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Numerical Methods
Unit-I: Numerical Methods-I

## Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of first order

and first degree: Picards method, Taylors series method, Modified
Eulers method, Runge-Kutta method of fourth order. Milnes and
Adams-Bashforth predictor and corrector methods [ No derivation of
formulae]

m
Unit-II: Numerical Methods-II

co
Numerical solution of simultaneous first order differential
equations: Picards method, Runge-Kutta method of fourth order.

s.
Numerical solution of second order ordinary differential equations:
bu
Picards method, Runge-kutta method and Milnes method.
la

yl
lls

## The most general form of an ODE of nth order is given by

.a

dy d 2 y d 3 y dn y
x, y, , 2 , 3 ,............., n = 0
-------- (1)
w

dx dx dx dx
w

w

## (x, y, c 1, c 2 , c 3 ,............., c n ) = 0 ------- (2)

If particular values are given to the constants then the resulting solution
is called a particular solution.

## To obtain a particular solution from the general solution (2), we

must be given n conditions so that the constants can be determined. If
all the n conditions are specified at the same value of x then the problem
is termed as initial value problem. If the conditions are specified at more
than one value of x, then the problem is termed as boundary value
problem.

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Though there are many analytical methods for finding the solution
of the equation of the form (1), there exist large number of ODEs whose
solution cannot be obtained by the known analytical methods. In such
cases, we use numerical methods to get an approximate solution of a
given differential equation under the prescribed conditions.

## Numerical solution of a Differential Equation dy

= f(x, y)
Consider the first order differential equation dx

Let y(x0 ), y(x1 ), ........y(x m ) be the solution values at the points x 0 , x1,..., x m
We wish to find the approximate values y 0 , y1, ........, y m to these solution
values.

Let the initial condition be y(x0 ) = y 0 . Let the exact solution y(x) of the

m
given differential equation be represented by a continuous curve. Divide

co
the interval [x 0 , x m ] on which the solution is derived into a finite number
of equispaced subintervals.

s.
bu
Approximate
la

solution
yl

Exact solution
lls
.a
w

x0 x1 x 2 x m-1 xm
w
w

For each x i , the approximate values of the dependent variable y(x) are
calculated using a suitable recursive formula. These values are y 0 , y1, ......, y m
and these are shown by points. Computation of these approximate
values is known as Numerical solution of the Differential equation.

## Numerical solution of ODEs of first order and first degree

dy
= f(x, y) , y(x 0 ) = y 0
dx

## Taylors series method

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Picards method
Modified Eulers method
Runge-Kutta method of fourth order

## Taylors Series method

dy
Let y = f(x) be a solution of the equation = f(x, y) , y(x 0 ) = y 0
dx
Expanding it by Taylors series about x = x 0 we get
2 3
f(x) = f(x 0 )+
(x x 0 ) f / (x )+
( x x 0 ) //
f (x )+
( x x 0 ) ///
f (x ) + .....
0 0 0
1! 2! 3!

m
This may be written as

co
y(x) = y 0 +
(x x 0 ) y /
+
(x x 0 )2 y //
+
(x x 0 )3 y ///
+ .....

s.
0 0 0
1! 2! bu 3!
Putting x = x1 = x 0 + h , we get
h / h2 // h3 ///
la
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + .....
1! 2! 3!
yl

Similarly
lls

h / h2 // h3 ///
y 2 = f(x 2 ) = y1 + y1 + y1 + y1 + .....
1! 2! 3!
.a
w

In general,
w

h / h2 // h3 ///
y n+1 = f(x n+1 ) = y n + y n + y n + y n + .....
w

1! 2! 3!

## Where y n = f(x n ), y n/ = f / (x n ), y n// = f // (x n ),........

Problem (1):
dy
Solve = x + y, y(1) = 0 numerically up to x=1.2 with h=0.1 by Taylors
dx

x0 =1 x1 =1.1 x2 =1.2

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series y0 =0 y1 =? y2 =? method
correct to
four decimal places. y / = x + y

## From the Taylors series, we have

m
h / h2 // h3 ///

co
y n+1 = f(x n+1 ) = y n + y n + y n + y n + ..... ---------- (1)
1! 2! 3!

s.
Where n=0, 1, 2,. bu
y/ = x + y y // = 1 + y / y /// = 1 + y //
la
yl

## Put n=0 in Eqn (1)

lls

h / h2 // h3 ///
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + ..... ----------- (2)
1! 2! 3!
.a

/
w

y0 = x0 + y0 = 1+ 0 = 1
w

// /
y0 = 1+ y0 = 1+ 1 = 2
w

/// //
y0 = y0 = 2

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2) we get

2 3
y1 = f(1.1) = 0 +
0.1
(1) +
(0.1) (2) + (0.1) (2) + .....
1! 2! 3!

y1 = y(1.1) = 0.1103

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## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

h / h2 // h3 /// ---------(3)
y 2 = f(x 2 ) = y1 + y1 + y1 + y1 + .....
1! 2! 3!

/
y1 = x1 + y1 = 1.1 + 0.1103 = 1.2103

// /
y1 = 1 + y1 = 1 + 1.2103 = 2.2103

/// //
y1 = y1 = 2.2103

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(3) we get

om
2 3
y 2 = 0.1103 +
0.1
(1.2103) +
(0.1) (2.2103) + (0.1) (2.2103) + ...
1! 2! 3!

.c
y 2 = y(1.2) = 0.2427

s
bu
_________________________________________________________
la

Problem (2):
yl

Apply Taylors series method to find the value of y(1.1) and y(1.2)
lls

dy 1
.a

## correct to 4 decimal places given that = xy 3

; y(1)=1 taking the
dx
w

## first four terms of the Taylors series expansion.

w
w

1
Soln: Given data: y / = xy 3
, h=0.1

x0 =1 x1 =1.1 x2 =1.2
y0 =1 y1 =? y2 =?

## From the Taylors series, we have

h h2 h 3 ------------(1)
y n +1 = f(x n +1) = y n + yn / + y n // + y n /// + .....
1! 2! 3!
1 2
x 2 2 5 3 / 2
2
y / = xy 3 1 1 2
y // = y 3
+ x. .y 3 .y / y /// = y 3 y / + y 3 y // + y (y )
3 3 3 3

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## Put n=0 in Eqn (1)

h / h2 // h3 ///
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + ..... ----------- (2)
1! 2! 3!
1 1
y 0/ = x 0 y 0 3 = (1)(1) 3 =1
2
2
//
1 1 1 1 3
y =y
0 0
3
+ x 0 . .y 0 3 .y 0/ = (1) 3 + (1) (1) = 1.3333
3 3
2 2 3 / x 0 2 3 // 2 5 3 / 2
y 0/// = y 0 y 0 + y 0 y 0 y 0 (y 0 ) = 0.8888
3 3 3

m
Substituting all these values in Eqn(2) we get

co
2 3
y1 = 1 +
0.1
(1) +
(0.1) (1.3333) + (0.1) (0.8888) + .....
1! 2! 3!

y1 = y(1.1) = 1.1068
s.
bu
Put n=1 in Eqn(1)
la

h / h2 // h3 ///
yl

1! 2! 3!
l ls

1 1
.a

## y1/ = x1y1 3 = (1.1)(1.1068 ) 3 = 1.1378

w

-2
1 1 1 1 -2
y =y //
1 1
3
+ x1.y13 .y1/ = (1.1068 ) 3 + (1.1)(1.1068 ) 3 (1.1378 ) = 1.4242
w

3 3
w

2 2 3 / x1 2 3 // 2 5 3 / 2
y1/// = y1 y1 + y1 y1 y1 (y1 ) = 0.8438
3 3 3

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(3) we get

2 3
y 2 = 1.1068 +
0.1
(1.1378) +
(0.1) (1.4242) + (0.1) (0.8438)
1! 2! 3!

y 2 = y(1.2) = 1.2278

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Problem (3):

## Use Taylors series method to approximate y when x=0.1 correct to 4

dy
decimal places given that = 3x + y 2 and y=1 when x=0 by taking the
dx
first five terms of the Taylors series expansion.

## Soln: Given data: y / = 3 x + y 2, h=0.1

x0 =0 x1 =0.1
y0 =1 y1 =?

om
From the Taylors series, we have

.c
h / h2 // h3 ///
y n+1 = f(xn+1 ) = y n + y n + y n + y n + ..... ----------(1)

## Where n=0, 1, 2,.

1! 2! 3!
b us
la

y / = 3x + y 2 y // = 3 + 2yy // (
y /// = 2 yy // + (y / )
2
)
yl
lls

.a

h / h2 // h3 ///
w

## y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + ..... -----------(2)

1! 2! 3!
w

= 3 x0 + y 2 = 0 + 12 = 1
w

y0
0
y 0// = 3 + 2y 0 y 0/ = 3 + (2)(1)(1) = 5 ( ) ( )
y 0/// = 2 y 0 y 0// + (y 0/ ) = 2 (1)(5) + (1) = 12
2 2

yIV /// / //

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2) we get

2 3 4
y1 = 1 +
0.1
(1) +
(0.1) (5) + (0.1) (12) + (0.1) (54) = 1.1272
1! 2! 3! 4!
y(0.1)=1.1272

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Problem (4):
dy
Given = 1 + xy with the initial condition y=1 when x=0. Compute
dx
y(0.2) correct to 4 decimal places by using Taylors series method.

## Soln: Given data: y / = 1 + xy , h=0.2

x0 =0 x1 =0.2
y0 =1 y1 =?

m
co
From the Taylors series, we have

s.
h / h2 // h3 ///
y n+1 = f(x n+1 ) = y n + y n + y n + y n + ..... ------------(1)
bu
1! 2! 3!
la
y / = 1 + xy y // = xy / + y y /// = xy // + y / + y / = xy // + 2y /
yl

lls
.a

h / h2 // h3 ///
w

## y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + ..... -----------(2)

1! 2! 3!
w

y 0// = x 0 y 0/ + y 0 = (0)(1) + 1 = 1
w

/
y 0 = 1 + x 0 y 0 = 1 + (0)(1) = 1

## y 0/// = x 0 y 0// + 2y 0/ = (0)(1) + (2)(1) = 2 y IV /// //

0 = x 0 y 0 + 3y 0 = (0)(2) + (3)(1) = 3

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2) we get

y1 = 1 +
0.2
(1) +
(0.2)2 (1) + (0.2)3 (2) + (0.2)4 (3) + ........
1! 2! 3! 4!

y1 = y(0.2) = 1.2228

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Problem (5):

Use Taylors series method to find the value of y at x=0.1 and x=0.2
dy
correct to 5 decimal places from = x 2 y - 1 , y(0)=1.
dx

## Soln: Given data: y / = x 2 y - 1 , h=0.1

x0 =0 x1 =0.1 x2 =0.2
y0 =1 y1 =? y2 =?

om
From the Taylors series, we have

.c
y n+1 = f(x n+1 ) = y n +
h / h2 // h3 ///
1! 2! 3!
b us
y n + y n + y n + ..... ----------(1)

## Where n=0, 1, 2,.

la

y/ = x2y - 1 y // = 2xy + x 2 y /
yl
lls

.a

w
w

## Put n=0 in Eqn(1)

w

h / h2 // h3 ///
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + ..... -----------(2)
1! 2! 3!

## y 0/// = 2y 0 + 4x 0 y 0/ + x 02 y 0// = 2(1) + 4(0)(-1) + (0)(0) = 2

y IV / // 2 ///
0 = 6y 0 + 6x 0 y 0 + x 0 y 0 = 6(-1) + 6(0)(0) + (0)(2) = -6

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2) we get

y1 = 1 +
0.1
(-1) +
(0.1)2 (0) + (0.1)3 (2) + (0.1)4 (-6) + ... = 0.90030
1! 2! 3! 4!
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## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

h / h2 // h3 /// ---------(3)
y 2 = f(x 2 ) = y1 + y1 + y1 + y1 + .....
1! 2! 3!
y1/ = x 12 y1 - 1(0.1) 2 (0.90030) 1 = 0.99099
2
y1// = 2x 1y1 + x12 y1/ = 2(0.1)(0.9003 ) + (0.1) ( 0.99099 ) = 0.17015

## y1/// = 2y 1 + 4x 1y1/ + x12 y 1// = 2(0.9003) + 4(0.1)(-0. 99099) + (0.1) 2 (0.17015)

om
= 1.40590

.c
y1IV = 6y 1/ + 6x 1y1// + x12 y1///

= -5.82979
b us
= 6(-0.99099 ) + 6(0.1)(0.1 7015) + (0.1) 2 (1.40590)
la

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(3) we get

yl

2 3
0.1 (0.1) (0.17015) + (0.1) (1.40590)
lls

y 2 = 0.9003 + (-0.99099) +
1! 2! 3!
.a

4
+
(0.1)
(-5.82979)
4!
w

y 2 = y(0.2) = 0.80226
w
w

_________________________________________________________

Problem (6):

Using Taylors series method find y to five decimal places when x=1.02
x0 =1 x1 =1.02
y0 =2 y1 =?

