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VERTICAL POST TENSIONING

the River House Project


Carol Hayek, PhD, MBA
Chief Technical Officer, CCL

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Outline
The Project
Shear walls design and reasons for
vertical post-tensioning
PT wall solution
Calculation of PT losses
Detailing
Constructability

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River House Project
All post-tensioned concrete 38 story
building
Unbonded post-tensioned flat slab
Bonded post-tensioned transfer
girders with CCL-12 strand anchor
system and multiple stressing stages
Bonded post-tensioned vertical walls
using CCL-4 strand anchor system

Project Team
Structural Engineer: URS Corporation
Concrete Contractor: Kent Companies
Grand rapids, MI Post Tensioning Supplier: CCL USA

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River House Project
Floor Plan

Line 7
Line 11

Shear Walls

Varying
Geometry

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Shear Wall Design

Lateral Stability Modeling


Finite element model was used
Approx 500 load cases
Wind Load
Basic load 90mph
Reinforced concrete shear walls

High drift and excessive


tension

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Shear Wall Design

Possible Solutions
Options and limitations of reinforced concrete
walls
Adding shear walls or increasing shear wall sizes
not an option due to:
Architectural requirement
High real estate value
Adding rebar already congested
Increasing concrete strength fc=8,000psi
Alternative
Use of Post-Tensioning

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Reasons for PT

Advantages of PT
Adds axial compression to counteract tensile
stresses
Use uncracked section
Less rebar quantity, less congestion
Can handle variable wall geometry

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PT Walls Solution

PT Forces in Wall
Design of walls using
bonded system
Optimal use of PT: only
where needed
Incremental PT forces
varying from 500k to
1670k
PT walls from ground to
9th floor
RC walls for upper floors

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PT Loss Calculation

Calculation of PT Losses

Calculation of prestress losses to obtain the


effective PT force per tendon
Friction Losses
Long Term Losses

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PT Loss Calculation

Friction Losses
Angular friction loss in 3D
dimensions (x,y,z)
Wobble loss as a function of
tendon length
PT force at point x Shift of PT from
circular column to wall
( ( +) + k x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )
Px = Pstres sin g e x
y z

Loss factor

Seating Loss

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PT Loss Calculation

Long Term Losses


Typical losses due to prestressing
Elastic Shortening of concrete
Creep of concrete
Shrinkage of concrete
Strand Relaxation
Loss due to axial deformation caused by dead
load weight on wall

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PT Loss Calculation

Elastic Shortening
Stress-Strain relationship with steel proportional to concrete
Elastic Shortening ES (same for unbonded and non-
grouted bonded tendons)
Loss due to prestressing depends on average precompression
ESPT= Es s with s = Ke ( fcpa / Eci )
Loss due to axial deformation
ESDL= Es DL with DL = (DL / L)

Es = Modulus of Elasticity of the PT steel


DL = Axial deformation due to dead load
L = Total length of tendon

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PT Loss Calculation

Creep, Shrinkage and Relaxation


Creep CR
Loss due to prestressing CRPT= Kc Es ((fci fsd) / Ec)
Loss due to axial deformation in building CRDL= Kc Es (DL / L)
Loss due to shrinkage of concrete
SH = 8.2x10-6 Ksh Es (1-0.06 V/S )(100-RH)

Loss due to relaxation of tendon


RE = Kr*C [J*(ESPT+CRPT+ESDL+CRDL+SH)]*C
PT Losses

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PT Loss Calculation

Long Term Loss Values


Total Long
Tendons DL fcpa ESPT ESDL CRPT CRDL SH RE
Term Losses
in psi ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi

SHEAR WALL ON GRIDLINE 11


A, B,C,D 0.28 710 2.8 11.0 6.6 18.6 2.7 3.3 45.0
F, G, K, L 0.28 710 2.8 8.9 6.6 15.1 2.7 3.6 39.6
E, H, J, M 0.28 710 2.8 7.5 6.6 12.7 2.7 3.7 35.9

