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1. What are the potential impact of global climate change on health?

a. Increases in regional food yield

b. Decreases aeroallergent such as spores and mold
c. Increases in transmission of many infectious diseases especially waterborne,
foodborne and vectorborne
d. Decreases ozon
e. No mental health changes

2. Wht are the effect og chronic UVB exposure on the aye?

a. Photokertitis
b. Snow blindness
c. Photoconjungtivitis
d. Pterigium
e. Catarac

3. These are the examples of health risks arising from global trade processes, except..
a. Infectious disease that now spread more easily because of increased worldwide travel
b. Spread of smoking-related disease as the tobacco industry globalizes its marker
c. Expansion of the international drug trade, exploiting the inner-urban underclass
d. Increasing prevalence of hypertension in aging urban population
e. Diseases of dietary excess as food production and food processing become intensified
and as urban consumer preference are shaped increasingly by globally promoted

4. What is the best known examples of global environmental change?

a. Climate change and ozone depletion
b. Urbanization and land degradation
c. Global dissemintaion of persistent organic pollutants
d. Ecological disruption and disruption of elemental cycles
e. Depletion of freshwater supplies

5. The following are some facts about UVB and its impact towards human body, except:
a. UVB is the main source of vitamin D which essential for skeletal health and
preventing autoimmune diseases.
b. Chronic exposure to UVB is one of the risk factors of pterygium and squamous cell
carcinoma of corne and conjungtiva
c. A retinal sunburn can occurs indirectly as the eye see the sunlight.
d. UVB is three to four times as effective as UVA in causing erythema
e. UVB doesnt penetrate tissue as deep as UVA, therefore its main deleterious effects
on human healths are on superficial tissue

6. Global Trade and Development is one of the things that happen in globalization era. It can
cause several health risk, except:
a. Spread of smoking related disease as the tobacco industry globalizes its market
b. Expansion of the International drug trade, exploiting the inner urban underclass
c. Infectious diseases that now spread more easily
d. Increase the prevalence of malnutrition sufferer due to economic embargo
towards a country
e. Increase the prevalence of depression and mental illness in aging and socially
fragmented urban population

7. Ultraviolet radiation is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum with wave lengths just
shorter than the violet component of visible light. Surface-level ambient UVR consists of
a. most of the incident solar UVA, which almost completely penetrates the atmosphere
b. less than 1 % of incoming solar UVB, most of which is filtered out by stratospheric
c. no short-wave UVC, which is completely absorbed in the atmosphere\
d. a, b and c are right
e. a and c are right

8. Indirect impact of climate change will result from

a. Decreases in regional food yields, especially those of cereal grains
b. Increases in other extreme weather events, such as fl oods, cyclones, and droughts
c. Increased exposure to certain air pollutants and aeroallergens, such as spores and
d. Changes in exposure to weather extremes, such as heat waves and winter cold

9. Occupational and environmental safety and health hazards can be classified in many ways,
including the following, except
a. Safey hazard
b. Health hazard
c. Biomechanic hazard
d. Biologic hazard
e. Economic hazard

10. What is the various trace gases in the atmosphere, that produce a natural greenhouse
effect, which warms the earth by 30 C and keeps it comfortably above freezing point?
a. carbon dioxide
b. oxygen
c. carbon monoxide
d. nitrogen
e. helium

11. The most global environmental changes that are hazardous to human health is
a. Land degradation
b. Depletion of freshwater supplies and water stress
c. Global dissemination of persistent pollutants
d. Depletion of stratospheric ozone
e. Changes in global elemental cycles (esp. nitrogen, phosphorus)
12. Which of the following gases is mainly responsible for the atmospheric greenhouse
a. Nitrogen
b. Carbon dioxide
c. Water vapor
d. Methane
e. other humanmade halocarbons

13. Several pollutants in ambient air appear to contribute to asthma attacks, except
a. PM 2.5
b. PM 10
c. Ozone
d. Oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur dioxide
e. Nitrogen

