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A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does
not necessarily boil. (In North America, the term "furnace" is normally used if the
purpose is not to actually boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler
for use in various processes or heating applications, including water heating, central
heating, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation. The pressure
vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought
iron. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted parts of
boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.However, ferritic stainless steel
is often used in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and
electrically-heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European
"Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such
as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-
type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for
generating steam, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat
exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). Heat recovery steam
generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more easily
fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used
for fireboxes (particularly forsteam locomotives), because of its better formability
and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of
copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel)
are used instead.
For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only material used for
boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This
iron was often obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK),
noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability
use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design
practice instead moved towards the use of steel, which is stronger and cheaper,
with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be
noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode far slower than their modern-day
steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion.
This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers far superior to those of
welded steel boilers.
Cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although
such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is usually
to produce hot water, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and try to avoid
actual boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure
steam boilers.
Boiler feedwater is an essential part of boiler operations. The feed water is put in
to the steam drum from a feed pump. In the steam drum the feed water is then turned
into steam from the heat. After the steam is used it is then dumped to the main
condenser. From the condenser it is then pumped to the deaerated feed tank. From
this tank it then goes back to the steam drum to complete its cycle. The feed water is

never open to the atmosphere. This cycle is known as a closed system or Rankine
During the early development of boilers, water treatment was not so much of an
issue, as temperatures and pressures were so low that high amounts of scale and rust
would not form to such a high amount, especially if the boiler was cleaned and/or
blown down. It was general practice though, to install zinc plates
and/or alkaline chemicals to reduce corrosion within the boiler. Many tests had been
performed to try to determine the cause and possible protection from corrosion in
boilers using distilled water, various chemicals, and sacrificial metals.
Silver nitrate can be added to feedwater samples in order to detect contamination
by seawater. Use of lime for alkalinity control had been mentioned as early as 1900,
and was used by the French and British Navies up until about 1935.In modern boilers
though, treatment of boiler feedwater is extremely critical, as many problems can
result from the use of untreated water in extreme pressure and temperature
environments; this includes lower efficiency in terms of heat transfer, overheating,
damage, and high costs of cleaning.




1)Feedwater System Function

The feedwater system is composed of the main steam lines

and feedwater supply to the steam generators (boilers). The main
steam lines supply steam from four steam generators in the
reactor building to the turbine through the steam balance header
at a constant pressure. The system controls the feedwater flow to
maintain the required steam generator level. Steam generator
pressure is controlled by use of one or more of the following

The four turbine governor valves (GOVs)

The twelve condenser steam discharge valves (CSDVs)
The four atmospheric steam discharge valves (ASDVs)

The sixteen main steam safety valves (MSSVs) are provided

for overpressure protection of the steam generator secondary
side, as well as autodepressurization. (Auto-depressurization has
sometimes been called crash cooldown because of the high rate
of temperature reduction in both the heat transport system and the
steam generator.)
The feedwater system takes hot, pressurized feedwater from the
feedwater train and discharges the feedwater into the preheater
section of the steam generators. Main steam isolating valves
(MSIVs) are provided to isolate the main steam supply to the
turbine, the ASDVs and CSDVs from the steam generators after a
reactor shut down in the event of a steam generator tube leak.

2)The Water System

Demineralized light water is used in the turbine steam and

feedwater cycle. Steam, after passing through the turbine,
condenses in the turbine condenser and collects in the condenser
hotwell. From there condensate pumps (2 x 100% + 1 x 4%) pass
the water through a series/parallel network of L.P. feed heaters to
the deaerator (direct contact deaerating feedwater heater and
associated storage tank). Steam generator feed pumps ("Boiler
Feed Pumps") (3 x 50% + 1 x 3%) pump water from the deaerator