## given that dy = (xy - 1)dx and y=2 when x=1

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## Soln: Given data: dy

= xy - 1 , h=0.02
dx

## From the Taylors series, we have

h / h2 // h3 /// ------------(1)
y n+1 = f(xn+1 ) = y n + y n + y n + y n + .....
1! 2! 3!

y / = xy - 1 y // = xy / + y

om
y /// = xy // + y / + y / = xy // + 2y /

.c
yIV = xy /// + y // + 2y // = xy /// + 3y //

s
bu
Put n=0 in Eqn(1)
la
h / h2 // h3 ///
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + ..... -----------(2)
yl

1! 2! 3!
lls

y 0/ = x 0 y 0 - 1 = (1)(2) 1 = 1
.a
w

y 0// = x 0 y 0/ + y 0 = (1)(1) + 2 = 3
w
w

## y 0/// = x 0 y 0// + 2y 0/ = (1)(3) + 2(1) = 5

y IV /// //
0 = x 0 y 0 + 3y 0 = (1)(5) + (3)(3) = 14

## 0.02 (0.02 )2 (0.02)3 (0.02 )4

y1 = 2 + (1) + (3) + (5) + (14) + ....
1! 2! 3! 4!

y1 = y(1.02) = 2.02000

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Problem (7):

## Employ Taylors method to obtain the approximate value of y at x=0.2 for

dy
the differential equation = 2y + 3e x y(0)=0, correct to three places of
dx
decimal.

## Soln: Given data: y / = 2y + 3e x , h=0.2

m
x0 =0 x1 =0.2

co
y0 =0 y1 =?

s.
From the Taylors series, we have bu
h / h2 // h3 ///
y n+1 = f(x n+1 ) = y n + y n + y n + y n + ..... ----------(1)
la
1! 2! 3!
yl

## Where n=0, 1, 2,.

lls

y / = 2y + 3e x y // = 2y / + 3e x
.a

yIV = 2y /// + 3e x
w

y /// = 2y // + 3e x
w
w

## Put n=0 in Eqn(1)

h / h2 // h3 /// -----------(2)
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + .....
1! 2! 3!

y 0/ = 2y 0 + 3e x = (2)(0) + 3e0 = 3
0

y 0// = 2y 0/ + 3e x = (2)(3) + 3e 0 = 9
0

## y 0/// = 2y 0// + 3e x = (2)(9) + 3e0 = 21

0

x
yIV ///
0 = 2y 0 + 3e = (2)(21) + 3e 0 = 45
0

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## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2) we get

y1 = 0 +
0.2
(3) +
(0.2)2 (9) + (0.2)3 (21) + (0.2)4 (45) + ....
1! 2! 3! 4!

y1 = y(0.2) = 0.811

_________________________________________________________

Problem (8):
dy
Solve = y + x3 for x=1.1 and x=1.2, given y(1)=1 correct to four

om
dx
decimal places by using Taylors series method.

.c
Soln: Given data: y / = y + x 3 , h=0.1

x0 =1 x1 =1.1
b us x2 =1.2
la
y0 =1 y1 =? y2 =?
yl

lls

h / h2 // h3 ///
.a

1! 2! 3!
w

w

w

## Put n=0 in Eqn(1)

h / h2 // h3 /// -----------(2)
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + .....
1! 2! 3!

## y 0/// = y 0// + 6x 0 = (5) + 6(1) = 11 yIV ///

0 = y 0 + 6 = 11 + 6 = 17

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## 0.1 (0.1)2 (0.1)3 (0.1)4

y1 = 1 + (2) + (5) + (11) + (17) + .... = 1.2269
1! 2! 3! 4!
Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

h / h2 // h3 /// ---------(3)
y 2 = f(x 2 ) = y1 + y1 + y1 + y1 + .....
1! 2! 3!
y1/ = y 1 + x13 = (1.2269) + (1.1)3 = 2.5579

## y1/// = y1// + 6x 1 = (6.1879) + 6(1.1) = 12.7879

m
co
y1IV = y1/// + 6 = 12.7879 + 6 = 18.7879

s.
Substituting all these values in Eqn(3) we get bu
y 2 = 1.2269 +
0.1
(2.5579) +
(0.1)2 (6.1879) + (0.1)3 (12.7879) + (0.1)4 (18.7879)...
la
1! 2! 3! 4!
yl

= 1.5158
lls

_________________________________
.a
w

Problem(9):
w

dy
Solve = 1 - 2xy , y(0)=0 by Taylors series method for x=0.2 correct
dx
w

## to four decimal places. {Ans: y(0.2)=0.1947}

Problem(10):
dy
Solve + xy = 0 , y(0)=1 by Taylors series method for x=0.1 in steps
dx
of 0.05 correct to four decimal places. {Ans: y(0.1)=0.9950}

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Picards method
dy
Consider the initial value problem = f(x, y) , y(x 0 ) = y 0 ---------- (1)
dx
Integrating Eqn(1) from x 0 to x , we get
x
y = y 0 + f(x, y)dx ---------- (2)
x 0

## Equation (2) is called Integral equation. Such an equation can be

om
solved by successive approximation.
x
The first approximation y1 of y is given by y1 = y 0 + f(x, y 0 )dx

.c
x 0

x
The second approximation is given by y 2 = y 0 + f(x, y1 )dx
x
b us x 0

## Similarly y 3 = y 0 + x f(x, y 2 )dx

la
. .
0

. .
yl

. .
lls

x
y n = y 0 + f(x, y n-1 )dx
x 0
.a

The process of iteration is stopped when the values of y n-1 and y n are
the same to the desired accuracy.
w

_________________________________________________________
w
w

Problem (1):
dy
Solve = 1 + y 2 , y (0) =0 by Picards method up to third approximation.
dx
2
Soln: Given data: f(x, y) = 1 + y ; x 0 = 0 ; y 0 = 0
x
Picards iterative formula is given by y n = y 0 + f(x, y n-1 )dx
x 0

x x x
y n = 0 + (1 + y n2-1 )dx = 1.dx + (y n2-1 )dx
0 0 0

x
y n = x + (y n2-1 )dx ------- (1)
0

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## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

x x
y1 = x + (y 02 )dx = x + (0 )dx = x
0 0

## Put n=2 in Eqn(1)

x x3
x
y 2 = x + (y )dx = x + (x )dx = x +
2
1
2
0 0 3

## Put n=3 in Eqn(1)

2
x x3 xx 3 2x 5 x 7
y 3 = x + (y )dx = x + x + dx =
2
2 + +
0 0 3 3 15 63

m
co
s.
Problem (2):
bu
dy 2
Use Picards method to approximate y when x=0.1 & x=0.2 for dx = x + y
la
yl

## y(0)=0 by considering third approximation correct to 4 decimal places.

lls

2
Soln: Given data: f(x, y) = x + y
.a

x0 =0 x1 =0.1 x2 =0.2
w

y0 =0 y(0.1)=? y(0.2)=?
w
w

x
Picards iterative formula is given by y n = y 0 + f(x, y n-1 )dx
x 0

x
yn = y0 +
x
(x + y )dx
2
n-1
--------(1)
0

## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

0.1
2
(x + 0 )dx = x = 0.0050
x 0.1
y1 = y 0 + (x + y )dx = 0 +
2
0
x 0
0 2 0

## Put n=2 in Eqn(1)

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0.1
x2
(x + y )dx = 0 + (x + (0.0050 ) )
x 0.1 2
y2 = y0 +
2
1 dx = = 0.0050
x 0
0 2 0
Put n=3 in Eqn(1)
0.1
x2
y3 = y0 +
x
(x + y )dx = 0 + (x + (0.0050 ) )
2
2
0.1 2
dx = = 0.0050
x 0
0 2 0
Thus y (0.1) = 0.0050 .
Step (2): To find y(0.2)

## Let x 0 = 0.1 y 0 = 0.0050

0.2
y n = 0.0050 + (x + y )dx
2
n-1 ---------- (2)

m
0.1

## Put n=1 in Eqn(2)

co
y1 = 0.0050 +
0.2
(x + y )dx = 0.0050 + (x + (0.0050 ) )dx = 0.02
2
0.2 2

s.
0
0.1 bu 0.1

## Put n=2 in Eqn(2)

0.2
(x + (y ) )dx 2 0.2
(x + (0.02 ) )dx
2
la
y 2 = 0.0050 + 1 = 0.0050 +
0.1 0.1
yl

0.2
x2 2
= 0.0050 + + (0.02 ) x
lls

2 0.1
= 0.0200
.a
w

## Similarly by putting n=3 in Eqn(2), we obtain

w

0.2
(x + (0.02) )dx = 0.0200
2
w

y 3 = 0.0050 +
0.1

Thus
y (0.2) = 0.0200 _____________________________________________
___________

Problem (3):
dy
Use Picards method to solve = x 2 y , y(0)=1 for x=0.2 .
dx
x0 =0 xf(x, y) = x 2 y
1 =0.2

y0 =1 y(0.2)=?

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## Picards iterative formula is given by x

y n = y 0 + f(x, y n-1 )dx
x 0

0.2
yn = 1+
0
(x 2
y n-1 )dx -------(1)

## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

0.2 0.2
y1 = 1 +
0
(x 2
y 0 )dx = 1 +
0
(x 2
1)dx = 0.8026
Put n=2 in Eqn(1)
0.2 0.2
(x 2
y1 )dx = 1 + (x 2
0.8026 )dx = 0.8421

m
y2 = 1+
0 0

co
Put n=3 in Eqn(1)

s.
0.2 0.2
y3 = 1+
0
(x 2
y 2 )dx = 1 +
0
(x 2
0.8421)dx = 0.8342
bu
Put n=4 in Eqn(1)
la
0.2 0.2
y 4 = 1+ (x 2
y 3 )dx = 1 + (x 2
0.8342 )dx = 0.8358
yl

0 0

lls
.a

## Since y4 & y5 are the same up to four places of decimals

w

y(0.2)=0.8355
w

_________________________________________________________
w

Problem (4):
dy
Solve = x 2 + 2xy , y (0) =0 by Picards method up to the third
dx
approximation.

## Soln: Given data: f(x, y) = x 2 + 2xy ; x 0 = 0 ; y 0 = 0

x
Picards iterative formula is given by y n = y 0 + f(x, y n-1 )dx
x 0

x
y n = 0 + (x 2 + 2xy n1 )dx
0

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--------(1)

## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

3
x x x
(x + 2xy 0 )dx = (x )dx =
2 2
y1 =
0 0 3
Put n=2 in Eqn(1)
x x x3 x3 x5
y 2 = (x 2 + 2xy1 )dx = x 2 + 2x dx = + 2
0 0 3 3 15

## Put n=3 in Eqn(1)

x x x3 5
2 2
y 3 = x + 2xy 2 dx = x + 2x +2
x dx
3 15
0 0

om
x 3
y3 = x2 + 2 x 4 + 4 x6 dx = x + 2 x5 + 4 x7
0 3 15 3 15 105

s .c
bu
_________________________________________________________
la
yl

Problem(5):
lls

dy
Solve by Picards method = 1 + xy , y(0)=1 for x=0.1 Correct to four
dx
.a

decimal places.
w
w

## Soln: Given data: f(x, y) = 1 + xy

w

x0 =0 x1 =0.1
y0 =1 y(0.1)=?
x
Picards iterative formula is given by y n = y 0 + f(x, y n-1 )dx
x 0

0.1
yn = 1+ (1 + xyn1 )dx ---------(1)
0

## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

0.1
0.1 0.1 x2
y1 = 1 + (1 + xy 0 )dx = 1 + (1 + x ) = 1 + x + = 1.105
0 0 2 0

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## Since y2 & y3 are the same up to four places of decimals y(0.1)=1.1055

Problem (6):
dy
Given the differential equation = x y , with the condition y=1 when
dx
x=0, use Picards method to obtain y for x=0.2 correct to four decimal

places.

m
Soln: Given data:
f(x, y) = x - y

co
x0 =0 x1 =0.2
y0 =1 y(0.2)=?
s.
bu
x
Picards iterative formula is given by y n = y 0 + x f(x, y n-1 )dx
la
0
yl

0.2
yn = 1 + (x - y n1 )dx ---------(1)
ls

0
l
.a

## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

0.2
2
(x - 1) = 1 + x x = 0.82
w

0.2 0.2
y1 = 1 + (x - y 0 )dx = 1 +
0 0 2 0
w

## Put n=2 in Eqn(1)

w

0.2 0.2
y2 = 1+ (x - y1 )dx = 1 + (x - 0.82 )dx
0 0
0.2
x2
= 1 + - 0.82x = 0.856
2 0
Similarly,
for n = 3, y 3 = 0.8488
n = 4, y 4 = 0.8502
n = 5, y 5 = 0.8499
n = 6, y 6 = 0.8500
n = 7, y 7 = 0.8500

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## Since y6 & y7 are the same up to four places of decimals

y(0.2)=0.8500

Problem (7):
dy y x
Given the differential equation = , with the condition y=1 when
dx y + x
x=0. Use Picards method to obtain y for x=0.1 correct to three decimal

places.
y-x
Soln: Given data: f(x, y) =
y+x

m
x0 =0 x1 =0.1

co
y0 =1 y(0.1)=?

s.
x
Picards iterative formula is given by y n = y 0 + x f(x, y n-1 )dx
bu
0

y n1 x
la
0.1
yn = 1+ dx ---------(1)
0 y n1 + x
yl

lls
.a

## 0.1 y0 x 0.1 1 x 0.1 x 1

y1 = 1 + dx = 1 + dx = 1+ dx
0 1 + x 1 + x
0
y0 + x 0
w
w

## 0.1 x + 1 2 0.1 x +1 2 0.1 2

dx dx = 1 1 dx
w

= 1 = 1
0 x +1 0 x + 1 x + 1 0 x + 1
0.1 0.1
y1 = 1 (x )0 + 2[log(x + 1)]0 = 1.090

## 0.1 y1 x 0.1 1.090 x

y2 = 1+ dx = 1 + dx
0 y1 + x 0 1.090 + x

## 0.1 1.090 - x 1.090 + 1.090 0.1 2(1.090) - (x + 1.090)

= 1+ dx = 1 + dx
0 1.090 + x 0 x + 1.090

0.1 2.18
= 1+ ]0.1
1dx = 1 + 2.18[log(x + 1.090 )Dr.
0 V. (x )0.1
Ramachandra
0 Murthy
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## Put n=3 in Eqn(1)

0.1 0.1
y2 x 1.091 x
y 3 = 1 + dx = 1 + dx
0 y2 + x
0 1.091 + x
0.1
1.091 - x 1.091 + 1.091
= 1+ dx
0 1.091 + x
0.1
2(1.091) - (x + 1.091)
= 1+ dx

m
0 x + 1.091

co
0.1
2.182
= 1+ 1dx

s.
0
x + 1.091 bu
= 1 + 2.182[log(x + 1.091)]0.1 (x )0.1
0 0
la
= 1.091
yl

## Since y2 & y3 are the same up to three places of decimals

lls

y(0.1)=1.091
.a

_________________________________________________________
w
w

Problem(8):
w

dy
Solve = y x 2 , y(0)=1 by Picards method up to third approximation
dx
and hence find the value of y at x=0.1.

