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INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
1. What are the ecological pyramids? Explain their working and significance.
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The number of parasites like bugs and lice living and feeding upon the birds. In the pyramid of energy a very important factor. The shape of the first two may be upright pyramidal. biomass and energy content of the primary producers. The pyramid of biomass therefore becomes upright or it becomes inverted if the numbers were considered. The cumulative energy contents utilized by primary producer are always higher as compared to energy utilization by successive trophic level. Pyramids of numbers and biomass This deals with the relationship between the numbers of primary producers and consumers of different order. Primary productivity refers to total increase in weight Page 2 of 7 . over a period of time in given area. in a given area over a given period of time. consumers of the first and second orders and so on to top carnivores in any ecosystem. A base of such pyramid always represents primary producers and the subsequent structures on this base are represented by the numbers of consumers at successive levels. has been introduced and that is the rate. But there may be instances where the trend of decreasing numbers may not be true. This rate of energy conversion or increase in organic biomass produced is called primary productivity.INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Ans:-There is some sort of relationship between the numbers. The rate of energy trapping by green plants governs the rate of production of organic material from simple inorganic substances. Pyramid of energy in grassland and aquatic ecosystem. Thus depending upon the size and biomass the pyramid of numbers may not be always pyramidal. The grass weeds or the crop plants are in very large number or organisms forming a food chain. The total production as a result of photo or chemosynthesis is called gross primary productivity. body is still higher. it may even be completely inverted in shape. Pyramids of energy and productivity The pyramid of energy represents the total quantity of energy unutilized by different trophic level organisms of an ecosystem per unit area over a set period of time. These relationships may be represented in diagrammatic ways and are referred to as ecological pyramids. inverted pyramidal or any other shape but the third is always upright pyramidal or triangle shaped. The ecological pyramids are categorized as follow a) Of number b) Of biomass c) Of energy d) Of productivity. The number of herbivore birds feeding upon the trees fruits.
new issues will need to be addressed the role of ideology and culture in environmental change seems particularly important. As these agendas are refined their findings and implications need to be systematically Page 3 of 7 . Third world political ecology is understood as inclusive. if together. Hence. How the environment and environmental change are perceived. conditions and ramifications of environmental change. it not only neglects ecological factors. the agenda for third world political ecology is both complex and challenging. influences the nature and extend of such change.By equating social action with capitalist development. its approach aims to unify through and appreciation of plurality of purpose as flexibility in explanation. etc. requiring analytical refinement as well as empirical exploration. economic reductionism neglects other sources of environmental change . No doubt. Political ecology must be situated in the broader context of Third world studies. premised on the view that it must be sensitive to the interplay of diverse socio-political forces. leaves fruits. and related to different aspects of human development. Such integration will benefit the latter while promoting more rigorous development of the former. household and gender studies and the literature on the politics of hunting and conservation. but in differentiated and often contradictory ways. Secondly. Ans:-Third – world political ecology may be defined as the attempt to understand the political sources.INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT in all the parts – roots . Third world political ecology does indeed constitute an emerging research agenda. relate to and are affected by environmental change. as against agricultural productivity which refers to useful parts as grains or fodder parts. consequently. Third World political ecology might be enriched by recent work in contiguous and often overlapping research agendas: and power analysis. 2. What is the third world political ecology? Discuss its scope and important features. Ecosystems efficiency greatly depends upon the production rates of primary producers. but also devalues the role and importance of state and interstate forces. stems. and the relationship of those forces to environmental interaction. As this agenda emerges.
aquatic ecosystems are not only the dominant feature of earth but are also very diverse in species and complexity of interaction among their physical.INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT incorporated into Third world Political ecology. lake pools etc. chemical and biological components. The pond or a lake generally distinguished as (1) Littoral zone. The organisms are subjected to pressure. . which is a shallow water region (2) limnetic zone. come under stagnant water ecosystems or otherwise called as Lentic ecosystems while the rivers. 3. Ans:-There are two types of ecosystems which are a) Aquatic b) Terrestrial.The daily alternation of light and darkness forms a rhythm in the activities of many aquatic organisms. streams. The broad categories of aquatic ecosystem – freshwater. The water is retained in a trough and lined by terrestrial region. The ponds. with particular reference to conflict over access and the political ramifications of environmental change. This zone generally is not seen as lakes or ponds are usually shallow. beyond the depth of effective light penetration. marine. an open water zone to the depth where the light can penetrate (3) profoundal zone. are classified under the Lotic ecosystems. the bottom and deep water area. The plants require light for the photosynthesis to prepare carbohydrates. Page 4 of 7 . The pond ecosystem is a dynamic ecosystem since the boundaries are limited. The aquatic ecosystems can distinguish as fresh water. Composing more than 70 percent of the earth’s surface. changes in quality of water and are adapted top such changes. The organisms like phytoplankton in the surface water will perform photosynthesis and through the food chain and food webs the energy transfers to higher trophic levels . The entry of nutrients. estuarine and marine. sediments through the surface run-offs enter and remain in the system causing fluctuations in the physico-chemical characteristics of pond. What are the broad categories of aquatic ecosystems? Describe pond ecosystem. estuarine are distinguished on the basis of differences in their salt content. spring etc. Pond Ecosystem is a part of aquatic ecosystem. Freshwater ecosystems are characterized as having running water or still water.
