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Comparison Geometry

MSRI Publications
Volume 30, 1997

A Complete Riemannian Manifold of Positive

Ricci Curvature with Euclidean Volume Growth
and Nonunique Asymptotic Cone
G. PERELMAN

Consider the metric ds2 = dt2 + A2 (t) dx2 + B 2 (t) dy2 + C 2 (t) dz 2 , where t is
the radial coordinate and x, y, z are spherical coordinates with [X, T ] = [Y, T ] =
[Z, T ] = 0, [X, Y ] = 2Z, [Y, Z] = 2X, and [Z, X] = 2Y . (Taking A(t) = B(t) =
C(t) = t we get the standard Euclidean metric.) A straightforward computation
gives
A00
hR(X, T )T, Xi = kXk2 kT k2 ,
A
hR(X, Y )Y, Xi = kXk2 kY k2
 A0 B 0 1

+ (A4 +B 4 3C 4 +2A2 C 2 +2B 2 C 2 2A2 B 2 )
AB A B2 C 2
2

and similar equalities obtained by permutation of the pairs (X, A), (Y, B), (Z, C);
similarly

hR(X, Y )Z, T i = kXk kY k kZk kT k

1
 A0 B0

(C 2 +A2 B 2 )+ (A2 B 2 C 2 )+2C 0 C ,
ABC A B
while hR(X, T )T, Y i = hR(T, Y )T, Zi = hR(Z, T )T, Xi = hR(X, Y )Y, Zi =
hR(Y,Z)Z,Xi=hR(Z,X)X,Y i=hR(T,X)X,Y i=hR(T,X)X,Zi=hR(T,Y )Y,Xi=
hR(T, Y )Y, Zi = hR(T, Z)Z, Xi = hR(T, Z)Z, Y i = 0. In particular, the matrix of
Ricci curvature in these coordinates is diagonal. Now take
1

A(t) = 10 t 1 + (t) sin(ln ln t) ,
1
1
B(t) = 10 t 1 + (t) sin(ln ln t) ,
1

C(t) = 10 t 1 (t) ,

This note was prepared when the author was visiting the Courant Institute of Mathematical
Sciences.

165
166 G. PERELMAN

where (t) is a smooth function such that (t) = 0 for t [0, T ] (where T > 0 is a
sufficiently big number), (t) > 0 for t > T , 0 0 (t) t2 , and |00(t)| t3 ;
and (t) is a smooth function such that (t) = 0 for t [0, T /2], 0 (t), 00 (t) > 0
for t (T /2, T ), and 0 (t) = (t ln3/2 t)1 for t > T .
Computation shows that kRmk = O(t2 ) and Ric(T, T ) C/(t2 ln3/2 t),
while Ric(X, X), Ric(Y, Y ), Ric(Z, Z) are all C/t2 . It is also clear that the
asymptotic cone is not unique. It remains only to smooth off the vertex (t = 0),
where our space is isometric to a cone over a sphere of constant curvature 100.
Remark. Mike Anderson has pointed out to me that a similar construction was
used earlier by Brian White, in the context of surfaces in euclidean spaces.

G. Perelman
St. Petersburg Branch
V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics (POMI)