## Soln: Given data: f(x, y) = y x 2

x
Picards iterative formula is given by y n = y 0 + f(x, y n-1 )dx
x 0

x
y n = 1 + (y n1 x 2 )dx ---------(1)
0

## Put n=1 in Eqn(1)

x
x x x3 x3
y 1 = 1 + (y 0 x )dx = 1 + (1 x )dx = 1 + x = 1 + x
2 2
0 0 3 0 3
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## Put n=3 in Eqn(1)

x x x2 x 4 x3
y 3 = 1 + (y 2 x )dx = 1 + 1 + x + x 2 dx
2
0 0 2 12 3
x x2 x3 x 4
= 1 + 1 + x dx
0 2 3 12

m
x2 x3 x 4 x5
= 1+ x +

co
2 6 12 60

s.
y(0.1)=1.1051 bu
_________________________________________________________
la

Problem(9):
yl

dy
Solve = 3x + y 2 , y(0)=1 for x=0.1 by Picards method correct to four
lls

dx
.a

w
w

Problem(10):
w

## Use Picards method to solve dy = x 2 + y 2 , y(0)=0 for x=0.4

dx
{Ans: y(0.4)=0.0214}

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## Modified Eulers method

Consider first order differential equation
dy
= f(x, y) , y(x 0 ) = y 0
dx

## (r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) r = 0,1,2,..

y n n n n +1 n +1
n +1 2
where y
(0) = y + hf (x , y ) (Euler' s formula) n = 0,1,2,...
___________________________________________________
n +1 n n n

m
_________________________________________________________

co
Problem(1):
Determine the value of y for x=0(0.05)0.1 given that

s.
dy
= x 2 + y, y(0) = 1, using Modified Eulers method up to four places of
bu
dx
decimal.
la

yl
lls

## x0 = 0 x1= 0.05 x 2 = 0.1

.a

y0 = 1 y1= ? y2 = ?
w
w

## Modified Eulers Formula is given by

w

(r +1) = y h
f (x n , y n ) + f x n +1, y
(r)
n +1
y n+ _______( 1)
n +1 2
where y
(0 ) = y n + hf (x n , y n ) ______(2) r = 0,1,2,...
n +1
n = 0,1,2,...

## Step-(1): (To find y1 = y(x1) = y(0.05) )

Put n=0 in Equations (1) and (2)

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y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______( 3)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
where y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y ) ______(4)
1 0 0 0

Initial approximation:
From Eqn(4)
y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y )
1 0 0 0

## = 1 + 0.05 x 2 + y 0 = 1 + 0.05[0 + 1] = 1.05

0
First approximation:
Put r=0 in Eqn(3)

om
(1) h (0)
y = y 0 + f (x 0 , y 0 ) + f x1, y
1 2 1

.c
0.05
= 1+

(x 0 )2 + y 0 + (x1)2 + y1(0)

= 1+
2
0.05 2

us
(0) + 1 + (0.05 )2 + 1.05 = 1.0513
b
2
la

Second approximation:
yl

## Put r=1 in Eqn(3)

lls

(2) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(1)
.a

y 0 0 0 1 1
1 2
w

0.05
= 1+

(x 0 )2 + y 0 + (x1)2 + y1(1)
w

2
w

0.05 2
= 1+

(0) + 1 + (0.05 )2 + 1.0513 = 1.0513
2

Since y
(1) and y (2) are the same correct to four decimal places
1 1
y(0.05)=1.0513

## Step-(2): (To find y 2 = y(x 2 ) = y(0.1) )

Put n=1 in Equations (1) and (2)

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(r +1) = y1 + h f (x (r)
y 1, y1) + f x 2 , y 2 _______(5)
2 2
( )
where y 0 = y1 + hf (x1, y1) ______(6)
2

Initial approximation:
From Eqn(6)
( )
y 0 = y1 + hf (x1, y1) = 1.0513 + 0.05 x 2 + y1
2 1
= 1.0513 + 0.05 (0.05 )2 + 1.0513 = 1.1039

First approximation:

m
Put r=0 in Eqn(5)

co
y
(1) = y h (0)
f (x1, y1) + f x 2 , y
2 1+ 2
2

s.
0.05
x1)2 + y1 + (x1)2 + y
( (0)
= 1.0513 +
bu
2 2
0.05
(0.05 )2 + 1.0513 + (0.1)2 + 1.1039
la
= 1.0513 +
2

yl

= 1.1054
lls

Second approximation:
.a

## Put r=1 in Eqn(5)

w

y
(2) = y h (1)
f (x1, y1) + f x 2 , y
1+
w

2 2 2
w

0.05
= 1.0513 +

(x1)2 + y1 + (x1)2 + y(1) 2
2
0.05
= 1.0513 + (0.05 )2 + 1.0513 + (0.1)2 + 1.1054 = 1.1055
2
Similarly y
(3 ) = 1.1055
2
(2) (3) are the same correct to four decimal places
Since y & y
2 2
y(0.1)=1.1055
Problem(2):
dy
Obtain the solution of the equation = x + y with y=1 when x=0 for y
dx
at x=0.6 in steps of 0.3 using Modified Eulers method correct to four

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decimal places.
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = x + y , h=0.3

## x0 = 0 x1= 0.3 x 2 = 0.6

y0 = 1 y1= ? y2 = ?

## Modified Eulers Formula is given by

y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______(1)
n n n n +1 n +1
n+1 2
( )
where y 0 = yn + hf (xn , yn ) ______(2)
n+1

om
Step-(1): (To find y1 = y(x1) = y(0.3) )
Put n=0 in Equations (1) and (2)

.c
y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______( 3)
1 0
( )
2
0 0
us
1 1

where y 0 = y 0 + hf (x 0 , y 0 ) ______(4)
b

1
la

Initial approximation:
yl

From Eqn(4)
lls

y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y )
1 0 0 0
.a

[ ]
= 1 + 0.3 x 0 + y 0 = 1 + 0.3[0 + 1] = 1.3
w

First approximation:
w

## Put r=0 in Eqn(3)

(1) h (0)
y = y 0 + f (x 0 , y 0 ) + f x1, y
w

1 2 1
0.3
= 1+ (x 0 ) + y 0 + (x1) + y1(0)
2
0.3
= 1+
2
[ ]
(0 ) + 1 + (0.3) + 1.3 = 1.3660
Second approximation:
Put r=1 in Eqn(3)

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y
(2) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(1)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
0.3 (1)
= 1+ ( x ) + y + ( x ) + y
2 1
0 0 1

y
(2) = 1 + 0.3 (0) + 1 + (0.3) + 1.3660 = 1.3703
[ ]
1 2

Similarly y
(3 ) = 1.3703
1
(2)
Since y & y
(3) are the same correct to four decimal places
1 1
y(0.3)=1.3703

m
Step-(2): (To find y 2 = y(x 2 ) = y(0.6) )
Put n=1 in Equations (1) and (2)

co
y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______(5)
0 1 1 2 2
2 2

s.

( )
where y 0 = y1 + hf (x1, y1) ______(6)
bu
2
la
Initial approximation:
yl

From Eqn(6)
lls

( )
y 0 = y1 + hf (x1, y1) = 1.3703 + 0.3 x1 + y1 ( )
2
.a

[
= 1.3703 + 0.3 (0.3 ) + 1.3703 ] = 1.8114
w
w

First approximation:
Put r=0 in Eqn(5)
w

(1) h (0)
y = y1 + f (x1, y1) + f x 2 , y
2 2 2
0.3 (0)
= 1.3703 + (x1) + y1 + (x 2 ) + y
2 2
0.3
= 1.3703 +
2
[
(0.3) + 1.3703 + (0.6) + ]
1.8114 = 1.8827

Similarly y
(2) = 1.8667, y (3) = 1.8869, y (4) = 1.8869
2 2 2

y(0.6)=1.8869

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Problem(3):
dy
Using Modified Eulers method find y(0.2) given that = x + y ; y(0)=1
dx
correct to four decimal places.

x0 = 0 x1= 0.2
y0 = 1 y1= ?

## Modified Eulers Formula is given by

(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______(1)

m
y n n n n +1 n +1
n+1 2

co
( )
where y 0 = yn + hf (xn , yn ) ______(2)
n+1

s.
To find y1 = y(x1) = y(0.2)
bu
Put n=0 in Equations (1) and (2)
la

y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______( 3)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
yl

( )
where y 0 = y 0 + hf (x 0 , y 0 ) ______(4)
lls

1
Initial approximation:
.a

From Eqn(4)
w

y
(0) = y + hf (x , y )
1 0 0 0
w

## = 1 + 0.2[x 0 + y 0 ] = 1 + 0.2[0 + 1] = 1.2

w

First approximation:
Put r=0 in Eqn(3)
(1) h (0)
y = y 0 + f (x 0 , y 0 ) + f x1, y
1 2 1
0.2
x 0 + y 0 + x1 + y
(0)
= 1+
2 1
0.2
= 1+ [0 + 1 + 0.2 + 1.2] = 1.24
2

Second approximation:
Put r=1 in Eqn(3)

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y
(2) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(1)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
0.2
x 0 + y 0 + x1 + y
(1)
= 1+
2 1

y
(2) = 1 + 0.2 [0 + 1 + 0.2 + 1.24] = 1.244
1 2

Similarly y
(3 ) = 1.2444 & y (4) = 1.2444
1 1
(3) (4)
Since y & y are the same correct to four decimal places
1 1
y(0.2)=1.2444

m
Problem(4):

co
Use Modified Eulers method to find the approximate value of y(1.1) for
dy
the solution of the initial value problem = 2xy , y(1)=1 correct to three

s.
dx
bu
decimal places. Perform two iterations.
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = 2xy , h=0.1
la
x0 = 1 x1= 1.1
y0 = 1 y1= ?
yl
lls

## Modified Eulers Formula is given by

(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______(1)
.a

y n n n n +1 n +1
n+1 2
w

( )
where y 0 = yn + hf (xn , yn ) ______(2)
w

n+1
To find y1 = y(x1) = y(1.1)
w

## Put n=0 in Equations (1) and (2)

y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______( 3)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
( )
where y 0 = y 0 + hf (x 0 , y 0 ) ______(4)
1

Initial approximation:
From Eqn(4)

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y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y )
1 0 0 0
= 1 + 0.1[2x 0 y 0 ] = 1 + 0.1[( 2)(1)(1)] = 1.2

First approximation:
Put r=0 in Eqn(3)
(1) h (0)
y = y 0 + f (x 0 , y 0 ) + f x1, y
1 2 1
0.1
2x 0 y 0 + 2x1y
(0)
= 1+
2 1
0.1
= 1+ [2(1)(1) + 2(1.1)(1.2)] = 1.232
2

m
Second approximation:
Put r=1 in Eqn(3)

co
(2) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(1)

s.
y 0 0 0 1 1
1 2
bu
0.1
2x 0 y 0 + 2x1y
(1)
= 1+
2 1
la

yl

y
1 2
lls

.a

Problem(5):
w

## Find y(1.2) and y(1.4) by Modified Eulers method given that

w

dy 2y
= + x3 , y(1)=0.5 correct to three decimal places.
w

dx x

2y
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = + x 3 , h=0.2
x
x0 = 1 x1= 1.2 x1= 1.4
y 0 = 0.5 y1= ? y1= ?

