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Adam Cruttenden

Ms. Burke
Honors English 11
May 12th, 2017
Annotated Bibliography: Nuremberg Trial and Code

History.com Staff. "Nuremberg Trials." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 12
May 2017. <http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/nuremberg-trials>.
This was a very informational article which talked about, while the war was occurring,

after the war, and during the trials. In this article, Hitler is mentioned multiple times and

is a very important figure in the disturbing events that happened in Nuremberg, Germany.

He thought that the Jewish population had be inferior to everyone else and was a waste of

a race. Once he came to power in Germany under the Nazi party, he strived to extinguish

the Jewish population through a multitude of ways. He had put them in camps where the

Jews were starved, overworked, and killed by gas and burned. This was one of the most

brutal events throughout the history of the world and will never be forgotten. Although

this had murdered millions of Jews, he still worked to kill more at a higher rate. He and

his other high ranking officers had also thought of an idea to murder these Jews to help

them with discoveries for science. Therefore, Hitler had decided to do violent and

disgusting experiments on the Jews who were captured, for the Nazis benefit. This was

the events that occurred at Nuremberg. These events are indescribable and the doctors

who were involved are disturbed people. Once these events were discovered by the allies

around the 1940s, there was immediately precautions taken to put the men who

committed these atrocities on trial. Although these scientists deserved the trial there were

some difficulties. In the text, it says there was no precedent for an international trial of
war criminals. This means that there was never an international trial for a war crime.

Even though trials of this kind had never occurred, they were finally allowed. This trial

was held in the city of Nuremberg and 21 scientists were guilty, and sentences were given

ranging between ten years in jail to death. Overall this is a quality source for information

about the trials as well as how these trials occurred.

Shuster, Evelyne. "Fifty Years Later: The Significance of the Nuremberg Code NEJM." New
England Journal of Medicine. N.p., 13 Nov. 1992. Web. 16 May 2017.
<http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199711133372006#t=article>.

In "Fifty Years Later: The Significance of the Nuremberg Code, Shuster first list the code

that was created after the trial. On this site, the author writes about the effects of the trial, the

actual code, and some main people involved in this. Furthermore, the trial effected how scientist

worked and how they had to change their ethics. This was very important because all scientist

would have to make sure they follow this set of codes. These trials did not just give a guide line

to the limits of what they can do to a patient but also put fear in them for the consequences of

breaking this code. If they did not follow this there would be vigorous and harsh consequences.

The first set of codes was The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.

This means that one must get consent no matter the event. This is the first law of the Nuremberg

code because it is one of the most vital parts of life, consent. Another part of the code was to

preform experiments for the good of society. When the Nazi scientists did this in Nuremberg,

they were experimenting for the good of themselves. More importantly though, consent was the

main idea throughout the Code. Consent is also a main theme with Henrietta Lacks. It was

important because she did not give consent for the doctors to get money from these cells. The
Jews from Holocaust also did not give consent and were forced to do terrible experiments.

Therefore, the reoccurring theme of this passage was to receive consent.

Skloot, Rebecca. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway, 2017. Print.

Skloots book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks talks about an African American

woman whose cells were immortal due to her cervical cancer. These cells then were taken

without her consent and were profited off by the doctors who did research on them. The

family of Henrietta was very angry since they did not have a lot of money growing up

and in the present. It was an injustice to this family and it caused an outrage. The doctors

should have gotten consent but never did.

Skloot provides a surplus of information that speaks on consent and how this relates to

both topics; which are cells and humans. She explains that consent is a very important

thing. This is shown when the doctors take the cells from Henrietta and does not provide

any of the profit to her or her family. Consent is also shown when the Nazis in Germany

did horrific and fatal test on the Jewish people from the Holocaust. They were killed by

testing and did not give consent toward any of the testing from the incident at

Nuremberg. The doctors from Henriettas cell incident never had any consequences from

selling her cells without consent but, the doctors from Nuremberg were put under trial

and were convicted. After the world had found out about these tragedies, they created the

Nuremberg Code. This was a set of laws that spoke on consent and rights of a human.

Therefore, Skloot provides a perfect explanation for needing consent and shows that

these doctors will try anything to become rich or discover new cures from disease.
Nazi Medical Experiments: Background & Overview." Background & Overview of Nazi

Medical Experiments. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2017.

<http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/background-and-overview-of-nazi-medical-

experiments>.

This site speaks on the experiments done to the Jews who were captured and, it

gives examples of these experiments. On this site, it has 4 different points. These

points were, Racial experiments, war-injury related experiments, pharmaceutical

testing, and the Nuremberg Trials themselves. The racial experiments were mostly

done on prisoners from Auschwitz. These experiments consisted of the scientist

irradiating the testicles and ovaries of the patient to work on a cure for

sterilization. This was very brutal and the patients had burns and swelling.

Another test that occurred were on twins and cripples. The scientists would draw

the bodies of these twins, and then kill them. Once they were dead, their bodies

were autopsied and analyzed to find more information. The second of the tests

were war-injury related. These were test that would see how humans react in

different war like situations. The example given for this test was a high-altitude

experiment. The Nazis would put the Jews in pressure chambers to replicate

events that would occur in high altitude. This would kill the Jews most of the

time. The last of the testing was Pharmaceutical and was meant to find cures for

different diseases. They would test a new form of drug on these Jewish prisoners

that would kill them. Also, they would gas the Jews to test new antidotes. These

different tests are very disturbing and should of never have happened. This site
helps to explain why there was such a harsh punishment given to the scientists

who did these experiments.

Aftermath of Nuremberg Trials." The History Place - Defeat of Hitler: Aftermath: Nuremberg

and Beyond. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2017.

<http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/defeat/nuremberg-beyond.htm>.

This article found on historyplace.com speaks on how Hitlers downfall occurred and the

following events after the war. Before it does this though, it explains how cruel the Nazis

were. It talks about how 54 million people had died in this war and 6 million were Jews.

The Jewish religion had taken a huge hit in population after this war and the way these

Jews were killed are disturbing. Once the war was over, the Nazis had surrendered and

their cities were destroyed. The few Nazis who were left from this vicious war were put

on trial. Some were for being part of this war, others for disgusting war crimes committed

on the Jews. This quote talks about what the charges were, Beginning on Tuesday,

November 20, 1945, twenty-one of the highest-ranking Nazis went on trial in Nuremberg.

The unprecedented four-count indictment included: Conspiracy to Wage Aggressive War;

Crimes Against Peace; War Crimes; and Crimes Against Humanity encompassing

extermination, enslavement, persecution on political or racial grounds, involuntary

resettlement, and inhumane acts against civilian populations. The different charges were

mostly on the scientist who committed these atrocities at Nuremberg. Once the allies

found out about these events, the scientists involved were quickly put on trial for the

different things in the recent quote. There was a large variety of consequences, which

were based on what actions they performed on the Jewish prisoners. The sentences given

to the scientists ranged from years in prison to a death sentence. The death sentence was
given to around 7 of the scientist who participated in these slaughters. Lastly it talks

about after the war and how the land of Germany was distributed and the code that was

written about the events at Nuremberg. This was a very important part of rebuilding that

occurred in Germany, but it also led to the Cold War. Also, the code written for

Nuremberg was a key part in understanding consent and was a reminder to do

experiments for the good of society. Therefore, this source was very reliable and

consisted of quality material to help further ones education of the Nuremberg trials.