You are on page 1of 29

MATERIAL BALANCE

6.3.4 MEG Refining Column (Packed Column):

D= 184.54 Kmol
= 11448.8616 kg

MEG = 184.355kmol
F = 188.306 Kmol (0.999.high purity)
= 11766.873 kg HG = 0.18454kmol
MEG refining column
MEG = 186.218kmol
=11545.545kg Pressure = 10 mmHg
HG =2.088kmol Temp = 93.2 oC
= 221.328kg

W = 3.766 Kmol
= 317.664 kg

MEG = 1.8523kmol
HG = 1.9136kmol
Assuming 99% recovery, of total MEG feed to distillation column, is obtained in the
distillate.
Kmol of MEG in Distillate = 188.306 0.99 x 0.98891
= 184.355 Kmol / hr.
= 11431.0818 Kg/hr.
Kmol of Distillate ( D ) = 184.355 / 0.999
= 184.54 Kmol / hr.
Avg. M.W. of distillate = (0.999 x 62) + (0.001 x 106)
= 62.044 kg / Kmol.

33
Amt. of Distillate (D) = 184.54 x 62.04
= 11448.8618 kg / hr.
Amt. of HG in Distillate = 184.54 x 0.001
= 0.18454 Kmol / hr.
= 0.18454 x 106
= 19.561 kg / hr.
Kmol of feed (F) = 188.306 Kmol / hr.
= 11766.873 kg/hr
TAKING OVER ALL M.B.
F=D+W
188.306 = 184.54 + W
W = 3.766 Kmol /hr.
M.B. ON MEG
F x (Xf MEG) = D x (Xd MEG) + W x (Xb MEG)
188.306 x 0.9889 = 184.54 x 0.999 + 3.766 x Xb MEG
Xb MEG = 0.4918 (mol.fr.of MEG in Bottoms)
XbHG = (1- 0.4918)
= 0.5081 (mol.fr.of HG in Bottoms)
Kmol of MEG in Bottoms = 0.4918 x 3.766
= 1.8521 Kmol / hr
Mol. Weight of MEG = 62 kg/Kmol
= 114.831 kg/hr.
Kmol of HG in Bottoms = 0.5081 x 3.766
= 1.9135 Kmol / hr.
Mol. Weight of HG =106 kg/Kmol
= 1.9135 x 106
= 202.83 kg/hr.

Table 6.4 Material balance over Refining packed column


Component In, Kg Out, Kg
Liquid phase Vapor phase
MEG 11545.545 114.8426 11430.01
HG 221.328 202.8416 19.56124

D= 1881.97kmol
= 11766.873 kg
34
MEG =1.88kmol

H2O =1880.08kmol
6.3.5 MEG recovery column (Plate column):

F = 1900.451kmol
= 35021.339 kg

MEG = 18.481kmol
MEG recovery column
=1145.844kg

H2O =1881.97kmol Plate column


= 33875.496kg.
W = 18.481kmol
=1205.55 kg

MEG = 17.122kmol

H2O = 1.3584kmol

Assuming 99.9 % of total water in feed to distillation column is obtained in the


distillate.
Kmol of Water in Distillate = 1881.97 x 0.999
= 1880.08 Kmol / hr
Kmol of Distillate ( D ) = 1880.08 / 0.999
= 1881.97 Kmol / hr.
Avg. M.W. of distillate = (0.999 x 18) + (0.001 x 62)
= 18.044 kg / Kmol.
Amt. of Distillate (D) = 1881.97 x 18.044
= 33958.266 kg /hr
Amt. of MEG in Distillate = 1881.97 x 0.001
= 1.88 Kmol / hr
= 1.88 x 62
= 116.56 kg/ hr.
Amount of feed ( F ) = 1900.451 Kmol/hr
= 35021.339 kg/hr.
TAKING OVERALL M.B.
F = D+ W
1900.451 = 1881.47 + W