14. New movement in planning and community development is smart growth. What is smart
a. An urban planning approach that focuses on concentrated growth, mixed-use
development compact, walkable, pedestrian-friendly, transitoriented neighborhoods
to reduce sprawl and improve neighborhood sustainability
b. An urban planning approach that focuses on mixed-use development compact,
walkable, pedestrian-friendly, transitoriented neighborhoods to reduce sprawl and
improve neighborhood sustainability.
c. An urban design movement that focuses on the development of walkable communities
d. An urban design movement that focuses on the development of communities
e. An urban design movement that focuses on the development of growth

15. Between 1997 and 2001, foreign-born workers were 18% more likely to die at work
then native-born workers. These are the factors that influence the problems, except...
a. Language barriers
b. Lack of familiarity with programs to protect workers
c. Fear of speaking up
d. Socio-cultural barriers
e. Unauthorized immigrants

16. Disproportional burden of environmental exposure on low impact and minority

communities may impact on this aspect, except..
a. Low environmental quality
b. Increase level of pollution
c. Increase adverse health outcomes
d. Increase the sum of poor people
e. Increaae quality of live

17. When is the first treaty about tobacco control that was sign under auspies of WHO ?
a. 2003
b. 2005
c. 2006
d. 2007
e. 2002

18. What the meaning of contingent workers ?

a Workers who are not employed full time and long term by a single employer
b Workers who are immigrant from outside of United States
c Workers who have an 2 shift of works
d Workers who have an permanent contract
e Workers who are works for many employers

19. Health inequities resulting from environmental and occupational injustice are challenging
to eliminate, especially given the complex social, political, and economic forces that have
created and sustained them. New approaches to public health interventions should
recognize these complexities and should develop comprehensive and more effective public
health prevention programs. One especially promising approach has emerged: community-
driven research, also known as...
a community-based participatory research
b community-based research
c community-based examination
d community-based experience

20. many low-income populations and populations of color live in neighborhoods that are
differentially burdened, due to discriminatory and exclusionary zoning, by toxic land uses
and polluting industrial facilities such as, except .....
a landlls
b hazardous waste sites
c sewer treatment plants
d petrochemical plants
e fast food restaurant

21. Below are the objectives of occupational and environmental health surveillance,
a. To characterize the most common types of injuries and illness related to occupational
and environmental factors, their causes, and their risk factors.
b. To characterize affected populations
c. To identify new or previously unidentified risk factors that should be researched
d. To characterize the distribution of occupational and environmental health hazards
e. To train the workers about occupational and environmental health issues

22. What is case-based and population based surveillance?

a. Involves the ongoing and rapid identification of cases for purpose of follow-up
investigation of, and possible intervention for, affected individuals
b. Relies on reports to a public health agency of injury or illness submitted by reporting
individuals or facilities
c. Can be particularly valuable when disease latency periods are long, so identifying
communities can lead to primary prevention, even without data on affected persons
d. Providing data on local variations in occupational injuries and illnesses, respond to
state-specific needs, and facilitate local intervention activities
e. Is the primary national occupational health surveillance system in the United States
and designed to count and describe all fatal work-related injuries in the states.

23. Surveillance is designed to obtain, analyze, and disseminate information on disorders

that have already occured. Surveiilance implies watchingout or watching over, and it
may consist of, except?
a. Watching out for single events that signal a breakdown in prevention
b. Reviewing grouped or aggregate data for subtle trends that may be significant for an
entire population norms
c. Can treat the problem by using specific guidelines.
d. Reviewing grouped or aggregate data to discern trends in tjeoccurence of illnesses,
injuries, or deaths.
e. Identify the need for control measures to prevent further hazardous exosures.

24. A clinician has the opportunities for preventive action after identifying a case of
occupational or environmnetal disease or injury, except?
a. Advise the patient
b. Contact an appropiate labor or environental organization
c. With the consent of the patient, contact the responsible party, such as the patients
employers or landlord
d. Inform the appropiategovemental regulatory agency
e. Obtaining and analyzing the problem or the disease.

