost of using tool steels and other materials are not
economically practical. They may incorporate metallic elements to enhance
performance and durability. The principle nonmetallic tool materials include:
Wood

Wood is used in a variety of forms within low-cost, limited-production tools.


Applications of wood include short-run or prototype thermoforming molds, steel-
rule dies in which wood supports the rule, and jig plates with inserted steel
bushings.
Composites
Composites consist of a reinforcing material and a matrix. Composite tooling is
desirable because of the fact that it can have the same thermal expansion
characteristics as the composite parts being manufactured and cured.
Rubber
Rubber is used in special drawing, blanking, and bulging die operations, as well
as for protective elements and other special tools. Silicone rubber is used as a
rapid means of producing soft tooling for low-pressure molding.
Ceramic
Ceramics has high compressive strength, high hot strength, and resistance to
abrasion and galling, along with low heat conductivity. It is used mainly in high-
speed cutting tools on very hard and abrasive materials. Ceramic cutting tools can
be divided into two categories with each having specific applications:
alumina-based ceramics
silicon nitride-based ceramics

Diamond
Diamond synthetic in natural form, is the hardest of materials, and finds limited
use for turning and milling operations, grinding wheels and grinding wheel
dressers. Diamond tools cannot be used on ferrous metals as they have high
affinity to carbon.
Cubic boron nitride or CBN
CBN is the 2nd hardest tool material after diamond. It has a compressive
strength of 700,000 psi (4,830 mega pascals), twice the thermal
conductivity of copper. It is thermally stable and resistant to oxidation up to
3,500 F (1,925 C). Cubic boron nitride is used to machine both ferrous
and nonferrous metals that cannot be readily cut by other materials.

4.3 TOOL WEAR

It describes the gradual failure of cutting tools due to regular operation. It is a


term often associated with tipped tools, tool bits, or drill bits that are used with
machine tools.

Types of wear include:

Flank wear in which the portion of the tool in contact with the finished
part erodes. Can be described using the Tool Life Expectancy equation.

Crater wear in which contact with chips erodes the rake face. This is
somewhat normal for tool wear, and does not seriously degrade the use of
a tool until it becomes serious enough to cause a cutting edge failure.

4.4 TOOL LIFE


Tool life is measured by the amount of material removed. It may actually increase
when the depth of cut is increased. However, tool life, as measured by time, will
decrease when the depth of cut is increased. Generally, increasing the feed rate
reduces tool life.
What is cutting speed, feed and depth of cut?
Speed:
Speed is the rate of revolution of the spindle where the tool is arrested. It is
measured in revolutions per minute (RPMs).
Feed:
Feed is the rate at which the tool is moved into the part/work-piece or the
part/work-piece into the tool. Feed is calculated in feet, inches or millimeters per
period of time.
Depth of Cut (DOC):
The measurement (normally in inches or millimeters) of how wide and deep the
tool cuts into the work-piece

4.5 WEIGHTING MATRIX


Parameters:
A. Cost of tool
B. Availability
C. Tool wear
D. Tool life
Criteria A B C D Total Weighting
A 0 1 1 2 0.285
B 1 1 1 3 0.428
C 0 0 1 1 0.142
D 0 0 1 1 0.142
Total 7
Table 4-1 Weighting Matrix

4.5 RATING MATRIX


Diamond cutter (1)
Cubic boron nitride CBN (2)

0 Does not meet requirement


1 Slightly meet the requirement
2 Meets requirement partially
3 Fully meets requirement
Criteria Weighting Tool Type Weighting and rating
(1) (2) (1) (2)
A 0.285 2 1 0.57 0.285
B 0.428 2 1 0.856 0.482
C 0.142 3 2 0.426 0.284
D 0.142 3 2 0.426 0.284
Total 2.278 1.335
Table 4.2 Rating Matrix

On the basis of weighting and rating matrix the diamond cutter has the largest
value as compared to Cubic Boron Nitride. So, we will use the diamond cutter.

Chapter 5

WORK PIECE
A work-piece is a piece of raw material that is in the process of being formed into
a component or part.
5.1 WORKPIECE MATERIAL GROUPS

Figure 5.1Work Piece Material

In metal cutting industry, wide variety of components are machined from many
different materials. Each material has its own unique characteristics and properties
that are influenced by the alloying elements, heat treatment, hardness, etc. These
combine to powerfully influence the choice of cutting tool geometry, grad and
cutting data.

Thus, work piece materials have been split up into VI major groups, in accordance
with the ISO-standard, and each group bears unique properties as far as
machinability is concerned.

