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ITA REPORT

[Editor's note: As the national S w e d i s h group o f the International Tunnelling


Association (ITA), SveBeFo (the S w e d i s h Rock Engineering Research) has com-
piled a report o f different countries'regulations a n d recommendations w i t h regard
to shotcrete for rock support. T h i s r e p o r t is n o t to be r e g a r d e d a s a scientific
e v a l u a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d by the different countries, nor s h o u l d
it be v i e w e d as r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , by the ITA or the author, r e g a r d i n g
shotcrete use. Rather, it is a compilation o f the most important parts o f some
selected references, a n d is intended as a reference source for those who are to m a k e
specifications for shotcrete support.
The report as p u b l i s h e d herein d o e s n o t include several appendices that are
provided in the f u l l report (83 pp.), which is available from the S w e d i s h Rock
Engineering Research - SveBeFo, P.O. B o x 49153, S-100 29 Stockholm, Sweden.
The cost o f the report is S E K 400.-.]

Shotcrete for Rock Support: a Summary Report


on the State of the Art in 15 Countries
International Tunnelling Association Working Group on Shotcrete Use
Prepared by Swedish Rock Engineering Research (Bo Malmberg, author)

Abstract--This ITA Report is a compilation of guidelines from 15 Rdsumk---Ce rapport de I'AITES est un recueil de directives de 15
countries on materials and mix design, production and performance pays sur le sujet du dimensionnement des matdriaux et du mortier,
of shotcrete, as well as national guidelines concerning quality la production et la qualitd du bdton profitd, ainsi que les directives
control and test methods. The report also deals with the extent and concernant des mdthodes d'essais et de contr6le de la qualitd. Le
requirements of both preconstruction tests and routine tests, and apport traite aussi des besoins, d la fois en tests de prdconstruction
applicable test methods. It should be observed that although the et de routine et en mdthodes de test d'application. Il sera intdressant
report itself does not put forth recommendations, it presents a de noter que bien que le rapport en lui-m$me n'avance aucune
summary of what is generally official recommended or suggested recommandation, il prdsente un consensus pratiques aetuelles
practice in different countries today. officiellement recommanddes ou suggdrdes dans divers pays.

Foreword opment, existing guidelines or recom- Bo Malmberg, M.Sc., of the Swedish


he International Tunnelling As- mendations, actively working national firm AB Jacobson & Widmark. Mr.

T sociation (ITA) Working Group


on Shotcrete Use was formed at
the ITA meeting in Toronto, Canada,
groups, etc. Short bibliographies and
abstracts of major papers also were
included.
Malmberg has m a n y years of experi-
ence in the field of shotcreting technol-
ogy, particularly with regard to the
in 1989. The group's first task was to As a result of this work, it became composition of shotcrete mixtures, in-
i m p l e m e n t a s t a t u s r e p o r t on evident t h a t guidelines of varying cluding additives and fibres.
shotcreting technology in different s t a t u s were used in some of the This r e p o r t is n o t be r e g a r d e d
countries. participating countries. During as a scientific e v a l u a t i o n o f the
Two y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r e p o r t concurrent discussions within the m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d b y the different
"Shotcrete in Tunnelling--Status Re- Working Group, a strong interest was c o u n t r i e s , b u t m e r e l y as a sum-
port 1991" was published. The pri- expressed to go a step further and make m a r y o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t parts
m a r y aim of the report was to demon- a special compilation of such guide- o f s o m e s e l e c t e d r e f e r e n c e s . It does
strate in brief the general status of the lines and recommendations. This not give any detailed background to
technology in some fifteen countries, would be valuable, for example, with cited recommendations, and includes a
including references to current devel- regard to possible normative work few personal comments.
within the EC (European Community) It also should be noted that some of
norms in the construction area. the references used were in the draft
The Swedish national group of the stage (e.g., the Norwegian guidelines
ITA, the Swedish Rock Engineering and specifications of the European Fed-
Present address: T. Franz~n, Swedish Research F o u n d a t i o n (BeFo; now eration of the National Association of
Rock Engineering Research - SveBeFo, SveBeFo) took on the responsibility for Special Repair Contractors and Mate-
P.O. Box 49153, S-100 29 Stockholm, this work. The task was entrusted to rial Suppliers [EFNARC]), whereas
Sweden.

Tunnelling and Undergrou~wlSpace Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 441~170, 1993. 0886-7798/93 $6.00 + .00
Printed in Great Britain. 0~) 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd 441
some others are officiallyestablished vide an overview of the work o n Italy: Societ~ Italiana Gallerie (SIG)
national regulations. shotcrete that is now underway or that has established a working group o n
This compilation is intended to serve has been recently carried out, as well shotcrete. The group has been divided
as a reference for those who are in- as existing guideline s for different coun- into five subgroups, dealing with the
volved in making specifications for tries. This overview is mainly based on following topics:
shotcrete support, as well as to inspire information provided in the Working 1. Characteristics of shotcrete for
and inform national committees who Group's status report to the Interna- structural use;
are preparing or updating any recom- tional Tunnelling Association in 1991
mendations of their own. Further- 2. Mix design (criteria): aggregate,
(ITA 1991).
cement, tests, and research on
more, today's ongoing European inte- Australia. The Australian Under-
gration includes normative work, e.g., the behaviour of green concrete;
ground Construction and Tunneling 3. Additives, admixtures and fibres;
in the construction sector, also involv- Association (AUCTA) has a subcom-
ing concrete technology. Thus far, no 4. Equipment and safety in works;
mittee on shotcrete.
technical committee on shotcrete has 5. Items for contract and tender
been established within the CEN Austria. The Austrian Concrete specifications.
[Commitd Europden de Normalisation] Society has established a working com-
mittee which has published the Aus- Japan: The J a p a n Tunnelling As-
organization. Therefore, it is vitally sociation h a s a working group o n
important that the tunnelling commu- trian Guideline on Shotcrete, Part 1,
=Application". Part 2, =Testing of shotcrete. Existing standards and
nity be aware of and participate in any guidelines are:
planned work in this respect. Shotcrete', is in preparation.
It is the hope of the ITA Working Canada. N o formal shotcrete * "Tunnelling Standard Specifica-
Group on Shotcrete Use t h a t this re- organisation exists. For general tion ", published by the Society of
port will serve as a basis for further shotcrete applications, reference is Civil Engineers (JSCE) in 1986
enhancement of shotcrete technology, m a d e to documents presented by (in Japanese);
and the exchange of information in this ASTM, ACI and CSA (Canadian Stan- * =Standard Specifications for the
field within the international tunnel- dards Association). Design and Construction of Con-
ling community. Finland. Finland has nopermanent crete Structures", published by
working group on shotcrete. Working the JSCE in 1986 (in English);
--Tomas Franz~n, Animateur, ITA * "Recommendations for the De-
Working Group on Shotcrete Use groups are established for special pur-
poses when the need arises. Finland's sign and Construction of Steel-
"Guidelines for Shotcreting" (1991) are Fibre-Reinforced Concrete", pub-
intended for shotcreting in rock engi- lished by the JSCE in 1983 (in
1.0 Introduction neering applications. The Guidelines Japanese);
This report is a compilation of exist- represent the measures by which a good ~NATM Guideline for Design and
ing guidelines and recommendations technical and economical result can be Construction", published by the
concerning shotcrete and, particularly, obtained; and also deal with aspects of J a p a n Railway Construction
fibre-reinforced shotcrete, for rock sup- working safety. The Guidelines can be Public Corporation in 1983 (in
port. The work has been performed at included in contract documents, but do Japanese);
the request of the ITA Working Group not replace specifications for an actual Construction Manual for Civil
on Shotcrete Use. job. They consist of recommendations, Engineering Work, published by
The aim of the work is to present a which are not official standards. the J a p a n Highway Public Cor-
summary of what is generally consid- France: Working Group No. 6 poration (JHPC) in 1989 (in
ered officially recommended practice ( " S h o t c r e t e " ) of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n Japanese);
in different countries today. Fran~alse des Travaux en Souterrain =Guideline for Construction",
This compilation is mainly based on (AFTES), drafted the AFTES =Recom- published by the J H P C in 1987
documents received from different m e n d a t i o n s on T e c h n o l o g y a n d (in Japanese);
members of the Working Group at the Application of Shotcrete" in 1974. In =Guidelines for Steel-Fibre-Re-
request of BeFo in 1991, and on comple- 1989, the Working Group was asked to inforced Concrete", published by
mentary documents received at and update existing texts and to draft a the J a p a n Tunnelling Associa-
after the ITA conference in Acapulco in recommendation on the use of fibre- tion (JTA) in 1980 (in Japanese).
May 1992. reinforced shotcrete. The group's Norway: A working group on
The author has primarily compiled recommendations were published by shotcrete was establishedin 1990, sup-
and put in order different quantified AFTES in 1992. ported by the Norwegian Rock Blast-
and, preferably, measurable recom- Germany: Existing working groups ing Association. The working group
mendations or standards for a variety are: has presented a draft on the use of wet-
of properties of shotcrete, without at- The Working Group Shotcrete- mix shotcrete for rock support; it is
tempting any deeper analysis concern- DIN 18551, of the German Com- expected to be adopted as an official
ing the reasons for the reported values. mittee on Concrete (DAfStb); recommendation in 1993.
The list of references is as extensive
Committee for National Railway South Africa. The South African
as possible, so that readers may find
Standards-DS 853 Shotcrete, of N a t i o n a l Council on T u n n e l l i n g
f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n in c u r r e n t
the Central Department of the (SANCOT) has established a Working
publications.
It is hoped that this compilation will National Railway (BZA); Group on Shotcrete, representing tun-
serve as a basis for further discussions Working Group "Steel-Fibre- nel owners, the mining industry, con-
concerning reasonable recommenda- Reinforced Shotcrete" of the sulting engineers, contractors, and
tions and standards on shotcrete. German Concrete Institute material suppliers.
(DBV). National standards exist concern-
The most recently presented Ger- ing both safety and general specifica-
2.0 National Work in Progress tions. The former include particular
on Shotcrete m a n g u i d e l i n e is t h e h a n d b o o k
=Stahlfaserbeton ~, which was published specifications concerning protection of
Before examining the various rec- in 1991. This reference was not avail- workers from rebound material, insuf-
ommendations, itm a y be useful to pro- able for use in this compilation. ficient lighting, and dust levels. The

442 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACE TECHNOIX)GY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


latter specificationsare mainly based Work of Other Organisations. A Table 2. Guidelines for standard
on specificationsofthe ACI, A S T M and draft publication concerning shotcrete compressive strength of cement, in
certain Canadian sources, though ex- was p u b l i s h e d by E F N A R C - T C - MPa, according to the Japan
isting specificationsof the South Afri- Sprayed Concrete Committee in 1992. Tunnelling Association (1986); and
can Bureau of Standards (SABS) have The Sprayed Concrete Association the Austrian Concrete Society (1990).
been substituted where possible. has presented separate general recom-
Sweden: N o national working group mendations forwet processsprayed con- Days Austria* Japan
exists with particular interest in crete and dry process sprayed concrete
shotcrete. Nor does any formally (Sprayed Concrete Association 1990).
adopted guideline exist,although some The following compilation of 1 ___7
m~jor clients have established their shotcrete recommendations is based _>9**
own routines and guidelines. In addi- on information from some of the coun-
tion,there are some recommendations 3 _>7
trieslistedabove. A general view ofthe
in the Swedish ~Concrete Handbook'. types of documents received from the 7 >15
A new "Handbook on Shotcrete', differentcountries is given below: 28 _>39 _>30
prepared by the Swedish State Power Guidelines from Japan, Austria,
Board, was published in 1992 (in Finland, Germany, the U.S.A., 90 _>50
Swedish). and Norway.
Switzerland: The SIAStandard 198 Standards from Germany, South
is currently undergoing revision. * 5% fractile
Africa, and U.S.A.
U.K. No standards exist in the U.K. ** (normal shotcrete)
Tender documents from Sweden
with regard to shotcrete technology. and South Africa.
Each contract has its own specifica- Articles and literature from
tion, based on those developed on the Canada, Belgium and Sweden. cement forshotcreteare given in Tables
Channel Tunnel project. land 2.
U.S.A. The most active organiza- 3.0 Materials The American Concrete Institute
tion is the Shotcrete Committee of the (ACI 1983) recommends:
American Concrete Institute (ACI-506), 3.1 Cement
Low-alkalicementincases where
which has developed numerous stan- Cements for shotcreting generally the aggregates are reactive with
dards and guidelines on shotcrete. In should fulfilldemands fornormal stan- the alkaliesin cement.
addition, the ASTM has established a dard or rapid-hardening Portland ce-
subcommittee to: Type V cement (ASTM) in cases
ment according to national standards,
where the shotcrete will be ex-
assemble and study shotcrete as, for example: posed to soluble sulfates.
properties; D I N 1164
develop test methods; and Type Ill cement in cases where
O N O R M B 3310 (Austria) high early strength is required.
* formulate standardsforshotcrete.
A S T M C 150
In 1992, the Underground Technol- S A B S 471 (South Africa) The Norwegian draft for shotcrete
ogy Research Council (UTRC) of the guidelinesprescribesthe use of sulfate-
American Society of Civil Engineers, C E N standard E N 197 or na- resistantcement when there is a riskof
together with ACI-506, created a tional standard, according to sulfate attacks, but only if there is no
UTRC-ACI Underground Shotcrete E F N A R C draft (1992). simultaneous risk of chloride attacks
subcommittee, which will work closely Other types of cements may also be (Norwegian Concrete Association1992).
with the ITA Working Group on used, e.g., according to ASTM C595 Swedish tender documents prescribe
Shotcrete, in addition to addressing (Blended Hydraulic Cements). the use ofsulfate-resistantcement only
shotcrete issues in the U.S. Some quantified data concerning (Swedish Railroad Department, 1991a

Table 1. Austrian Concrete Society and Japan Tunnelling Society guidelines on cement specifications for shotcrete.