storage tank to four steam generators through parallel sets of high
pressure heaters and feedwater control valves. Each steam
generator has three control valves (2 x 110% + 1 x 15%). At full
power the temperature of the feedwater entering the steam
generators is 187C. Three 50% reheater drain pumps pump the
condensate from the reheater drains tank directly to the four
steam generators. Four 30 cm feedwater lines run from the turbine
building to the reactor building. Each line is equipped with a swing
check valve located inside the reactor building (containment) to
prevent backflow of water out of the steam generators on loss of
feedwater supply.
All 12 feedwater control valves have manual isolating valves
between them and the steam generator and motorized isolating
valves between them and the last feedwater heater.
Thermal stress limitations at the steam generator preheater
inlet impose additional limitations on the feedwater circuit. The
preheater temperature is assumed to be equal to the steam
generator saturation temperature. The limit is in the 130 to 150
Celsius degree range and therefore at normal load with a
saturation temperature of 258C the feedwater temperature should
be greater than 130C.
The normal feedwater temperature being in the 170C range is
well above this limit. However startup and severe transients can
cause this limit to be exceeded. On startup after an extended
shutdown the deaerator electric heaters may have to be in service
for > 48 hours to achieve this temperature. If feedwater is
unavailable, the emergency water system provides long term
cooling to the steam generators. One emergency water line is
provided for each steam generator. A check valve in each line
prevents back flow and circulation during normal operation.
Emergency water is ordinary lake water.
A phosphate addition line joins each feedwater main
downstream of steam generator level control valves. As can be
seen in Figure 3.2 there is redundancy in almost all of the
feedwater circuit except with the exception of the deaerator and
deaerator storage tank. This storage tank typically contains about
a five minute supply of water at full load conditions. It therefore
imperative that this vessel is available and has an assured supply
of water.

3)The Condensate

The three main condensers are located immediately below the

three low pressure turbines. The condensed steam at 5 kPa(a) is
collected in the hotwell and piped to the condensate extraction
pumps. The hotwells along with the condensate storage tank also
perform the function of a surge tank to allow for any mismatch
between the required condensate flow and the steam flow to the
condenser. Large external demineralized storage tanks act as a
back up to the storage tank through suitable valves and piping to
accommodate a large mismatch. The Feedwater Heaters

4)The feedwater cycle

Contains two types of feedwater heaters. There are 8 to 10

horizontal U-tube feedwater heaters and 1 direct contact
deaerating feedwater heater. Simplified sketches of these two
types are shown in Figures 3.5 and 3.6. The main source of heat
to these heaters is from the turbine extraction steam lines.
Feedwater heaters using this source have a self-regulating
feature. There are no control valves on the extraction steam
supply lines.
The steam flow adjusts itself by a thermal equilibrium process.
When the feedwater temperature approaches the saturated steam
temperature then condensation of the extraction steam diminishes
and therefore the flow of extraction steam to the feedwater heater
tends towards zero. This is an oversimplification, but it can be
generally stated that the steam flow is directly proportional to both
the and the mass flow of the feedwater.
A secondary source of heat is drain water cascading from high
pressure to low pressure heaters and/or moisture separator
drains. In the case of the deaerator, secondary heat sources
a) Main Steam via PCV's at low turbine loads;
b) b) Electric immersion heaters near the bottom of the storage
tank; c) The use of the boiler feed pumps in the recirculation

These U-tube feedwater heaters are vented to the Main

Condenser to remove all non-condensable gases. The condenser

is used as it is the lowest pressure point in the cycle and pressure
in these heaters can be subatmospheric at very low loads and
during startup.

5)The Deaerator



The deaerator and it's associated storage tank are very large
pressure vessels. To meet the required boiler feed pump NPSH
they are located 30 to 35 metres above the boiler feed pumps.
This is the only source of water to the boiler feed pumps and must
be heated to a minimum value (about 130C) for protection of the
steam generator. The normal heat source is extraction steam
from the turbine which mixes with the condensate as it is sprayed
into the deaerator section. As a backup during low loads and
turbine upset, steam is supplied from the main steam line to
different lines called Startup Steam lines and Poison Prevent
steam lines.
The loss of significant turbine load mode of operation is
commonly called "poison prevent". During shutdown conditions
the storage tank is kept warm via electric emersion heaters. The
extraction steam supply line has two power assisted close check
valves in series (see section 3.2.4). The one near the turbine is
activated by a turbine trip and the one near the deaerator is
activated by very high level in the deaerator. On a turbine trip or
high heater level the air is removed from the air assist piston and
allows a spring to place a closing force on the check valve (NRV).
The deaerator is also the place in the feedwater system where
hydrazine is injected. Hydrazine is an oxygen scavenger and by
injecting hydrazine between the D/A and the D/A storage tank the
hydrazine can control any excess oxygen in the feedwater circuit.

6)Boiler Feed Pumps

The boiler feed pumps have a horizontally split casing with

multi-stage impellers. These centrifugal pumps are built with very
close tolerances and require a minimum flow of at least 30% to
cool and lubricate the pump's internals. Loss of the minimum flow
for greater than a few seconds usually results in a seized pump.
Inlet flow is monitored and automatically opens a recirculation
valve which returns the minimum flow back to the deaerator
storage tank.
The motors for the main pumps are totally enclosed and
require an external cooling water supply. The auxiliary pump motor
is air cooled and thus does not require an external cooling supply
during emergent use. The pumps handle relatively hot water (in
the 150 to 160 C range) and therefore require a high NPSH.