ISO P: Steel is the largest material group in the metallic cutting off expanse,
cropping from unalloyed to high-alloyed material, including steel castings and
ferritic and martensitic stainless steels. The machinability is normally good,
but it differs a lot depending on material hardness, carbon content, etc.
ISO M: Stainless steels are materials alloyed with a minimum of 12% chromium.
Other alloys may include nickel and molybdenum. Dissimilar conditions, such as
ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and austenitic-ferritic (duplex), produce a large
class. Similarity amidst all these types is that the cutting borders are disclosed to a
great deal of heat, notch wear and built-up edge.

ISO K: Cast iron is, contrary to steel, a short-chipping type of material. Grey cast
irons (GCI) and malleable cast irons (MCI) are quite easy to machine. On the
other hand nodular cast irons (NCI), compact cast irons (CGI) and austempered
cast irons (ADI) are more difficult. All cast irons comprise SiC, which is very
abrasive to the cutting edge.

ISO N: Non-ferrous metals are softer metals, such as aluminum, copper, brass etc.
Aluminum with a Si-content of around 13% is very abrasive. Normally high
cutting speeds and durable tool lifespan can be expected for inserts with sharp
edges.

ISO S: Heat-Resistant Super Alloys include a great number of high-alloyed iron,


nickel, cobalt and titanium based materials. They are sticky, create built-up edge,
work hardening, and generate heat. They are very similar to the ISO M area but
are much more difficult to cut, as a result they reduce the tool life of the insert
edges.

ISO H This group includes steels with a hardness between 45-65 HRc, and also
chilled cast iron around 400-600 HB. The hardness makes them all difficult to
machine. The materials generate heat during cutting and are very abrasive for the
cutting edge.

5.2 ALUMINUM ALLOYS


Aluminum alloys contain aluminum (Al) as a predominant metal. Other alloying
elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin and zinc. There are two
principal classifications:
Wrought alloys:
Around 85% of aluminum is used for wrought productions, for instance
rolled plate, foils and extrusions.
Casting alloys:
Cast aluminum alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting
point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought
alloys

5.2.1 Wrought Alloys


The International Alloy Designation System is the most widely
admitted naming scheme for wrought alloys. Each alloy is given a four-digit
number. First digit indicates the major alloying elements, the second, if different
from 0, indicates a variation of the alloy, and the third and fourth digits identify
the specific alloy in the series. For example, in alloy 3105, the number 3 indicates
the alloy is in the manganese series. 1 indicates the first modification of alloy
3005, and 05 identifies it in the 3000 series.

1000 series are chiefly pure aluminum with a minimal 99% aluminum
content by weight and can be work hardened. 2000 series are alloyed with
copper Cu, can be precipitation hardened to strengths comparable to steel.
Formerly referred to as duralumin. They were at one time the most common
aerospace alloys, but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking3000 series
are alloyed with manganese Mn, and can be work hardened.

4000 series are alloyed with silicon Si. Variations of Aluminum-silicon


alloys intended for casting (and therefore not included in 4000 series) are also
known as silumin.

5000 series are alloyed with magnesium Mn. They offer excellent
corrosion resistance, making them suitable for marine applications.

6000 series are alloyed with magnesium Mn and silicon Si. They are easy
to machine, are weldable, and can be precipitation hardened, but not to the
high strengths that 2000 and 7000 can reach. 6061 alloy is one of the most
commonly used alloy in daily life.

7000 series are alloyed with zinc, and can be precipitation hardened to the
highest strengths of any aluminium alloy (ultimate tensile strength = 700 MPa
for the 7068 alloy).

8000 series are alloyed with other elements which are not covered by other
series. Examples are Aluminium-lithium alloys.

Figure 5.2 Aluminum Alloys


Figure 5.3 Aluminum Alloys 2000 series

Figure 5.4 Aluminum Alloys 3000 series


Figure 5.5 Aluminum Alloys 4000 series

Figure 5.6 Aluminum Alloys 5000 series


Figure 5.7 Aluminum Alloys 6000 series
Figure 5.8 Aluminum Alloys 7000 series

Figure 5.9 Aluminum Alloys 8000


Figure 5.10 Mixed Aluminum Alloys

5.2.2 Cast alloys

The Aluminum Association has adopted a nomenclature alike to of wrought


alloys. British Standard and DIN have different designations. In the AA system,
the second two digits tell the minimum percentage of aluminum, e.g. 150.x
correspond to a minimum of 99.50% aluminum. The digit after the decimal point
takes a value of 0 or 1, meaning casting and ingot respectively. Following the
main alloying elements in the AA system:

1xx.x series are minimum 99% aluminum

2xx.x series copper

3xx.x series silicon, copper and/or magnesium


4xx.x series silicon

5xx.x series magnesium

7xx.x series zinc

8xx.x series tin

9xx.x other elements


Figure 5.11Cast Alloys of Al
Named alloys:

Alferium: an aluminium-iron alloy developed by Schneider. Alferium


finds its applications in aircraft.

