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Strategies: are those specific attacks that we make on a given problem.

They are the moment by moment techniques that we employ to solve

problems passed by second language input and output.

Types of strategy:
Learning strategies and
Communication strategies.

Learning Strategies: these were divided into three main categories:

Metacognitive: Is a term used in information-processing theory to indicate an
executive function, strategies that involve planning for learning, thinking
about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of ones production
or comprehension and evaluating learning after an activity is completed
(Pirparra 1997).

Cognitive Strategies: Are more limited to specific learning tasks and involve
more direct manipulation of the learning material itself.

Socioaffective strategies: Have to do with social mediating activity and

interacting with others.

Omalley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) found that second language learners
developed effective listening skills through the use of monitoring. Elaboration
and inferencing.

Communication strategies: while learning strategies deal with the receptive

domain of intake, memory, storage, and recall, communication strategies
pertain to the employment of verbal or nonverbal mechanisms for the
productive communication of information.
Avoidance strategies: The most common type of avoidance strategy is
Syntactic or Lexical Avoidance within a semantic category, consider the
following conversation.

L: I lost my road.
NS: You lost your road?
L: Vh,. I last. I last. I got Lost.

The learner avoided the lexical item road entirely, not being able to come up
with the word way at that point.

Phonological avoidance: Is also common, as in the case of a Japanese who

avoided using the word rally (because of its phonological difficulty) and
instead opted to say, simply, hit the ball.

Topic avoidance: which in a whole topic of conversation (say, taking about

what happened yesterday if the past tense is unfamiliar) might be avoided
entirely. Learners manage to devise ingenious methods of topic avoidance:
changing the subject, pretending not to understand (a classical means for
avoiding answering a question), simply not responding at all, or noticeably
abandoning a message when a thought becomes too difficult to express.

Compensatory strategies: is another common set of communication that

involves compensation for missing Knowledge.

Prefabricated patterns: is typical rock-bottom beginning-level learners, they

are memorized chunks of language, and are often found in pocket bilingual
phrase books, which list hundreds of sentences for various occasions; How
much does this cost? Where is the toilet? I dont speak English.

I dont understand you. Such phrases are memorized by rote to fit their
appropriate context. An example is the memorization of certain stock phrases
or sentences without internalized knowledge of the learners components.
Code-switching: is the use of a first or third language within a stream of
speech in the second language. Often code-switching subconsciously occurs
between two advanced learners with a common first language or not as a
compensatory strategy. Learners in the early stages of acquisition, however,
night code-switch use their native language to fill in missing Knowledge
whether the hearer knows that native language or not. Sometimes the learner
slips in just a cord or two, in the hope that the hearer will get the gist of what
is being communicated.

Cohen and Aphek (1981) found that successful learners in their study made
use of word association and generating their own rules.

Chesterfield and chesterfield (1985) reported instances of self-talk as learners

practiced their second language.

Rest and Ross (1991) discovered that learners benefited from asking for
repetition and seeking various forms of clarification.

Huang and Van Naerssen (1987) attributed the oral production success of
Chinese learners of English to functional practice (using language for
communication) and, even more interesting, to reading practice. And the
research continues.
Strategies-Base Introductions (SBI):

These are the application of both Learning and Communication Strategies to

classroom learning; and are known as learner strategy training, too.

Wenden (1985) was among the first to assert that learner strategies are there
key to learner autonomy, and that one of the most important goal of language
teaching should be the facilitation of that autonomy.

Teachers can benefit from an understanding of what makes learners successful

and unsuccessful, and establish in the classroom a milieu for the realization of
successful strategies. However, it has been found that students will benefit
from SBI if they
a) Understand the strategy itself
b) Perceive it to be affective and
c) Do not consider its implementation to be overly difficult (Macintyre
an Noels 1996).

Making a general but comprehensive
Advance Organizers preview of the organizing concept or
principle in an anticipated learning
Deciding in advance to attend in
Direct Attention general to a learning task and to ignore
irrelevant distractors.
Deciding in advance to attend to
Selective Attention specific a aspects of language input or
situational details that will cue the
retention or language input.
Understanding the conditions that help
Self-Management one learn and arranging for the
presence of those conditions.

Planning for and rehearsing linguistic

Functional Planning components necessary to carry out an
upcoming language task.

Correcting ones speech for accuracy

in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary,
Self-Monitoring or for appropriateness related to the
setting or to the people who are
Consciously deciding to postpone
Delayed Production speaking in order to learn initially
though listening comprehension.
Checking the outcomes of ones own
Self-Evaluation language leaning against an internal
measure of completeness and

Cognitive Strategies

Repetition Imitating A language model,

including overt practice and silent

Resourcing Using target language reference


Using the first language as a base

for understanding and/or producing
Translation the second language.

Reordering or reclassifying, and

perhaps labeling, the material to
Grouping be learned based on common

Writing down main idea, important

points, outline, or summary of
Note taking information present orally or in
Cognitive Strategies

Consciously applying rules to produce or

understand the second language

Constructing a meaningful sentence or

larger language sequence by combining
Recombination known elements in a new way.

Relating new information to visual concepts

in memory via familiar, easily retrievable
Imagery visualizations, phrases, or locations.

Retention of a word, phrase, or longer

Auditory language sequence.

Remembering a new word in the second

language by (1) identifying a familiar word
Keyword in the first language that sounds like or
otherwise resembles the new word and (2)
generation easily recalled images of some
relationship between the new word and the
familiar word.

Contextualization Placing a word or phrase in a meaningful

language sequence.

Elaboration Relating new information to the concepts in


Using previously acquired linguistic and/or

conceptual knowledge to facilitate a new
Transfer language learning task.

Inferencing Using available information to guess

meanings of new items, predict outcomes,
or fill in missing information.
Socioaffective Strategies

Working with one or more

peers to obtain feedback,
Cooperation pool information, or model a
language activity.

Asking a teacher or other

native speaker for repetition,
Question for Clarification and/or examples.