Specification Reference Source

Start of setting time: 1.5-,4 hrs. (Austrian Concrete Society 1990)


Start of setting time: >1 hr. (Japan Tunnelling Association 1991)
Fineness of grind: 3500-4500 cm2/g (Austrian Concrete Society 1990)
Fineness of grind: > 2500 cm2/g (Japan Tunnelling Association 1991)
Bleeding: _>20 cm 3 (Austrian Concrete Society 1990)
C3A content: (Austrian Concrete Society 1990)
< 3% if SO42- content of water
exposed to concrete > 400 mg/1
As low as possible (highly sulfate-resistant
cement) if SO42"content > 1000 mg/I
Alcali content (Na20 + 0.65K20): _<0.6% (Japan Tunnelling Association 1991)
If required: Test influence of the temperature (Austrian Concrete Society 1990)
and of the chemical composition of the cement
on the reaction time.
Cement temperature _<+70C when filled into (Austrian Concrete Society 1990)
silo on site

Volume 8, N u m b e r 4, 1883 Tt~N~LUNO AND U~mZRGROUND SP^CZ TFZHNOLOaY 443


and 1991b). Other documents prescribe standards for concrete aggregates (cf. Other specific recommendations
the use of sulfate-resistant cement or, DIN 4226, ASTM C33, C330, C637, regarding aggregates suitable for
alternative]y,rapid-hardening cement, SABS 1083 [South Africa], and BS 822). shotcreting are given in Table 3 and
although the latteris not sulfate-resis- In Austria (Austrian Concrete Society Table 4.
tant (Stockholm City Streets and Traf- 1990), the choice of aggregate is linked According to the EFNARC draft
fic Administration 1990). to the type of shotcrete used, i.e.: (1992), the chloride contentis regulated
French recommendations ( A F T E S For types SCII (supporting con- by CEN standard ENV 206, and the
1992) prescribe that the validity of the crete) and SC III (structural con- alcali content by national standards.
cement selected should be demon- crete), only segregated aggregates
strated in the presence of: are allowed. The segregation 3.3 Additives
Acid water. should take place every 4 mm.
Water that is not highly miner- Maximum size recommended to 3.3.1 Fly ash
alized. 16 mm, although for structural In general, pulverized tly ash (PFA)
Polluted water. concrete the recommendation is may be added to reduce the cement
11-12 mm. content and improve the workability of
* If no "class I" aggregate is used, the mix, according to South African
3.2 Aggregates the actual aggregate must be specifications (JCI 1991). Recommen-
Most recommendations concerning tested according to certain speci- dations regarding fly ash are given in
aggregate refer to ordinary national fications. Table 5.

Table 3. Recommended aggregate gradation, according to different sources.

Percent, by Weight, Passing Sieve Size (mm)

Wet Mix Dry Mix Not Specified (~

Sieve (mm) 16 16 8 16

32 100 (2) 100 (31 100 (3) 100 (5) 100 (5)
100 (4) 100 {8) 100 (~)

80-100 100 100


16 100 85-100
85-97 100 100

56-100 100 60-88


8 90-100 70-100
66-81 100 71-88

40-100 61-85 36-74


4 73-100 58-99
46-66 68-80 51-69

28-58 36-71 21-62


2 55-90 42-78
2O-5O 48-63 38-52

18-32 21-57 12-49


1 37-72 30-56 28-40
18-30 32-48

10-2O 14-39 8-34


O.5 22-50 19-38 18-30
8-20 20-30

4-11 5-21 3-18


0.25 11-26 10-25 10-19
7-18 10-16

4-12 3-10 3-9 1-9


0.125 4_6(7) 8-15 3-10 5-10 7-10

{11Probably for dry mix shotcrete.


(2)According to Norwegian draft (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992).
(3)According to Swedish Concrete Handbook.
(4)According to American Concrete Institute 1983.
ISlAccording to DIN 1045.
<6)According to AFTES 1992.
CT)According to Japanese guidelines (Japanese Tunnelling Association 1991 ).

444 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACE TECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 4. Specifications for coarse aggregate and sand used for shotcrete.

Coarse Aggregate I Specification Reference Source

Maximum aggregate size:


Dry mix shotcrete: 16 mm Japan Tunnelling Association 1991
normally 10 mm Sprayed Concrete Association 1990
(possibly 20 mm)

Wet mix shotcrete: 8 mm Japan Tunnelling Association 1991


16 mm Sprayed Concrete Association 1990

No single fraction > 30% of total aggregate Norwegian Concrete Association 1992

Specific gravity _>2.5 kg/dm 3 Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Water absorption: > 3.0% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Loss by washing: > 1.0% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Clay: > 0.25% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Sand Specification Reference Source

Fineness modulus: 2.8-3.2 Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Surface water: 4-6% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991


Recommended 2-4% AFTES 1992
Maximum 7% AFTES 1992

Specific gravity: > 2.5 kg/dm3 Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Water absorption < 3.0% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Loss by washing: < 5.0% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

3.3.2 Silica fume 3.4 Admixtures * Good adhesion;


Condensed silica fume may be added Requirements for admixtures for * N o corrosive effectson steel;
to provide the mix with good adhesion/ shotcrete mainly concern the use of " Effective operation even at wa-
cohesion characteristics for overhead accelerating admixtures. Their use ter inflow; and
application. This provides the possi- should be approved by the Engineer, Harmlessness to humans.
bility of building up full thickness in but the method of introduction and A typical dosage should be speci-
one layer, and to significantly reduce concentration should be leftto the dis- fied, including the detrimental effects
rebound, according to South African cretion of the Specialist Contractor of overdosing, especially with regard to
tender documents (JCI 1991). Accord- (Sprayed Concrete Association 1990). long-term durability (Sprayed Concrete
ing to the ITA Status Report (1991), it Specificationsconcerning other ad- Association 1990).
is possible to use condensed silica fume mixtures often refer to specifications According to the Norwegian draft
together with fly ash. or standards for normal concrete addi- document (Norwegian Concrete Asso-
Recommendations regarding the tives--e.g., D I N 1045 (DIN 18551, ciation 1992), the use of high amounts
addition of silica fume are given in 1992)--or, as in Finland, certifiedby of accelerators may be compensated
Table 6. national concrete associations (P611~i for by high strength in the concrete mix
1991). Their use should be approved design.
3.3.3 Blast furnace slag by the Engineer (Sprayed Concrete AS- Table 7 gives recommendations for
South African specifications, re- sociation 1990). accelerators.
ferred to in the ITA's status report on The admixtures used (normally Calcium chloride or admixtures con-
shotcrete (1991), do not recommend water glass) must be adapted to the raining chlorides either must not be
the use of blast furnace slag cement, cement with regard to their effecton: used (JC11991); or the chloride content
because ofitsslow early strength gain. Setting time; must be limitedin reinforced structures,
However, Japanese guide!ines rec- Early strength; and e.g., as according to Austrian guidelines
o m m e n d the use of 30--60% addition of * Decreasein strengthat advanced (Austrian Concrete Society 1990).
blast furnace slag in the cement (Ja- ages (Austrian Concrete Society When cement containing fly ash is
pan Tunne]lingAssociation 1991); and 1990, E F N A R C draft 1992). used, special consideration must be
the E F N A R C draft(1992) recommends The use of accelerators shall also given before accelerators can be used
at least 30%. guarantee: (SANCOT 1991).

Volume 8, Number4, 1993 TUNNELLING ANDUNDERGROUND SPACETECHNOLOGY 445


Other a d m i x t u r e s are used for Superplasticizers: 10-12% by the pump.
shotcrete. Accordingto Morgan (1991), 1-1.5%, by weight of cement. 4-6% after shotcreting.
the normal dosage rates are:
When air-entraining agents are Air-entraining agents should not be
Water-reducing agents: used, the air pore volume should be
0.5%, by weight of cement. used without approval of the contractor
expected to be: because high air content may reduce

Table 5. Recommendations regarding addition of pulverized fly ash.

Characteristic Recommendation Reference Source

Maximum allowable addition:


for Portland cement: _< 15% Austrian Concrete Society 1990
< 30% ITA 1991; EFNARC 1992
for PFA cement: _< 15% EFNARC 1992
for blast-furnace slag cement: < 20% Austrian Concrete Society 1990;
EFNARC 1992

Specific surface: _>450 m=/kg Austrian Concrete Society 1990


According to BS 3892 SANCOT 1991

Carbon content: < 5% SANCOT 1991

SO 3 content: < 2.5% (Total SO 3 SANCOT 1991


content in cement +
PFA: ~ 4%)

Table 6. Recommendations for addition of silica fume to shotcrete mix.

Feature/Specification Reference Source

Recommended addition (wet mix shotcrete):


3-5% drift support on front Norwegian Concrete Assoc. 1992
4-8% combination with PFA cement and for permanent support Norwegian Concrete Assoc. 1992
6-10% combination with Portland or SR cement for permanent support Norwegian Concrete Assoc. 1992
8-13% Morgan 1992

Allowable limits of addition (wet mix): Norwegian Concrete Assoc. 1992


3% -< addition _< 15%

Surface area:
> 1800 m 2 /kg (densified) SANCOT 1991
_>1200 m 2 /kg (BET) EFNARC 1992

Particle size: average 0.2 micron Norwegian Concrete Assoc. 1992


SiO 2content: _>85-90% SANCOT 1991 ; Specification for Lesotho
Highlands Project 1991; EFNARC 1992
Carbon content: < 5% SANCOT 1991 ; Specification for Lesotho
Highlands Project 1991
Total alkali: _<1% SANCOT 1991
Soluble SO3: _<1% Austrian Concrete Society 1990
Loss on ignition: -< 4% EFNARC 1992
Chloride content: -<0.1% EFNARC 1992
Free CaO: < 1.0% EFNARC 1992
Hydraulic effectiveness: 100% (~NORM B 3320) Austrian Concrete Society 1990
Activity index: > 95% (28 d) EFNARC 1992

446 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table Z Recommendations for accelerators to be added to shotcrete mixes.

FeatureJSpeclficatlon Reference Source

Recommended amount:
Powdery type: 6-8% Austrian Concrete Society 1990
average 6% EFNARC 1992
Liquid type: 4-6% Austrian Concrete Society 1990
6-8% EFNARC 1992
Water glass 10-15% Austrian Concrete Society 1990
Not specified: 2-5% Morgan 1991
Dry mix: 4-7% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991
Wet mix: 5-10% Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Allowable amount:
Powdery type: _<10% Austrian Concrete Society 1990
Liquid type: _<8% Austrian Concrete Society 1990
Not specified < 3% (documented experience _>5 SANCOT 1991
years)

Allowable decrease of strength: < 45%, powdery accelerators Austrian Concrete Society 1990
_<30%, liquid accelerators

Approval test:
Proctor test 10 min.: _>130N EFNARC 1992

Water-soluble aluminate: _<0.6% if shotcrete exposed to water Austrian Concrete Society 1990
with SO 2- content > 600 mg/I
4

the pumpability of the shotcrete (Nor- nants or surface coating (JCI 1991). the hardened properties is negligible.
wegian Concrete Association 1992). 2. Fibres should be high strength, The normal dosage is 1-2 kg/m s.
When several admixtures are con- deformed, drawn or slit sheet steel
templated, a compatibility study should fibres (Morgan 1991). 4.0 Mix Design and
be carried out before the suitability 3. A particular product should be Performance
trial (AFTES 1992). specified(e.g.,Fibrex H C 25 or Dramix 4.1 Composition
ZC 30/.50).
3.5 Fibres The contractor should be free to
R e b o u n d reduces the effective design the mix to achieve the specified
The use of steel fibres as reinforce- amount of fibres in dry-mix shotcrete characteristic strength (Sprayed Con-
ment in shotcrete (SFRS)is well estab- to about 50-70% of the amount in the crete Association 1990).
lished in m a n y countries, including the mix. For wet-mix shotcrete, the amount According to the Austrian guide-
U.S.A., Canada, South Africa, Ger- of fiber rebound is approximately 5 - lines(Austrian Concrete Society 1990),
many, Sweden, and Norway. 10% (EFNARC draft 1992). shotcretewithout specialrequirements,
Other countries regard the fibre- Galvanized fibers, which are some- up to certain strength levels (SC 16),
reinforcement technique as a special times usedin aggressive environments, can be produced without any trialmix
method (Austria) or as a technique to give very good bond to the concrete; tests, using mix proportions for dry or
be used only after sufficient structural however, there is a risk of gas genera- wet mix.
tests have been performed (Finland). tion in reaction with de-chromatized The composition of the shotcrete
Regarding different kinds of fibre cement. The use of de-chromatized mix normally is determined by long
reinforcement, ASTM 820 classifies fi- cement is prescribed in some coun- experience or by trial mix tests. One
bre reinforcement in three categories: tries, e.g., Sweden and Norway (Nor- example ofrecommended trialmix pro-
* Type I: Steel-fibre-reinforced wegian Concrete Association 1992). portions is presented in Table 9.
concrete or shotcrete. Other types of fibres, such as glass, Recommendations concerning com-
* Type II: Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer and carbon fibres, may be used position normally refer to "designated ~
concrete or shotcrete. if the requirements are fulfilled ac- composition. It should be noted that
cording to applied guidelines (Austrian the in-situ composition, i.e.,in the lin-
* Type III: Concrete or shotcrete Concrete Society 1990).
reinforced with syn- ing, deviates from the original compo-
Synthetic fibres contribute to the sta- sition, due to rebound. This is espe-
thetic fibres. bility of shotcrete material (AFTES ciallyimportant for dry-mix shotcrete
Recommendations for Type I fibre 1992). Their excessively low mechani- (DIN 18551, 1992).
are given in Table 8. cal properties can modify the rheologi- According to A F T E S (1992), the re-
Other, not quantified, recommen- cal behaviour of the fresh concrete and sult is an average increase ofthe order
dations are as follows: of the concrete during hardening (e.g., of 10 to 20% in cement proportioning
1. Fibres must be dry, free from improved cohesion and shearing resis- for spraying of an area approximately
corrosion, oil, grease, or other contami- tance). Their contribution to improving 70 m m thick, and a transfer towards

Volume 8, N u m b e r 4, 1993 TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOGY 447


Table 8. Recommendations for steel-fibe reinforcement in shotcrete. The type of fibre used often refers to A S T M 820, e.g.,
Type I fibres.

