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Comparison Geometry

MSRI Publications
Volume 30, 1997

A Complete Riemannian Manifold of Positive


Ricci Curvature with Euclidean Volume Growth
and Nonunique Asymptotic Cone
G. PERELMAN

Consider the metric ds2 = dt2 + A2 (t) dx2 + B 2 (t) dy2 + C 2 (t) dz 2 , where t is
the radial coordinate and x, y, z are spherical coordinates with [X, T ] = [Y, T ] =
[Z, T ] = 0, [X, Y ] = 2Z, [Y, Z] = 2X, and [Z, X] = 2Y . (Taking A(t) = B(t) =
C(t) = t we get the standard Euclidean metric.) A straightforward computation
gives
A00
hR(X, T )T, Xi = kXk2 kT k2 ,
A
hR(X, Y )Y, Xi = kXk2 kY k2
 A0 B 0 1

+ (A4 +B 4 3C 4 +2A2 C 2 +2B 2 C 2 2A2 B 2 )
AB A B2 C 2
2

and similar equalities obtained by permutation of the pairs (X, A), (Y, B), (Z, C);
similarly

hR(X, Y )Z, T i = kXk kY k kZk kT k


1
 A0 B0

(C 2 +A2 B 2 )+ (A2 B 2 C 2 )+2C 0 C ,
ABC A B
while hR(X, T )T, Y i = hR(T, Y )T, Zi = hR(Z, T )T, Xi = hR(X, Y )Y, Zi =
hR(Y,Z)Z,Xi=hR(Z,X)X,Y i=hR(T,X)X,Y i=hR(T,X)X,Zi=hR(T,Y )Y,Xi=
hR(T, Y )Y, Zi = hR(T, Z)Z, Xi = hR(T, Z)Z, Y i = 0. In particular, the matrix of
Ricci curvature in these coordinates is diagonal. Now take
1

A(t) = 10 t 1 + (t) sin(ln ln t) ,
1
1
B(t) = 10 t 1 + (t) sin(ln ln t) ,
1

C(t) = 10 t 1 (t) ,

This note was prepared when the author was visiting the Courant Institute of Mathematical
Sciences.

165
166 G. PERELMAN

where (t) is a smooth function such that (t) = 0 for t [0, T ] (where T > 0 is a
sufficiently big number), (t) > 0 for t > T , 0 0 (t) t2 , and |00(t)| t3 ;
and (t) is a smooth function such that (t) = 0 for t [0, T /2], 0 (t), 00 (t) > 0
for t (T /2, T ), and 0 (t) = (t ln3/2 t)1 for t > T .
Computation shows that kRmk = O(t2 ) and Ric(T, T ) C/(t2 ln3/2 t),
while Ric(X, X), Ric(Y, Y ), Ric(Z, Z) are all C/t2 . It is also clear that the
asymptotic cone is not unique. It remains only to smooth off the vertex (t = 0),
where our space is isometric to a cone over a sphere of constant curvature 100.
Remark. Mike Anderson has pointed out to me that a similar construction was
used earlier by Brian White, in the context of surfaces in euclidean spaces.

G. Perelman
St. Petersburg Branch
V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics (POMI)
Russian Academy of Sciences
Fontanka 27
St. Petersburg, 191011
Russia
perelman@pdmi.ras.ru