AL clad: Aluminum sheet formed from high-purity aluminum surface


layers bonded to high strength aluminum alloy core material.

Birmabright: (aluminum, magnesium)

Duralumin: (copper, aluminum).

Hindalium: (aluminum, magnesium, manganese, silicon). It is a product


of Hindustan Aluminum Corporation Ltd, made in 16ga rolled sheets for
cookware.

Pandalloy: Pratt and Whitney proprietary alloy. They have high strength
and superior high temperature performance.

Magnalium:

Magnox: (magnesium, aluminum)

Silumin: (aluminum, silicon)

Titanal: (aluminum, zinc, magnesium, copper, zirconium)

Y alloy, Hiduminium, R.R. alloys: pre-war nickel-aluminum alloys, used


in aerospace and engine pistons due to their ability to retain strength at
elevated temperature.

5.3 WEIGHTING MATRIX:


Parameters:
A. Cost
B. Availability
C. Ease of milling
D. Corrosion resistance
Criteria A B C D Total Weighting
A 0 0 1 1 0.2
B 1 0 1 1 0.2
C 1 1 0 2 0.4
D 0 0 1 1 0.2
Total 5
Table 5.1Weighting Matrix of Al alloys

5.4 RATING MATRIX:


Aluminum 6061 (1)
Aluminum 5052 (2)

0 Does not meet requirement


1 Slightly meet the requirement
2 Meets requirement partially
3 Fully meets requirement

Criteria Weighting Tool Type Weighting and rating


(1) (2) (1) (2)
A 0.2 2 3 0.4 0.6
B 0.2 2 2 0.4 0.4
C 0.4 2 3 0.8 1.2
D 0.2 3 2 0.8 0.4
Total 1.7 2.6
Table 5.2 Rating Matrix of Al
By using the weighting and rating matrix we come to the conclusion of using
Aluminum 5052 having a higher rating 2.6 as compared to aluminum 6061 having
a rating of 1.7.

Chapter 6

EFFECT OF SURFACE FINISH ON


MATERIAL PROPERTIES

6.1 FATIGUE
Fatigue strength is highly dependent on surface finish and is strongly
influenced by surface finish and surface treatment. Fatigue is a surface sensitive
process and the fatigue cracks develop from free surfaces having cyclic loading
processes. The fatigue life decreases as the surface roughness increases due to the
development of microcracks and microvoids. This may lead to material failure
and other undesirable outcomes.

6.2 CORROSION RESISTANCE


Surface roughness has a great impact of the corrosive properties of a material in
general it is observed that the corrosion resistance of a material increases with
increasing surface roughness. Service life of engineering components may be
extended by carefully monitoring the surface roughness.

6.3 FRICTION
Friction is the resistance produced when two surface come into contact
therefore surface roughness plays a very important part in the value of coefficient
of friction. The friction coefficient increases with increase in surface roughness.
This is very important in many industries such that of gear making to ensure the
right amount of friction can be given to the gear as to avoid slipping as well as
stagnation.
6.4 LIGHT REFLECTION
The surface roughness has a large effect on the reflective properties of a material.
The reflectiveness of the material is termed as gloss and has a linear relationship
with surface roughness meaning lower the gloss higher the surface roughness and
lower the surface reflectance. This results in a surface that scatters or absorbs
much of the light that falls on the object.

6.5 HEAT TRANSMISSION


It has been observed that surface roughness plays an important part
in heat transmission of a material. The observation states that the heat
transmission decreases with increase in surface roughness of an object. This
phenomenon occurs due to decrease in surface area of contact. Increased surface
finish is in high demand in turbines industries for increasing heat transfer
efficiency.

6.6 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY


The phenomenon of electrical conductivity is closely related to
surface scattering property of a material. It has been observed that the electrical
conductance decreases dramatically with small surface roughness creating a linear
relationship between them.
Chapter 7

PROJECT RISK ASSESSMENT

A project risk assessment was conducted to identify the factors that might result in
the delay or failure in completion of the project.
The process of risk assessment was carried out in three phases which are as under.
Risk Identification
Risk Assessment
Risk Management
The intensity of likelihood and impact are rated based on following grade as
under.
1 = Low
2 = Medium
3 = high
Risk
Descripti Consequ Likelihoo Risk
Risk Impact Manage
on ences d Rating
ment
Can result in Proper
Dangers of hot
1 Safety a burning 1 1 2 safety
chips burning skin
incident measures.
The cost of the Suitable
project exceeds the substitutes
2. Cost Financial loss. 1 2 2
amount specified in will be
the SOR. arranged.
Experimental Materials will
The quality of the results will be properly
Material
3. materials used is not match 2 3 6 checked
Quality
poor. theoretical before
values selection.
Tool will be
Poor Quality tool is Inaccurate purchased
4. Tool Quality 2 3 6
used results from reliable
sources