Characteristic Recommendation Reference Source

Equivalent diameter: 0.5 mm (Type i, ASTM 820)

Fiber length: < 30 mm for dry mix Austrian Concrete Society 1990
< 20 mm for wet mix Austrian Concrete Society 1990
< 0.7 x internal dia. of pipes and EFNARC 1992
hoses used

Aspect ratio I/d: 40-60 (Type I, ASTM 820) JCI 1991


65-100

Ultimate elongation: 12-22% JCI 1991

Fiber amount: Normally 50-80 kg/m3


< 5-6% (weight) or 120-140 kg/m3, EFNARC 1992
adapted to pumpability
Related to fiber length (I): Norwegian Concrete Assoc. 1992
> 65 kg/n~ for 1< 20 mm
>_50 k g / ~ for 21 < 1 _<39 mm
_>40 kg/m 3 for 1_>40 mm

Table 9. Trial mix batch proportions for 1 m 3 dry mix shotcrete, k g / m s. regulates the maximum mass ratio
and the minimum cement content as
shown in Table 11.
Shotcrete Class A B
The mass ratio is as follows:
V
Description Plain Steel Fibre m=
c+Kxp
where:
Normal Portland Cement 380 380
v = water content.
Silica Fume 50 50
c = cement content.
Coarse Aggregate (SSD) 500 500
p = silica fume content
10 X 2.5 mm
K= coefficient of efficiency
Concrete Sand (SSD) 1230 1230
= 2.0 for silica fume content < 8%
Steel Fibre N/A 65 of Portland clinker content
Water (estimate) 140 140 = 1.0 for silica fume content 8-
15% of Portland clinker content.
A similar classification is proposed
by the EFNARC draft (1992). As
fine aggregates of 10 to 20% (relative Rebound may be reduced for dry- shown in Table 12, requirements for
value of the undersize) on the grading mix shotcrete by: air content also are considered, in or-
curve of the concrete in place. The * Increasing fines. der to guarantee freeze-thaw durabil-
thinner the applied layer, the greater . Process-controlled pre-dampening. ity on shotcrete that is used primarily
this increase in proportioning will be, for repair work.
for ceiling applications. * Reducing air pressure.
When calculating water content for
Japanese guidelines (Japan Tun- The cement content should be higher wet-mix s h o t c r e t e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n
nelling Association 1991) state that than for normal concrete in order to should be given to the water content in
the rebound, when tested, should be improve pumpability and shotcrete admixtures and additives (Norwegian
less than 25%. production (Norwegian Concrete Asso- Concrete Association 1992). If no spe-
According to Vandewalle (1991), ciation 1992). cial agreement exists between the con-
rebound may be reduced for wet mix The ready-mix concrete supplier tractor and the concrete supplier, it
shotcrete by" must not reduce the cement content should be assumed that 25-30 1/m3 of
* Increasing the cement content. due to high-strength margins without accelerator will be used. This means
the consent of the shotcrete contractor. that the concrete recipe must have a
Adding fines. Other quantified recommendations margin for addition of 25 litres of water
Decreasing the maximum size of regarding shotcrete composition are at the site.
aggregate. given in Table 10.
Attaining the proper moisture According to the Norwegian draft
content for the aggregate. document (Norwegian Concrete Asso- 4.2 Performance--Fresh
Achieving finer gradation. ciation 1992), the shotcrete should be Shotcrete
Including fly ash or silica in the classified according to the aggressive- P r o p e r t i e s of fresh concrete to be
mix. ness of the current environment, which considered are:

4 4 8 TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 10. Quantified recommendations for shotcrete composition.

Composition Aspect J Recommendation J Reference Source

Cement content: 3
Vandewalle 1991
Fine shotcrete, 0-4 mm: 450-600 kg/rr~
Shotcrete, 0-8 mm: 350-450 kg/rn3
Coarse shotcrete, 0-15 mm: 330-350 kg/m

Water/cement ratio:
For dry mix shotcrete: 0.3-0.4 Morgan 1991
0.45-0.55 Japan Tunnelling Assoc. 1991
< 0.5* DIN 18551, 1992

For wet mix shotcrete: 0.4-0.5 Morgan 1991


0.50-0.65 Japan Tunnelling Assoc. 1991

For fibre-reinforced shotcrete: < 0.5 Austrian Concrete Society 1990

Sand/aggregate ratio: 0.55-0.60 Japan Tunnelling Assoc. 1991

Aggregate/cement ratio 3.5:1-4.0:1 Sprayed Concrete Assoc. 1990

* Not measurable. If there are demands on maximum w/c, it may be assumed that w/c < 0.5.

Consistency or workability. Table 11. Environmental classes and corresponding specifications of concrete
Air pore volume. composition according to Norwegian dra~ guidelines for shotcrete (Norwegian
* Setting time or workability time. Concrete Association 1992).
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for each of
these aspects are given be]ow. Envlron- Max. Mass MIn. Binder
Consistency (wet mix): ment Class Envlronment Ratio Content (kg)
Class KP-KF for dense-flow con-
veying according to DIN 18551 NA Somewhat aggressive 0.60 360
(1992),. NMA More aggressive 0.50 420
Class KS-KP for thin-flow con- MA Very aggressive 0.45 470
veying (DIN 18551, 1992).
MMA Extremely aggressive 0.40 530
* Slump:
60-100 mm (Japan Tunnelling
Assoc. 1986; Morgan 1991).
100-150 mm (AFTES 1992).
Table 12. Environmental classes, according to the EFNARC dra ~ (1992).
Air pore volume. The use of air-
entraining agents for shotcrete is not Mln. Fresh Air
very common. Thus, there are only a
few recommendations concerning air
Max. Cement Content
pore volume, and they are concentrated
Class Environment W/(C+) (kglm) (%)
on wet-mix shotcrete where freeze/thaw
durability is important. 2a Humid, no frost 0.60 360
The following two recommendations
regarding air pore volumes are cited in 3 Humid, frost, de-icing salt 0.50 380
DIN 18551 (1992):
10-12% air pore volume at the 5c Highly aggressive chemicals 0.45 400
discharge pump.
3
4-6% air pore volume as shot. EA Extremely aggressive:
Setting time. The setting time often No frost 0.40 350
refers to tests according toASTM C403. Frost 0.40 450
Recommended time ranges for plain or
steel-fibre-reinforced shotcrete with an
accelerator are:
Initial set" 3-10 min. (SANCOT 4.3 Performance--Young Requirements for young concrete
1991; Vandewalle 1991; Morgan Shotcrete are prescribed when there is a need to
1991). The term "young concrete" refers to protect against:
Final set: 9 - 3 0 min. (Wood the state of hardening of concrete to a The influence of blasting near
1992). strength level ofapproximately 10 MPa. the shotcreting site; and/or

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUNNELLING ANDUNDERGROUND SPACETECHNOLOGY 449


Table 13. Permissible impact from J2: Applicable when early active Table 14. Three grades of shotcrete
blasting near shotcrete structures of rock pressure is present. specified by the Sprayed Concrete
different ages. Js: Applies only to exceptional Association (1990).
cases (e.g., high early strength
Max. Peak g e n e r a l l y leads to reduced Characteristic
Shotcrete Particle Velocity strength increase at later age). Grade Strength at 28 Days
age (days) (mrn/s) Strength development for the three
classifications is shown in Figure 1. 30 30 MPa
0-3 10 40 40 MPa
Other recommendations regarding
3-7 35 young shotcrete are as follows: 50 50 MPa
>7 110 Required strength: > 5 MPa at 8
hours (SANCOT 1991, Vande-
walle 1991).
The influence of early freezing. Required strength: > 5 MPa be- Compressive strength is classified
fore influence of frost (Swedish by the EFNARC draft (1992) as shown
4.3.1. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s Railroad D e p a r t m e n t 1991b, in Table 18.
EFNARC draft 1992). Although the Norwegian draft docu-
Finnish guidelines (P6]l~i 1991) rec-
Concrete temperature must be ment (Norwegian Concrete Association
ommend that young concrete have a
kept above +5C until it reaches 1992) does not specify any particular
strength level approximately 60% that
the freezing strength, normally compressive strength, it states that
of the final strength, in order to with-
3-4 days (PGll~i 1991). the evaluation of compressive strength
stand blasting near the shotcreting site
shall be based on cores from the lining,
(given a normal design strength of 30
MPa). Permissible peak particle ve- 4.4 Pedormance--Hardened and specifies the minimum strength of
the cores for different strength classes
locities for shotcrete structures of Shotcrete (see Table 19).
different ages are given in Table 13. 4.4.1. Compressive strength If no other agreement exists, the
In temporary shotcreting when us-
The requirements for compressive relationship between the compressive
ing accelerators, blasting can be car- strength of the concrete tested before
ried out 12 hours after shotcreting. strength are often related to different
strength classes or grades. The three s p r a y i n g and the strength of the
Austrian guidelines (Austrian Con-
grades recommended by the Sprayed shotcrete in the lining should fulfill
crete Society 1990) classify young strength classes according to Table 20.
shotcrete in three strength develop- Concrete Association (1990) are shown
in Table 14. Other special recommendations for
ment ranges: J,, J2 and J3, as described fibre-reinforced concrete are as follows:
below: More detailed grades are presented
in the Austrian guidelines (Austrian Strength grade > SC 22.5 (Aus-
J~: Applicable when shotcrete must Concrete Society 1990), as shown in trian Concrete Society 1990).
be placed as quickly as possible Table 15. The Finnish guidelines (Pbll~
in thick layers, inflow of water Strength class > C 25 (preferably
1991) associate the strength class with > C 35) to ensure sufficient bond
is observed, and stresses occur different applications (see Table 16).
as a result of operations follow- between fibres and the matrix
Examples of requirements for com- (EFNARC draft 1992).
ing immediately after concrete pressive strength given in other docu-
placement. ments are shown in Table 17. 4.4.2 First crack and/or ultimate
flexural strength
Examples of requirements for first
crack strength and/or ultimate fiexural
flo[N/mm z ] strength are given in Table 21. All tests
refer to ASTM C 1018, and apply only to
20 fibre-reinforced shotcrete.
,5 33 The Norwegian draft document (Nor-
10
J wegian Concrete Association 1992) re-
f lates the flexural strength to the actual
5
,JZ compressive strength class, as shown in
Table 22.

4.4.3 T o u g h n e s s
The use of toughness values to char-

jf acterize the strength and deformation


capacity of the fibre-reinforced shotcrete
has arousedincreasinginterest in many
0.5
K;3
countries. Requirements expressed in
rj J these terms can be found in documents
0.2 from Sweden, the U.S.A., Canada, South
f 0.2
J Africa, and Norway.
o.1 All requirements presented concern-
15 30 1 2 3 6 9 12 2~ ing toughness refer to tests according
to ASTM C1018-89 or modifications
- - MINUTES I HOURS t thereof. However, other test methods
have been proposed for example, the
test prescribed by the J a p a n Concrete
Figure 1. Young shotcrete strength requirements, according to Austrian Institute (JC I). These two methods are
guidelines (Austrian Concrete Society 1990). discussed in section 13.4.2.

450 TUNNELLING ANDUNDERGROUND SPACETECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 15. Strength grades of shotcrete, based on Austrian guidelines (Austrian eters, due to the sensitivity to speci-
Concrete Society 1990). The strength grades may refer to an age of 28, 56, or 91 men size and durability.
days. U n i a x i a l t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h : These
requirements are related to the con-
Minimum Average Value crete grade (EFNARC draft 1992), as
of Compressive shown in Table 29.
Grade Strength (MPe) Notes F r o s t r e s i s t a n c e : This is fulfilled
for strength class > S C 22.5, according
to ONORM (Austrian Concrete Society
SC12 12 1990).
F r e e z e - t h a w r e s i s t a n c e : ASTM
Cl116 (1989) gives two alternatives
SC16 16 for meeting this requirement:
1. A proven record of satisfactory
With requirements J~ or J2, freeze-thaw durability for concrete,
SC19 19 GENERALLY obtainable strength at with or without fibres, with the same
28 days air content and mixture proportion,
placed for at least two winters.
2. An average durability factor >
With requirements J, or J=,
80% for a set of three specimens tested
SC22.5 23 MAXIMUM obtainable strength at according to ASTM C666.
28 days
B o n d : The bond should be higher
than the tensile strength of the weak-
SC 25 25 est material (AFTES 1992). Recom-
mendations for bend strength and veri-
fication are given in Table 30.
With requirements Jl or J2, According to EFNARC draft (1992),
SC 28 28 MAXIMUM obtainable strength at if shotcrete is used in structural de-
90 days sign, the bond shall be specified by:
* Average strength; or
SC 30 30 Without special requirements for C h a r a c t e r i s t i c or m i n i m u m
the =young" shotcrete (e.g., value.
SC 40 40 reinfomed concrete for repair work) The German guideline (Maid11992),
gives the following bond specifications:
Average of 6 cores: > 1.5 MPa.
If not: take an additional 6 cores.
Examples of values presented for quirements for porosity, density or If average < 1.5 MPa: further
the toughness quantities are given in watertightness. Examples are given investigation of the reason.
Table 23. In addition to the require- in Table 28.
ments presented in the table, the If single value < 1.0 MPa:
Splitting tensile strength: Rec- An additional 3 cores m u s t be
E F N A R C draft (1992) also presents ommendations from A F T E S (1992) are
requirements on toughness indices for taken within 1 m from the previ-
as follows: ous ones. If the least value < 1
various concrete grades. These are
given in Table 24. 7 days: 2 MPa MPa, the area must be marked
According to A S T M Cl116-89, the 28 days: 2.7 M P a and the concrete removed.
requirements for toughness m a y be These figures should be used nei- The Norwegian draft document
linked to various performance levels, ther in design nor as reference param- (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992)
as shown in Table 25.
Normally, categories I-III will be
applied. Requirements in category IV Table 16. Shotcrete classes according to Finnish guidelines (P6ll~i 1991)
will be fulfilledonly through the use of
high amounts offibreshaving deformed
surfaces or end anchorages. MIn. Compressive
Other suggestions, presented by Class Strength Application
Vandewalle (1991), are based on re-
sults from several large research and
development contracts, as well as rou- I K30 Sites with strict structural requirements,
tine field quality control tests. These e.g., bridges
are given in Table 26.
According to the Norwegian draft Rock reinfomement, normal concrete
document (Norwegian Concrete Insti- II K30
structures, etc.
tute 1992), the test of fibre-reinforced
shotcrete should be carried out accord-
ing to ASTM C 1018; however, the evalu-
ation is somewhat different (see Table
III K20 Fill shotcreting, no structural significance
27).
Temporary support during the excavation
4.5 Other Properties IV K20 to ensure the safe continuation of the
Denseness: The denseness of excavation process.
shotcrete is expressed in terms of re-