7)Protection of Water system Components

Overpressure Protection Feedwater heater overpressure

protection is supplied by steam safety valves on the steam side of
the heat exchangers. With the exception of the deaerator the shell
side of the heat exchangers pressure will not exceed the
extraction steam supply to the respective heater and these heat
exchangers have been designed for full turbine load pressure.
(extraction steam line pressure is proportional to turbine load.)
As stated in the earlier discussion of feedwater heaters these
heaters reach an equilibrium steam flow and should not exceed
the turbine extraction steam supply to the heater.
The possible causes of shell side overpressure are;
a) A "U" tube leak where the feedwater or condensate is
entering the shell side at a rate greater than the drains flow.
b) The loss of one or more rows of blades of the turbine
upstream of the extraction steam take off point. The deaerator has
a backup steam supply (Poison Prevent) from the main steam line
and a malfunction of this system as well as b) above could cause
an overpressure in the deaerator.

As the deaerator is a direct contact heater there can be no
condensate tube leak, but a condensate overpressure condition
could occur on a failure of the level control system which would
result in total flooding of the heat exchanger. Over pressure
protection is provided by:
a Pressure Control Flow Orfices during normal operation
b Safety Valves

Their principal use is to protect from fluid expansion during a

heat exchanger isolation. They will also lift during pressure
transients caused by surging (water hammer) from the rapid filling
of the feedwater piping and heat exchangers.

8)Boiler water treatment

Is used to control alkalinity, prevent scaling, correct pH, and to control

conductivity. The boiler water needs to be alkaline and not acidic, so that it does not
ruin the tubes. There can be too much conductivity in the feed water when there are
too many dissolved solids. These correct treatments can be controlled by efficient
operator and use of treatment chemicals. The main objectives to treat and condition
boiler water is to exchange heat without scaling, protect against scaling, and produce
high quality steam.
The treatment of boiler water can be put in to two parts. These are internal
treatment and external treatment. (The internal treatment is for boiler feed water and
external treatment is for make-up feed water and the condensate part of the system.
Internal treatment protects against feed water hardness by preventing precipitating of
scale on the boiler tubes. This treatment also protects against concentrations of
dissolved and suspended solids in the feed water without priming or foaming.
These treatment chemicals also help with the alkalinity of the feed water making
it more of a base to help protect against boiler corrosion. The correct alkalinity is
protected by adding phosphates. These phosphates precipitate the solids to the bottom
of the boiler drum. At the bottom of the boiler drum there is a bottom blow to remove
these solids.
These chemicals also include anti-scaling agents, oxygen scavengers, and anti-
foaming agents. Sludge can also be treated by two approaches. These are by
coagulation and dispersion. When there is a high amount of sludge content it is better
to coagulate the sludge to form large particles in order to just use the bottom blow to
remove them from the feed water. When there is a low amount of sludge content it is
better to use dispersants because it disperses the sludge throughout the feed water so
sludge does not form.


9) Deaeration of feed water

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide are removed from the feed water by
deaeration. Deaeration can be accomplished by using deaerators heaters, vacuum
deaerators, mechanical pumps, and steam-jet ejectors. In deaerating heaters steam
sprays incoming feed water and carries away the dissolved gases.
The deaerators also store hot feed water which is ready to be used in the boiler.
This means of mechanical deaeration is also used with chemical oxygen scavenging
agents to increase efficiency. Deaerating heaters can be classified in to two groups.
The two deaerating heaters are spray types and tray types. With tray type deaerating
heaters the incoming water is sprayed into steam atmosphere in order to reach
saturation temperature. When the saturation temperature is reached most of the
oxygen and non-condensable gases are released. There are seals that prevent the
recontamination of the water in the spray section. The water then falls to the storage
tank below.
The non-condensables and oxygen are then vented to the atmosphere. The
components of the tray type deaerating heater are a shell, spray nozzles, direct contact
vent condenser, tray stacks, and protective interchamber walls. The spray type
deaerater is very similar to the tray type deaerater. The water is sprayed into a steam
atmosphere and most of the oxygen and non-condensables are released to the steam.
The water then falls to the steam scrubber where the slight pressure loss causes the
water to flash a little bit which also helps with the removal of oxygen and non-
condensables. The water then overflows to the storage tank. The gases are then
vented to the atmosphere. With vacuum deaeration a vacuum is applied to the system
and water is then brought to its saturation temperature. The water is sprayed in to the

tank just like the spray and tray deaeraters. The oxygen and non-condensables are
vented to the atmosphere.