35
W = 18.481kmol / hr
M.B. ON WATER
F x (Xf H) = D x (Xd H) + W x (Xb H)
1900.451 x 0.99 = 1881.97 x 0.999 + 18.481 x Xb W
Xb W = 0.0735 (mol.fr.of Water in
Bottoms) Xb MEG = 1- 0.0735
= 0.9264 (mol.fr.of MEG in
Bottoms) Amount of MEG in Bottoms = 18.481 x 0.9264
= 17.122 Kmol / hr
= 17.122 x 62
= 1061.56 kg/hr.
Kmol of Water in Bottoms = 18.481 17.130
= 1.3584 Kmol / hr
= 1.3584 x 18
= 143.99 kg/ hr.
Table 6.5 Material balance over Recovery plate column
Component In, Kg Out, Kg
Liquid phase Vapor phase
Water 33875.496 24.4512 33841.44
MEG 1145.844 1061.546 116.56
ENERGY BALANCE

D= 184.54 Kmol
7.4 MEG REFINING COLUMN: = 11448.8616 kg

MEG = 184.355kmol
(0.999.high purity)

HG = 0.18454kmol

F = 188.306 Kmol
= 11766.873 kg
MEG refining column
MEG = 186.218kmol Pressure = 10 mmHg
=11545.545kg
Temp = 93.2 oC
HG =2.088kmol
= 221.328kg

W = 3.766 Kmol
= 317.664 kg

MEG = 1.8523kmol

HG = 1.9136kmol
43
7.4.1 for top:

Ttop = 91.8 oC Trefrence = 25 oC

T = 66.8 oC

Poperating = 10 mmHg

Cpmean of MEG = 189.70 kJ / kmol oK

Cpmean of DEA = 441.6 kJ / kmol oK

Total Enthalpy out with Distillate = (mCpT ) MEG + (mCpT )DEG

= [(184.355 x 189.70) + (0.18454 x 441.6)] x

66.8 QD = 2.341 x 106 kJ / hr

Reflux Ratio = 0.71 (finding using Mc Cabe & Thiel

Method) i.e. L/D = 0.71

L = 0.71D

Vapor formed at the top V = L + D

= 0.71D + D

= 0.71 x 184.355 V =

315.247 kmol / hr

Reflux L = 0.71D

= 0.71 x 184.355 L

= 130.89 kmol / hr

Enthalpy out with vapor:

QV = latent heat + sensible heat associated with that vapor

= m + (mCpT)

MEG = 68.578 x 103 kJ / kmol

DEG = 72.067 x 103 kJ / kmol

AVEG = 68.58 x 103 kJ / kmol

44
QV = [(315.247 x 68.58 x 103) + (315.247 x 188.298 x 66.8)]

= 25.58 x 106 kJ / hr

Enthalpy out with Reflux:

QReflux = ( mCpT )Reflux

= [ 130.89 x 188.551 x 66.8 ]

= 1.6485 x106 kJ / hr

Condenser load, QC :

= QV ( QReflux + QD )

= [(25.58 x 106 ) (1.6485 x106 + 2.341 x 106 )]

= 21.595 x 106 kJ / hr

Assuming cooling water enters the condenser at 25oC & leave at 45oC

QC = (mCpT )cooling water

21.595 x 106 = m x 75.7962 x 20

m = 11.63 x 103 kg / hr (Rate of cooling water)

7.4.2 For bottom:

Tbottom = 94.6 oC T = 69.6 oC

Cpmean of MEG = 188.531 kJ / kmol 0K

Cpmean of DEG = 443.2 kJ / kmol 0K

Enthalpy out with Residue, QResidue = ( mCpT )liq

= [(1.8528 x 188.531) MEG + (1.9136 x 443.2) DEG] x 69.6

= 83.34 x 106 kJ / hr

Reboiler Load:

Reboiler heat load is determined from a balance over complete

system QB + QFeed = QD + QW + QC

QFeed
= 2.252 x 106 kJ / hr

45
QB = (21.595 x 106 + 83.34 x 106 - 2.252 x 106 + 2.341 x 106 )

= 21.794 x 106 kJ / hr

Amount of steam required,

Consider the steam enter at 2 kg/cm2 &

118.719oC steam = 2205.82 kJ / kg

QB = m steam

21.794 x 106 = m x 2205.82

m = 9.88 x 10 3 kg / hr ( Rate of steam )