Volume 8, N u m b e r 4, 1993 TUNNELLINO AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOaY 451


Table 17. Examples of requirements for compressive strength based on other stresses that the bond should be en-
documents. sured by:
[Note: It may be observed that there is a great difference between the Cleaning of surfaces.
requirements according to the Japan Tunnelling Association (1986) and the
Swedish tender documents (Swedish Railroad Department 1991a). The Suitable concrete composition.
reasons may, to a certain extent, depend on the influence of different test Effective curing.
standards, that is, the effect of specimen type, size, and curing conditions. Controlled by knocking.
Other r e a s o n s a r e probably related to different national practices, including
the influence of the national geotechnical conditions.] 5.0 Batchlng, Mixing and
Transport
Age of Compressive
5. 1 Recommendations for Dry-mix
Shotcrete Strength (MPa) Reference Source
Shotcrete
8 hours 5 Wood 1992 5.1.1 Addition of cement
Batched by mass or added by
1 day 5 Japan Tunnelling Assoc. 1991 bag. Tolerance: + 2% (JC11991).
8* AFTES 1992 Cement temperature: <+50C
10 Morgan 1991, SANCOT 1991, Wood 1992, (Austrian Concrete Society 1990,
EFNARC 1992 EFNARC draft 1992).

3 days 20 Wood 1992 5.1.2 Aggregate


Coarse and fine aggregates, pref-
7 days 17" AFTES 1992 erably batched by mass.
25 EFNARC 1992 Tolerance: + 3% (JCI 1991).
30 Morgan 1991, Wood 1992 Alternatively, batched by vol-
ume, if volume batching con-
28 days 18 Japan Tunnelling Assoc. 1991 forms to ASTM C685, and the
25"* AFTES 1992 v o l u m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n i n g is
30 JC11991, EFNARC 1992 checked at the start of every
35 Stockholm City Streets and Traffic Admin. 1990 shift (Specification for Lesotho
35"** Maidl 1992 Highlands Project 1991).
40* Maidl 1992 Moisture content:
40 Morgan 1991, SANCOT 1991, Swedish Railroad Fine aggregate: 2-6%.
Dept. 1991, Specs. for Lesotho Highlands Coarse aggregate: < 4%.
Project 1991, Wood 1992 If drier aggregate is used, a pre-
45 Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991 wetting system should be used,
in order to obtain the preferred
90 clays 35 EFNARC 1992 moisture content.
Coarse and fine a g g r e g a t e s
* Arithmetic mean should be stockpiled and batched
** Characteristic strength separately.
*** Single value

Table 18. Strength classes for sprayed concrete tested on sawed or drilled samples from sprayed panels.

Strength Class 020/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60

Characteristic
strength/MPa

Cylinder 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Cube 25 30 37 45 50 55 60

Table 19. Minimum strength of concrete cores in different concrete strength classes, according to the Norwegian draft
document (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992).

Strength Class C30 C35 C40 045 C50 055

Minimum characteristic cube strength, 30 35 40 45 50 55


cast concrete (MPa)

Minimum strength cores, h/d = 2.0 (MPa) 19.2 22.4 25.6 28.8 32.0 35.2

452 TUNNELLING ANDUNDERGROUND SPACETECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 20. Relationships between strength classes for sprayed concrete and concrete before spraying, according to the
Norwegian draft document (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992).

Strength Class, Sprayed Concrete 030 035 040 C45 C50 C55

Minimum strength class before spraying C38 C43 C48 C54 C60 C65

Table 2I. Examples of requirements for first crack strength and~or ultimate
7exural strength.

First crack strength and/or ultimate flexural


Age (in days)
strength (in MPa)

7
28

Table 22. Minimum flexural strength in different compressive strength classes, according to Norwegian draft document
(Norwegian Concrete Association 1992) and the EFNARC draft (1992).

Strength
Class C25 C30 035 C40 C45 C50 C55

Norwegian 3.8 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0

EFNARC 3.5 4.5 5.2

Table 23. Example of values presented for shotcrete toughness quantities.


Age (In
Quantity days) Value Reference Source

1 5
7 3.5 SANCOT 1991 ; Specs. for Lesotho Highlands Project 1991; Wood 1992
-
3.5 Morgan 1991
28 5.0 JC11991

1 7 5.0 SANCOT 1991 ; Specs. for Lesotho Highlands Project 1991 ; Wood 1992
10
5.0 Morgan 1991
7.0 (for C25) EFNARC 1992
28 7.0 Swedish National Rescue Services Board
28 8.0 JC11991
~e
1 2O 10.0 (for C25, EFNARC 1992
35, 45)

1
3O
.
14.0 Morgan 1991
28 19.0 JC11991
28 21.0 Swedish Natlional Resque Service Board
Rs io 4.0 MPa** Swedish Railroad Department 1991b

Rio30 'it
--'-- xf s 2.5MPa** Swedish Railroad Department 1991b
100

* Not specified.
** Requirements for routine tests. Corresponding requirements for preconstruction tests: 5MPa and 3 MPa.

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOGY 458


Temperature of aggregates: > 5C 5 1 4 Additives (fly ash, silica 5 1 6 Mixing equipment
(Austrian Concrete Society 1990, fume, etc.) * Batch mixer or a continuous
EFNARC draft 1992). Added by mass or preblended mixer. The actual type must, for
with the cement. example, comply with the require-
5.1.3 Fibres Tolerance: + 5% (JCI 1991). ments in ASTM C94 and C685,
Batched by mass. respectively (ASTM C 1018,1989).
Tolerance: + 3% (JCI 1991). 5.1.5 Admixtures (setting Thereare correspondingrequire-
* Alternatively, added by whole accelerators, plasticlzers, etc.) ments in DIN 1045, although for
bags, boxes, etc., provided these Mixed with the water. stiff concrete, such as fibre-rein-
packages are marked with the Tolerance: + 5% (JCI 1991). forced concrete, the mixing time
mass (ASTM Cl116.89). should be prolonged by 0.5 rain.
(DIN 18551, 1992).

Table 24. Requirements, flexural strength and toughness in bending according 5.1.7 Water pressure
to the EFNARC draft (1992). In order to achieve complete wet-
ring of the moist mix at the nozzle,
Concrete Grade C25 C35 C45 the water pressure must be suffi-
ciently high. A pressure greater
Average flexural strength MPa 35 42 46 than 1 kp/cm 2 higher than the
working pressure in the convey-
ing line is recommended, i.e., a
Average toughness indices: desired pressure of > 6 kp/cm 2
Io 6 6 6 (SANCOT 1991).
1 12 12 12
20

Table 25. Toughness values for various performance levels, according to A S T M Cl16 (1989).

Toughness Index, I s Toughness Index, I,o

Performance Level Specified Value Test Result Specified Value Test Result

I 2.7 3.0 5.4 6.0


II 3.6 4.0 7.2 8.0
II1 4.5 5.0 9.0 10.0
IV 5.4 6.0 10.8 12.0

Table 26. Suggested descriptions for steel-fibre-reinforced shotcrete, according to Vandewalle (1991).

Category Rating 1 13O R 30,'10


10

I Marginal <4 <12 < 40


II Fair 4 12 40
III Good 6 18 60
IV Excellent 8 24 80

Table 27. Requirements of fibre-reinforced shotcrete in different toughness


classes, according to the Norwegian draft document (Norwegian Concrete
Association 1992).

Flexural Strength, MPa, at Deflection

Toughness Class 1 mm 3 mm

Fiber type and amount specified

20 15

35 30

454 TUNNELLINGANDUNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 28. Examples of requirements for porosity, denseness or watertightness.

Exampb Specification Reference Source

Boiled absorption (ASTM C642), 7 days: SANCOT 1991, ASTM C1116.89


Without accelerator: 8%
With accelerator: 9%

Volume of permeable voids (ASTM C642), 7 days: SANCOT 1991, ASTM C1116.89
Without accelerator: 17%
With acceleator: 19%

Density: Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991a and 1991 b


According to Swedish standard: > 2200 kg/m

Watertightness:
Fulfilled according to Swedish standard Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991a and
1991b, Stockholm City Street and
Traffic Admin. 1990
Fulfilled for strength class > SC 22.5, according to C)NORM Austrian Concrete Society 1990
_<50 mm and mean average < 20 mm, according to ISO 7031 EFNARC 1992
Permeability < 10 "1=m/s, according to CEN EFNARC 1992

Other properties:
Splitting tensile strength: AFTES 1992
7days: 2MPa
28 days: 2.7 MPa
Should not be used in design nor as reference parameter, due to sensitivity
to specimen size and durability.

Uniaxial tensile strength: AFTES 1992


Related to the concrete grade, according to Table 29.

The best wetting is achieved (Specification for Lesotho High- The Norwegian draft document
when the water ring is placed 1- lands Project 1991). (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992)
3 m from the nozzle (semi-wet The temperature before placing prescribes that wet-mix shotcrete shall
process). should not exceed +30C (EF- be manufactured by a ready-mix con-
N A R C draft 1992). crete supplier approved in high class
5.1.8 Pot life In case of intermediate storage (class A). For strength class > 40 M P a
or long transport, the effect of and for shotcrete in very aggressive
Mixed shotcrete (cement + moist environments, the ready-mix concrete
aggregate) should be applied partial hydration should be con-
sidered ( E F N A R C draft 1992). supplier shall be approved in an even
within 45-90 rain. at 20C. At higher class (class A1).
+10C, this time maybe prolonged The use of automatic mixers is al-
to 2-3 hours (P611a1991;JC11991; 5.2 Wet-mix Shotcrete lowed only for lower-quality concretes.
Specific. for Lesotho Highlands Requirements for wet-mix shotcrete
Proj. 1991; E F N A R C dmlt 1992). normally refer to different national 5.2.1 Addition of cement and
Dry-bagged shotcrete without standards and recommendations for aggregate
accelerator should be applied normal ready-mix concrete, e.g.,
within 30 rain. of the addition of O N O R M B 4200 (Austria) and A S T M Ifsite-batched concrete isto be used,
mixing waterin the predampener C94. then the required proportions of ce-
ment to aggregate should be deter-
mined by weight-batching. For small-
scale projects, volume-batching may
Table 29. Requirements for uniaxial tensile strength, according to the EFNARC be permitted (Sprayed Concrete Asso-
draft (1992). ciation 1990).

5.2.2 Fibre addition


Concrete Grade, according to Minimum Unlaxlal Tensile Strength There are two options for addition of
Section 9.1 (MPa) fibres (Norwegian Concrete Associa-
tion 1992):
C25 1.5 1. The fibres can be added to the
C35 1.6 aggregate before the addition of water
C45 2.1 and additives. To be considered in
such a case are the high resistance
C55 2.3 until water is added, and the given

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOGY 455


Table 30. Recommendations for bond strength and verification.