25. The correct statements about active and passive surveillance are, except.
a. active surveillance involves a more aggressive approach to case finding.
b. Passive surveillance relies on reports to a public health agency of injury or illness
submitted by reporting individuals or facilities.
c. which is generally used in conducting surveillance of communicable diseases, is
based on the concept of a sentinel health event a warning sign that
prevention has failed and intervention is warranted.
d. Most surveillance systems require some degree of ongoing feedback and
communication withthose reporting cases to ensure continued success.
e. Active surveillance, which is more costly and labor intensive, may be necessary
when a passive approach is ineffective.

26. Which one is the occupational health indicator?

a. Workers employed in occupations with high risk for occupational morbidity
b. Amputations identified in state workers compensation systems
c. Carpal tunnel syndrome cases identified in state workers compensation system
d. Pneumoconiosis mortality
e. All answers are correct

27. How can the changing climate and weather affect human health?
a. Increase frequency or severity of existing health risks
b. Introduce health risks to geographic regions where they have not previously
c. Shift the timing of seasonal health risks
d. All of the above
e. None of them are correct

28. Particapatory learning generally requires more trainee-trainee interaction than lecture-
style presentations. Groups should be limited to approximately 20 participants, and
these may be subdivided into groups exercises. Participatory teaching methods include
a variety of techniques.
Which on the following techniques whose definition is no true?
a. Speakouts (large-group discussions): Participants share their experiences in relation
to a particular hazard or situation
b. Brainstorming sessions: The instructo provides a particular question or problem;
the participants call out their ideas, which are recorded on a flipchart so that
patterns are identified and a collective work is created. In this activity, trainer
elicits information from the participants, rather than presenting it in a diabetic
c. Buzz groups (small-groups discussions or views of the group
d. Case studies (small-groups exercises): Participants apply new knowledge and skills
in the exploration of sollutions to a particular problem or situation
e. Hazard mapping: participants go back into the worplace or community to
obtain certain items, such as OSHA-300 logs for their workplaced or Toxic
Release Inventory records for their communities, or perform activities, such
as interviewing co-workers regarding a particular hazard. This information is
then brought back into the classroom for discussion

29. A man, 42 years old, a worker in chemical factory since 20 years ago, was diagnosed
with peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy was excluded and the
doctor suspected that the neuropathy was caused by chemical substance from the
factory. What is the substance which does not cause peripheral neuropathy?
a. Arsenic
b. Methyl n-butyl kethone
c. Lead
d. Helium
e. Mercury

30. Which are the following statement that include in seven cardinal rules for effective
risk of communication, except .....
a. Listen
b. Be honest, frank, and open
c. Coordinate with the mass
d. Speak clearly and with compassion
e. Plan carefully and evaluate perfomance

31. Workplace problems should not be compartmentalized from enviromnetal problems.

Cleaner Production/Pollution Prevention approaches need to be integrated into
occupational and enviromental health. The following statement are included in primary
prevention, except .....
a. Hazard surveillance
b. Medical surveillance
c. Exposure assessment
d. Work organization
e. Exposure prevention

32. Virtually any respiratory symptom can be related to occupational and enviromental
factors. The mistakenly assumed as sole agents that responsible for respiratory disease
is .....
a. Nitrous oxide
b. Carbon monoxide
c. Cigaretes
d. PM10
e. Ozone

33. This material can cause symptoms of parkinsonism is .....

a. Metil n butyl ketone
b. Mercury
c. Arsenic
d. Carbon disulfide
e. Mangan

34. Preventing occupational and environmental illness and injuries can be perform by
involving these sequence, except ....
a. Obtaining information the causal relationship between exposures and outcome by
performing research, and disseminating this information.
b. Identifiying or diagnosing health problems in individual groups
c. Developing, communicating, and implementing preventive measures
d. Evaluating the process and outcome of implementing these measures
e. Making regulation about exposure and hazardous that can affect the workers

35. Certain type of health condition related to work require the clinican to take more in-
depth approach. In case noise induce hearing loss, what clinican can do to prevent cases
affecting other workers?
a. Limit the period of time for worker to contact with machinery thing.
b. Give the workers protection tools, like ear plug and ear muff if they have to
work in a noisy area.
c. Stop using machine which produce noisy sound.
d. Design other machine with less noisy sound to replace the old machine.
e. Say to the leader of the company to make a soundproof workshop.

