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Innovative Green Technology for Mbay City

Drainage System to Reach Sustainable Development


(case study of Mbay City, Aesesa District, Nagekeo Regency, NTT Province, Indonesia)

Susilawati
Civil Engineering Department
UNIKA Widya Mandira
Kupang, Indonesia
srsusipi@yahoo.com

Abstract Mbay city has a unique area that consists of three ground water recharge during rainy season, causing the dug
areas i.e. hilly on the upstream part, urban plain and rice field wells to dry out. Triggered by these flood and drought
plain (Fig. 1). The hilly parts are deforested hills with high challenges that happen time and again, we think it necessary to
erosion which brings huge sediment to the lowest part i.e. develop an innovative green technology to cope up with and to
urban and rice field plain. When the rainfall comes it will overcome this situation, especially the one that takes place in
cause flash floods which inundate urban area for quite long Mbay.
time because the urban plain is covered by alluvium sediment
that forms impervious layer. The concept of eco-drainage Urban settlement Sea
which is based not only on how to channel away the flood plain
water to the sea, but also on how to manage the runoff water
and use it during the drought season, will bring the innovative
green technology to reach sustainable development. This Rice Field plain
technology consists of: (1) the water trap series which are
Hilly parts
placed along the natural drainage gully that will slow down
the runoff water along the natural drainage by trapping and
giving the running water greater chance to infiltrate the soil as
groundwater recharge; (2) the polder system which is placed
on the downstream of gullies that protects the urban area from
flash flood and supplies available water for domestic
requirement; and (3) the fish skeleton long storage, which is
placed on the rice field plain that protects this area from
brackish water caused by tidal sea. This integrated drainage
system approach will decrease the cost of drainage system Figure 1 Satellite image of Mbay City [2]
construction and paves the way for sustainable development. The main problems of this area are: (1) how to cope with
the flash flood and drought disasters that frequently happen,
Keywords- innovative green technology, water trap, eco- causing losses both in the urban area and in the rice-field area;
drainage, polder system, fish skeleton long storage. (2) How to develop an innovative green technology system to
I. INTRODUCTION cope with these flood and drought problems which includes the
idea of environmental conservation.
Mbay city has a unique area that consists of three parts i.e.
hilly section on the upstream part, urban plain and rice field II. CONCEPT AND STRATEGY OF ECO-DRAINAGE
plain (Fig. 1). The hilly parts being highly deforested and Contrary to the concept of conventional drainage where the
eroded brings huge sediment to the lowest part i.e. urban and basic idea is the physical strengthening of an area, Eco-
rice field plain. When the rainfall comes it causes flash floods drainage is an integrated concept of sustainable development.
which inundate urban area for quite a long time because the Based on this principle, development of drainages is not only
urban plain is covered by alluvium sediment that forms an meant to channel the rainwater, but also to contribute positively
impervious layer [1]. to social, economic and environmental aspects. The benefits of
Urban plain often has flood problem during rainy season. Eco-drainage other than flood prevention are that:
That happens because of deforestation on the hills causing the a. It increases the quality of standard water
water to flow directly to the urban area without any drainage b. It becomes recharge for groundwater
that channels the runoff to the sea or prevents if from gushing c. It develops recreation spots
into the paddy field area downstream. Urban plain area also d. It supports economic activity, and
has drought problem during the dry season because of no e. It evaluates the implementation of spatial planning.
The conventional drainage is basically in the form of 3. River side polder method. This is a method of retaining
conveyance. In conventional drainage (Fig. 2) the whole flowing water and managing the (rain) water surplus.
rainwater that falls on a particular place must be channeled into
the river as soon as possible, and further to the sea. This will
result in the fact that groundwater deposit decreases in such a
way that it will cause drought disaster in the future.