## Modified Eulers Formula is given by

(r +1) = y h
f (xn , yn ) + f xn +1, y
(r)
n +1
y n+ _______(1)
n+1 2
( )
where y 0 = yn + hf (xn , yn ) ______(2)
n+1

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## Step(1): To find y1 = y(x1) = y(1.2)

Put n=0 in Equations (1) and (2)

y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______( 3)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
( )
where y 0 = y 0 + hf (x 0 , y 0 ) ______(4)
1

Initial approximation:
From Eqn(4)
y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y )
1 0 0 0
2y

m
= 0.5 + 0.2 0 + (x 0 )3
x0

co
2(0.5)
= 0.5 + 0.2 + (1)3

s.
1 bu
= 0.9
la
yl

First approximation:
ls

## Put r=0 in Eqn(3)

(1) h (0)
y = y 0 + f (x 0 , y 0 ) + f x1, y
l
.a

1 2 1
w

2y
(0)
0.2 2y 0
= 0.5 + 3
+ (x 0 ) + 1 + (x1)
3
w

2 x0 x1

w

## 0.2 2(0.5 ) 2(0.9 )

= 0.5 + + (1)3 + + (1.2)3
2 1 1.2
= 1.0227

Second approximation:
Put r=1 in Eqn(3)

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y
(2) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(1)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
2y
(1)
0.2 2y 0
= 0.5 + 3
+ (x 0 ) + 1 + (x1)
3
2 x0 x1

0.2 2(0.5 ) 2(1.0227 )
= 0.5 + + (1)3 + + (1.2)3
2 1 1.2
= 1.043
Similarly y
(3) = 1.046 and y (4) = 1.046
1 1
(3) (4)
Since y & y are the same correct to four decimal places
1 1

m
y(1.2)=1.2444

co
Step(2): To find y 2 = y(x 2 ) = y(1.4)
Put n=1 in Equations (1) and (2)

s.
(r +1) = y h
bu
(r)
y 1+ f (x1, y1) + f x 2 , y _______( 5)
2 2 2
la
( )
where y 0 = y1 + hf (x1, y1) ______(6)
2
yl
ls

Initial approximation:
From Eqn(6)
l
.a

y
(0) = y + hf (x , y )
2 1 1 1
w

2y
= 1.046 + 0.2 1 + (x1)3
w

x1
w

2(1.046)
= 1.046 + 0.2 + (1.2)3
1.2
= 1.740

First approximation:
Put r=0 in Eqn(5)

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y
(1) = y h (0)
f (x1, y1) + f x 2 , y
2 1+ 2
2
2y
(0)
0.2 2y1
= 1.046 + 3
+ (x1) + 2 + (x 2 )
3
2 x1 x2

0.2 2(1.046 ) 2(1.74 )
= 1.046 + + (1.2)3 + + (1.4 )3
2 1.2 1.4
= 1.916

Similarly y
(2) = 1.941
2
y
(3) = 1.944 y (4) = 1.945 y (5) = 1.945

m
2 , 2 , 2

co
Since y
(4) & y (5) are the same correct to three decimal places
2 2

s.
y(1.4)=1.945 bu
Problem(6):
la

dy
solve = 1 y , y(0)=0 by Modified Eulers method for x=0.1 correct to
yl

dx
lls

.a

x0 = 0 x1= 0.1
w

y0 = 0 y1= ?
w
w

## Modified Eulers Formula is given by

y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______(1)
n n n n +1 n +1
n+1 2
( )
where y 0 = yn + hf (xn , yn ) ______(2)
n+1

## To find y1 = y(x1) = y(0.1)

Put n=0 in Equations (1) and (2)

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y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______( 3)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
( )
where y 0 = y 0 + hf (x 0 , y 0 ) ______(4)
1

Initial approximation:
From Eqn(4)
y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y ) = y + h[1 y ]
1 0 0 0 0 0
= 0 + 0.1[1 0] = 0.1

First approximation:
Put r=0 in Eqn(3)
(1) h (0)
y = y 0 + f (x 0 , y 0 ) + f x1, y = y 0 + 1 y 0 + 1 + y
h (0)

m
1 2 1 2 1

co
0.1
=0+ [1 0 + 1 0.1] = 0.095
2

s.
bu
Second approximation:
Put r=1 in Eqn(3)
la

y
(2) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(1)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
yl

h
= y 0 + 1 - y 0 + 1 y
(1)
lls

2 1
.a

0.1
=0+ [1 0 + 1 0.095] = 0.0952
2
w
w

Similarly y
(3) = 0.0952 ,
1
w

(3) (4)
Since y & y are the same correct to four decimal places
1 1
y(0.1)=0.0952

Problem(7):
Use Modified Eulers method to solve the differential equation
dy
= x + y2 ,y(0)=1 for x=0.2 in steps of 0.1 correct to three
dx
decimal places.

## Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = x + y 2 , h=0.1

x0 = 0 x1= 0.1 x 2 = 0.2

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## Modified Eulers Formula is given by

y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______(1)
n n n n +1 n +1
n+1 2
( )
where y 0 = yn + hf (xn , yn ) ______(2)
n+1

## Step(1): To find y1 = y(x1) = y(0.1)

Put n=0 in Equations (1) and (2)
y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______( 3)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
( )
where y 0 = y 0 + hf (x 0 , y 0 ) ______(4)

m
1

co
Initial approximation:
From Eqn(4)

s.
y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y )
0 0 0
1
bu
= 1 + 0.1 x 0 + (y 0 )2 = 1 + 0.10 + (1)2 = 1.1

la
yl

First approximation:
lls

## Put r=0 in Eqn(3)

(1) h (0) h (0)
2
y = y 0 + f (x 0 , y 0 ) + f x1, y = y 0 + x 0 +(y 0 )2 + x1 + y
.a

1 2 1 2 1

w

0.1
0 + (1)2 + 0.1 + (1.1)2 = 1.1155
w

= 1+
2
w

Second approximation:
Put r=1 in Eqn(3)

y
(2) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(1)
0 0 0 1 1
1 2
h (1)
2
= y0 + x 0 + (y 0 )2 + x1 + y
2 1

0.1
= 1+ [0 + (1)2 + 0.1 + (1.1155 )2 ] = 1.1172
2

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Similarly y
(3 ) = 1.1174 , y (4) = 1.1174
1 1
(3) (4)
Clearly y & y are same correct to four decimal places.
1 1
y(0.1)=1.1174
Step-(2): (To find y 2 = y(x 2 ) = y(0.2) )
Put n=1 in Equations (1) and (2)
y
(r +1) = y + h f (x , y ) + f x , y(r) _______(5)
1 1 1 2 2
2 2
( )
where y 0 = y1 + hf (x1, y1) ______(6)
2

Initial approximation:
From Eqn(6)

m
y
(0 ) = y + hf (x , y ) = y + h x + (y )2
2 1 1 1 1 1 1

co
= 1.1174 + 0.10.1 + (1.1174 )2 = 1.2522

s.
bu
First approximation:
Put r=0 in Eqn(5)
la
(1) h (0)
y = y1 + f (x1, y1) + f x 2, y
yl

2 2 2
lls

h 2 (0)
2
= y1 + 1
x + ( y1 ) + x 2 2
+ y
2
.a

0.1
0.1 + (1.1174 )2 + 0.2 + (1.2522 )2 = 1.2732
w

= 1.1174 +
2
w

Similarly y
(2) = 1.2758, y (3) = 1.2762, y (4 ) = 1.2762
w

2 2 2
(3)
Since y and y
(4)
are the same correct to four decimal places
2 2
y(0.2)=1.2762

Problem(8):
Find y(4.4) by Modified Eulers method taking h=0.2 from the differential
dy 2 - y 2
equation = , y(4)=1 correct to Four decimal places.
dx 5x

{Ans:y(4.4)=1.0187}

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Problem(9):
dy
Solve = x 2 + y , y(0)=1 for x=0.02 taking h=0.01 by Modified Eulers
dx
method correct to Four decimal places. Carry out two iterations after
each step.

{Ans:y(0.02)=1.020}
_________________________________________________________
__

m
Runge-Kutta Method of 4th order

co
dy

s.
Consider = f(x, y) , y(x 0 ) = y 0
dx bu
The Runge-Kutta method of 4th order is given by
1
y n +1 = y n + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
la
6
where k1 = hf (x n , y n )
yl

h k
lls

k 2 = hf x n + , y n + 1
2 2
.a

h k
k 3 = hf x n + , y n + 2
w

2 2
k 4 = hf (x n + h, y n + k 3 )
w
w

Problem(1):
By employing Runge-Kutta method of fourth order solve the differential
equation 2y / 6x = y ,y(0)=1 for x=0.2 in steps of 0.1 correct to four
decimal places.
y
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = 3x + , h=0.1
2
x0 = 0 x1= 0.1 x1= 0.2
y0 = 1 y1= 1.0664 y 2 = 1.1670

## The Runge-Kutta method of 4th order is given by

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1
y n +1 = y n +[k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
6
where k1 = hf (x n , y n )

h k1
k 2 = hf x n + , y n + -------------------- (1)
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x n + , y n + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x n + h, y n + k 3 )

## Put n=0 in Eqn(1)

1
y1 = y 0 + [k 1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] --------------------------- (2)

om
6
where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )

.c
h k1
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 +
2

h
2

k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 +
b us
k2

2 2
la

k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
yl

k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
lls

y 1
= h3x 0 + 0 = 0.13(0) + = 0.05
2 2
.a

h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
w

2 2
w

h 1 k
= h3 x 0 + + y 0 + 1
w

2 2 2
0.1 1 0.05
= 0.13 0 + + 1 + = 0.0662
2 2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
h 1 k
= h3 x 0 + + y 0 + 2
2 2 2
0.1 1 0.0662
= 0.13 0 + + 1 + = 0.0666
2 2 2

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k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
1
= h3(x 0 + h) + (y 0 + k 3 )
2
1
= 0.13(0 + 0.1) + (1 + 0.0666 ) = 0.0833
2
Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get
1
y1 = 1 + [0.05 + 2(0.0662) + 2(0.0666) + 0.0833 ] = 1.0664
6
Put n=1 in Eqn(1)
1
y 2 = y1 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] ---------------------- (3)
6
Where

m
k1 = hf (x1, y1)
k

co
h
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
2 2

s.
h k
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
bu
2 2
k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )
la
k1 = hf (x1, y1)
yl

y 1.0664
= h3x1 + 1 = 0.13(0.1) + = 0.0833
2
lls

2
h k
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
.a

2 2
w

h 1 k
= h3 x1 + + y1 + 1
w

2 2 2
w

0.1 1 0.0833
= 0.13 0.1 + + 1.0664 + = 0.1004
2 2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
2 2
h 1 k
= h3 x1 + + y1 + 2
2 2 2
0.1 1 0.1004
= 0.13 0.1 + + 1.0644 + = 0.1008
2 2 2

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k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )
1
= h3(x1 + h) + (y1 + k 3 )
2
1
= 0.13(0.1 + 0.1) + (1.0664 + 0.1008 ) = 0.1183
2
Substituting all these values in Eqn(3), we get

1
y 2 = 1.0664 + [0.0833 + 2(0.1004) + 2(0.1008) + 0.1183 ]
6
= 1.1670

Problem(2):

om
Apply Runge-Kutta method of fourth order to find an approximate value
dy
of y(0.1) and y(0.2) of = x + y 2 , y(0)=1 correct to three decimal
dx

.c
places.
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = x + y 2 , h=0.1
x0 = 0 x1= 0.1
b us x 2 = 0.2
y0 = 1 y1= ? y2= ?
la
th
The Runge-Kutta method of 4 order is given by
yl

1
yn +1 = yn + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
lls

6
where k1 = hf (xn , yn )
.a

h k1
w

k 2 = hf xn + , yn + -------------------------(1)
2 2
w

h k
k 3 = hf xn + , yn + 2
w

2 2
k 4 = hf (xn + h, yn + k 3 )

Put n=0 in Eqn(1)
1
y1 = y 0 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] --------------------------(2)
6

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where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )

k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )

## = h x 0 + (y 0 )2 = 0.10 + (1)2 = 0.1

h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1

m
2 2

co
h k1
2

= h x 0 + + y 0 +
2

s.
2
bu
0.1 0.1
2

= 0.1 0 + + 1 + = 0.1152
2 2
la

h k
yl

k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
lls

h k
2

= h x 0 + + y 0 + 2
.a

2 2

w

0.1 0.1152
2
w

= 0.1 0 + + 1 + = 0.1168
2 2
w

k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )

= h(x 0 + h ) + (y 0 + k 3 )2

## = 0.1(0 + 0.1) + (1 + 0.1168 )2 = 0.1347

Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get
1
y1 = 1 + [0.1 + 2(0.1152) + 2(0.1168) + 0.1347 ] = 1.1164
6
1
Put n=1 in Eqn(1) y 2 = y1 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] -----------(3)
6
Where

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k1 = hf (x1, y1)
h k
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )
k1 = hf (x1, y1)