Ecological sub-division of the Marine Environment: The Marine environment is divisible into two major divisions. and other nutrients are measured in parts per billion in contrast to salts. Describe different divisions of marine ecosystem and their structure and composition. In waves. waves. there exist effective barriers like differences in the intensity of temperature. the topographical features of the ocean-floor like ridges. upwelling. They are contiguous. such as sodium chloride.The extent up to which the light penetration in the water is called ‘Euphotic zone’ and the dark area below that zone is called ‘Alphotic zones’. such as sodium chloride. In the absence of vertical mixing. the continental shelf. which constitute 60 percent of the ocean. The light penetration depends much on the turbidity of water caused by suspended particulate matter . the benthic and the pelagic. divided into the major ocean area. Ans:-Marine ecosystem is one part of the broad categories of aquatic systems. Profile of the sea-floor: The sea-floor is divided into three distinct regions. 4. the benthic divisions comprise the sea-shore and the entire seabottom. the continental slope and the deep ocean basin. the deep waters. and tidal action. phosphates. pressure and light which interfere with free distribution of organisms. which are measured in parts per thousand. Page 5 of 7 . It is well known that marine covering more than 70 percent of the Earth’s surface and with an average depth of 3750 m and with a salinity averaging 3. low Nitrates. stay permanently near 3 degree centigrade. which are measured in parts per billion in contrast to salts. interrelated spatially and also functionally. The marine eco-systems comprise an area of nearly 361 million square kilometers. Even though there is continuity of the oceans. water oscillates back and forth without actually changing position. seasonal turnover in the upper waters.INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT proteins etc. from the natural substances.5 percent. canyons and trenches function as physical barriers in the distribution of organisms. mounts. Besides these factors. The functional continuity being established by the surface currents. The concentration of nutrients in the ocean is. marine ecosystems are of singular ecological significance.
It is subject to the physical violence of waves and tides and to fluctuations. Part of this evolution is biological in that species characteristic are transmitted genetically by means of chromosomes and genes and part of it is cultural in those behaviors and social systems or ethics are transmitted through the training and learning experience of the young.INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT The Benthic Division: It consists of three major zones. to render the organism more fit and able to survive in specific environments and to live together in particular relations one with another . the symposium on behavioral evolution as it relates to birds nests. sometimes extreme. Time and space do not permit adequate attention to the evolution of territorial and colonial nesting. sex ratios. What is the importance of evolutionary ecology? Explain in brief different theories of ecological evolution. ethics and culture. the interrelationship between mortality and natality and the evolution of parental care Natural selection affects behaviors and social pattern as it does structure and function. co-evolution of adaptations in insects and squirrels and in the seeds on which they feed. to render the organism more fit and able to survive in specific environment and to live together in particular relations with one another. culminating with man. and eel nest – cells . We will consider ecological niches and taxonomic species. moisture. Page 6 of 7 . Ans:-Evolutionary ecology. time of breeding. the sublittoral and the deep-sea zone. Evolutionary ecology is concerned not only with speciation and its accompaniments in niche segregation but also with the manner in which all structures and functions evolved. Human culture. the littoral. The uppermost part of the benthic division is the littoral zone. For example . spider webs. caddisworm cases . including ethics and religion has its evolutionary roots in the behaviors and social systems of lower animals. how they have evolved together to give structure to the community. The littoral zone is the shoreline between land and open sea. 5. The Pelagic Division: The pelagic division comprises all the waters of the ocean covering the benthic division. mating systems and any number of other behavioral and social phenomena. and how behavioral interrelationship between individuals have evolved social patterns. deals with this line of biological studies. and light intensity. It is divided into a ‘neritic zone’ and an open sea. Natural selection affects behaviors and social patterns just as it does structure and function . of temperature. termite shelters.
nomenclature and classification of different kids of plants all over the world identifications consists in determining that a particular plant is similar to some other known individual. Speciation is the process of evolutionary differentiation population. Page 7 of 7 . which may result in one older species becoming split into two or more new ones. Taxonomy is a functional science concerned with the identification. Succession is the process whereby a series of communities and habitats replace one another. Species term used by taxonomists a population is a local aggregation of individuals that differs slightly.INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Predominance is characteristic of the taxonomic structure of communities that a few species furnish the greatest bulk of the population entirely out of proportion to the rest of the species. but characteristically from other local aggregations of the same species. beginning in an extreme habitat and ending in a mature climax ecosystem.
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