7.5 MEG RECOVERY COLUMN: D= 184.54 Kmol


= 11448.8616 kg

MEG = 184.355kmol
(0.999.high purity)

HG = 0.18454kmol
F = 188.306 Kmol
= 11766.873 kg MEG recovery column
MEG = 186.218kmol
=11545.545kg Plate column
HG =2.088kmol
= 221.328kg
W = 3.766 Kmol
= 317.664 kg

MEG = 1.8523kmol

7.5.1 For top: HG = 1.9136kmol

Ttop = 194oC Trefrence = 25oC

T = 169 oC

Poperating = 760 mmHg

Cpmean of MEG = 197.24 kJ / kmol oK


Cpmean of H2O = 76.55 kJ / kmol oK

Total Enthalpy out with Distillate = (mCpT )MEG + (mCpT ) WATER

= [(1881.08 x 76.55) + (1.874 x 197.24)] x 169

46
QD = 24.40 x 106 kJ / hr

Reflux Ratio = 0.51 (finding using Mc Cabe & Thiel Method)

i.e. L/D = 0.51

L = 0.51D

Vapor formed at the top V = L + D

= 0.51D + D

= 0.51 x 1881.97 V =

2841.77kmol / hr

Reflux L = 0.71D

= 0.51 x 1881.97 L

= 959.80 kmol / hr

Enthalpy out with vapor:

QV = latent heat + sensible heat associated with that vapor

= m + (mCpT)

MEG = 1023.184 kJ / Kg H2O = 2231.8 kJ / Kg AVEG

= 40.195 x 103 kJ / kmol

QV = [(2841.77 x 40.195 x 103) + (2841.77 x 197.24x

169)] = 208.95 106 kJ / hr

Enthalpy out with Reflux:

QReflux = (mCpT) Reflux

= [959.80 x 76.67 x 169]

= 12.43 x106 kJ / hr

Condenser load

QC = QV ( QReflux + QD )

= [(208.95 106 ) (12.43 x106 + 24.40 x 106 )]

47
= 172.12 x 106 kJ / hr

Assuming cooling water enter the condenser at 25oC & leaves at 45oC

7.5.2 For bottom:

Tbottom

QC = (mCpT )cooling water

172.12 x 106 = m x 75.7962 x 20

m = 113.63 x 103 kg / hr (Rate of cooling water)

QResidue

= 198 oC Trefrence = 25oC

T = 173 oC

Cpmean of MEG = 197.6285 kJ / kmol 0K

Cpmean of H2O = 76.607 kJ / kmol 0K

Enthalpy out with Residue:

= ( mCpT )liq

= [(17.122 x 197.6285) MEG + (1.3584 x 76.607 )DEG ] x 173


= 603.39 x 103 kJ / hr

Reboiler Load:

Reboiler heat load is determined from a balance over complete system

QB + QFeed = QD + QW + QC

QFeed = ( mCpT )feed

= [(18.481 x 187.97) MEG + (1881.97x 74.51) WATER] x 80

= 143.71x 103 kJ / hr
Reboiler load

QB = [( 603.39 x 103 + 172.12 x 106 + 24.40 x 106 ) (143.71x 103) ] =

196.97 x 106 kJ / hr

Amount of steam required,

48
Consider the steam enter at 2 kg/cm2 & 118.719oC

steam =2037.51 kJ / kg

QB = m steam

196.97 x 106 = m x 2037.51

m = 97.67 x 10 3 kg / hr ( Rate of steam ) [9,11]

9.2 DISTILLATION COLUMN (PACKED COLUMN):

D= 184.54 kmol
= 11448.8616 kg

MEG =
184.355kmol
D (0.999.high purity)
I HG = 0.18454kmol
S
T
F = 188.306 kmol I
= 11766.873 kg L
MEG = 186.218kmol L
=11545.545kg A
T
HG =2.088kmol I
= 221.328kg. O W = 3.766 kmol
N
= 317.664 kg