## = h x1 + (y1)2 = 0.1(0.1) + (1.1164 )2 = 0.1346

h k
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
2 2

m
h k
2

co
= h x1 + + y1 + 1
2 2

s.
bu
0.1346
2
0.1
= 0.1 0.1 + + 1.1164 + = 0.1551
2 2
la

yl

h k
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
2 2
lls

h k
2

.a

= h x1 + + y1 + 2
2 2

w

0.1551
2
w

0.1
= 0.1 0.1 +
+ 1.1164 + = 0.1575
w

2 2

k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )

= h (x1 + h) + (y1 + k 3 )2

## = 0.1(0.1 + 0.1) + (1.1164 + 0.1575 )2 = 0.1822

Substituting all these values in Eqn(3), we get
1
y 2 = 1.1164 + [0.1346 + 2(0.1551) + 2(0.1575) + 0.1822]
6
= 1.2734

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Problem(3):
Use Runge-Kutta method of fourth order to approximate y when x=0.1,
dy
given that y=1 when x=0 and =x+y
dx

## Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = x + y , h=0.1

x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1
y0 = 1 y1 = ?
The Runge-Kutta method of 4th order is given by
1
y n +1 = y n + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
6
where k1 = hf (x n , y n )
h k

m
k 2 = hf x n + , y n + 1 ------------------(1)
2 2

co
h k
k 3 = hf x n + , y n + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x n + h, y n + k 3 )
s.
bu
Put n=0 in Eqn(1)
1
la
y1 = y 0 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] -------------------(2)
6
yl

where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
lls

h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
.a

h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
w

2 2
w

k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
w

k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
= h[x 0 + (y 0 )] = 0.1[0 + 1] = 0.1

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h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
h k
= h x 0 + + y 0 + 1
2 2
0.1 0.1
= 0.1 0 + + 1 + = 0.11
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
h k
= h x 0 + + y 0 + 2
2 2
0.1 0.11

m
= 0.1 0 + + 1 + = 0.1105
2 2

co
k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
= h[(x 0 + h) + (y 0 + k 3 )]

s.
= 0.1[(0 + 0.1) + (1 + 0.1105 )] = 0.1210
bu
Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get
1
y1 = 1 + [0.1 + 2(0.11) + 2(0.1105) + 0.1210 ]
la

6
yl

= 1.1103
lls
.a

Problem(4):
w

## Use Runge-Kutta method of fourth order to obtain an approximation to

w

dy
y(1.5) for the solution of = 2xy ;y(1)=1 correct to four decimal places.
w

dx
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = 2xy , h=0.5
x0 = 1 x1= 1.5
y0 = 1 y1= ?
The Runge-Kutta method of 4th order is given by

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1
y n +1 = y n +[k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
6
where k1 = hf (x n , y n )

h k1
k 2 = hf x n + , y n + ------------------(1)
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x n + , y n + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x n + h, y n + k 3 )

## Put n=0 in Eqn(1)

1
y1 = y 0 +[k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] --------------------------(2)

m
6
where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )

co
h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1

s.
2 2 bu
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
la

k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
yl

k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
lls

= h[2x 0 y 0 ] = 0.5[2(1)(1)] = 1
.a

h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
w

2 2
w

h k
= h2 x 0 + y 0 + 1
w

2 2
0.5 1
= 0.5 21 + 1 + = 1.875
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
h k
= h2 x 0 + y 0 + 2
2 2
0.5 1.875
= 0.5 21 + 1 + = 2.4218
2 2

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k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
= h[2(x 0 + h)(y 0 + k 3 )]
= 0.5[2(1 + 0.5 )(1 + 2.4218 )] = 5.1327
Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get
1
y1 = 1 + [1 + 2(1.875) + 2(2.4218) + 5.1327 ]
6
= 3.4543

Problem(5):
Obtain the values of y at x=0.1, 0.2 using Runge-Kutta method of 4th
order for the differential equation y / = y ; y(0)=1 correct to four decimal
places.

m
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = -y , h=0.1
x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1 x 2 = 0.2

co
y0 = 1 y1= ? y2= ?
th

s.
The Runge-Kutta method of 4 order is given by
1
bu
y n +1 = y n + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
6
where k1 = hf (x n , y n )
la

h k1
yl

k 2 = hf x n + , y n + -----------(1)
2 2
lls

h k
k 3 = hf x n + , y n + 2
.a

2 2
k 4 = hf (x n + h, y n + k 3 )
w

## Put n=0 in Eqn(1)

w

1
y1 = y 0 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] -------------(2)
6
where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )

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k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
= h[- y 0 ] = 0.1[- 1] = -0.1

h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
k
= h y 0 + 1
2
0.1
= 0.11 - = 0.095
2

h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2

m
k
= h y 0 + 2

co
2
0.095

s.
= 0.11 = 0.0952
2
bu
k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
la
= h[ (y 0 + k 3 )]
= 0.1[(1 - 0.0952 )] = -0.0904
yl
lls

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get

.a

1
y1 = 1 + [- 0.1 + 2(-0.095) + 2(-0.0952) - 0.0904 ] = 0.9048
w

6
w

1
Put n=1 in Eqn(1) y 2 = y1 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] -------------(3)
w

6
k1 = hf (x1, y1)
h k
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )

k1 = hf (x1, y1)
= h[- (y1)] = 0.1[0.9048] = -0.0904

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h k
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
2 2
k
= h y1 + 1
2
0.0904
= 0.10.9048 = -0.0859
2
h k
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
2 2
k
= h y1 + 2
2
0.0859
= 0.1 0.9048 = -0.0861

m
2

co
k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )
= h[ (y1 + k 3 )]

s.
= 0.1[(0.9048 - 0.0861)] = 0.0818
bu
Substituting all these values in Eqn(3), we get
1
y 2 = 0.9048 + [- 0.0904 + 2(-0.0859) + 2(-0.0861) - 0.0818 ]
la

6
yl

= 0.8187
lls
.a
w

Problem(6):
w

dy 1
w

## values of y(0.5) and y(1), given that = y(0)=1 correct to four

dx x + y
decimal places.
dy 1
Soln: Given data: = , h=0.5
dx x + y
x0 = 0 x1= 0.5 x2= 1
y0 = 1 y1 = ? y2= ?
th
The Runge-Kutta method of 4 order is given by

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1
y n +1 = y n + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
6
where k1 = hf (x n , y n )

h k1
k 2 = hf x n + , y n + ---------------------(1)
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x n + , y n + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x n + h, y n + k 3 )

Put n=0 in Eqn(1)
1
y1 = y 0 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] -----------------------(2)
6
where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )

om
h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2

.c
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
b us
k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
la
k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
yl

1 1
= h = 0.5 = 0.5
0 + 1
lls

x0 + y0
h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
.a

2 2
w

1 1
= h = 0.5
k 0 .5 0.5
x0 + h + y0 + 1
w

0 + + 1+
2 2 2 2
= 0.3333

h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2

1 1
= h = 0.5
k 0.5 0.3333
x0 + h + y0 + 2 0 + + 1+
2 2 2 2
= 0.3529

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k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
1 1
= h = 0.5
x0 + h + y0 + k 3 0 + 0.5 + 1 + 0.3529
= 0.2698

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get

1
y1 = 1 + [0.5 + 2(0.3333) + 2(0.3529) + 0.2698] = 1.3570
6
1
Put n=1 in Eqn(1) y 2 = y1 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] --------------(3)
6
k1 = hf (x1, y1)

om
h k
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
2 2
k

.c
h
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )
b us
k1 = hf (x1, y1)
la
1 1
= h = 0.5 = 0.2692
0.5 + 1.357
yl

x1 + y1
lls

h k
k 2 = hf x1 + , y1 + 1
2 2
.a

1 1
= h = 0.5
0.2692
w

k 0.5
x1 + h + y1 + 1 0.5 + + 1.3570 +
2 2 2 2
w

= 0.2230
h k
k 3 = hf x1 + , y1 + 2
2 2

1 1
= h = 0.5
k 0.5 0.2230
x1 + h + y1 + 2 0.5 + + 1.357 +
2 2 2 2
= 0.2253

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k 4 = hf (x1 + h, y1 + k 3 )
1 1
= h = 0.5
x1 + h + y1 + k 3 0.5 + 0.5 + 1.357 + 0.2253
= 0.1936
Substituting all these values in Eqn(3), we get
1
y 2 = 1.3570 + [0.2692 + 2(0.2230) + 2(0.2253) + 0.1936 ]
6
= 1.5835

m
co
Problem(7):
s.
bu
By using the Runge-Kutta method of fourth order solve the initial value
problem y / = 3e x + 2y ; y(0)=0 at x=0.1 correct to three decimal places.
la

yl
lls

x0 = 0 x1= 0.1
y0 = 0 y1= ?
.a

## The Runge-Kutta method of 4th order is given by

w

1
yn +1 = y n + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
w

6
w

where k1 = hf (xn , yn )
h k
k 2 = hf xn + , yn + 1 ---------------(1)
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf xn + , yn + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (xn + h, yn + k 3 )
Put n=0 in Eqn(1)
1
y1 = y 0 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] -------------------(2)
6

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where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )

= h 3e x + 2y 0
0

## = 0.13e 0 + 2(0) = 0.3

h k

m
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2

co
h 0.1
(x + 2 ) k1 (0 + 2 ) 0.3

s.
0

= h 3e + 2 y 0 + = 0.5 3e + 2 0 +
2 2

bu

= 0.345
la
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
yl

2 2
lls

h 0.1
(x + ) k (0 + ) 0.345
= h3e
0
2 + 2 y 0 + 2 = 0.13e 2 + 2 0 +
.a

2
2

w

= 0.349
w

k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
w

## = h3e(x +h) + 2(y 0 + k 3 ) = 0.13e(0 + 0.1) + 2(0 + 0.349 )

0 0

= 0.401
Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get
1
y1 = 0 + [0.3 + 2(0.345) + 2(0.349) + 0.401]
6
= 0.348

Problem(8):
Obtain the value of y at x=0.2 using Runge-Kutta method of 4th order for

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y-x
the differential equation y / = ; y(0)=1 correct to four decimal
y+x
places.
y-x
Soln: Given data: f (x, y ) = , h=0.2
y+x
x0 = 0 x1= 0.2
y0 = 1 y1= ?

## The Runge-Kutta method of 4th order is given by

1
y n +1 = y n + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ]
6
( )

om
where k1 = hf x n , y n

h k1
k 2 = hf x n + , y n + ...............................(1)
2 2

.c
h k
k 3 = hf x n + , y n + 2
2 2

b us
k 4 = hf (x n + h, y n + k 3 )
la
Put n=0 in Eqn(1)
1
yl

y1 = y 0 + [k1 + 2k 2 + 2k 3 + k 4 ] -----------------(2)
6
lls

where k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
.a

h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
w

h k
w

k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
w

k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
k1 = hf (x 0 , y 0 )
y x0 1- 0
= h 0 = 0.2 = 0.2
y0 + x0 1 + 0

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h k
k 2 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 1
2 2
k1 h 0.2 0.2
y0 + 2 x0 + 2 1 + 2 0 + 2
= h = 0.2
y + k1 + x + h 1 + 0.2 + 0 + 0.2
0 2 0 2
2

2

= 0.1666
h k
k 3 = hf x 0 + , y 0 + 2
2 2
k2 h 0.1666 0.2
y0 + 2 x0 + 2 1 + 0 +
2
= h = 0.2 2

om
y + k2 + x + h 1 + 0.1666 + 0 + 0.2
0 2 0 2 2

2

.c
= 0.1661
k 4 = hf (x 0 + h, y 0 + k 3 )
(y + k 3 ) (x 0 + h)
= 0.2 0 = 0.2
b us
(1 + 0.1661) (0 + 0.2)

(y 0 + k 3 ) + (x 0 + h) (1 + 0.1661) + (0 + 0.2)
la
= 0.1414
yl

1
lls

6
.a

= 1.1678
Problem(9):
w

## Evaluate y(1.1) by fourth order Runge-Kutta method given that

w

y 1
y/ + = , y(1)=1 correct to four decimal places.
w

x x2
{Ans: y(1.1)=0.9958}

Problem(10):
dy y 2 x 2
Using Runge-Kutta method of fourth order solve =
dx y 2 + x 2
y(0)=1 at x=0.2 and 0.4.
{Ans: y(0.2)=1.1959,
y(0.4)=1.3751}

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Numerical Methods
Predictor-Corrector methods
(Multi Step Methods)
The methods in which the construction ofy n+1 involves the use of not
yn only (i.e y n -1, y n - 2 ,....etc)
the solution but also some of its predecessors
are called Multi step methods.
Milnes Predictor-Corrector Method
dy
Consider the differential equation = f(x, y); y(x 0 ) = y 0

m
dx
Milnes predictor and corrector formula is given by

co
4h

s.
y 4,p = y 0 + (2f1 f2 + 2f 3 ) (1) Predictor formula
3
bu
= y 2 + f2 + 4f 3 + f (2) Corrector formula
(r +1) h (r)
y
4,c 3 4
la

= f x 4 , y
(r) (r)
where f1 = f (x1, y1 ), f2 = f (x 2 , y 2 ), f3 = f (x 3 , y 3 ), f
4 4
yl

= f x 4 , y
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)
ls

Note : f
4 4 where y 4 = y 4,p & y 4 = y 4,c for r 0

l
.a

Problem(1)
dy x + y
w

dx 2
w

w

## Soln: Given data f(x, y) = x + y , h=0.5

2
x0 = 0 x1 = 0.5 x2 = 1.0 x3 = 1.5 x4 = 2.0
y0 = 0 y1 = 2.636 y2 = 3.595 y3 = 4.968 y4 = ?