The feed system completes the cycle between boiler and turbine to enable the
exhausted steam to return to the boiler as feedwater. The feed system is made up of
four basic items: the boiler, the turbine, the condenser and the feed pump. The boiler
produces steam which is supplied to the turbine and finally exhausted as low-energy
steam to the condenser.
The condenser condenses the steam to water (condensate) which is then pumped
into the boiler by the feed pump.
Other items are incorporated into all practical feed systems, such as a drain tank
to collect the condensate from the condenser.

In a system associated with an auxiliary boiler, as on a motor ship, the drain tank
or hotwell will be open to the atmosphere. Such a feed system is therefore referred to
as 'open feed'. In high-pressure watertube boiler installations no part of the feed
system is open to the atmosphere

The feed filter and hotwell tank is arranged with internal baffles to bring about
preliminary oil separation from any contaminated feed or drains. The feedwater is
then passed through charcoal or cloth filters to complete the cleaning process. Any
overflow from the hotwell passes to the feedwater tank which provides additional
feedwater to the system when required. The hotwell provides feedwater to the main
and auxiliary feed pump suctions.

A feed heater may be fitted into the main feed line. This heater may be of the
surface type, providing only heating, or may be of the direct contact type which will
de-aerate in addition. De-aeration is the removal of oxygen in feedwater which can
cause corrosion problems in the boiler. A feed regulator will control the feedwater
input to the boiler and maintain the correct water level in the drum.


conversion in a Open feed system


The feed system completes the cycle between boiler and turbine to enable the
exhausted steam to return to the boiler as feedwater. The feed system is made up of
four basic items: the boiler, the turbine, the condenser and the feed pump. The boiler

produces steam which is supplied to the turbine and finally exhausted as low-energy
steam to the condenser. The condenser condenses the steam to water (condensate)
which is then pumped into the boiler by the feed pump.

Other items are incorporated into all practical feed systems, such as a drain tank
to collect the condensate from the condenser and provide a suction head for the feed
pump. A make-up feed tank will provide additional feedwater to supplement losses or
store surplus feed from the drain tank.

In a system associated with an auxiliary boiler, as on a motor ship, the drain tank
or hotwell will be open to the atmosphere. Such a feed system is therefore referred to
as 'open feed'. In high-pressure watertube boiler installations no part of the feed
system is open to the atmosphere and it is known as 'closed feed'.

A closed feed system for a high pressure watertube boiler supplying a main
propulsion steam turbine is shown in Figure above. The steam turbine will exhaust
into the condenser which will be at a high vacuum.

A regenerative type of condenser will be used which allows condensing of the

steam with the minimum drop in temperature. The condensate is removed by an
extraction pump and circulates through an air ejector.

The condensate is heated in passing through the air ejector. The ejector removes
air from the condenser using steam-ope rated ejectors. The condensate is now
circulated through a gland steam condenser where it is further heated. In this heat
exchanger the turbine gland steam is condensed and drains to the atmospheric drain

The condensate is now passed through a low-pressure heater which is supplied
with bled steam from the turbine. All these various heat exchangers improve the plant
efficiency by recovering heat, and the increased feedwater temperature assists.

Fig: Energy conversion in a Closed feed system

In addition to heating, any dissolved gases, particularly oxygen, are released

from the feedwater. The lower part of the de-aerator is a storage tank which supplies
feedwater to the main feed pumps, one of which will supply the boiler's requirements.
The feedwater passes to a high-pressure feed heater and then to the economiser and
the boiler water drum.

An atmospheric drain tank and a feed tank are present in the system to store
surplus feedwater and supply it when required. The drain tank collects the many
drains in the system such as gland steam, air ejector steam, etc. A recircuiating feed
line is provided for low load and manoeuvring operation to ensure an adequate flow
of feedwater through the air ejector and gland steam condenser.


I know about the feedwater system of boiler and about the process and the
components that have related with the feed water system of boiler.Besides that,i also
can understand and know about the water treatment of the feedwater of boiler.

From the contents,we can conclude that there is two types of feed water
system.Open feed water system and close feed water system.Both of them have
different function and have different mechanism

I also know about the function of water treatment of feed water that to prevent
scaling and to control the alkalinity.And I also know the details about the feed water
system clearly.










Air ejector 105

Condensate 101
Condenser 103
Drain cooler 107
Feed pump,109,110
Feed water treatment 96
Feed system 99
Heat exchanger 106