MEG = 1.8523kmol

HG = 1.9136kmol

Steam
Condensate

PROCESS DESIGN:
Let ,
Mole fraction of MEG XF= 0.9889
XD = 0.999
XW = 0.4918
9.2.1 Nos of theoretically stages
Use McCabe Theile method for determining the
theoretical stages. McCabe Theile Method: [17,21]

59
Assumption:
Binary mixture separation between MEG & DEG.
P = total pressure of the system = 10 mmHg

So, at top Psat MEG = 1.334 KPa


Psat DEG = 0.1331 KPa

So, top = Psat MEG / Psat DEG


= 1.334 / 0.1333
= 10.077
Now at bottom Psat MEG = 1.4757 KPa
Psat DEG = 0.1673 KPa
So, bottom = Psat MEG / Psat DEG
= 1.4757 / 0.1673
= 8.8174
Thus, average = { top x bottom }0.5
= {10.007 x 8.8174}0.5
average = 9.3933
Now we have the equation
Y = X / {1+ (-1)}

From the above eqn we can generate the vapor- liquid equilibrium data given as

follow.

Table-9.2 Vapor-Equilibrium data

X 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Y 0 0.51069 0.70134 0.80102 0.8623 0.9037 0.9337 0.9563 0.9740 1

Now plotting x-y diagram & Using McCabe Theile method for determining the
theoretical stages.
no. of theoretical stages = 18
9.2.2 Packed Column Diameter And Column Height:
The necessary data required is as follows :

60
Reflux Ratio = 0.71
Feed = saturated liquid (assume)
Kmol of Feed F = 188.306 kmol
Kmol of Distillate D = 184.54 kmol
Kmol of Bottom W = 184.54 kmol

Liquid density rL = 954 Kg/m3


Vapor Density rG = 2.099Kg/m3
Liquid Viscosity m = 2.2 x 10-3 Kg/m s
No. of theoretical stages = 18 ( from vapor liquid Equilibrium diagram)
Owing to its low pressure drop per theoretical stage metal Pall Ring is often preffered
to other packings for vacuum distillation.
Here, L/D =0.71
L = 131.0234 Kmol / hr
Vapor rate = V = L+D
= 184.54 + 131.0234
= 375.5634 Kmol / hr.
Mass flow rate of vapor
(375.5634 x 62.044)
Mg =
(3600)
M g = 6.4726 Kg /s
Mass flow rate of liqid
131.0234 x62.044
Ml =
3600
M l = 2.2581 Kg /s

Flow parameter

Ml g
X= Mg gl

--------------------------- (2)
Where, X = flow parameter
Ml = Mass flow rate of liquid = 2.2581 Kg/s
Mg = Mass flow rate of vapor = 6.4726 Kg/s

rg = Density of vapor =2.099Kg/m3


rl = Density of liquid =954 Kg/m3
61
From equation (2)

= 2.25812.099
6.4726 (954 2.099)

X = 0.01638
By using plot of flooding and Pressure drop.

Ml g G2 f P l0.1
X= Mg
gl
Y = ggl
V/S

Here column is operated under vacuum, plot value at X = 0.01638


DP N
Take, = 50 m2 ref.
Z m
We get Y = 0.0125

G2 f P l0.1
Y = ggl ----------------------------------------- (3)
Owing to its low-pressure drop, the metal pall ring is used as a packing for
vacuum distillation,

Pall Ring (Metal):


Size: 38 mm (1.499)
Packing Factor fp (m-1) = 131
Deigned H.E.T.P. (m) = 0.5425
m = Viscosity of liquids = 2.2 x 10-3 Kg/m
s rg = Density of gas = 2.099 kg / m3
rl = Density of liquid = 954 kg / m3

G' in kg / m2. s

From equation (3)

G2 f P l0.1

Y = ggl
G'2 = [(0.0125 x 2.099 x (954 2.099)] / [131 x (2.2 x 10-3) 0.1 ]
G'2 = 0.3515 kg / m2 s
G = 0.5929 kg / m2 s
Taking vapor mass velocity as 60% if flooding velocity.