## Milnes Predictor formula is given by

4h
y 4,p = y 0 + (2f1 f2 + 2f3 ) (1)
3

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yi xi + yi
xi f i= f(x i , y i ) =
2

## x1 = 0.5 y1 = 2.636 x1 + y1 0.5 + 2.636

f1 = = = 1.568
2 2

x2 = 1 y 2 = 3.595 x 2 + y 2 1 + 3.595
f2 = = = 2.2975
2 2

m
co
x 3 + y 3 1.5 + 4.968
y 3 = 4.968 f3 = = = 3.234
2 2
x 3 = 1.5

s.
bu
Substituting all the values in eqn(1) we get,
la
4(0.5)
y 4,p = 2 + {2(1.568) 2.2975 + 2(3.234)} = 6.871
yl

3
lls

## Milnes Corrector formula is given by

h
y (r4,+c1) = y 2 + (f2 + 4f3 + f4(r) ) ( 2) where f4(r) = f (x 4 , y (r)
4 )
.a

3
w

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

h
w

y (1)
4,c = y 2 + (f2 + 4f3 + f4(0) ), Where
3
w

x 4 + y 4,p 2 + 6.871
f4(0) = f (x 4 , y (0)
4 ) = f (x 4 , y 4,p ) = = = 4.4355
2 2
0.5
y (1) 4,c = 3.595 + (2.2975 + 4(3.234) + 4.4355 ) = 6.8731
3

## Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)

h
y (2)
4,c = y 2 +
3
(f2 + 4f3 + f4(1) )

where
x 4 + y (1)
f4(1) = f (x 4 , y (1)
4 ) = f (x 4 , y 4,c ) =
(1) 4,c

2
2 + 6.8731
= = 4.4365
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y (2)
4,c = 3.595 + (2.2975 + 4(3.234) + 4.4365 )
3
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## Third improvement: Put r=2 in eqn(2)

h
y (3)
4,c = y 2 + (f2 + 4f3 + f4(2) )
3
where
x 4 + y (2) 2 + 6.8733
f = f (x 4 , y ) = f (x 4 , y ) =
(2)
4
(2)
4
(2)
4,c
4,c
= = 4.4366
2 2
0.5
y (3)
4,c = 3.595 + (2.2975 + 4(3.234) + 4.4366 ) = 6.8733
3
Since y (2) (3)
4,c & y 4,c
are the same up to four decimal places
y(2)=6.8733

om
Problem(2):

c
dy
Use Milnes method to find y(0.3) from = x 2 + y 2 , y(0)=1 after

s.
dx
computing y(-0.1),y(0.1) and y(0.2) by Taylors series method correct to
bu
four decimal places..
la

yl

lls

## By Taylors series method, we have

.a

h / h2 // h3 /// _____(1)
y n+1 = f(x n+1 ) = y n + y n + y n + y n + .....
1! 2! 3!
w

Given y / = x 2 + y 2
w

y // = 2x + 2yy /
w

(
y /// = 2 + 2 yy // + (y / )
2
)
yIV = 2(yy /// + y / y // + 2y / y // ) = 2(yy /// + 3y / y // )

## Put n=0 in eqn(1)

h / h2 // h3 ///
y1 = f(x1 ) = y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + y 0 + ..... ____(2)
1! 2! 3!
y 0/ = x 02 + y 02 = 1
y 0// = 2x 0 + 2y 0 y 0/ = 2
( )
y 0/// = 2 + 2 y 0 y 0// + (y 0/ ) = 8
2

0 = 2(y 0 y 0 + 3 y 0 y 0 ) = 28
yIV /// / //

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## Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get

2 3 4
0.1 (0.1) (0.1) (0.1)
y1 = 1 + (1) + (2) + (8) + (28) + .......
1! 2! 3! 4!
= 1.1114
y(0.1)=1.1114
similarly y(-0.1)=0.9087, y(0.2)=1.2529
Thus
x 0 = 0.1 x1 = 0 x 2 = 0.1 x 3 = 0.2 x 4 = 0.3
y 0 = 0.9087 y1 = 1 y 2 = 1.1114 y 3 = 1.2529 y4 = ?

m
Milnes Predictor formula is given by
4h

co
y 4,p = y 0 + (2f1 f2 + 2f3 ) (3)
3

s.
2 2
xi yi f i= f(x i , y i ) = (x i ) + (y i )
bu
2 2 2 2
x1 = 0 y1 = 1 f 1= (x1 ) + (y1 ) = (0 ) + (1) = 1
la
2 2
x 2 = 0.1 y 2 = 1.1114 f 2= (x 2 ) + (y 2 ) = 1.2452
2 2
x 3 = 0.2 y 3 = 1.2529 f 3= (x 3 ) + (y 3 ) = 1.6097
yl
lls

## Substituting all the values in eqn(3) we get,

.a
w

4(0.1)
y 4,p = 0.9087 + {2(1) 1.2452 + 2(1.6097 )} = 1.4385
w

3
w

## Milnes Corrector formula is given by

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f ( 4) where f = f x 4 , y
(r +1) (r) (r) (r)
y
4,c 3 4 4 4
(0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p and f = y , r 0
4 4 4,c
First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(4)

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h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where f = f x 4 , y
(1) (0) (0) (0)
y
4,c 3 4 4 4

f
(0) ( )2
4
( )
= x 4 + y 4,p 2 = (0.3 )2 + (1.4385 )2 = 2.1592
(1) 0.1
y
4,c
= 1.1114 + (1.2452 + 4(1.6097) + 2.1592) = 1.4395
3

## Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(4)

= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f where
(2) h (1)
y
4,c 3 4
2
= f x 4 , y = f x 4 , y
(1) (1) (1) 2 (1)
= (x 4 ) + y 4,c

m
f
4 4 4,c

co
= (0.3 )2 + (1.4395 )2 = 2.1621
0.1

s.
(2)
y
4,c
= 1.1114 + (1.2452 + 4(1.6097) + 2.1621) = 1.4396
3
bu
(3)
similarly y = 1.4396
4,c
la
yl

(2) (3)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
lls

y(0.3)=1.4396
.a

Problem(3):
w

w

## y(4)=1, y(4.1)=1.0049, y(4.2)=1.0097, y(4.3)=1.0143 correct to four

w

decimal places.
2 y2
Soln: Given data : f(x, y) = , h = 0.1
5x

## x0 = 4 x1 = 4.1 x 2 = 4.2 x 3 = 4.3 x 4 = 4.4

y0 = 1 y1 = 1.0049 y 2 = 1.0097 y 3 = 1.0143 y4 = ?

## Milnes Predictor formula is given by

4h
y 4,p = y 0 + (2f1 f2 + 2f3 ) (1)
3

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2 (yi )2
xi yi f i= f(xi, yi ) =
5x i

## x1 = 4.1 y1 = 1.0049 2 (y1)2 2 (1.0049 )2

f 1= = = 0.0483
5x1 5(4.1)

x 2 = 4.2
y 2 = 1.0097 2 (y 2 )2 2 (1.0097 )2
f 2= = = 0.0466
5x 2 5(4.2)

om
.c
x 3 = 4.3 y 3 = 1.0143 2 (y 3 )2 2 (1.0143 )2
f 3= = = 0.0451
b us5x 3 5(4.3)
la

## Substituting all the values in eqn(1) we get,

yl
lls

4(0.1)
y 4,p = 1 + {2(0.0483) 0.0466 + 2(0.0451)} = 1.0816
3
.a

w
w

## = y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f (2) where f = f x 4 , y

(r +1) h (r) (r) (r)
y
4,c 4 4 4
w

3
(0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p and f = y , r 0
4 4 4,c

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

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h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(1) (0)
y
4,c 3 4

f
(0) (0) ( )
= f x 4 , y = f x 4 , y 4,p =
( )
2 y 4,p 2 2 (1.0186 )2
= = 0.0437
4 4 5x 4 5(4.4)
(1) 0.1
y
4,c
= 1.0097 + (0.0466 + 4(0.0451) + 0.0437 ) = 1.0187
3

## Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f where
(2) (1)
y
4,c 3 4
2
(1)

m
2 y
(1) (1) (1) 4,c
= f x 4, y = f x 4, y
4,c
f =

co
4 4 5x 4
2 (1.0187 )2

s.
= = 0.0437
5(4.4)
bu
(2) 0.1
y
4,c
= 1.0097 + (0.0466 + 4(0.0451) + 0.0437 ) = 1.0187
la
3
yl

(1) (2)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
ls

4,c 4,c
y(4.4)=1.0187
l
.a
w

Problem(4):
w

dy 1
Given = 1 + x 2 y 2 and y(0)=1, y(0.1)=1.06, y(0.2)=1.12,
dx 2
w

## y(0.3)=1.21. Evaluate y(0.4) by Milnes Predictor-Corrector method.

1
1 + x y , h = 0.1
Soln : Given data : f(x, y) = 2 2
2
x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1 x 2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.3 x 4 = 0.4
y0 = 1 y1 = 1.06 y 2 = 1.12 y 3 = 1.21 y4 = ?

## Milnes Predictor formula is given by

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4h
y 4,p = y 0 + (2f1 f2 + 2f3 ) (1)
3

1
1 + xi yi
f i= f(xi, yi ) = 2 2
yi
xi 2

1
1 + x1 y1 = 0.5674
x1 = 0.1 2 2

m
y1 = 1.06 f 1=
2

co
s.
bu 1
1 + x 2 y 2 = 0.6522
f 2= 2 2
x 2 = 0.2 y 2 = 1.12
2
la
yl

1
1 + x 3 y 3 = 0.7979
x 3 = 0.3 y 3 = 1.21 f 3= 2 2
2
lls
.a

## Substituting all the values in eqn(1) we get,

w
w

4(0.1)
y 4,p = 1 + {2(0.5674) 0.6522 + 2(0.7979 )} = 1.2771
w

## Milnes Corrector formula is given by

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f ( 2)
(r +1) (r)
y
4,c 3 4
where f = f x 4 , y ,
(r) (r) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p and f = y ,r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

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h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(1) (0)
y
4,c 3 4
1 1
= f x 4 , y = 1 + x 2 y 2 = 1 + (0.4 )2 (1.2771)2 = 0.9459
(0) (0)
f
4 4 2 4 4,p 2
(1) 0.1
y
4,c
= 1.12 + (0.6522 + 4(0.7979) + 0.9459 ) = 1.2796
3

## Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(2) (1)
y
4,c 3 4
= f x 4 , y = 1 + x 2 y
(1) (1) 1 (1) 1 ( )2 (
f = 1 + 0.4 1.2796 )2 = 0.9496
4 4 2 4 4,c 2

m
(2) 0.1
(0.6522 + 4(0.7979) + 0.9496 ) = 1.2797

co
y = 1.12 +
4,c 3
(3)

s.
Similarly y = 1.2797
4,c bu
(2) (3)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
la

y(0.4)=1.2797
yl
lls

Problem(5):
dy
Using Milnes predictor-corrector method solve = 2y y 2
.a

dx
y(0)=1 for x=0.2 if y(0.05)=1.0499, y(0.1)=1.0996, y(0.15)=1.1488
w

w
w

## x0 = 0 x1 = 0.05 x 2 = 0.1 x 3 = 0.15 x 4 = 0.4

y0 = 1 y1 = 1.0499 y 2 = 1.0996 y 3 = 1.1488 y4 = ?