Figure 5
River Side-Polder
in the upstream and
Figure 2. central areas [3]

Concept of conventional drainage


[3]
III. INNOVATIVE GREEN TECHNOLOGY FOR MBAY
CITY DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO REACH SUSTAINABLE
On the contrary, the concept of Eco-drainage is how to manage DEVELOPMENT
the surplus water by not immediately channel it to the sea but
As mention in the introduction and problem statement
to percolate it to the soil as a recharge for groundwater. This
above, that Mbay City have three part areas i.e. hilly on the
can be done in various methods [3].
upstream part, urban plain and rice field plain in the
1. Conservation pond method. (Fig. 3) What is done is downstream part, so it will be made three approaches to cope
making water ponds in urban area, in the settlement area, these problems. These approaches consist of how to cope the
in farms and in plantation. Conservation pond is made to problem in the hilly, the urban plain and the rice field plain
store rainwater before percolating it into the soil while the part.
rest is channeled slowly into the river. Conservation pond
A. Water Traps Series along The Gully and Soil Conservation
is made by utilizing topographically low areas, ex sand
mining location, and other abandoned excavations or by for The Hilly Part of Mbay City
digging a specified area. Conservation pond is also Water trap is a construction to trap water that flows in
advantageous for recreation area. natural drainage gullies or in dried up brooks with the purpose
of inhibiting the surface runoff. The water trap is made in a
series so that the purpose of slowing down the surface runoff
can be fulfilled. The water embanked in the traps is percolated
into the soil as recharge for groundwater deposit. The water
that overflows around the trap can be used to irrigate plants
around the trap construction. (Fig. 6)

Figure 3
Rainwater Conservation m.a.t

Pond Eco-Drainage [3]


Laut

2. Absorption well method. This method is done by digging


wells to store rainwater that falls from the roof or from any Figure 6
heights (Fig. 4). This absorption well can also be
developed in sport and tourism zones. Construction and Laut Hydraulic Sketch of
depth of the well is adjusted to the local soil condition. It Water Trap Series
should be noted that the absorption well is specifically [5]
meant for rainwater so that the people around the area The development of water trap system is based on the idea
should be notified not to put garbage into it. of natural conservation. The concept of this natural
conservation are: (1) to prevent runoff from flowing directly
downstream and to the sea, (2) to trap water by several check
dam series along the natural drainage gullies so that it will slow
down the flow of runoff, (3) to give the chance for water to
infiltrate to the soil as a ground water recharge.
Figure 4 The concept of water trap includes the ideas of: first, the
slowing down of surface runoff in natural gullies or in dried up
Rainwater conservation brooks. It is expected that this will overcome the flood that
with Absorption Well [4] takes place in the rainy season. Mutunga et al. [6] described it
as reclamation of water gullies according to Kalekye system
(Fig. 7); second, infiltrating the water into the soil as recharge
for groundwater deposit. It is expected that this will overcome
drought that takes place in dry season and also can support the
vegetation program to cope the erosion problem.

Figure 7
Reclamation of Gullies
according to Kalekye system [6]
Figure 12 Sand Bag Check

Figure 8
Vegetation system with fish
scale holes. [7]

Some types of water-trap series constructions are described


in Figures 9 15. These constructions are applied according to Figure 13 Log water-trap
the existing and available field materials.

Figure 9 Water-trap of wired stones Figure 14 Water-trap of stacked logs

Figure 10 Water-trap of brickworks


Figure 15 Multi Arch Check
B. Polder System Placed on the Downstream Gullies
To control the problem in the settlement section of the
central part that belongs to urban area and becomes the center
for local administration, where inundating water and flood
often take place due to runoff water from the hilly area, we
conduct a simultaneous management of the hilly upstream area
and the central area with the concept of eco-drainage.
Figure 11 Straw water trap for soil natural gullies
The handling of central part or the settlement area is done C. The Fish Skeleton Long Storage Placed on The Rice Field
through two approaches, namely: Plain and Seashore
1. The physical approach through the engineering of means To overcome the zonal problem of lowland-downstream-
and infrastructure which is an eco-hydraulic approach in coastal area that is often intruded by seawater, we perform a
the form of drainage series and retention ponds with a simultaneous handling of the hilly upstream area and the
zonal concept and a construction for household-scale central area with the concept of eco-drainage, and the handling
rainwater catchment area. of downstream area with fish skeleton long storage. This
storage is meant to control the reverse current of the high tide,
2. Non-physical approach in the form of regional government so that this water does not disturb the irrigation system for rice
policies. fields. .
By eco-hydraulic approach we mean an approach in which The construction of fish skeleton long storage is explained
the urban drainage system is based on the ecological concept in Figure 17. This construction is applied according to the
or environment-conscious concept. This means that we do not available and existing field materials. [1].
immediately direct the flood water into the sea or the river, but
into a retention pond that functions as a flood breaker and at
the same time an urban lake that can be a tourism destination.
This urban lake can also be used as water reservation for
emergency condition where water supply is running out, for
fire extinguishing and for fresh water fish cultivation. Eco-
hydraulic for urban drainage system can also be done through
the concept of long storage channel.
The construction of urban lakes or retention ponds is
described in Fig.16. This construction is applied according to
the condition of available local field materials.