Type of Bond Recommendation Reference Source

Shotcrete/rock: >_0.5 MPa Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991a and 1991 b, Stockholm City
Streets and Traffic Administration 1990
> 0.5 MP (structural) EFNARC 1992
> 0.1 MPa (non structural)

Possible up to 1.4 MPa to Vandewalle 1991


hard dry granite

Concrete/concrete: ~ 0.5 MPa (28 days, structural) EFNARC 1992


> 0.1 MPa (non structural)
> 1.0 MPa Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991a and 1991b, Stockholm City
Streets and Traffic Administration 1990
_>2.0 MPa (28 days) AFTES 1992

effect of the admixtures. In addition, In very bad formations (e.g., charac- rear face. In constricted areas, it may
the mix capacity is reduced because of terized by lack of cohesion or intense be preferable to spray the rear layer of
the longer total mixing time. fracturing), it may be necessary to con- reinforcement to ensure good encapsu-
2. The fibres can be added to the sider a special mix design for the lation of the steel prior to fixing the
ready-mix concrete mass. It is impor- shotcrete to be used in the primary front layer (Sprayed Concrete Associa-
tant to consider that the fibres must be layer, called the "safety layer". tion 1990).
spread carefully into the mix. The It is desirable that reinforcement
consistency must be modified after the 6.3 Spraying over a Layer of panels be fixed rapidly on a first layer
fibres are added. Young Shotcrete of shotcrete at least 20 mm thick
(AFTES 1992).
According to AFTES (1992), if spray- Several attachment points should
5.2.3 Transport
ing takes place before the preceding be provided per square meter on the
Long-term mixing under transport layer of shotcrete has hardened, no working face or on a sublayer of the
at a low w/c-ratio increases the water surface preparation is necessary, pro- shotcrete (AFTES 1992). The distance
evaporation, which will decrease the vided that the latter has not been soiled. between a reinforcement layer and the
slump. In addition, the friction in the
wall on which the shotcrete is applied
concrete mass increases the heat evalu- 6.4 Spraying over an Existing should be as small as possible; the
ation which, in turn, will influence the optimum is 20 mm. After spraying,
slump reduction (Norwegian Concrete Structure
On a concrete substrate where it is any movement or shifting of the rein-
Association 1992). forcements must be prevented, as this
i m p o r t a n t in the s u p p o r t i n g or
strengthening process to obtain good would lead to serious defects in the
6.0 Preparation for Shotcreting sprayed layer.
bonding of the shotcrete onto its sub-
6. 1 Genera/ strate, spraying should be preceded, if
Recommendations regarding pre- necessary, by surface demolition or 8.0 Shotcrete Equipment
cautions before shotcreting involve ac- picking in order to dislodge the large 8. 1 Dry Mix Process
tivitie s to control leaking water by drain unstable elements. The subsequent
systems and cleaning of rock surfaces Below are given the recommenda-
preparation of the wall for cleaning
by compressed air and water, as well as and stripping generally consists of a tions from the various countries con-
dampening of surfaces that are too dry. mechanical action obtained by high- cerning shotcrete equipment used in
In general, according to AFTES the dry-mix process.
pressure water or blasting.
(1992), whatever the nature of the sub- Machine types:
strate, it is recommended that the sur- Bell-type machines or Rotor-type
6.5 Drainage of Water
face be wetted just before spraying so machines.
that it does not absorb the water of the According to AFTES (1992), it is
Delivery line:
freshly sprayed concrete. This precau- essential to make arrangements to I n n e r d i a m e t e r : 5 0 - 6 5 mm
tionary measure is absolutely essen- avoid any water underpressure on the (AFTES 1992).
tial if the surface to be treated is dry; newly treated surface.
Spraying lance:
and it also eliminates dust that has Metal or rubber nozzle.
recently settled on the surface. 7.0 Reinforcements Pre-wetting lance: should allow
This section concerns the applica- annular distribution of liquids
6.2 Direct Spraying on the Work tion of normal bar reinforcement of (water, admixtures) 1-3 m from
Sudace shotcrete. Recommendations on this the discharge end (AFTES 1992).
For direct spraying on the work sur- process are given in Table 31. Admixture proportioning:
face, AFTES (1992) recommends that The EFNARC draft (1992) relates
Should be controlled by the op-
the wall be treated as soon as possible the requirements concerning the con-
crete cover to the environment class, as eration rate (AFTES 1992).
after excavation. The preparation of Powdery admixtures: should be
the excavation is limited to removal of shown in Table 32.
Where two layers of reinforcement added by machine mounted on
unstable elements. If some time has feed conveyor (AFTES 1992).
passed since the baring of the wall, are incorporated, the bars on the front
face should be in line with those on the Equipment must be protected
surface stripping may be necessary.

456 TUNNELLINGANDUNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 31. Recommendations for aoplication of normal bar reinforcement of shotcrete.

Feature I Recommendation Reference Source


|

Minimum shotcrete thickness: 50 mm AFTES 1992

Minimum thickness of reinforcement bars: 3 mm AFTES 1992

Maximum thickness of reinforcement bars: 25 mm Sprayed Concrete Association 1990

Minimum distance between bars (one layer): 100 mm AFTES 1992


45 or 50 mm Sprayed Concrete Association 1990

Minimum distance between reinforcement layers: 50 mm DIN 18551. 1992, AFTES 1992

Minimum concrete cover: 20 mm AFTES 1992


Similar to normal concrete Sprayed Concrete Association 1990

Minimum cover between existing structure and 35 or 40 mm Sprayed Concrete Association 1990
reinforcement in the shotcrete:

from dripped water, dirt, atmo- tional 8 m nozzle above the gun. 2. Removable robots--also include
spheric influences, and dust - Air pressure for hose diameter a boom, in which the operating
(EFNARC draft 1992). 65 mm, according to Japanese platform is attached to a carrier.
Liquid admixtures: should be recommendations (Japan Tun- The following operating conditions
added in lance di ssolved in water nellingAssociation 1991),given are recommended in the EFNARC draft
(AFTES 1992). in Table 33. (1992):
Water supply: Compressor capacity and hose The operator must be able to
P r e f e r a b l y an i n d e p e n d e n t diameter, according to Table 34. watch the nozzle.
booster allowing overpressure of The robot should be capable ofas
1-2 MPa. For higher pressure 8.2 Wet-Mix Process long a reach as possible.
(5-10 MPa), a special lance with
Recommendations for the wet-mix The operator must be able to ad-
small holes should be used
process are given in Table 35. just the movement function.
(AFTES 1992).
Air supply: The operator must be able to con-
8.3 Spray Robots trol/adjust the amounts of water,
Air rate, low output: 7m3/min. concrete, accelerator/additives,
Air rate, other cases: 10 m3/min. Spray robots are recommended for
use in large-section tunnels, i.e., > 30 and air.
(AFTES 1992)
m 2 (AFTES 1992).
Air pressure: Two types of robots are used: 9.0 Health and Safety
- Operating pressures < 175 kPa
when 30 m or less of material
1. Complete robots--self-contained German documents give regulations
operations that comprise a car- and limits for dust concentration at
hose is used (Vandewalle 1991).
Increased 35 kPa for each addi- Tier with a boom, operating sta- work sites (Tiefbau-Berufsgenossen-
tion, and pump. schaft 1985 and 1988). The limits are
tional 15 m of hose or addi-

Table 34. Compressor capacity and


Table 33. Air pressure for hose hose diameter, according to
diameter 65 turn, according to Va ndewal le (1991).
Table 32. Required concrete cover to Japanese recommendations (Japan
reinforcement, according to the Tunnelling Association 1986).
EFNARC drart (1992). Compressor
Material Capacity
Pressure Hose length Hose Inside
Environ- Minimum Cover (m /min. at 700
(bar) (m) dla. (mm)
mental (Tolerance -0, + 15 kPa)
Class mm) (in mm)
25 10.0 25 10.0
2a 30 32 12.5 32 12.5
3 40 38 17.0 38 17.0
5c 50 51 21.0 51 21.0
EA 60 64 28.0 64 28.0

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACE TECHNOLOGY457


expressed as MAK-value (jVIaximale The contractor shall investigate - specialmethode or equipment
Arbeitsplatz Koncentration) for gas, whether different additives or are used; or
steam or dust in the air, related to a d m i x t u r e s c o n t a i n crystalline
toxicologic and/or working medical - the air blasting involves
silicon dioxide and, if so, whether materials containing a large
experience. it is possible to use less harmful amount of quartz.
Regulation of dust concerns both materials.
dust containing free mineralic silicon If it is technically impossible to The following G e r m a n special
dioxide and different particles for air keep the workplace free from regulations also apply to ventilation
blasting. silicon dust, the contractor shall for work places and transport roads
Some ofthese regulations are listed provide access to respiratory during daytime:
below. protection of workers. Every work place shall have an
If there are doubts concerning The contractor shall ensure that oxygen content > 1 9 % by volume.
the occurrence and amount of machines, equipment, and work The limits on concentrations of
silicon dust in the air of the clothes are cleaned regularly. harmful dust in the air must not
workplace, the contractor should The contractor shall foresee that be exceeded.
determine whether the M A K the evacuated air is cleaned to There must be no risk ofexplosion
values have been exceeded. the degree that it does not pass in the air.
The contractor must guarantee silicon dust to other work sites.
that the air of the workplace is The average air velocity shall be
Air blasting material has 0.2-6 m/s.
free from silicondust as far as is limitations on free crystalline
technologically possible, e.g.,by W h e n u s i n g mechanical ventila-
silicon dioxide that must not be
ventilation techniques. tion:
exceeded, except when:

Table 35. Summary of guidelines regarding the wet-mix process.

Feature Recommendations Reference Source

PUMP TYPES:
Screw pump:
Maximum pressure: 1.6 MPa AFTES 1992
Rotation speed: 0-170 rev/min. AFTES 1992
Maximum rate: 286 I/rain. = 17 m3/h AFTES 1992
Maximum aggregate size: 8mm Austrian Concrete Society 1990

Piston pump:
Maximum delivery: 24 m3/h AFTES 1992
Maximum aggregate size: 12 mm Austrian Concrete Society 1990
Consistency, normal slump: 160-200 mm Norwegian Concrete Assoc. 1992
< 100 mm possible, but increased
rebound

AIR SUPPLY:
Required amount 5 m3/min. AFTES 1992
> 3 m3/min. at 700 kPa Vandewalle 1991

DELIVERY HOSE: Generally rubber


Diameter at outlet of pump: 100 mm AFTES 1992
Diameter at outlet of pump: 3 times maximum aggregate size EFNARC 1992
Diameter at end near lance: 65 mm AFTES 1992
Distributed reduction in diameter
Bursting pressure: >_3 times maximum pump pressure EFNARC 1992
Couplings 100% tight, preferably with EFNARC 1992
rubber

LANCE: Metallic or rubber


Outlet diameter: 50 mm AFTES 1992
Distribution of air and admixtures: 200 mm from discharge end AFTES 1992

ADMIXTURE PROPORTIONING:
Liquid admixtures: Added by built-in proportioning pump AFTES 1992
controlled by the pump delivery rate.
Changes in bulk density and viscosity Austrian Concrete Society 1990;
must be taken into account. Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991 a
Total consumption of accelerators P6ll& 1991
should be measured.

458 TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOGY Volume 8, N u m b e r 4, 1993


-the amount of fresh air should Table 36. Threshold limits for mineral dust, according to Finnish guidelines
be 2 m'hnin, per worker; and (PiJll~ 1991).
4 m'/min, per diesel-kW.
- the working plant shall have Type of Mlneral Dust Threshold Limits
self-closing doors or double
doors (sluices).
Quartz (fraction < 5pro) 0,2 mg/m'
The dust shall be laid down or
exhausted near the source. Portland cement particles/crrP 1000
Finnish guidelines (PSll~i1991) give Total dust content 10 mg/rT?
threshold limits for mineral dust, as
shown in Table 36.
According to Japanese guidelines,
the dust content should be _<5 m g / m ~.
(Japan Tunneling Association 1986). 10.2.1 Spraying procedure shotcrete (POll~i1991 ).Normally
The Sprayed Concrete Association The spray lance shall be held < 8 hours should be allowed be-
(1990) recommends that reasonable perpendicular to the surface, ex- tween the first and second lay-
measures should be adopted in accor- cept when spraying around re- ers. A further 24 hours should be
dance with the requirements of the inforcement bars (Japan Tun- allowed between the second and
Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974, n e l l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n 1991; third layers.
particularly concerning lighting, ven- AFTES 1992). The firstlayer must be allowed
tilation and protective clothing. Spraying shall commence a t the to take its initial set before the
Some documents (JC11991, Specifi- bottom (Austrian Concrete Soci- next layer is sprayed (ACI 506-
cations for Lesotho Highlands Project ety 1990; Sprayed Concrete As- 66, 1983). Prior to spraying the
1991) give quantitative requirements sociation 1990). subsequent layer, loose material
regardinglighting during spraying, e.g., Immediately prior to the spray- should be removed usinga strong
a minimum lightinglevel of 50-70 lux. ing operation, the surface shall blast of air.
Concerning health and safety, U.S. be t h o r o u g h l y c l e a n e d a n d A 50-100-mm layer of dry mix
reguiation ACI-506 (1983) states that: damped with a strong blast of shotcrete should be built up by
Eyeglasses or shields shall be air and water (Sprayed Concrete several passes (Austrian Con-
worn at all times during appli- Association 1990). crete Society 1990).
cation. Voids shall not be left behind For wet-mix shotcrete, the layer
The crew should wear appropri- bars or steel mesh (Japan Tun- thickness and waiting period be-
ate protective mask, gloves and nelling Association 1991). tween layers depend on the con-
clothing. For spraying in the downward crete mix and quantity of accel-
Aneyebath shallbereadilyavail- vertical direction, which is diffi- erator used (P611~i1991).
able in the immediate vicinityof cult, uncoated aggregate and re- The contractorshalldulyconsider
the application. bound material should be mixed factors such as position of rein-
with the concrete (AFTES 1992). forcement, plane of application,
Other sources (Wood 1992) stress
Optimum nozzle distance (Ja- mix design and constituents, in-
the need for a predetermined commu-
pan Tunnelling Association cluding admixtures, that may con-
nication system, and the need to regu-
1991; Austrian Concrete Soci- tributeto slump and sag(Sprayed
larly clean the equipment for 10-15
ety 1990; Stockholm City Streets Concrete Association 1990).
re_in,after each spraying shift. and Traffic Administration
The Sprayed Concrete Association
1990):
(1990) recommends cleaning at least 10.2.3 Construction joints
twice a day for wet-mix equipment, - Dry mix: 1-2 m (AFTES 1992;
D I N 18551,1992). Construction joints generally
and at least once a day for dry-mix should be tapered to a thin edge
equipment. - Wet mix: 0.5-1.8 m.
over a width of approximately
Where an alignment similar to 300 m or inclination 30 (ACI
10.0 Shotcreting traditional concrete is required, 506-66, 1983; Sprayed Concrete
it is usual to place the shotcrete Association 1990).
10. 1 General slightly proud of the required
Requirements for the application alignment, and to carefully saw * The entire joint should be thor-
process often refer to recommended back with a timber straight-edge. oughly cleaned and damped prior
practice, such as U.S. regulation ACI After the shotcrete has reached to placement of adjacent sprayed
506 (1983). itsinitialset,a further layer (15- concrete (Sprayed Concrete As-
The contractor should employ a full- 20 ram) is applied, aligned with a sociation 1990).
time working foreman on the project. timber straight-edge,and rubbed
The foreman should have had at least up with a wooden trowel (Sprayed 10.2.4 Surface treatment
five years of specialist spraying expe- Concrete Association 1990).
rience, including two years as a The surface shall be left as
Control of alignment and thick- sprayed. If another texture is
nozzleman. In addition, the foreman ness shall be determined by the
should have experience in concrete desired, a n a d d i t i o n a l l a y e r
contractor. Where sharp edges (flashcoat) shall be applied (ACI
mix design, and be fully conversant or accurate lines are required,
with the relevant codes of practice 506-66, 1983; AFTES 1992; DIN
they should be set out by screed 18551, 1992).
(Sprayed Concrete Association 1990). boards, guide wires and/or depth
spacers (Sprayed Concrete Asso- Finishing of the surface other
10.2 Recommendations ciation 1990). than with very light trowelling
will cause plastic cracking. On
Below are given recommendations coatings _<25 ram, trowelling is
from the various countries for shot- 10.2.2 Layer thickness undesirable (Sprayed Concrete
creting application. 20-30 mm is typical for dry-mix Association 1990).