SHEAR WALL ON GRIDLINE 7


N 0.15 162 0.6 9.4 1.5 16.0 2.7 3.8 34.0
A, B 0.17 162 0.6 8.7 1.5 14.8 2.7 3.9 32.2
A, B, C, D 0.17 237 0.7 3.2 1.6 5.4 2.7 4.5 17.9
A, B, C, D 0.37 168 0.9 14.5 2.2 24.6 2.7 3.2 48.1
A, B,C,D 0.37 669 2.6 9.3 6.2 15.9 2.7 3.5 40.2
F, G, K, L 0.37 669 2.6 8.1 6.2 13.8 2.7 3.7 37.0
E, H, J, M 0.37 669 2.6 7.4 6.2 12.6 2.7 3.7 35.2

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PT Loss Calculation

Total Losses
LT Loss due LT Loss due LT Loss due LT Loss due
Tendon Loss due Total Loss due to
Tendons to to Axial DL to to Axial DL Total Losses
Length to friction Losses friction
Prestressing Deformation Prestressing Deformation
kip kip kip kip % % % %

SHEAR WALL ON GRIDLINE 11


A, B,C,D 60 6 4 6 16 12% 8% 13% 33%
F, G, K, L 74 6 4 5 15 14% 8% 11% 32%
E, H, J, M 88 7 4 4 14 14% 8% 9% 31%

SHEAR WALL ON GRIDLINE 7


N 37 5 2 5 12 11% 4% 11% 27%
A, B 46 5 2 5 12 10% 4% 10% 25%
A, B, C, D 126 6 2 2 10 13% 5% 4% 21%
A, B, C, D 60 6 2 8 16 12% 5% 17% 34%
A, B,C,D 93 6 4 5 15 14% 7% 11% 32%
F, G, K, L 107 7 4 5 15 14% 7% 10% 31%
E, H, J, M 117 7 4 4 15 16% 7% 9% 32%

Average 13% 6% 11% 30%


Percentage Values are with respect to jacking force
Losses due to axial load vary from
4% to 17%

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PT Detailing

PT System
PT system that accommodates variable wall
sections and geometry
Multi-strand CCL anchors of 4x0.6 strand
Small size anchors and ducts to fit in walls and allow
profile deviations
2 duct diameter ~ 3.5 x strand area
Mutli-strand stressing equipment easy to handle
Grouting in one operation

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PT Detailing

Every tendon is labeled


Tendons are staggered
Tendons are stopped incrementally
Anchors typically stopped at slab
soffit to avoid blockouts

Sample Sections
and Elevations

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PT Detailing

Curving of Tendons
Special consideration to sweep around openings
High Concentration of PT forces
Deviation forces need to be considered
Pressure due to curvature
Deviation force (radial force) q = P/R per unit length
Rebar needed
Anchoring of 25% is
required
A = 25% q / (0.6 fy)

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PT Detailing

Anchors Detailing at Blockouts


Typical sections

Front View

Transverse
section

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Constructability

Detailed Method Statement


Installation procedure and tolerances
Stressing procedure
Grouting procedure
Field records

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Constructability

Installation

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Constructability

Stressing
Stressing to be done from top of wall
Anchors at bottom of wall used as accessible
dead ends
Anchors at top of wall used as stressing end
Anchors stopped at slab soffit to avoid
encasements
Multi-strand simultaneous stressing to control
intertwining of strands

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Constructability

Grouting
Grout to be done by qualified personnel
Grouting for vertical tendons to start from
bottom
Grout vents placed at every floor
One-way flow of grouting should be maintained
Maintain grout pressure after ducts are filled

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Constructability

Field Records

Strand installation
Stressing records
Grout mix records
Grouting records

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Constructability

Field Feedback
Generally no problem
PT and rebar interference problems were held to
a minimum
Grouting went fine with vents being filled per
procedure requirement
Blockouts at dead end side were tight but
workable

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Conclusion
Vertical PT is a viable solution for lateral
stability
Vertical PT is a suited option for walls with
varying geometry
Understanding of PT losses is necessary
Thorough detailing is needed
Detailed construction method statements

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Acknowledgments

URS: Dave Stek, PE, SE(IL), LEEDAP


Calvin College: Leonard P. De Rooy, P.E.
Kent Companies: Dave Turner, PE

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THANK YOU!

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