62
Hence, Area of tower =
At M
g

0.6 G

= 6.4726 / (0.6 x 0.5929)

= 18.19 m2

A D2
t
4 = 18.19
Diameter of tower = D = 4.81 5 m
Total height of packed bed,
Z = No.of theoretical stages x H.E.T.P.
HETP = height equivalent to one theoretical plate
For pall ring metal (1.5) H.E.T.P. = 0.5425
Z = No .of theoretical stages x H.E.T.P. Z =
18 x 0.5425
Z = 9.765
m = 10 m
In packed tower, height of each bed is approximately its diameter.
Hence, 2 beds of 5 m heights are provided.
Spacing between each bed is = 2 m
Hence, total spacing = 0.5 x 3 = 1.5 m
Taking both disengaging space and distribution space = 2 m
Hence total height of tower = 10 + 2 + 2
= 14 m
MECHANICAL DESIGN [23, 24, 26]
9.2.3 Shell Design:
Shell Thickness (based on external pressure):
Diameter of tower = Di = 5m
Height of column = 14 m Pressure
inside column is vacuum.
Outside pressure is 1 atm = 0.1 MN /m2
Hence design pressure = Pd = 0.1 x 1.05
= 0.105 MN /m2
Shell is I.S. 2825-1969

63
Allowable stress = f = 98.1 MN /m2
Welding joint efficiency factor = J = 0.85
Thickness of shell,
The inside depth of the end can be calculated from the following correlation,

hi = Ri - RiDi/ 2x(RiDi/ 22ri

Ri = 5m
Di = Do =5m (initial
approximation) ri = 0.1 x Ro
= 0.5m

hi = 5 - (5 5 / 2)x(5 5 / 2

2x0.5) = 0.9686 m
Effective length of tower W/O stiffner = (Tangent to Tangent length + 2/3 x hi)
= 12 + 2/3x 0.9688
= 12.6459m
Do / L = 5/ 12.6459
= 0.3953
K value corresponding to this = 0.246 & m =2.43
Modulus of elasticity E = 1x 105 MN/m2
Corroded shell thickness,
P = KxE x (t/Do)m
0.105 = 0.246 x 1 x 105
(t/4)2.43 t = 0.02467 m
Take standard thickness = 26 m t
= 26 m
Checking for plastic deformation,
1
P = 2x f x t/Do x
1 [1.5U (1 0.2Do / l) /100x(t / Do)]
U = 1.5 % (take for new vessel)
1
P = 2 x 98.1 x 4.82 x10-3 x
1 [1.5x1.5(1 0.2x0.3953/100x0.00482)]
= 0.2446 0.105 MN/m2
9.2.4 Head Design:
Selecting Torispherical head
64
Outside diameter of shell,
Do = Di + 2 ts
= 5 + 2 (0.026) = 5.052 m
So, Ro = 0.9 Do
= 0.9 x 505.2
= 454.68 cm
Temperature = Td = T + 50 oC
= 95 + 50
= 145 oC
Table-9.3 Head thickness
t(cm) Ro / t Ro / 100t Factor B factB
(assumed) P = 14.22xRo / t
1.2 378.9 3.78 4400 0.7402
1.3 349.75 3.49 4500 0.8201
1.4 324.77 3.24 4800 0.9421
1.5 303.2 3.03 5000 1.051 Pdesign

So, we take thickness of head t = 1.5 cm


Consider 2mm corrosion allowance,
th = 1.5 +0.2
th = 17 mm
Standard thickness available th = 18 mm