Increase
Human error causes number of
Inaccurate
Performanc measurement that experiments
4. experimental 1 3 3
e are not up to the and take
results.
mark average
value
Items will be
The items to be Fabrication of
purchased
Availability purchased are short the project
5. 1 3 3 as soon as
of items or are unavailable will be
possible if
in the country. delayed.
required
The risk rating of each factor was evaluated using the following relation.
Risk rating = Likelihood x Impact

7.1 PROJECT RISK STATEMENT


The project risk assessment helps in identifying the
possible risks that can be faced while designing the project. These risks can result
in termination or delay of the project. The advantage of this risk assessment
process is that all the risks are determined in advance and while designing the
project one can take measures to tackle these risks effectively and can complete
the project with little or no delay. As per our risk assessment, the outcome assigns
the Tool and material quality at the highest risk. While Performance and
availability of items have medium risk value considering their impact on the
project. The cost and safety parameters lie at the low risk value.
APPENDIX-A: STATEMENT OF
REQUIREMENT (SOR)

Title Technique to improve the surface Issue: 01 Date: 17-03-2016


finish of aluminum through facing.

CHANGES D/W REF REQUIREMENTS

1 Introduction

1.1 Preamble
1.1.1 Variability of CNC parameters, converging to the
point of creating a relationship between speed,
RPM, feed rate and depth of cut to improve surface
finish of aluminum to close tolerances.

1.2 Scope

1.2.1 The relation will provide mirror surface finish that


will increase aerodynamic qualities of aluminum
which can be implemented in the aerospace and
many other industries.

1.2.2 The relation will be used to achieve mirror surface


finish up to 0.5 microns

1.3 Related Documents

1.3.1 Books

CAD/CAM theory and practice by Ibrahim zeid

Manufacturing technology, metal cutting and


machine tool by PN Rao

1.3.2 Software

SolidCAM

Creo 2.0

CNC simulator PRO

1.3.3 Research Papers

Investigation of influence of milling parameters on


surface roughness and flatness: International
Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology,
Jan.2014. IJAET ISSN: 22311963

Optimization of machining parameters during CNC


turning of aluminum 6061 with CNMG EN-TM
(H20TI) insert using Response Surface
Methodology (RSM)2016 IJEDR | Volume 4, Issue
1 | ISSN :2321-9939:International Journal of
Engineering Development and Research
(www.ijedr.org)

Analyzing the Effect of Machining Parameters


Setting to the Surface Roughness during End
Milling of CFRP-Aluminum Composite Laminates:
International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering

Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4680380, 9 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4680380

1.4 Symbols

From the D/W column of this table

D Demand A mandatory requirement

W(H) Wish high A highly desirable attribute

W(L) Wish low A low desirable attribute

1.5 Deliverables

W(H) Reduce Surface roughness to 0.5 microns

W(L) Reduce surface roughness to less than 0.3 microns

D Final project report

2 Technical Requirements

2.1.1 Extended material study (Aluminum)

2.1.2 Knowledge of CAD and CAM software

2.1.3 Parameter study of CNC machine

2.2 Design Considerations

Cost of materials

Quality of Aluminum in Market

Tool availability for facing

3 Hazards/Safety

3.1.1 Hot chips from worked part.


4 Costs

4.1 The estimated cost of the Project is Rs. 30,000.

4.2 The above mentioned cost is subjected to material


cost and testing.

Project Advisor's

Signature

APPENDIX B GANNT CHART


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. B. IVKOVIC, B. IVKOVIC, M. DJUKDJANOVIC, D. STAMENKOVI. The


Influence of the Contact Surface Roughness on the Static Friction Coefficient
Tribology in industry, Volume22, No.3&4, page 3 and 4, 2000

2. Mohamed R. Bayoumi, A. K. ABDELLATIF, Effect of surface finish on


fatigue strength, Vol 51, pages 1-10, 1994.

3. A.Y. KANDEIL, M.Y. MOURAD, Surface and coating technology, Effect of


surface texture on corrosion behavior, Vol 37, pages 5-9, 1988

4. Mahendrakumar Maisuria, Effect of surface roughness on heat transfer, page


1-4, 2013

5. Jan-Eric Sthl, Fredrik Schultheiss, Sren Hgglund, TOLERANCE COST


IN RELATION TO SURFACE FINISH, pages 1-3, 1982.

6. Wilhelmina Roa Clavano, REFLECTANCE CHANGE DUE TO SURFACE


ROUGHNESS, pages 1-4, 2008.

7. Lisa M. Farrier, INFLUENCE OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE


SPECULAR REFLECTANCE, Vol 1, pages 1-18, 2006

8. V. Timoshevskii, Youqi Ke, Hong Guo, D. Gall, The influence of surface


roughness on electrical conductance, pages 1-4, 2008.