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Geometry m1 Topic e Lesson 28 Teacher

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GEOMETRY

Student Outcomes

Students complete proofs that incorporate properties of parallelograms.

Lesson Notes

Throughout this module, we have seen the theme of building new facts with the use of established ones. We see this

again in Lesson 28, where triangle congruence criteria are used to demonstrate why certain properties of parallelograms

hold true. We begin establishing new facts using only the definition of a parallelogram and the properties we have

assumed when proving statements. Students combine the basic definition of a parallelogram with triangle congruence

criteria to yield properties taken for granted in earlier grades, such as opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel.

Classwork

Opening Exercise (5 minutes)

Opening Exercise

AAS

c. corresponds with

Discussion

How can we use our knowledge of triangle congruence criteria to establish other geometry facts? For instance, what can

we now prove about the properties of parallelograms?

To date, we have defined a parallelogram to be a quadrilateral in which both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.

However, we have assumed other details about parallelograms to be true, too. We assume that:

Opposite angles are congruent.

Diagonals bisect each other.

233

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NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

Example 1

If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram, then its opposite sides and angles are equal in measure. Complete the diagram, and

develop an appropriate Given and Prove for this case. Use triangle congruence criteria to demonstrate why opposite

sides and angles of a parallelogram are congruent.

Given: Parallelogram ( ,

)

Prove: = , = , = , =

parallel. Draw diagonal

.

PROOF:

Parallelogram Given

D C

= If parallel lines are cut by a

transversal, then alternate interior angles are equal in measure.

= Reflexive property

are equal in measure.

ASA

+ = ,

Example 2

If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram, then the diagonals bisect each other. Complete the diagram, and develop an

appropriate Given and Prove for this case. Use triangle congruence criteria to demonstrate why diagonals of a

parallelogram bisect each other. Remember, now that we have proved opposite sides and angles of a parallelogram to be

congruent, we are free to use these facts as needed (i.e., = , = , , ).

Given: Parallelogram

parallel. Draw diagonals

and

.

PROOF:

Parallelogram Given

= If parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then alternate interior angles are equal in measure.

AAS

234

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This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org

This file derived from GEO-M1-TE-1.3.0-07.2015 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

Now we have established why the properties of parallelograms that we have assumed to be true are in fact true. By

extension, these facts hold for any type of parallelogram, including rectangles, squares, and rhombuses. Let us look at

one last fact concerning rectangles. We established that the diagonals of general parallelograms bisect each other. Let us

now demonstrate that a rectangle has congruent diagonals.

Students may need a reminder that a rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles.

Example 3

If the parallelogram is a rectangle, then the diagonals are equal in length. Complete the diagram, and develop an

appropriate Given and Prove for this case. Use triangle congruence criteria to demonstrate why diagonals of a rectangle

are congruent. As in the last proof, remember to use any already proven facts as needed.

Given: Rectangle

add small squares at the vertices to indicate angles. Draw

and

diagonals .

PROOF:

Rectangle Given

= Reflexive property

SAS

Converse Properties: Now we examine the converse of each of the properties we proved. Begin with the property, and

prove that the quadrilateral is in fact a parallelogram.

Example 4

If both pairs of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are equal, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Draw an

appropriate diagram, and provide the relevant Given and Prove for this case.

235

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NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

. Label the measures of and as . Label

Draw diagonal A B

x o t o

as , , , and . u o

PROOF:

r o

x o

s o

= + , = + Angle addition

+ = + Substitution

, If two lines are cut by a transversal such that a pair of

alternate interior angles are equal in measure, then the lines

are parallel.

Example 5

If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Draw an appropriate

diagram, and provide the relevant Given and Prove for this case.

equal. Draw diagonal

.

PROOF:

D C

= Reflexive property

SSS

,

If two lines are cut by a transversal and the alternate interior angles

are congruent, then the lines are parallel.

236

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This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org

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NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

Example 6

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Draw an appropriate

diagram, and provide the relevant Given and Prove for this case. Use triangle congruence criteria to demonstrate why the

quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

Given: and

Quadrilateral , diagonals bisect each other.

Draw diagonals

and

.

PROOF: E

and

Quadrilateral , diagonals bisect each other. Given D C

= , = Definition of a segment bisector

, SAS

congruent.

,

If two lines are cut by a transversal such that a pair of

alternate interior angles are congruent, then the lines

are parallel.

Example 7

If the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal in length, then the parallelogram is a rectangle. Complete the diagram, and

develop an appropriate Given and Prove for this case.

Prove: is a rectangle.

and

. G H

PROOF:

= , = Reflexive property J I

= Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent.

, SSS

in measure.

angles on the same side are supplementary.

237

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NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

Closing (1 minute)

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel. We have proved the following properties

of a parallelogram to be true: Opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, diagonals bisect

each other.

238

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NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

Exit Ticket

and

Prove: Diagonals intersect perpendicularly.

239

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NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

and

Given: Equilateral parallelogram (i.e., a rhombus) with diagonals

Rhombus Given

= , = Diagonals of a parallelogram

bisect each other.

= = = Definition of equilateral

parallelogram

SSS

each angle measures .

Use the facts you have established to complete exercises involving different types of parallelograms.

1.

Given: , = , =

Prove: is a rhombus.

.

Construction: Draw diagonal

= , = Given

= Reflexive property

SSS

= = = Transitive property

2. .

Given: Rectangle , is the midpoint of

Prove: is isosceles.

Rectangle Given

congruent.

.

is the midpoint of Given

= Definition of a midpoint

SAS

Corresponding sides of congruent triangles are congruent.

240

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This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org

This file derived from GEO-M1-TE-1.3.0-07.2015 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

bisects ,

Prove: is a parallelogram.

is a parallelogram; Given

bisects ,

bisects .

+ = , + = Angle addition

+ = , + = Substitution

() = , () = Addition

= , = Division

Substitution

ASA

congruent.

congruent.

4. Given: is a rectangle, = , =

Prove: is a parallelogram.

= , = Opposite sides of a

rectangle are congruent.

is a rectangle; Given

= , =

= + , = + Segment addition

+ = + Substitution

+ = + Substitution

= Subtraction

= = = = Definition of a rectangle

HL

SAS

241

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This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org

This file derived from GEO-M1-TE-1.3.0-07.2015 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 28 M1

GEOMETRY

5. and

Given: Parallelogram , = , are segments.

Prove: =

Opposite sides of a

parallelogram are

parallel.

a transversal, then

alternate interior angles are equal in measure.

= Given

AAS

242

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This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 2015 Great Minds. eureka-math.org

This file derived from GEO-M1-TE-1.3.0-07.2015 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

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