9.2.5 Check For Stresses In MEG Column [Design Of Vertical Column]:

DATA:
Vessel Type = Class 1
Pdesign =1.05 MN/m2
Total Column height = 14 m
Column Diameter = 5m
Skirt height = 4 m
Packing Type = 38mm Metal Pall ring
Column MOC = SS304
Wind Pressure = 1000 N/m2
Weight of attachments (ladder + pipes + liquid distributor) = 1373.4N

liquid = 1113.2 Kg/m3 =10.917 x 103 N/m3


65
Head = Torispherial
Head thickness =18mm

Tdesign = 145o C
Permissible Stress =91.8 MN/m2
s = 78480 N/m3
Insulation = Asbestos
in = 5.64*103 N/m3
tin =50 *10-3 m
Shell thickness without corrosion allowance = 26
= 0.026m
Do = 5.052m
Vessel is Located in non seismic zone
Determination Of Longitudinal Stresses:
Axial Stress due to pressure
p = P x Do / 4 x ts
= 1.05 x 5.052 / 4 x 0.026
= 51.005 MN/ m2

Axial Stress Due to dead Load up to X m


(a) Stress due to Shell weight s
fs = Ws / x D x ts
Ws = weight of shell = x D x t x s x X
fs = x D x t x s x X / x D x ts
= s x X
= 0.7848 X MN / m2
( b) Stress due to insulation in
in = tin x in x X/ ts
= 0.05 x ( 5.64*103 ) x X /

0.026 in = 0.01084 X MN / m2
(c ) Stress due to liquid and packing load in column
Volume of bed = x D2x H /4
= x 52 x 10
= 196.3495 m3

66
Consider void fraction for packing = 0.5
Liquid hold up = Vb x
= 196.3495 x 0.5
= 98.1747 m3
Weight of liquid = Vl x l
= 137.44 x 954
= 93658 kg
= 918.511 x 103 N
Total weight of packing = packed bed volume x density of packing
= x D2x H /4 x p
= x52x 10 /4 x 430
= 83.43 x 103 kg
= 824.08 x 103 N
l = Weight of (liquid + packing) / p x D x ts
( liquid + packing)

Weight of =Weight of liquid + total weight


of packing

= (918.511 x 103 + 824.08 x 103 )


= 1.7465MN
l = 1.7465 x X / p x ( 5.052) x( 0.026 )
= 4.243 x X MN/m2
( d ) Stress due to attachments

Weight of head = p/4 x D2 x thead x s

= 0.785 x ( 5.052 )2 x ( 0.018 ) x ( 784480 )

Whead =0.02831 MN

Weight of ladder + liq distributor = 1373.4 x X N

a = Whead + (Wladder & liquid distributor) / p x Di x t

= 0.02831 + 0.0013734 x X / p x ( 5 ) x (0.026)

a = 0.06931 + 0.003362 x X MN/m2


Total dead load stress

dead = s + in + l + a
= 0.7848 X + 0.01084 X + 4.243 X + 0.06931 + 0.003362 X

67
dead =0.06931 +4.3246 xX N/m2

Longitudinal Stress due to dynamic loads

The axial Stress due to wind load in self supporting tall vessel,
The total load due to wind acting on the bottom and upper part of thr vessel are
determined by
Pw = K1 x K2 x Pwindpress x H x Do ( insulated )
Where,
Pw = wind pressure = 1000 n/m2
K1 = coefficient depending upon the shape factor = 0.7 for cylindrical surface
K2 = coefficient depending upon the period of vibration of the vessel
= 1 if period of vibration is 0.5 sec or less
=2 if period of vibration is exceed 0.5
Do( insulated ) = Di + 2 tin

Period of Vibration is given by

T = 6.35 x 10-5 x ( H / D )1.5 x ( W / t ) 0.5

H = L + Skirt height
W = total weight

Now,
Weight of shell
Ws = p x Dits x L x s
= (3.14) x (5) x (0.026) x ( 14 ) x (78480)
Ws = 0.4487 M N

Weight of insulation
Win = p x D x tin x L x in
= ( 3.14 ) x ( 5 ) ( 0.05 ) x ( 14 ) x ( 5.64*103 )
Win = 0.06266 MN