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUNNELLINGANDUNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY459


10.2.5 Spraying In cold weather The time of curing varies with tion ofcuring compounds m a y be
The same rules as for normal the time necessary to reach a double the rate of application
concrete shall be applied when certain degree of hydration or when they are used for paving
spraying at a temperature_< +5C strength level (see Table 37). ( E F N A R C draft 1992).
(AFTES 1992). Protection against evaporation
Sprayed concrete shall not be is necessary during the firstand 12. Quality Control
placed when air temperature falls most critical hours/days 12.1 Preconstruction Tests
below 3C. It shall be main- ( E F N A R C draft 1992).
12.1.1 Conditions of testing
tained at not less than this tem-
perature until t h e final set is 11.2.3 Curing method The composition of the shotcrete is
achieved (Sprayed Concrete As- determined in the course of precon-
Because continuous moist curing struction tests in which the required
sociation 1990). often is difficult to carry out in a
properties of the shotcrete are checked.
S p r a y i n g m u s t not be done tunnel, curing by repeated moist The need for such tests often depends
against very cold or icy surfaces spraying is recommended (Japan on the use of the shotcrete, expressed
(AFTES 1992). Tunnelling Association 1991). as a minimum strength class or grade.
The surface shall be heated or Frequency: once every 4 hours. For example, tests are needed:
the workplace protected by a Curing should be done according
h e a t e d shelter (DIN 18551, For strength grade > SC 16, ac-
to the A u s t r i a n s t a n d a r d
cording to Austrian guidelines
1992). ( 0 N O R M 4200), which dictates
(Austrian Concrete Society 1990).
the use ofcuria/n-typemoistened
overlays (fibrousmats) or accept- For strength classes I and II(out
10.2.6 Spraying In hot weather of four classes), according to Finn-
Precautions shall be taken to
able curingmembranes (Austrian
Concrete Society 1990). ish r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s (P611~i
ensure that the surface tempera- 1991).
ture does not exceed +30C (DIN In normal and extended control
18551, 1992). 11.2.4 Use of curing membranes
classes, according to the Norwe-
Curing membranes are recom- gian draft (Norwegian Concrete
11. Curing mended when drying conditions Association 1992).
are not too severe; when no ad-
11.1 General ditional shotcrete or paint is to AFTES (1992) relates the need for
Most documents indicate that the be applied; or when itis accept- preconstruction tests to the available
shotcrete should be treated according able from an aesthetic stand- knowledge of the actual shotcrete com-
to the same rules as those for normal point (ACI 506-66, 1983). position and performance conditions.
concrete. The shotcrete will require For example:
Curing membranes should be
some kind of moist curing after appli- used only on finished surfaces When the mix design is well
cation, particularly for thin-section (Swedish Railroad Department known and there are references,
concrete, concrete with a textured sur- 1991b). testing shall be done to check the
face, and concrete with a low water/ Use ofcuringmembranesis "pre- capability of the contractor (per-
cement ratio. ferred", according to Finnish sonnel and equipment).
guidelines (PSll~i1991). When a prior study has been
11.2 Recommendations carried out in connection with a
Curing membranes are more fre-
project but the shotcrete has
Below are recommendations from quently applied because of the
never been applied, tests shall
the various countries concerning cur- effectof high surface roughness.
be performed to ensure:
ing of shotcrete. W h e n a further layer or other
surface finish is to be applied, feasibility of concrete place-
bond testingshallbe carried out. ment;
11.2.1 Conditions for curing
Otherwise, the curing compound compliance with specifica-
Curing is only necessary i f the should be removed by high water tions; and
concrete has special properties capability of the contractor.
pressure, sand blasting, etc.
(class SC l I I ) or is exposed to (PSll~i 1991, E F N A R C draft
special circumstances, such as These tests shall be carried out on
1992). the site under placement conditions at
rapid drying (Austrian Concrete
Society 1990). Because of the increased surface least 10 days before the start of the
roughness, the rate of applica- work.
Curing should be done only when
the relative humidity < 85-90%
(Vandewalle 1991; Swedish Rail-
road Department 1991b).
Curing should be done"when pos-
sible", and in that case, by wet Table 37. Degree of hydration or strength required, as related to time required
curing as long as possible (JCI for curing of shotcrete.
1991).
When the ambient air tempera- Degree of Hydration or Strength
ture exceeds 25C or the air move- Required, In Relation to Curing Time Reference Source
ment may cause rapid drying,
the surface shall not be exposed 60% of required strength PSIl~t 1991
for longer than 1 hour (Sprayed
Concrete Association 199.0).
80% of required strength (watertight) PSIl~t 1991
11.2.2 Curing time 45% of required strength (watertight) Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991b,
The normal time required for EFNARC 1992
curing is 3-7 days.

460 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACE TECttNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


12.1.2 Extent of testing For extended control class: * A special organisation table for
According to the Austrian guide- Identification of demands on base each project; and
lines(Austrian Concrete Society 1990), material and consequences for * A special q u a l i t y - a s s u r a n c e
preconstruction testsshould comprise: material composition and per- Engineer.
T w o mixes with two binder con- formance.
tents and an adequate dosage of Choice of aggregate and ready- 12.2.1 Extent of testing on
admixtures. mix concrete supplier. constituents
* One mix without accelerator. Mix design considerations. Extensive testing of constituents on-
Testing, including m a t e r i a l site is necessary when dry-mix process
The tests must be performed on site control, production control and, shotcrete is mixed on the site.
using the same equipment, installa- if necessary, p r o p e r t y docu- Cementis normally'~sted ~by check-
tions, concrete ingredients, and proce- mentation. ing the batch ticket at every delivery.
dures used in production shotcreting. However, the Austrian guideline (Aus-
German guidelines (DIN 18551, trian Concrete Society 1990) also stipu-
1992) call for two panels: one for tests 12.1.3 Requirements
Conforming to normal concrete stan- lates more detailed tests, to be per-
on flesh concrete; and the second, for formed once a month, pertaining to:
tests on hardened concrete. dards, the requirements for precon-
South African documents (JCI 1991; struction tests are higher than those Fineness of grinding.
Specifications for Lesotho Highland for construction tests. Initial set.
Project 1991; SANCOT 1991) prescribe For example, the Austrian guideline Strength.
that test panels should be made for (Austrian Concrete Society 1990) stipu- Sweating (bleeding).
each crew; for each mix; and for each lates 25% higher compressive strength C ~ content, where applicable.
shooting orientation, at least at the value thanthe design strength, although
beginning of a project. A minimum of not more than 8 MPa. For aggregate, in addition to batch
three or four specimens from each test Requirements given in the South ticket control of every delivery, there
panel is prescribed. African document (SANCOT 1991) are: a r e different stipulations for testing,
including:
The following tests on fresh con- Average compressive strength (3
crete are recommended (DIN 18551, samples) > design strength, 28 Grading curve of coarse and
1992; JCI 1991; Specifications for days. fine aggregates.
Lesotho Highland Project 1991): Single values > 0.8 x design Frequency: 1/week-2/month; or
Density. strength, 28 days. linked to the delivered volume as
1/100 mSfor natural fine or coarse
Water content (dry-mix process).
Swedish requirements on toughness aggregate, and 1/50 m s for fine
Aggregate content (< 0.25 ram). stipulate 0.5-1.0 MPa higher residual crushed aggregates.
Dosage ofaccelerator. Maximum stress values for preconstruction tests Moisture content.
dosage, not to be exceeded. in comparison to requirements for rou- Frequency: 2/week-2/month.
The following tests on hardened con- tine tests (Swedish Railroad Depart- For wet-mix shotcrete, the Nor-
crete are recommended (JCI 1991; ment 1991a and 1991b). wegian draft prescribes 1 test/
Specifications for Lesotho Highland shift in all control classes (minor,
Project 1991; AFTES 1992): 12.2 Routine Tests normal, extended), to be per-
Compressive strength: 3, 7, 28 According to the Norwegian draft formed by the ready-mix concrete
days. (Norwegian Concrete Association supplier, independent of the con-
1992), the extent of control is related to crete volume (Norwegian Con-
Splitting tensile strength: 3, 7, crete Association 1992).
28 days. different control classes, as follows:
I: Minor control. T y p e (deleterious substances):
Density, on all cores.
II: Normal control. Frequency: every delivery-daily.
Flexural strengthandtoughness.
III: Extended control. Additives are normally "tested" by
Watertightness. checking the batch ticket for every de-
Bond, direct tensile test on test The choice of control class should be livery. However, they may also re-
section: 3, 28 days. made by the designer, based on: quire, for example, testing of the fine-
Uniformity and continuity: vi- The type of project (consequence ness of grinding of the fly ash (fre-
sual inspection of cores. Scler- of failure). quency: 1/month).
ometer and sonic inspection on The degree of difficulty(strength
test section at 7 and 28 days. Admixtures are normally "tested" by
and environment class).
checking the batch ticket, marking ev-
For wet-mix shotcrete, the Norwe- The time schedule of the project, ery delivery, or by routine inspection.
gian draft document (Norwegian Con- that is, the possibility of carrying Admixture testing may also include:
crete Association 1992) relates the ex- out the control program (espe-
cially important for control class Identity testing.
tent of testing to the actual control Frequency: 1/2 months.
class, as follows. III).
Testing of water-soluble alumi-
For normal control class, tests on Four types of control are specified: nate content.
concrete mass and sprayed concrete: 1. Production control. Frequency: 1/month.
W a t e r demand, workability, 2. Material control before spraying. Testing to determine decrease in
pumpability, sprayability/ 3. Control of hardened shotcrete. strength, or acceleration of set.
rebound. ting of cement.
4. Documentation of properties.
Material control: slump, air Frequency: by special direction.
content, compressive strength, The relationship between control
density. class and control type is shown in the * Test of resistance to sulfates
(combined with cement).
Dosage of accelerator. schedule in Table 38.
For shotcrete in control class III Frequency: 1/month.
(Extended control), there should be:

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUN~LUNO ANDUND~RaRO~ SPACZTECHNOLOaY481


Table 38. Relationships between control class and control type (Norwegian (Austrian Concrete Society 1990). The
Concrete Association 1992). hardeningis testedbyindirect methods
calibratedto the strength development.
Control Recommended frequency: 2/month.
Control Production Material Hardened Document of
Class Control Control Shocrete Properties 12.2.4 Extent of testing on
hardened shotcrete
Minor x x Tests on hardened shotcrete are
carried out by tests on:
Normal x x x Concrete mass (standard tests).
Specimens from shotcrete
Extended x x x panels.
Cored specimens from thelining.
Routine quality control programs
also often comprise tests concerning:
The influence of water on setting on samples from the load and from the
time and strength development is only lining. The recommended frequency Thickness of the lining.
tested if non-potable water is used and is: three samples taken directly from Bond of the lining to the rock.
there are doubts concerning the occur- the load, and another three samples The Finnish guideline (P{fll~i1991)
rence of harmful constituents. taken from the lining. links the requirements for the type of
The Japanese guidelines (Japan samples to the actual shotcrete class
12.2.2 Extent of tesUng on dry- Tunnelling Associaton 1986) also (see Table 16) and the shotcreting
mix shotcrete specify the measurement of rebound, method, as shown in Table 41.
carried out on approximately 0.2 m ~ According to the German guideline
Less routine testing must be per-
shotcrete, as well as measurement of (DIN 18551, 1992), the frequency of
formed on-siteon the shotcrete mix be- making test panels and/or cored speci-
fore shotcreting when pre-bagged dry- the dust density.
Stipulations concerning tests on mens is related only to the volume or
mix products are used, in comparison to hardening shotcrete (young shotcrete) area of shotcrete, as presented above
the amount of testing required when for preconstruction tests.
are given in the Austrian guideline
site-mixed dry-mix shotcrete is used.
Pre-bagged dry-mix products are
tested by checking the batch ticket,
and by marking, etc.,every delivery,as Table 39. Frequency of testing on fresh and hardening shotcrete, according to
well as by routine visual inspection.
German standard DIN 18551 (1992).
More detailed control may be performed
by checking the individual components.
Volume of shotcrete I Type of Testing
In addition totestingofthe individual
components, site-mixed dry-mix
shotcrete is tested with reference to < 100 rrP (500 m s ) s h o t c r e t e : 1 test s e r i e s
composition and moisture content 1 0 0 - 3 0 0 m 3 ( 5 0 0 - 1 5 0 0 rn 2 ): 1 s e r i e s / 1 0 0 m 3 (500 m s )
(frequency, according to A u s t r i a n
guideline: A/month [Austrian Concrete > 3 0 0 m 3 ( 1 5 0 0 m s ): 1 s e r i e s at start a n d 1 s e r i e s / 2 5 0 rT'~(1250 m 2)
Society 1990]).