36. Which following statement is incorrect, in order to reduce or eliminate the risks in work
a. Job redesign
b. Alternative work practices
c. Changes in work organization
d. Make physical work less repetitive
e. Grant the latest equipment for work

37. In the workplace setting, a worker usually use individual protective equipment to
prevent any harm. This is an example of
a. Primary prevention
b. Secondary prevention
c. Tertiary prevention
d. Primitive prevention
e. All above are incorrect

38. There are 2 ways to implement primary prevention in the workplace setting, which are
primary prevention at organizational level and primary prevention at individual level.
The example of primary prevention at an organizational level is .....
a. Education and training
b. Personal protective equipment
c. Subtitusion of hazardous substances with a safer one
d. Administrative measures
e. Avoiding hazardous environment

39. The concept of greenhouse gases are as such.

a. Carbon dioxide emission block infrared radiation from the earths surface,
leading to trapping of heat
b. Carbon monoxide emission block infrared radiation from the earths surface,
leading to trapping of heat
c. The release of CFC causes damage to the earths ozone layer and permits entry of
UV light that was formerly exclude into the earths atmosphere
d. Sulfur and nitrogen cant travel long distance after being released from tall
chimneys and causing acid rain in that place
e. Houses with many green plants produce gas emission which is dangerous when

40. United Nations and World Health Organization promoted the International Decade for
Drinking Water and Sanitation that promulgated clear standards of water quality for
community water supplies, including village well which are..
a. Protection of wells from human and animal wastes
b. Regular or periodic chlorination
c. Supervision by trained and supervised village health workers
d. A and B
e. A,B, and C

41. What is Geographic epidemiology?

a the description of spatial patterns of disease incidence and mortality
b the description of incidence and distribution,
c the description of possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health
d the description of factors controlling the presence or absence of a disease or

42. What diseases have the largest total annual health burden globally from
environmental factors according to the World Health Organization?
a Prenatal conditions
b Malaria
c Diarrhoea
d Upper reparatory tract infections

43. Tetraethyl lead used in fuel was promoted to improve automobile performance. This
caused a long struggle between public health regulatory agencies and the automobile
industry. Current professional opinion is that there are no safe level of blood lead and
that levels under are also harmful to the brain of young children. What is
one of the target of Healthy People 2010 ?
a Reduction of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs >10 gg/dL)
b Reduction in use of lead in gasoline since 1976 ;
c Reduced use of food and soft drink cans containing lead solder
d Reduced use of lead - based house paint ;

44. Pesticides and herbicides are used to increase agricultural production is a worldwide
phenomenon. Excessive use affects the ecosystem by the buildup of pesticides in the
food chain and in groundwater, and the long-term effects may be serious. Short-term
exposure to agricultural chemicals may result in
a acute poisoning
b brain damage
c miscarriage
d spina bifida

45. What is sick building syndrome?

a A common symptomatology (headache, eye and nose irritation, dizzines,
fatigue, wheezing) among individual working in a spesific building
b A chronic neurologic disordir that was first reported in Japan in 1968
c It is usually caused by methyl mercury, a heavy metal with many industrial uses
d A and C are correct
e None of above is correct

46. What is the difference between ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation?
a Ionizing radiation consists of two types: optic and some electromagnetic fields
b Ionizing radiation has a higher energy than non-ionizing radiation
c The harmful effects of ionizing radiation are photochemical, thermal, and
d Non-ionizing radiation can cause cataract , while ionizing radiation can not

47. Which is the postulate that has been pioneering public health science in epidemiology
of infectious and noninfectious disease?
a. Koch Postulate
b. Pasteur Postulate
c. Lister Postulate
d. Mandel Postulate
e. Newton Postulate

48. The discovery of genetic studies in human health to determin gentic diseases was
important in public health program in these fields, except.....
a. Screening
b. Education
c. Individual counseling
d. Prevention
e. None of the above

49. The reduction of mortality rates among those attended to by medical staff compared to
the rate of those attended to by midwives, by requiring doctors and medical students
to soak their hands in chlorinated lime after autopsies was a public health program
a. Screening
b. Education
c. Individual counseling
d. Prevention
e. None of the above

50. Particulate matter in air pollution has both physical and chemical effects on the
nasopharynx and respiratory tract. A variety of syndromes are associated with specific
respiratory irritants. What kind of specific respiratory irritants that can affect
respiratory tract?