Figure 17 Construction of Fish Skeleton Long Storage


Lowland rice fields are protected from the intruding
seawater by constructing a canal that can also function as a
long storage construction for sea water that prevents it from
flowing into the rice field area during the high tide. This
construction can also be used as a place to cultivate brackish
water fish.
DISCUSSION
For Mbay case study, the water-trap system approach in
order to overcome flood and drought in an integrated method is
carried out on the concept of water-trap series which are placed
on the primary, secondary and tertiary natural drainage gullies.
The placement of water-trap series is determined by a model of
Decision Support System or DSS-Mbay Drain which is
developed according to the situation and condition of the
research location.
Research location is divided into four units of area systems
by the names of Left Mbay, Right Mbay, Central Mbay and
Mbay Four. By simulating every unit of area system according
to DSS-Mbay Drain program, we can determine the locations
of water trap series. These water trap series are equipped with
the data on the width of catchment area where the potential
rainwater can be controlled by percolating it into the soil, the
place of which can also be rightly selected.
Figure 16 Some types of constructions of urban lakes or An illustration of simulation can be seen in the following
retention ponds Figures 18, 19 and 20. Figure 18 shows the layout of water trap
series with its catchment area on the primary natural drainage
gullies in the area of Left Mbay. Figure 19 shows the layout of
water trap series with its catchment area on the secondary
natural drainage gullies in the area of Left Mbay, while Figure
20 indicates the same thing on the tertiary natural drainage
gullies in Left Mbay area

Figure 20 Layout of Water Traps Series Infrastructure


along the Tertiary Gully at Left Mbay [1]
IV. CONCLUSION
Figure 18 Layout of Water Traps Series Infrastructure By developing water trap series, the surface runoff that may
along the Main Gully at Left Mbay [1] cause flood can be controlled by slowing it down. The runoff
that is inhibited by water trap series will percolate in the soil to
become groundwater recharge that can become sufficient water
reserve to overcome drought in the dry season. In other words,
the water trap series system can overcome flood and drought in
an integrated fashion based on the idea of water resources
conservation
REFERENCES
[1] S. Susi, Final Report of Mbay City Urban Drainage Masterplan,
unpublished, 2010
[2] Google Earth, Satelite Image of Mbay City, 2003.
[3] M. Agus, Menangani Banjir, Kekeringan dan Lingkungan, Gajah
Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, 2005.
[4] BPPT, Teknologi Konservasi Air Tanah dengan Sumur Resapan,.
BPPT, Jakarta, 1999.
[5] S. Susi, Pengelolaan Air Hujan untuk Pertanian pada Pulau Kecil di
Kawasan Kering Indonesia. Gita Kasih, Kupang, Indonesia, 2011.
[6] K..Mutunga, W.Critchley, Farmers Initiatives in Land Husbandry:
Promising Technologies for The Drier Areas of East Africa. Nairobi:
Regional Land Management Unit (RELMA), Swedish International
Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), (RELMA Technical Report
Series ;27). http://www.prolinnova.net/Downloadable_files/TR27.pdf
Figure 19 Layout of Water Traps Series Infrastructure [7] Wu Bin, Soil Erosion and control Measures on the Loess Plateau,
along the secondary Gully at Left Mbay[1] China, http://www.unisdr.org/wcdr/thematic-sessions/presentations/
session4-10/dr-wu-final.pdf, 2006.
casestudyofMbayCity,AesesaDistrict,
NagekeoRegency,NTTProvince,Indonesia