## Milnes Predictor formula is given by

4h
y 4,p = y 0 + (2f1 f2 + 2f3 ) (1)
3

xi yi f i= f(xi , yi ) = 2y i - y 2
i
x1 = 0.05 y1 = 1.0499 2
f 1= 2y1 - y = 0.9975
1

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2

3

## Substituting all the values in eqn(1) we get,

4(0.05)
y 4,p = 1 + {2(0.9975 ) 0.9960 + 2(0.9778)} = 1.1969
3
Milnes Corrector formula is given by

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f ( 2)
(r +1) (r)

m
y
4,c 3 4

co
where f = f x 4 , y ,
(r) (r) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p and f = y ,r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c

s.
First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2) bu
h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(1) (0)
la
y
4,c 3 4
yl

## = f x 4 , y = 2y 4,p y 4,p 2 = 2(1.1969 ) (1.1969 )2 = 0.9612

( )
(0) (0)
f
lls

4 4
(1) 0.05
.a

y
4,c
= 1.0996 + (0.9960 + 4(0.9778) + 0.9612 ) = 1.1974
3
w

## Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(4)

w
w

= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(2) h (1)
y
4,c 3 4
2
= f x 4 , y = 2y
(1) (1) (1) (1) 2
f
4 4 4, c
y
4,c = 2(1.1974 ) (1.1974 ) = 0.9610

(2) 0.05
y
4,c
= 1.0996 + (0.9960 + 4(0.9778) + 0.9610 )
3
= 1.1974

(1) (2)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
y(0.2)=1.1974

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Problem(6):
dy
Solve the initial value problem = 1 + xy 2 ; y(0) = 1
dx
for x=0.4 by Milnes predictor and corrector method correct to three
decimal places, given that
x 0.1 0.2 0.3
y 1.105 1.223 1.355

## Soln: Given data : f(x, y) = 1 + xy 2 , h = 0.1

x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1 x 2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.3 x 4 = 0.4

m
y0 = 1 y1 = 1.105 y 2 = 1.223 y 3 = 1.355 y4 = ?

co
Milnes Predictor formula is given by

s.
4h
(2f1 f2 + 2f3 ) (1)
y 4,p = y 0 +
bu
3
la

f i= f(xi , y i ) = 1 + x i y 2
yl

xi yi
i
lls
.a

x1 = 0.1 y1 = 1.105
f 1= 1 + x1y 2 = 1 + (0.1)(1.105 )2 = 1.122
w

1
w
w

x 2 = 0.2 y 2 = 1.223
f 2= 1 + x 2 y 2 = 1 + (0.2)(1.223 )2 = 1.299
2

x 3 = 0.3 y 3 = 1.355
f 3= 1 + x 3 y 2 = 1 + (0.3 )(1.355 )2 = 1.550
3

## Substituting all the values in eqn(1) we get,

4(0.1)
y 4,p = 1 + {2(1.122) 1.299 + 2(1.550)} = 1.526
3

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## Milnes Corrector formula is given by

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f ( 2)
(r +1) (r)
y
4,c 3 4

where f = f x 4 , y ,
(r) (r) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p and f =y ,r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(1) (0)
y
4,c 3 4
= f x 4 , y = 1 + x 4 y 4,p 2 = 1 + (0.4 )(1.526 )2 = 1.931
( )
(0) (0)
f

m
4 4

co
(1) 0.1
y
4,c
= 1.223 + (1.299 + 4(1.550) + 1.931) = 1.537
3

s.
bu
Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)
la

= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(2) h (1)
y
4,c 3 4
yl

2
lls

= f x 4 , y = 1 + x 4 y
(1) (1) (1) 2
f
4 4 4,c = 1 + (0.4 )(1.537 ) = 1.944

.a

(2) 0.1
y = 1.223 + (1.299 + 4(1.550) + 1.944 )
w

4,c 3
w

= 1.537
(1) (2)
w

## Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places

4,c 4,c
y(0.4)=1.537

Problem(7):
dy
Part of a Numerical solution of = (0.2)x + (0.1)y is shown in the
dx
following table.

## x 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15

y 2.0000 2.0103 2.0211 2.0323

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Use Milnes Predictor and corrector method to find the next entry in the
table, correct to four decimal places.

## Milnes Predictor formula is given by

4h
y 4,p = y 0 + (2f1 f2 + 2f3 ) (1)
3

m
xi yi

co
f i= f(x i , y i ) = (0.2)x i + (0.1)y i

s.
x1 = 0.1 y1 = 1.105 bu
f 1= (0.2)0.05 + (0.1)2.0103 = 0.2110
la
x 2 = 0.2 y 2 = 1.223
f 2= (0.2 )0.1 + (0.1)2.0211 = 0.2221
yl
ls

x 3 = 0.3 y 3 = 1.355
f 3= (0.2 )0.15 + (0.1)2.0323 = 0.2332
l
.a
w
w

## Substituting all the values in eqn(1) we get,

w

4(0.05)
y 4,p = 1 + {2(0.2110) 0.2221 + 2(0.2332)} = 2.0444
3

## Milnes Corrector formula is given by

h
= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f (2)
(r +1) (r)
y
4,c 3 4
where f = f x 4 , y , f
(r) (r) (0) (r) (r)
= y 4,p and f =y ,r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

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= y 2 + f2 + 4f3 + f , Where
(1) h (0)
y
4,c 3 4
= f x 4 , y = (0.2)x 4 + (0.1)y 4,p
(0) (0)
f
4 4
= (0.2)0.2 + (0.1)2.044 4 = 0.2444
(1) 0.05
y
4,c
= 2.0211 + (0.2221 + 4(0.2332) + 0.2444 ) = 2.0444
3

(1)
Since y 4,p & y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c
y(0.2)=2.0444

m
Problem(8):
Determine the value of y(0.4) using Milnes predictor and corrector

co
method correct to four decimal places. Given that
y / = xy + y 2 ; y(0) = 1Use Taylors series method to get the values of
y(0.1),y(0.2) and y(0.3).
s.
bu
{Ans: y(0.1)=1.1167, y(0.2)=1.2767, y(0.3)=1.5023
la

yl

y(0.4) = 1.8376}
lls
.a

Problem(9):
w

2y
w

x
w

## y 4, p = 8.01, y (1) = 8.00, y (2) = 8.00

{Ans: 4, c 4, c
y(2) = 8.00}

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dy
Consider the differential equation = f(x, y) ; y(x 0 ) = y 0
dx
Adam-Bashforth Predictor-Corrector formula is given by
h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) Predictor formula
24
(r +1) h (r)
y = y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 Corrector formula

m
4,c 24
where f1 = f (x1, y1), f2 = f (x 2 , y 2 ), f3 = f (x 3 , y 3 ), f (r) = f x 4 , y(r)

co
4 4

s.
Note : f4 = f x 4 , y 4 where y 4 = y 4,p & y 4 = y 4,c for r 0
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)

bu
la
Problem(1):
dy x + y
yl

dx 2
lls

.a

x+y
w

2
w
w

## Adams Predictor formula is given by

h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) - - - - - - - -(1)
24

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x + yi
f i= f(xi, yi ) = i
xi yi 2
x + y0 0 + 2
f 0= f(x 0 , y 0 ) = 0 = =1
x0 = 0 y0 = 2 2 2
x +y 0.5 + 2.636
f 1= f(x1, y1) = 1 1 =
2 2
x1 = 0.5 y1 = 2.636
= 1.568
x + y 2 1.0 + 3.595
f 2= f(x 2, y 2 ) = 2 =
2 2
x2 = 1 y 2 = 3.595 = 2.2975

om
x + y 3 1.5 + 4.968
f 3= f(x 3 , y 3 ) = 3 =
2 2
x 3 = 1.5 y 3 = 4.968

.c
= 3.234

s
bu
Eqn(1) becomes
la

0.5
y 4,p = 4.968 + (55(3.234 ) 59(2.2975 ) + 37(1.568 ) 9(1))
yl

24
lls

= 6.8707
.a

## Adam-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by

w

h (r)
9f + 19f3 5f2 + f1 (2)
(r +1)
y
4,c
= y3 +
24 4
w

(0)
= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (r) (r)
w

4 4 4 4 4,c

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

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h (0)
+ 19f3 5f2 + f1
(1)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f
24 4
x 4 + y 4,p 2 + 6.8707
= f x 4 , y = f x 4 , y 4,p =
( )
(0) (0)
where f = = 4.4353
4 4 2 2
(1) 0.5
y
4,c
= 4.968 + (9(4.4353 ) + 19(3.234 ) 5(2.2975 ) + 1.568 )
24
= 6.8730
Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)
(2) h (1)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1
24
(1)

m
x4 + y
4,c 2 + 6.8730
= f x 4 , y = f x 4 , y
(1) (1) (1)
where f
4 4
4,c
= =

co
2 2
= 4.4365

s.
(2) 0.5
y
4,c
= 4.968 + (9(4.4365 ) + 19(3.234 ) 5(2.2975 ) + 1.568 )
24
bu
= 6.8733
la
yl

## Third improvement: Put r=2 in eqn(2)

(3) h (2)
lls

y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1
24
.a

(2)
x4 + y
(2) (2) (2) 4,c 2 + 6.8733
w

f = f x 4, y = f x 4, y = = = 4.4366
4 4 4,c 2 2
w

(3) 0.5
y = 4.968 + (9(4.4366 ) + 19(3.234 ) 5(2.2975 ) + 1.568 )
w

4,c 24
= 6.8733
(2) (3)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
y(2)=6.8733

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Problem(2):
dy
Obtain the solution of the initial value problem x 2 y = x 2 , y(1)=1 at
dx
x=1(0.1)1.3 by Taylors series method and at x=1.4 by Adams-Bashforth
method correct to four decimal places.

## Soln: Given f(x, y) = x 2 + x 2 y = x 2 (1 + y), x 0 = 1, y 0 = 1, h = 0.1

By Taylors series method, we have

h / h2 // h3 ///
y n +1 = f(xn +1) = y n + y n + yn + y n + ..... _____(1)
1! 2! 3!

m
Given y / = x 2 (1 + y)

co
y // = 2x(1 + y) + x 2 y /

s.
y /// = 4xy / + 2(1 + y) + x 2 y // bu
Similarly, yIV = 6y / + 6xy // + x 2 y ///
la

h h2 h3
Put n=0 in eqn(1) y1 = f(x1) = y 0 + y0 / + y 0 // + y 0 /// + ..... ------
yl

1! 2! 3!
lls

(2)
.a

y / = x 2 (1 + y 0 ) = 1(1 + 1) = 2
0 0
w

y // = 2x 0 (1 + y 0 ) + x 2 y / = 2(1)(1 + 1) + 1x2 = 6
0
w

0 0
y /// = 4x 0 y / + 2(1 + y 0 ) + x 2 y // = 4x1x2 + 2(1 + 1) + 1x6 = 18
w

0 0 0 0
yIV = 6y / + 6x 0 y // + x 2 y /// = 6x2 + 6x1x6 + 1x18 = 66
0 0 0 0 0
Substituting all these values in Eqn(2), we get
0.1 (0.1)2 (0.1)3 (0.1)4
y1 = 1 + (2) + (6) + (18) + (66) + .......
1! 2! 3! 24
= 1.2332
h / h2 // h3 ///
Put n=1 in eqn(1) y 2 = y1 + y1 + y1 + y1 + ..... ----------(3)
1! 2! 3!

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## y / = x 2 (1 + y1) = (1.1)2 (1 + 1.2332) = 2.7021

1 1
y // = 2x1(1 + y1) + x 2 y / = 2(1.1)(1 + 1.2332) + (1.1)2 2.7021
1 1 1
= 7.8853
y /// = 4x1y / + 2(1 + y1) + x 2 y // = 25.8968
1 1 1 1
yIV = 6y / + 6x1y // + x 2 y /// = 99.5907
1 1 1 1 1

## Substituting all these values in Eqn(3), we get

y 2 = 1.2332 +
0.1
(2.7021) +
(0.1)2 (7.8853) + (0.1)3 (25.8968)
1! 2! 3!
0.1)4

om
+
( (99.5907) + .......
4!
= 1.5475

s .c
similarly y 3 = 1.9785 bu
Thus
la

yl

lls

y0 = 1 y4 = ?
.a

## Adam Predictor formula is given by

w

h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) ---------(4)
24
w
w

xi yi f i= f(x i, y i ) = (xi )2 (1 + y i )

x0 = 1 y0 = 1 f 0= (x 0 )2 (1 + y 0 ) = (1)2 (1 + 1) = 2

## f 1= (x1)2 (1 + y1) = (1.1)2 (1 + 1.2332)

x1 = 1.1 y1 = 1.2332
= 2.7021

f 2= (x 2 )2 (1 + y 2 ) = (1.2)2 (1 + 1.5475 )
x 2 = 1.2 y 2 = 1.5475
= 3.6684

f 3= (x 3 )2 (1 + y 3 ) = (1.3 )2 (1 + 1.9785 )
x 3 = 1.3 y 3 = 1.9785
= 5.0336

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Eqn(4) becomes
0.5
y 4,p = 4.968 + (55(3.234 ) 59(2.2975 ) + 37(1.568 ) 9(1))
24
= 6.8707

## Adam-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by

(r +1) h (r)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 ---------(5)
24
(0)
= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p & y = y for r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c

m
First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(5)

co
h (0)
+ 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
(1)

s.
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f
24 4
bu
= f x 4 , y 0 = f x 4 , y 4,p = (x 4 )2 1 + y 4,p = (1.4 )2 (1 + 2.5717 )
( ) ( )
(0)
f
4 4
la

= 7.0005
yl
lls

(1) 0.1
y = 1.9785 + (9(7.0005 ) + 19(5.0336 ) 5(3.6684 ) + 2.7021)
.a

4,c 24
= 2.5743
w
w

## Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(5)

w

(2) h (1)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
= f x 4 , y = f x 4 , y
(1) (1) (1) ( )2 (1) 2
f
4 4 4,c = x 4 1 + y 4,c = (1.4 ) (1 + 2.5743 )

= 7.0056
(2) (3)
y = 2.5745 Similarly y = 2.5745
4,c 4,c
(2) (3)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
y(1.4)=2.5745

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Problem(3):
dy
Solve for y(0.4) given that = x y 2 ; y(0)=1, y(0.1)=0.9117,
dx
y(0.2)=0.8494, y(0.3)=0.8061 by Adam-Bashforth Predictor Corrector
method correct to four decimal places.
Soln : Given data : f(x, y) = x y 2 , h = 0.1

## x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1 x 2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.3 x 4 = 0.4

y0 = 1 y1 = 0.9117 y 2 = 0.8494 y 3 = 0.8061 y4 = ?