A. Coal dust and lead

B. Sulfur oxide and lead

C. Cotton dust and sulfur oxide

D. Nitrit oxide and coal dust

E. Coal dust and cotton dust

51. In both developed and developing countries, ambient air pollutants are derived mainly
from fuel combustion, they include primary pollutants, secondary acidic aerosols and
other particles, and oxidant pollutants (primarily ozone). What reactions that can
produce oxidant pollutants?

a. Chemical reactions such as carbon and nitrit oxide

b. Chemical reactions involving nitrogen and hydrogen

c. Photochemical reactions involving hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen

d. Photocemical reactions such as hydrogen and oxides of nitrogen

e. Photochemical reactions involving oxygen and hydrogen

52. Nowadays occupational health become one of the most recognized international
health issue. Which one of these following is more likely to cause these event:
a. global economy transfers manufacturing from one country to another with
great speed and ease
b. therere so many accidents that happen in work
c. it has a good prospect in career to all of the doctors who has not yet decided their
career options
d. occupational health need to be studies more so it must be more recognized first
e. because it has been said by world health organization about acknowledgement of
occupational health importance

53. In USA, what institution is responsible for romulgation and enforcement in work
d. WHO
e. ILO

54. Choose the right arragement for Treatment of Community Wastewater:

a. Biological treatment by mechanical methods- Removal of Solids- Combination of
physical, chemical, and biological processes to reduce particle- Disinfection by
introducing chlorine
b. Removal of solids- Chemical Treatment by biological methods- Combination of
physical, chemical, and biological processes to reduce particle- Disinfection by
introducing chlorine
c. Removal of solids- Biological Treatment by mechanical methods-
Combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes to reduce
particle- Disinfection by introducing chlorine
d. Chemical Treatment by biological methods- Combination of physical, chemical,
and biological processes to reduce particle- Removal of solids- Disinfection by
introducing chlorine
e. Removal of solids- Disinfection by introducing chlorine- Chemical Treatment by
biological methods- Combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes
to reduce particle

55. Which toxic subtance will cause a condition of massive fibrosis of the lungs and
known as "Fatal Dust"?
A. Abestos
B. Byssinosis
C. Silica
D. Vinyl Chloride
E. Agent orange

56. There are great inequities in access to medical care, especially for the working poor,
who are disproportionately uninsured or underinsured, which contribute to
a. the severity of work related injuries and illnesses
b. workers compensation coverage
c. reduce the sick level
d. higher levels of pain intensity
e. psychological distress

57. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), included special side
agreements to address concerns about workplace and environmental protections are
monitored by
a. Mexico, United States, and Canada
b. California, Mexico, and England
c. Singapore, California, and Mexico
d. Canada, Japan, and United States
e. Mexico, Singapore, and Japan

58. Temporary workers have higher rates of mental health problems, these barriers are
likely to disproportionately affect low-status and temporary workers because of their
job insecurity, job mobility, and lack of health insurance than those employed in
standard work arrangement or permanent workers. Which one of these illnes that is
not related to the temporary workers?
a. Depression
b. Muscular disorders
c. Gastorintestinal disorders
d. Fatal work-related injuries
e. Skeletal disorders

59. Many factors contributed to inequitable development in urban, suburban, and rural
ares. Which one of these factors that is related to inequitable development ?
a. Discriminatory housing police
b. Deindustrialization
c. Poor zoning and planning
d. Segretation massive highway construction
e. all the statements is true

60. Low-wage workers are more likely to be female, young, black

or Hispanic, and working in an industry with a very high injury rate.
Although there have been many signicant advances in civil rights
in the United States, African Americans and members of other racial
and ethnic minority groups remain disproportionately employed in
hazardous jobs, while racism and other forms of discrimination
both in the community and the workplace contribute to additional
health risks. This situation is being called as?
a. Employers rights
b. Health inequities
c. Social agreement
d. Social norm
e. Health policy