12.2.3 Extent of tesUng on fresh


and hardening shotcrete Table 40. Frequency of tests on fresh and hardening shotcrete, according to
Norwegian draft document (Norwegian Concrete Association1992).
F r e s h c o n c r e t e for d r y - m i x
shotcrete is normally tested for water
content in the mix. Wet-mix shotcrete Control Class
is normally tested for consistency, Control
fresh density, temperature, and, if pre- Volume Minor Normal Extended
scribed, air content.
For wet-mix concrete, less exten- First 3 shift l/shift
sive on-site testing is required when
or 1/50 m 3
ready-mix concrete is used, as com-
pared to the extent of testing required
when site-mixed concrete is used. >_ 3 shift 1/14 shift or
The frequency of these kinds of tests, 2 5 0 rn 3
as stipulated in the German guideline
18551 (1992), is shown in Table 39.
< 10 m 3. - l/shift or 50 m 3 1/3 shift or 2 5 m 3
The Norwegian draft (Norwegian
Concrete Association 1992), relates the
frequency of these tests to the control 10-50 m 3.* 1/6 shift o r 100 rn3 1/shift o r 4 0 m 3
class, as shown in Table 40.
For fibre-reinforced shotcrete, Swed- > 50 m 3.** 1/3 shift o r 2 0 0 m 3 l / s h i f t or 75 m 3
ish documents (Swedish Railroad De-
partment 199 la, Stockholm City Street
and Traffic Administration 1990) pre- * S p r a y i n g b y the r o c k front a f t e r e a c h fire.
scribe checking the fibre content and ** S p r a y i n g n e a r t h e rock front to s u p p o r t a c o u p l e of e x c a v a t i o n s e c t i o n s .
fibre distribution by wash-out tests. *** S p r a y i n g for p e r m a n e n t s u p p o r t .
The wash-out tests are carried out

462 TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Other documents link the frequency Table 41. Methods for sampling in different shoterete classes, according to
oftestingto the strength classor grade Finnish guideline (PSllii 1991).
of the shotcrete. Examples are shown
in Table 42 (Finnish guideline [PSll/i Samples
1991]) and Table 43 (Austrian guide-
line [Austrian Concrete Society 1990]).
Similar to taste on fresh concrete, Class Wet-mix Method Dry-mix Method
the Norwegian draft (Norwegian Con-
crete Association 1992) relates the test Standard tests Shotcreted panels
on hardened on concrete to both the
volume of concrete and the classifica- Shotcreted panels Cores from the lining
tion (control class),as follows:
Test ofcompressive strength and
density, 7 and 28 days, on stan- Cores from the lining
dardized cubes cast on-site. Fre-
quency as shown in Table 44. Standard tests Shotcreted panels
Test of strength and density of
cores from the lining. Frequency Shotcreted panels (Cores from the lining)*
as shown in Table 44.
* Documentation of properties (Cores from the lining)*
such as flexural strength and
toughness on beams sawn from III Standard tests (Shotcreted panels)*
shotcrete testpanels. Frequency & .IL
as shown in Table 45.
IV (Shotcreted panels)* (Cores from the lining)*
According to A F T E S (1992), com-
pressive strength should be tested at
* Only if required in contract documents.
intervals of 3, 7 and 28 days (frequency
]./50 mS).
In summarizing the required test
frequencies presented above and re-
quirements in other documents, the fre- Table 42. Minimum number of shotcrete panels for compressive strength,
quencies vary between the following: according to Finnish guideline (PSll~i 1991).
Minimum: 1 sample (test panel)/
250 m s of concrete. Nominal Governmental Volume of the Applied Number of
Strength Inspection Shotcrete V m= Samples
Maximum: 1 sample (testpanel)/
10 m 3 of concrete.
< K30 Yes > 900 6
This difference is highly dependent
on combinations with other quality Yes < 900 V/150
control systems, as noted, e.g., in the
Finnish guideline (P611~i 1991) shown No < 75 6
in Table 42. The requirements for test
f r e q u e n c y are m u c h lower if the No 75-675 9
shotcreting is performed under gov- No >675 V/75
ernmental inspection.
The strength class also influences
the testing, in that a higher strength _>K35 Yes < 600 6
class requires more frequent testing. Yes > 600 V/100
Very approximately, the required
test frequencies m a y be divided into
two frequency groupings, as follows: No < 50 6
I sample/10-100 m~ concrete: No 50-450 9
Applied in: Finland(nogovernmen-
tel inspection) No > 450 V/50
South Africa
Sweden
U.S~.
Canada Table 43. Frequency of testing, according to Austrian guideline (Austrian
1 s a m p l e / 1 0 0 - 2 5 0 m~ c o n c r e t e : Concrete Society 1990).
Applied in: Finland (governmental
inspection) Shotcrete Class or Grade Frequency of Testing
Austria
Germany
=Young" Shotcrete sc(il), (ill) At least every seven working days
The test frequency requirements acc. to item 8.1
also comprise additional or comple-
mentary requirements (ASTM C1018,
1989), e.g.: Strength grade: sc(tl) Every 2500 m 2 or 14 working days
special requirements
When fibre reinforcementis used,
one test should be made each day. sc(iii) see ONORM B4200, Part 10

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE TECHNOLOGY 463


* The intended test specimen m a y fibre-reinforced concrete, Cement. See Section 3.1. Expected
be taken from the structure or, and the ultimate flexural limits of variations for differentprop-
alternatively,from a test panel. strength ofplain concrete (f). erties of cement m a y be found in the
The tests and the number of speci- R = 100 f ~ , expressingtherela- specific cement standards applied.
mens required at each test occasion tionship between the equiva- Some statem ents presented in the stud-
normally comprise: lent fiexural strength (f) of ied documents are given below:
Compressive strength on 3-5 fibre-reinforced concrete, * Fineness of grinding:
drilledcores or sawn cubes. tested according to the JCI Deviation + 5%.
Density measured on the com- method, and the ultimate Compressive strength of stan-
pressive test specimens. flexural strength of plain dard test:
concrete. Standard deviation < 3.5 MPa.
Documents from Sweden and South
Africa (Swedish Railroad Department R~, 10 Residual strength factor es- Aggregate: Permissible deviation
1991b, JCI 1991) also prescribe the tablished according toASTM from a specific grading curve is pre-
above frequency for toughness testing, C1018 (1989). sented in the Austrian guideline (Aus-
i.e.,according to A S T M C1018 (1989), Using the identity charts and the trian Concrete Society 1990), as shown
on at least 3 beams per test occasion. above quantities, the routinely per- in Table 47.
Propertiesother than the above m a y formed flexural tests on concrete beams
be tested with other frequency require- Moisture content. Deviation +1%
may be exchanged for tests on compres- from the designed (DIN 18551, 1992).
ments, as shown in Table 46. sive strength only, which are simpler
For fibre-reinforcedshotcrete,it is and less expensive. However, it is im- Additives. See Section 3.3.
possible to use identity charts estab- portant to considerthat the basis ofthis " Specific surface of fly ash:
lished for the actual fibreused. Such a proposal i.e.,the existence of a rela- Deviation + 250 cmVg.
chart is shown in Figure 2. tionship between the compressive and
The use of identity charts for rou- Admixtures. See Section 3.4.
flexural strength of plain concrete---is
tine quality control is based on the greatlydependent on the actualmethod Fibres. See Section 3.5.
existence of a certain relationship be- of testingfor compressive and flexura] Composition of mix: See Section
tween the compressive and flexurai strength, curing conditions,etc. 4.1. According to the Norwegian draft
strengths of plain concrete (Norwegian Concrete Association
fo= 0.4~/~c 1992), the mass ratio m = v/(c + Kxp)
12.2.5 Requirements must not be exceeded:
where: fo=u]timateflexuralstrength The requirements forshot, c r e t e from By more than 15% for single
f= = compressive strength routine testsare in agreement with the shotcrete areas or working shift.
guidelines and recommendations pre-
Other quantities used are: By more than 10% for three fol-
sented in Section 4. Thus, the recom- lowing shotcrete areas or work-
R = 100 f / f , expressing the rela- mendations and guidelines below fo- ing shifts.
tionship between the ulti- cus on acceptable limits of variations,
mate flexural strength (f) of acceptance criteria, etc. Fresh concrete: See Section 4.2.
ASTM Cl116 (1989) gives acceptable
tolerances for workability of wet-mix
fibre-reinforced shotcrete when mea-
Table 44. Frequency of strength and density testing from the lining, according sured as slump or "time of flow".
to Norwegian draft document (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992). * For slump specified as "maxi-
mum" or "not to exceed", see Table
Control Class 48.
For slump not specified as "maxi-
Control
mum" or =not to exceed", see Table
Volume Minor Normal Extended
49.
For time of flow specified as
< 10 m s 1 / 2 5 shift o r 2 0 0 m s 1/10 shift or 75 m~
"maximum" or "not to exceed",
see Table 50.
For time of flow not specified as
10-50 m~ 1/300 m 3 111 O0 m 3 "maximum" or "not to exceed",
see Table 51.
3
> 50 m3 1/400 m 1 / 1 5 0 m '~ Fibre-reinforced concrete should be
available within the permissible range
of slump or time of flow for a period of
Table 45. Frequency of property documentation, according to Norwegian draft 30 minutes, starting either on arrival
document (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992). at the job site or after adjustment of the
consistency at the job site. The first
Control Class and the last 0.25 m 3 are excluded from
Control this requirement.
Volume Minor Normal Extended ASTM C 1116 (1989) also gives toler-
ances for air pore volume of fibre-rein-
< lOm 3 1 / 5 0 0 m3 forced concrete as +1.5% of the specified
value.
Young concrete: See Section 4.3.
10-50 m3 1/700 m3 Hardened concrete: See Section 4.4.
Compressive strength: The
> 50 m 3 - 1/800 m3 Austrian guideline (Austrian

464 TUNNELLINGANDUNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 46. Properties that may be tested with other frequency requirements.

Property 1 FrequencyRequlrement(s) 1 ReferenceSource


Splitting tensile strength 3, 7. 28 1 test/lO0 m3 AFTES 1992
days:

Density: On all cores AFTES 1992

Watertightness: 2 specimens/200 m3 Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991b

Toughness: 3 beams/300 m Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991b

Modulus of elasticity: No frequency stated Austrian Concrete Society 1990

Bond: 3 tests/50-100 m3 Swedish Railroad Dept. 1991a, Stockholm


City Streets and Traffic Admin. 1990
at 3, 28 days*: 1 test/1000 rn2 Austrian Concrete Society 1990

Thickness: 1 test (5 points of measure)/50 rn3 Stockholm City Streets & Traffic Admin. 1990
1 point of measure/m 2 JC11991
1 test (7 points)/20 m Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

Aggregate content: < 0.25 mm; no frequency stated DIN 18551, 1992

Uniformity in mass and continuity Visual inspection of cores AFTES 1992

*The scatter is great, depending on experience, when testing in place, due to the influence of deviated traction, peelings,
placement difficulties, and weight of equipment. Therefore, testing in laboratory is recommended.

Concrete Society 1990) states a


statistical method of evaluation
if more than 30 results of quality IDENTITY C H A R T DRAMIX ZP 30/.50
tests are available for a particu- 130
lar strength grade. Then: 120
120
- The 10% fractile of all test 110 ~ 0 5
results must at least be in 100 100 100 ~ , , ......,.
accordance with the required 90 ....
90
values.
- <10% of the individual values 80 :'''''';0
81 . . . . . . . . . . . .
may fall below 90% of the re- 70 ,,,,,,..,,,." 80
quired strength. 60
65
50
The guideline also states that
the principle may be applied to 40
Ru
other characteristics, e.g., water- 30
tightness, etc. 20 ....... R3o.10
Another document states that the 10 ---- Re
single value must be > 0.8 x re- 0
quired strength (SANCOT 1991). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Toughness: The evaluation of Dramix ZP 30/.50


the shotcrete quality should be (kg/m 3 )
based on the 10% fractile value.
It is important to notice that the
evaluation of toughness quanti- Figure 2. Identity chart established for fibre type Dramix ZP 30/.50
fies according to ASTM C1018 (Vandewalle 1991).
(1989) is very dependent on the
accuracy of the deformation mea-
surement. Therefore, only well- ASTM C1018 (1989), as shown in * 90% of required thickness
qualified laboratories should be Table 52. at nominal thickness < 30 mm;
used. Thickness: or
The precision in measurement - The average measured thick- 95% of required thickness
witl~n laboratory is presented in ness must not fall below: at nominal thickness > 30 mm

Volume 8, N u m b e r 4, 1993 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACE TECHNOLOGY485


Table 47. Permissible deviation from specified grading curve, according to (Stockholm City Streets and
O N O R M B4200 (Austrian Concrete Society 1990). Traffic Administration 1990).
- 10% variation of thickness
Permlsslble Deviation % at Max. Aggregate Slze is acceptable (Swedish Rail-
road Department 1991b).
Sieve Size (mm) < 16 mm > 16 mm - If the thickness falls below
the nominal at one measured
point, new m e a s u r e m e n t
0.06 1.5 1.0 should be carried out in the
0.25 3.0 1.5 vicinity of the past in order to
determine the extent of the
1.0 5.0 2.0 area (P~ll~i 1991).
4.0 5.0 3.0 - When shotcreting against a
>8.0 5.0 3.0 substrate at low temperature,
frozen soil or rock, the nomi-
nal thickness shall be in-
creased by 2--3 cm ofshotcrete
Table 48. Acceptable tolerances for workability of wet-mix fibre-reinforced (Austrian Concrete Society
shotcrete when measured for slump specified as "maximum ~ or "not to exceed ~. 1990).
- A tolerance of 10 mm over a
Specified Slump 3-m length is readily attain-
able on a flat surface (Sprayed
If more than 3 in. Concrete Association 1990).
Type of
If 3 In. (75 mm) or less (75 mm) D e n s i t y : The density may devi-
Tolerance
ate < + 2% from the density evalu -
ated during design and suitabil-
Plus tolerance 0 0 ity tests (AFTES 1992).