Weight of ( liquid + packing) = 1.7465 MN

Weight of attachment = Weight of two heads + Weight of ladder, pipes, liq distributor
= 2 (0.02831) + 1.3734 x 10-3
Wa = 0.058 N

Total Weight = WS + Win + W (liquid + packing) + Wa


= 0.4487 + 0.06266 + 1.7465 + 0.058
W = 2315.86 KN
H = L + Skirt height

68
= 14 +
4 H = 18 m
a) Period of Vibration

T = 6.35 x 10-5 x ( H / D )1.5 x ( W / ts ) 0.5


T = 6.35 x 10-5 x ( 18 / 5.052 )1.5 x ( 2315.86 / 0.026) 0.5
T = 0.127 sec < 0.5 sec

K2 =1
K1 = 0.7 for cylindrical vessel

b) Wind load
Pw = K1 x K2 x Pwindpress x H x Do ( insulated )

Do( insulated ) = Di + 2 tin


= 5 + 2 (0.05)

Pw = ( 0.7 ) x ( 1 ) x ( 1000 ) x ( X ) x ( 5.1 ) Do = 5.1 m


Pw = 3.571 x X KN / m

Bending moment
i.e Wind moment at the base of the vessel due to wind load is given by
Mwind = { Pwmd x H }/2
= 3.571 x X x X /2
Mwind = 1.785 x X2 KN m
Resulting bending stress
i.e Wind Stress in axial direction is given by

wind = 4 x Mwind / p x ts x D2

= 4 x ( 1.785 x X2) / 3.14 x ( 0.02 6) x ( 5.052 )2

wind = 0.00349 x X2 MN/m2

Calculation of Resultant longitudinal stress :

Tensile stress on upwind side at X m from top

tensile = -p - dead + wind

f (max) = f x J
= 98.1 x 0.85
= 83.385 MN/m2

Substituting f max for f tensile

83.385 = 0.00349 X2 - 4.3246X - 0.0693 51.005

69
Solving this equation

0.00349X2 4.3246 X -134.46 =


0 ax2 + bx + c =0
By Solving equation
X = 1496.59 >>> 18m

So This design is Ok

Compressive stress on downwind site at X m from top


Down wind side ,
f compression =p + dead +wind
compressive = 0.125 x E x ( t / Do )
= 0.125 x ( 2 x 105) x ( 0.026 / 5.052 ) =
128.661 MN/m2
Equating maximum value of f comp.

128.661 = 0.00349X2 4.3246 X+ 0.0693 51.005

Solving this Equation

\ 0.00349X2 4.3246 X -77.5867 = 0


ax2 + bx + c = 0
X = 18.683 >>> 18 m

So, This design is ok.

9.2.6 Skirt Support Design For MEG Column:

The minimum weight of vessel with two head and the shell is given by

Wmin = Ws + 2 Whead
= 0.4487 + ( 2x
0.03831) Wmin =0.50532 MN

The maximum weight of vessel with two head and the shell is given by

Wmax = Wmin + Winsulation + Wattachment + W( liquid + packing )


= 0.50532 + 0.062665 + 0.058 + 1.74657
Wmax = 2.37248 MN

Period of Vibration is given by


At minimum dead weight
Tmin = 6.35 * 10-5 x ( H / D )1.5 x ( Wmin / ts )0.5
= 6.35 * 10-5 x ( 18 / 5.052 )1.5 x ( 505.32 / 0.026 )0.5
Tmin = 0.059 sec < 0.5 sec
\ K2 =1
K1 = 0.7 for cylindrical vessel
At maximum dead weight

70
Tmax = 6.35 x 10-5 x ( H/ D )1.5 x ( Wmax / ts )0.5
= 6.35 x 10-5 x ( 18 / 5.052 )1.5 x ( 2372.48 / 0.026 )0.5
Tmax = 0.13 sec < 0.5 sec