SUSILAWATICICILIALAURENTIA
StudyArea
Introduction Problem
Statement

Conceptand Concept
Strategy Strategy

WaterTrapSeriesforThe
HillyPart
Innovativeand PolderSystemforThe
Development UrbanCityPlain
LongStorageSystemfor
TheRiceFieldPlain
StudyArea

Urban settlement Sea


plain
ImageMbay

Rice Field plain


ThreePart:
1. HillyPart
Hilly parts
2. Urban
Settlement
Plain
3. RiceField
Plain
DEMMbay
MbayValley
ProblemStatement

Themainproblemsofthisareaare:
Howtocopewiththeflashfloodand
droughtdisastersthatfrequentlyhappen,
causinglossesbothintheurbanareaandin
thericefieldarea
Howtodevelopaninnovativegreen
technologysystemtocopewiththeseflood
anddroughtproblemswhichincludesthe
ideaofenvironmentalconservation.
Concept:EcoDrainage
Nonconventionalengineeringproblemsolutionby
drainagecanalstoflowexcesswatertothesea
Anintegratedandsustainabledevelopment basedon
theprincipleofwaterconservationandenvironmental
aspecttocontributepositivelytosocial,economicand
environmental
Strategy:
Topercolatetheexcesswatertothesoilasa
groundwaterrecharge
Toconservethedrainwatertothepoldersystem
Tostorethebrackishwaterfromhightidetothelong
storagesystem
WaterTrapSeriesforTheHillyPart
Isaconstructiontotrapwaterthatflowsin
naturaldrainagegulliesorindriedupbrookswith
thepurposeofinhibitingthesurfacerunoff
Thewaterembankedinthetrapsispercolated
intothesoilasgroundwaterrecharge.
Thewaterthatoverflowsaroundthetrapcanbe
usedtoirrigateplantsaroundthetrap
construction
m.a.t

Laut

Laut
ReclamationofGullies
accordingtoKalekye system(Mutunga,2006)
topreventrunofffromflowingdirectly
downstreamandtothesea
totrapwaterbyseveralcheckdam
seriesalongthenaturaldrainagegullies
sothatitwillslowdowntheflowof
runoff
togivethechanceforwatertoinfiltrate
tothesoilasagroundwaterrecharge

Vegetationsystemwithfishscaleholesforsoil
andwaterconservationstrategy(WuBin,2006)
Logwatertrap

SandBagCheck
Watertrapofwiredstones

Watertrapofstackedlogs

Watertrapofbrickworks

MultiArchCheck

Strawwatertrapfor
soilnaturalgullies
PolderSystemforTheUrbanCityPlain
PlacedontheDownstreamGullies
notimmediatelydirectthefloodwaterintothe
seaortheriver,butintoaretentionpondthat
functionsasafloodbreakerandatthesametime
anurbanlakethatcanbeatourismdestination
thisurbanlakecanalsobeusedaswater
reservationforemergencyconditionwherewater
supplyisrunningout,forfireextinguishingandfor
freshwaterfishcultivation
LongStorageSystemforTheRiceFieldPlain
PlacedonTheRiceFieldPlainandSeashore
Toovercomethezonalproblemoflowland
downstreamcoastalareathatisoftenintrudedby
seawater
Performasimultaneoushandlingofthehilly
upstreamareaandthecentralareawiththeconcept
ofecodrainage
Thehandlingofdownstreamareawithfishskeleton
longstorage.Thisstorageismeanttocontrolthe
reversecurrentofthehightide,sothatthiswater
doesnotdisturbtheirrigationsystemforricefields.
Layout
System
InnovativeGreenTechnologyforMbay CityDrainage
System:
WaterTrapSeries:
Thesurfacerunoffthatmaycausefloodcanbecontrolledbyslowingit
down
Waterwillpercolateintosoilbecomeasgroundwaterrecharge,thatcan
becomesufficientwaterreservetoovercomedroughtinthedryseason
PolderSystemPlacedintheUrbanPlainArea:
Controlexcesswaterbyretentionpondasurbanlake
Canbeastourismdestination
LongStorageSystemPlacedintheRiceFieldPlainArea:
Controlbrackishwaterfromhightidebystoreitinthelongstorage
system
Canbeplantbrackishfishforincreaseeconomic