Minus tolerance 1.5 in. (40 ram) 2.5 in. (65 mm) 13.0 Test Methods
13.1 Test Panels
When testing shotcrete from test
Table 49. Acceptable tolerances for workability of wet-mix fibre-reinforced panels, there are different recommen-
shotcrete for slump not specified as "maximum" or =not to exceed ~. dations concerning the dimensions of
the test panels. Some recommended
examples are given in Table 53.
Tolerances for Nominal Slumps The choice of panel dimensions is
important--both from the practical
For Specified Slump of Tolerance point of view, because of the difficulty
of handling the panels; and from the
2 in. (50 mm) and less + .5 in. (15 mm) technical point of view, because of the
necessity of obtaining a realistic mea-
2 to 4 in. (50 to 1 O0 mm) + 1 in. (25 mm)
sure of the actual concrete structure.
More than 4 in. (100 mm) + 1.5 in. (40 mm) When using robots, the test panels
should be made by spraying on a load-
ing stool, without the normal inclined
sides, provided with a laminate plate
Table 50. Acceptable tolerances for workability of wet-mix fibre-reinforced shot- (Norwegian Concrete Association 1992).
crete when measured for time of flow specified as "maximum" or "not to exceed: According to the 1992 EFNARC
draft, the filling of receptacles by robot
Specified Time of Flow is difficult because of the high rate of
Type of filling (10-20 m3/hr). Therefore, sam-
Tolerance If 15 s or less If more than 15 s pling by in-place coring is recom-
mended.
In making test panels, the following
Plus tolerance 5s 10 s guidelines should be observed (Norwe-
gian Concrete Association 1992):
Minus tolerance 0s 0s The mold shall be placed against
the tunnel wall with inclination
< 45 to the vertical plane.
Table51. Acceptable tolerances for workability of wet-mix fibre-reinforced shot- The panels should be sprayed to
crete when measured for time of flow not specified as "rnaximum ~ or =not to exceed~ a minimum thickness of 120 mm.
A concrete thickness > 170 mm
Tolerances for Time of Flow shall be removed immediately.
The panel shall be cured similarly
Tolerance to the lining, and shall remain at
For Specified Time of Flow of I the test place for 12-18 hours.
The concrete surface shall be pro-
8to15s +3s tected by a plastic sheet or moist
More than 15 s +5s cloth before transport to the test

468 TUNNELLINGANDUNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


laboratory after a minimum pe- Table 52. Within.laboratory precision for touchness test according to ASTM
riod of four days. C1018 (1989). ls = one-sigma limit.

13.2 Fresh Shotcrete Parameter Wlthln-Batch lS% Overall 1 S%*


Test methods for fresh shotcrete,
i.e., normally wet-mix shotcrete or dry-
mix shotcrete without accelerator (or First-crack strength 5 7
tested before adding the accelerator), First-crack toughness 10 12
also refer to standard test methods for
normal concrete. However, special at- Toughness index 5 12 13
tention should be paid to some tests on Toughness Indexlo 14 16
fibre-reinforced concrete. Toughness index2o 16 20
The workability of fibre-reinforced
shotcrete tested by slump will have a Flexural strength 5 to 8** 8 to 10"*
lower slump value t h a n the slump of
an otherwise identical concrete with- * Inclusive of batch-to-batch variability, but not variability due to changes In
out fibres. Therefore, it is recommended specimen geometry, test span, and mode of lining.
that trial mixes be made with the ac-
tual types and amounts of fibres, to
ensure that the specific slump require- ** Upper limit appears applicable to relatively high fiber concentrations, 200
ments are met (ASTM Cl116, 1989). Ib/yd~ (120 k g / ~ ) or more of straight uniform fibers, or 70 Ib/yd ~(42 kg/m 3 )
Fibre content and fibre distribution or more of deformed fibers.
may be tested on fresh shotcrete by
wash-out methods, following the rec-
ommendations given below.
Minimum 2 litres of concrete The analysis shallbe carried out crete Association 1992).
(Stockholm City Streets andTraf- on a sample from a mix of con- Rebound of shotcrete should be
fic Admin. 1990). crete from three differentzones measured by weighing the shotcrete
Minimum 10 litres of concrete (AFTES 1992). rebound on a tarpaulin. Drop-out of
(Norwegian Concrete Association For wet-mix shotcrete,the mass ra- already applied concrete should not be
tio can be calculated from production included in the measurement.
1992; AFTES 1992).
datain the ready-mix concrete factory, Rebound of fibres in the rebound
At least 8 kg (4 litres), for dry- should be measured by wash-out from
mix shotcrete (Austrian Concrete combined with measured consumption
of acceleratoron-site(Norwegian Con- at least 5 kg of rebounded material.
Society 1990).

Table 53. Examples of recommended dimensions for test panels for testing shotcrete.

Recommended Dimensions of Test Panels I Reference Source


B

500 x 500 x 150 mm Japan Tunnelling Association 1991

500 x 500 x 120 mm PSIl& 1991; DIN 18551, 1992

600 x 600 x 100 mm Skurda11989

400 x 600 x 200 mm Austrian Concrete Society 1990

600 x 600 x 120 mm Norwegian Concrete Association 1992

650 x 650 x 100 mm JC11991

750 x 750 x150 mm SANCOT 1991

600 x 600 x 100 mm for dry-mix shotcrete Sprayed Concrete Association 1990
750 x 750 x 100 mm for wet-mix shotcrete

450 x 450 x 100 m for construction test; Specification for Lesotho Highlands Project 1991
750 x 750 x 100 for preconstruction test

(n x 125 + 100) x 550 mm n = number of beams CBI 1990

800 x 800 x 160 mm EFNARC 1992

Surface area > 0.25 ~ . Thickness > 150 mm AFTES 1992

Volume 8, Number 4, 1993 TUNNELLINGANDUNDERGROUNDSPACETECHNOLOGY4(]7


13.3 Hardening (young) Shotcrete ~.0 ----

Methods to test the properties of


young shotcrete are presented in the 20
Austrian guideline (Austrian Concrete
Society 1990), and different measuring 10
ranges are specified for different test
methods (see Figure 3).
The testmethods are specified below.
7
M o d i f i e d p e n e t r a t i o n test:
With a flat-ended 9-mm needle
used immediately after plac-
ing of shotcrete.
With a pointed-ended (60), 3-
m m needle for m a x i m u m
strength 1.5 N/mm 2.
'oo.!
Strength is recorded at time in-
tervals 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, and 30 0
m i n u t e s , a c c o r d i n g to the
EFNARC draft (1992). I-M
' INUTES~ -- HOURS I DAYS I
Powder-activated fastening HARDENIN6 TESTS HARDENING AND
process: QUALT
IYTESTS
Bolts are driven into the concrete A - Penetration needle, 9 mm dia
and subsequently extracted by B - Penetration needle, 3 mm dia
measuring the pull-out force. The C- Bolt Hi[ti 450 "L", "Kaindl-Meyco" pull-out
parameter for determining the test method
compressive strength is the ratio D- Test cores
of pull-out force to depth of
penetration.
Figure 3. Measuring ranges for methods of testing the compressive strength of
"young ~ shotcrete (Austrian Concrete Society 1990).
P u l l - o u t test:
Aninsertconsistingofathreaded
shaft is encased in shotcrete and This requires very strict definitions of According to the 1992 EFNARC
then pulled from the concrete for specimen sizes, loading geometry, and draft:
assessing the strength corre- other test conditions, if the values are Ilo and I2oshall primarilybe used
sponding to the respective state to be used generally in evaluation, con- for rock support.
of hardening. trol or design. 15 and I1Qshall be used for other
Coring technique is possible for The group of absolute descriptions applications.
concrete strength > 5 MPa. For strength includes propositions presented by the
J a p a n Concrete Institute (JCI). It should be observed that the esti-
1-5 MPa, sawing of specimens is
Another approach has been to de- mation of toughness indices is highly
preferred.
scribe the toughness as a dimension- dependent upon the accurate registra-
less index in relation to an "idea]" ma- tion of S. This value is very small, of the
13.4 Hardened Shotcrete terial behaviour, e.g., linear elasto-plas- order of 0.05-0.1 mm, and small varia-
13.4.1 Compressive strength tic, or to a reference material. This tions in the estimation result in great
Recommended dimensions of speci- type of relative value description com- influence on the estimation of the de-
mens are given in Table 54. pares one part of the response to the flection value corresponding to the ac-
According to the Sprayed Concrete external loading of an element with tual toughness index. Thus, the accu-
Association (1990), the quality of in- another part of the response of the racy in estimation depends greatly on
situ sprayed dry-mix shotcrete may be same specimen. the laboratory equipment used.
confirmed by taking 25-ram cores. The most applied method from this In addition to toughness indices,
The drilling of cores or sawing of groupis the method accordingtoASTM design values for toughness can be
cubes should be done when sufficient C1018 (1989). In this method a test defined by residual strength factors
strength has been achieved, i.e.: beam, cut from a shotcrete test panel, such as:
is subjected to third-point loading in R10, 30 = 5 (I~0 -I10)
Approximately 10-15 MPa, after flexure and a load vs. deformation curve
2-3 days (SANCOT 1991; Aus- is plotted. The flexural strength f and
trian Concrete Society 1990). This value would be 100 for an
the crack deflection are defined at the elasto-plastic material.
After at least 7 days (AFTES first crack and, subsequently, the vari- In Sweden, the residual strength
1992). ous toughness indices I. A toughness factors have been used to character-
The curing of specimens prior to index is the ratio of th~ absorbed en- ize two stress levels to be exceeded in
tests is in agreement with the treat- ergy up to the first crack. The area acceptance tests (Swedish Railroad
ment of specimen for normal concrete below the load-deflection curve is a Department 1991a):
measure of the absorbed energy.
compressive strength testing, accord-
ing to most national standards. Nor- In the ASTM standard, toughness
R5,10
mally this testing is done at the site indices I5, I10, I20, and I_ are defined for xf,
deflections up to 35, ~.55, 10.58, and 100
within 7-10 days.
15.55. The load deflection curve and
toughness indices are shown in Fig- expressing the average stress level
13.4.2 Toughness ure 4. in the deflection range correspond-
Flexural toughness can be expressed Recommendations concerningbeam ing to toughness indices 15 and Ilo.
in energy terms as absolute values. dimensions are given in Table 55. (f = first crack stress)

468 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACE TECIINOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 1993


Table 54. Recommended dimensions of specimens of hardened shotcrete.

Recommended Dimensions of Specimens Reference Source (if given)

DRILLED CORES:
Diameter: 60-100 m

Length/diameter ratio: 1:1-1:2


1:1.5-1:1.7 (preferred) Norwegian Concrete Association 1992

SAWN CUBES: 75-100 m


Side dimensions: >60 mm EFNARC 1992

RI'3xf,
100
~ ........
average stress level in the deflection
range correspondingto toughness in-
dices Izoand 13o.(f, = first crack stress)
Accordingto the JCI (1991)standard,
flexuralstrengthis definedwithreference
to the maximumload. As a measure of
toughness,an =equivalentf]exuralstrength
~erived from an average load value over a
"is defined,matchingaflexuralstrength

given arem The standard sets the maxi-


1/ ,
I
I
I

,B
I
I

',D
_
I

F
15.55

%
I
I
I

H/
mum deflection equal to 1/150 of the span
(see Fig. 5). DEFLECTION
This absolute description neglects
the resemblance of the material to an OACD OAEF OAGH
15 =
elastic-plastic ideal material. While it OAB I1 = OAB I3- OAB
tells how much energy must be used for
a certain standard specimen to be de-
formed to a certain extent, the form of Figure 4. Load-deflection curve and toughness indices, according to ASTM
destruction (brittle or ductile) is not C1018 (Vandewalle 1991).
indicated (Kasperkiewicz and
Skarendahl 1990).
Table 55. Recommendations regarding beam dimensions for test beams.
13.4.3 Other properties
Recommendations of Beam Dlmenslons Reference Source
Splitting tensile strength: The "Bra-
zilian" test on cores 60 mm. It is
important that the surfaces are straight, 100 x 100 x 350 mm (thick sections) ASTM C1018, 1989
without undulations (AFTES 1992). Equal to the actual thickness used (thin Norwegian Concrete
Direct tensile test: sections) Association 1992
On cores ~60-80 mm (preferably
80 mm to reduce the scatter) 7 5 x 1 2 5 x m i n . 550mm EFNARC 1992
[AFTES 1992]. 75x125x600mm EFNARC 1992
On samples 100 x 100 x 600 mm
(28d) [EFNARC draft 1992].
Density: by weighing and hydrostatic Bond: Controlled by knocking. If there
weighing after application of paraffin Preferably performed in a labo- are non-bonded areas, the reason
(AFTES 1992). ratory on cores 80 mm (AFTES shall be investigated and the need
Thickness: 1992). of additional support evaluated
Tested by drilling holes. The Measured on a random 1-m 2 (Norwegian Concrete Association
placing may be specified using a surface area of the tunnel lining. 1992).
template, according to Swedish Six cores are tested, at the
earliest, after 10 days. The cores Watertightness shall be tested on
standard (see Fig. 6).
are wrapped in plastic sheeting cores ( 150 mm and h = 120 mm) from
Alternatively, the Norwegian Con- before being taken to a labora- shotcrete panels, according to DIN 1048
crete Association draft (1992) states tory. The mean centric tensile (1989). []
that thickness can be tested: strengths are measured at age
By sticking a pricker through the 14 days (Maidl 1992). References
fresh shotcrete; or Measurement of bond may be AC1506-66. 1983. Recommended Practice
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470 TUNNELLINGAND UNDERGROUNDSPACE TECItNOLOGY Volume 8, N u m b e r 4, 1993