## Adam Predictor formula is given by

m
h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) --------(1)
24

co
f i= f(x i, y i ) = xi - (y i )2

s.
xi yi bu
x0 = 0 y0 = 1 f 0= x 0 - (y 0 )2 = 0 - (1)2 = 1
la
f 1= x1 - (y1)2 = 0.1 - (0.9117 )2
x1 = 0.1 y1 = 0.9117
yl

= 0.7311
lls

f 2= x 2 - (y 2 )2 = 0.2 - (0.8494 )2
x 2 = 0.2 y 2 = 0.8494
.a

= 0.5214
w

f 3= x 3 - (y 3 )2 = 0.3 - (0.8061)2
w

x 3 = 0.3 y 3 = 0.8061
= 0.3497
w

Eqn(1) becomes
0.1
y 4,p = 0.8061 + (55(- 0.3497 ) 59(- 0.5214 ) + 37(- 0.7311) 9(- 1))
24
= 0.7789

## Adam-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by

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(r +1) h (r)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 ---------(2)
24
= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p & y = y for r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

(1) h (0)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
= f x 4 , y = f x 4 , y 4,p = x 4 y 4,p 2 = 0.4 (0.7789 )2 = 0.2066
( ) ( )
(0) (0)
f
4 4
(1) 0.1 9(- 0.2066 ) + 19(- 0.3497 ) 5(- 0.5214 )
y = 0.8061 +
4,c 24 0.7311

m
= 0.7784

co
Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)

s.
bu
(2) h (1)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
la
2
= f x 4 , y
(1) (1) y(1) = 0.4 (0.7784 )2 = 0.2059
4,c 4 4,c
f = x
yl

4
lls

(2) 0.1
y
4,c
= 0.8061 + (9(- 0.2059 ) + 19(- 0.3497 ) 5(- 0.5214 ) 0.7311)
24
.a

= 0.7785
w

(3)
Similarly y = 0.7785
4,c
w
w

(2) (3)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
y(0.4)=0.7785

Problem(4):
dy xy
Solve = ; for x=0.4 using Adam-Bashforth Predictor Corrector
dx 2
method correct to four decimal places. Given that y(0)=1, y(0.1)=1.01,
y(0.2)=1.022, y(0.3)=0.1023.

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xy
Soln: Given data : f(x, y) = , h = 0.1
2

## x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1 x 2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.3 x 4 = 0.4

y0 = 1 y1 = 1.01 y 2 = 1.022 y 3 = 1.023 y4 = ?

## Adam Predictor formula is given by

h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) --------(1)
24

xi yi xy
f i= f(xi , yi ) = i i
2
x0 = 0 y0 = 1 x y

om
0(1)
f 0= 0 0 = =0
2 2
x1 = 0.1 y1 = 1.01 x y 0.1(1.01)
f 1= 1 1 =

.c
= 0.0505
2 2
x 2 = 0.2 y 2 = 1.022 x y
f 2= 2 2 =
b
2
us 0.2(1.022)
2
= 0.1022

## x 3 = 0.3 y 3 = 1.023 x y 0.3(1.023)

f 3= 3 3 =
la
= 0.1534
2 2
yl
lls

Eqn(1) becomes
0.1
(55(0.1534 ) 59(0.1022 ) + 37(0.0505 ) 9(0))
.a

y 4,p = 1.023 +
24
w

= 1.0408
w

## Adam-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by

w

(r +1) h (r)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 ---------(2)
24
= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p & y = y for r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c

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## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

(1) h (0)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
x 4 y 4,p 0.4(1.0408 )
= f x 4 , y 0 = f x 4 , y 4,p =
( )
(0)
f = = 0.2081
4 4 2 2
(1) 0.1 9(0.2081) + 19(0.1534 ) 5(0.1022 )
y = 1.023 +
4,c 24 + 0.0505
= 1.0410
Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)
(2) h (1)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
(1)

m
x4y
(1) (1) 4,c 0.4(1.0410)
f = f x 4, y = = = 0.2082
4 4,c 2 2

co
(2) 0.1 9(0.2082 ) + 19(0.1534 ) 5(0.1022 )
y = 1.023 +
24 + 0.0505

s.
4,c bu
= 1.0410
la
(1) (2)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
yl

y(0.4)=1.0410
lls

Problem(5):
.a

dy 1
Solve = ; for x=0.8 using Adam-Bashforth Predictor Corrector
w

dx x + y
method correct to four decimal places. Given that y(0)=2, y(0.2)=2.0932,
w

y(0.4)=2.1754, y(0.6)=2.2492.
w

Soln:
1
Given data : f(x, y) = , h = 0.2
x+y
x0 = 0 x1 = 0.2 x 2 = 0.4 x 3 = 0.3 x 4 = 0.4
y0 = 2 y1 = 2.0932 y 2 = 2.1754 y 3 = 2.2492 y4 = ?

## Adam- Predictor formula is given by

h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) --------(1)
24

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1
f i= f(xi, y i ) =
xi + yi
xi yi
1 1
f 0= = = 0 .5
x0 + y0 0 + 2
x0 = 0 y0 = 2
1 1
f 1= = = 0.4360
x1 + y1 0.2 + 2.0932
x1 = 0.2 y1 = 2.0932
1 1
f 2= = = 0.3882
x 2 + y 2 0.4 + 2.1754
x 2 = 0.4 y 2 = 2.1754

m
1 1
f 3= = = 0.3509

co
y 3 = 2.2492 x 3 + y 3 0.6 + 2.2492
x 3 = 0.6

s.
Eqn(1) becomes
bu
0.2
y 4,p = 2.2492 + (55(0.3509 ) 59(0.3882 ) + 37(0.4360 ) 9(0.5 ))
24
la

= 2.3160
yl

## Adam-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by

lls

(r +1) h (r)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 ---------(2)
24
.a

= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p & y = y for r 0
w

4 4 4 4 4,c
First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)
w

(1) h (0)
w

y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
1 1
= f x 4 , y 0 = f x 4 , y 4,p =
( )
(0)
f = = 0.3209
4 4 x 4 + y 4,p 0.8 + 2.3160
(1) 0.2
y
4,c
= 2.2492 + (9(0.3209 ) + 19(0.3509 ) 5(0.3882 ) + 0.4360 )
24
= 2.3162

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## Second improvement: Put r=1 in eqn(2)

(2) h (1)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
= f x 4 , y
(1) (1) 1 1
f
4
4,c
= = = 0.3209
x4 + y
(1) 0.8 + 2.3162
4,c
(2) 0.2
y
4,c
= 2.2492 + (9(0.3209 ) + 19(0.3509 ) 5(0.3882) + 0.4360 )
24
= 2.3162

(1) (2)
Since y &y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c 4,c
y(0.8)=2.3162

m
co
s.
Problem(6): bu
Using Adam-Bashforth Predictor Corrector method evaluate y(1.4) if y
dy y 1
satisfies + = and y(1)=1, y(1.1)=0.996, y(1.2)=0.986,
la
dx x x 2
y(1.3)=0.972 correct to three decimal places.
yl
lls

1 y = 1 xy , h = 0.1
.a

x2 x x2
w
w

w

## Adam-Bashforth Predictor formula is given by

h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) --------(1)
24

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1 - xi yi
f i= f(x i, y i ) =
xi yi (xi )2
1 - x 0 y 0 1 - 1x1
f 0= = =0
(x 0 ) 2 (1) 2
x0 = 0 y0 = 1
1 - x1y1 1 - 1.1x0.996
f 1= =
(x1) 2 (1.1)2
x1 = 1.1 y1 = 0.996
= 0.079
1 - x 2 y 2 1 - 1.2x0.986
f 2= =
(x 2 ) 2 (1.2)2
x 2 = 1.2 y 2 = 0.986

m
= 0.127

co
1 - x 3 y 3 1 - 1.3x0.972
f 3= =
(x 3 ) 2 (1.3 )2

s.
x 3 = 1.3 y 3 = 0.972
= 0.155
bu
Eqn(1) becomes
la

0.1
(55(- 0.155 ) 59(- 0.127 ) + 37(- 0.079 ) 9(0))
yl

y 4,p = 0.972 +
24
lls

= 0.955
.a

## Adams-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by

(r +1) h (r)
w

y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 --------(2)
24
w

= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p & y = y for r 0
w

4 4 4 4 4,c

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

(1) h (0)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
1 - x 4 y 4,p 1 - 1.4)(0.955)
f
(0)
4
(0) ( )
= f ( x 4,y ) = f x 4 , y 4,p =
4
= = -0.171
(x 4 )2 (1.4 )2
(1) 0.1
y
4,c
= 0.972 + (9(- 0.171) + 19(- 0.155 ) 5(- 0.171) 0.079 ) = 0.955
24
(1)
Since y 4,p & y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c
y(1.4)=0.955

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Problem(7):
Using Adam-Bashforth Predictor Corrector method obtain the solution of
dy
= x 2 y at x=0.4 correct to four places of decimals given that
dx

## x: 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

y: 1 0.9051 0.8212 0.7491

## Soln: Given data : f(x, y) = x 2 - y, h = 0.1

m
co
x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1 x 2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.3 x 4 = 0.4
y0 = 1 y1 = 0.9051 y 2 = 0.8212 y 3 = 0.7491

s.
bu y4 = ?

## Adam-Bashforth Predictor formula is given by

h
(55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) --------(1)
la
y 4,p = y 3 +
24
yl
lls
.a
w

f i= f(x i, y i ) = (x i )2 - y i
w

xi yi
w

f 0= (x 0 )2 - y 0 = (0 )2 - 1 = 1
x0 = 0 y0 = 1

## f 1= (x1)2 - y1 = (0.1)2 - 0.9051 = 0.8951

x1 = 0.1 y1 = 0.9051

## f 2= (x 2 )2 - y 2 = (0.2 )2 - 0.8212 = 0.7812

x 2 = 0.2 y 2 = 0.8212
f 3= (x 3 )2 - y 3 = (0.3 )2 - 0.7491 = 0.6591
x 3 = 0.3 y 3 = 0.7491

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Eqn(1) becomes
0.1
y 4,p = 0.7491 + (55(- 0.6591) 59(- 0.7812 ) + 37(- 0.8951) 9(- 1))
24
= 0.6896
Adam-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by
(r +1) h (r)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 --------(2)
24
= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p & y = y for r 0
4 4 4 4 4,c
First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

h (0)
+ 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
(1)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f
24 4

m
(0) ( )
f4 = f x 4 , y 4,p = (x 4 )2 - y 4,p = (0.4 )2 - 0.6896 = -0.5296

co
0.1
y(1) = 0.7491 + (9(- 0.5296 ) + 19(- 0.6591) 5(- 0.7812 ) 0.8951)

s.
4,c 24 bu
= 0.6896
(1)
Since y 4,p & y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c
la

y(0.4)=0.6896
yl
lls

Problem(8):
.a

## Using Adam-Bashforth Predictor Corrector method obtain the solution of

dy
= 2e x y for x=0.4 under the conditions y(0)=2, y(0.1)=2.010,
w

dx
w

w

## x0 = 0 x1 = 0.1 x 2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.3 x 4 = 0.4

y0 = 2 y1 = 2.010 y 2 = 2.040 y 3 = 2.090 y4 = ?

## Adams Predictor formula is given by

h
y 4,p = y 3 + (55f3 59f2 + 37f1 9f0 ) --------(1)
24

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f i= f(xi, yi ) = 2e x yi
i

xi yi

f 0= 2e x y 0 = 2e0 2 = 0
0i

x0 = 0 y0 = 2

## f 1= 2e x y1 = 2e0.1 2.010 = 0.2003

i

x1 = 0.1 y1 = 2.010

## f 2= 2e x y 2 = 2e0.2 2.040 = 0.4028

2

x 2 = 0.2 y 2 = 2.040

## f 3= 2e x y 3 = 2e0.3 2.090 = 0.6097

3

m
x 3 = 0.3 y 3 = 2.090

co
s.
Eqn(1) becomes
0.1
bu
y 4,p = 2.090 + (55(0.6097 ) 59(0.4028 ) + 37(0.2003 ) 9(0))
24
la
= 2.1615
yl

## Adam-Bashforth Corrector formula is given by

ls

(r +1) h (r)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 --------(2)
24
l
.a

= f x 4 , y where y
(0) (0) (0) (r) (r)
f = y 4,p & y = y for r 0
w

4 4 4 4 4,c
w

## First improvement: Put r=0 in eqn(2)

w

(1) h (0)
y
4,c
= y3 + 9f4 + 19f3 5f2 + f1 where
24
(0) (0) ( )
f4 = f ( x 4,y 4 ) = f x 4 , y 4,p = 2e x y 4,p = 2e0.4 2.1615
4

0.1
y(1) = 2.090 + (9(0.8221) + 19(0.6097 ) 5(0.4028 ) + 0.2003 )
4,c 24
= 2.1615

(1)
Since y 4,p & y are the same up to four decimal places
4,c
y(0.4)=2.1615

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Problem(8):
Using Adam-Bashforth Predictor Corrector method obtain the solution of
dy
= x y 2 at x=0.8 correct to four places of decimals given that
dx
x: 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
y: 0 0.0200 0.0795 0.1762

{Ans: y(0.8)=0.2416}

m
co
s.
bu
la
yl
lls
.a
w
w
w

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