\ K2 = 1
K1 = 0.7 for cylindrical vessel

Minimum and maximum wind moments are computed by


Maximum and minimum Wind load
Pw = K1 x K2 x ( Pw ) x H x Do (based on insulation thickness)
Do = Di + 2 x tin
= 5+ 2 x ( 0.05 )
= 5.1 m
For minimum Weight condition Do = 5.052 m
For maximum Weight condition Do = 5.1 m ( insulated )
Pwmin = 0.7 x ( 1 ) x ( 1000 ) x ( 18 ) x ( 5.052 )
= 63.665KN
Pwmax = ( 0.7 ) x ( 1 ) x ( 1000 ) x ( 18 ) x ( 5.1 )
= 64.26 K N
Wind moment
Mwind = Pw x H / 2 Mwindmi
= 63.665 x 18 / 2
= 572.89 KN m
Mwinsmax = 64.26 x 18 /2
= 578.34 KN
Wind stress
wind = 4 x Mwind / p x Di2 x tsk
wind min = 4 x 572.89 / 3.14 x ( 5 )2 * tsk
= 30.277 / tsk KN / m2
wind max = 4 x 578.34 / 3.14 x ( 5 )2 tsk = 29.4821 / tsk
KN / m2
dead,min = Wmin / p x Di x tsk
= 0.50532 / 3.14 x 5 x tsk
= 0.0328 / tsk M N / m2
dead max = Wmax / p x Di x tsk
= 2.37248 / ( 3.14 ) x ( 5) x tsk = 0.151 / tsk MN /
m2
Maximum tensile stress without any eccentric load is given by
tensile = windmin - deadmin

71
Take J = 0.7 for double weld joint

\ tensile = permissible x J
= 98.1 x 0.85
= 83.385 MN/m2
tensile = windmin - deadmin
83.385 = windmin - deadmin

83.385 = 0.0328 / tsk + 0.030277 / tsk


tsk = 3.11 x10 5 m
Maximum tensile stress without any eccentric load is given by
compressive in skirt wall = 0.125 E tsk / Do
= 0.125 (2 x105) tsk / 5.052
= 4948.53 tsk
compressive in skirt wall = windmax + deadmax

4948.53 tsk = 0.02948 / tsk + 0.151 / tsk


tsk = 6.054 mm

But minimum corroded skirt thickness = 8mm (as per IS : 2825-


1969) \ Skirt thickness tsk = 8

Table-9.4 Specification for Distillation Column (Packed column)

SR.
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
NO.
1 Tower MOC SS304
2 Tower ID 5m
3 Tower OD 5.052 m
4 Shell thickness 26 mm
5 Shell head thickness 18mm
6 Height of tower(Without support) 14m
7 Height of packed Bed 10 m
8 Type of Head Torrispherical
9 No. of Beds of packing 2 , each of height 5 m
10 DP/Z Selected 50 N/M2/m
11 Tower Support Skirt Support
12 Skirt MOC SS304
13 Skirt Height 4m
14 Skirt thickness 8 mm
15 Type Pall Ring
16 MOC Metal (S S)
17 Bulk Density 430 kg/m3
18 HETP 0.5425m

72
ximum operating temperature.
Use safety over design factor of 15 20 %.
14.1 ESTIMATION CAPITAL COST:

14.1.1 Purchased Equipment Cost:


Table-14.1 Purchase Cost of equipments

Sr. No. Equipment No. of Cost per Estimated


Equip- Unit (Rs. Cost
Ments Thusd) (Rs. Thusd)
MEG STORAGE
1 TANK 2 200 400
HG STORAGE
2 TANK 1 200 200
ETHYLENE OXIDE
3 STORAGE 2 200 400
TANK
PLUG FLOW
4 REACTOR 1 500 500
TRIPPLE EFFECT
5 EVAPORATOR 1 85 85
VACUUM
DISTILLATION
6 COLUMN (PACKED 1 70 70
COLUMN)
DISTILLATION
7 COLUMN (PLATE 1 75 75
COLUMN)
8 DRYING COLUMN 1 50 50
9 CENTRIFUGAL 6 10 60