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The SCIENCE

and ENGINEERING
of MATERIALS
Second SI edition

Donald R. Askeland

Solutions manual
Solutions supplied by Paul Porgess and Ian Brown
Department of Polymers, Metals and Dental
Technology, Manchester Polytechnic

Chapman & Hall


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1991 Chapman & Hall

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Solutions to Practice Problems

Chapter 1: Introduction to Materials 1

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure 5

Chapter 3: Atomic Arrangement 11

Chapter 4: Imperfections in the Atomic Arrangement 37

Chapter 5: Atom Movement in Materials 50

Chapter 6: Mechanical Testing and Properties 63

Chapter 7: Deformation, Strain Hardening, and Annealing 81

Chapter 8: Solidification and Grain Size Strengthening 92

Chapter 9: Solidification and Solid Solution Strengthening 106

Chapter 10: Solidification and Dispersion Strengthening 116

Chapter 11: Dispersion Strengthening by Phase Transformation


and Heat Treatment 126

Chapter 12: Ferrous Alloys 135

Chapter 13: Non-Ferrous Alloys 151

Chapter 14: Ceramic Materials 160

Chapter 15: Polymers 174

Chapter 16: Composite Materials 191

Chapter 17: Electrical Conductivity 204

Chapter 18: Dielectric and Magnetic Properties 218

Chapter 19: Optical and Thermal Properties 229

Chapter 20: Corrosion and Wear 247

Chapter 21 Failure - Origin, Detection, and Prevention 259


Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS

1. The Stealth aircraft is designed so that i t will not be detected by


radar. What physical property should the materials used in the Stealth
plane possess to meet this design requirement?

The materials should be capable of absorbing radiation having the


wavelength of radar. In addition, the materials must also have a
good strength-to-weight ratio, appropriate corrosion resistance, and
other properties that typical aircraft should possess.

2. Certain materials, such as tungsten carbide, are compounds consisting of


both metallic and non-metallic elements. To which category of "materials
does tungsten carbide belong?

Ceramic materials.

3. From which category of materials would you select a material best suited
for building a vessel to contain liquid steel?

Ceramic materials, which often have high melting temperatures and


chemical resistance to liquid metals. However, the ceramic must be
chosen with care, because many ceramics will react with the metal.

4. Consider a cement wall reinforced with steel bars. Into which category
of materials would you place this reinforced concrete?

This is a composite material.

5. Boron nitride (BN) and silicon carbide (SiC) are important materials in
abrasive grinding wheels. In what category of materials do BN and SiC
belong? BN and SiC are in the form of small particles and "are often
embedded in a polymer to produce the grinding wheel. In what category of
materials does the entire wheel belong?

The BN and SiC are ceramic materials; because the ceramic particles
are embedded in a polymer, the entire wheel is a composite material.

6. Silicon carbide (SiC) fibers are sometimes mixed with liquid aluminum.
After the mixture freezes, a fiber-reinforced composite results. Would
you reinforce aluminum with high strength polyethylene fibers in the same
manner? Explain your answer.

No. The polyethylene fibers are a polymer material and consequently


have low melting and degradation temperatures. Introducing liquid
aluminum at a temperature above 600 0 C will destroy the polymer
fibers.

1
7. The nose of the space shuttle is composed of graphite (carbon). Based on
this information, what type of material would graphite be?

The nose of the shuttle will experience extremely high temperatures


upon re-entering the atmosphere from orbit. Protection therefore
requires a very high melting point material, such as a ceramic.
Graphite is sometimes considered to be a ceramic, although it is not
a combination of metallic and non-metallic elements.

8. Suppose we would like to make a porous metal filter to keep the oil in
our automobile engine clean. Which one of the metal processing
techniques listed in Table 1-3 might be used to produce these filters?

Powder metallurgy might be an excellent choice. We can compact


spherical metal powder particles to a small degree and sinter just
long enough so the powder particles are joined together. This will
leave interconnected voids between the particles that will allow
liquid oil to penetrate but will trap small solid impurities.

9. Sintering is listed in Table 1-3 as a ceramic processing technique. In


which one of the metal processing techniques would you expect sintering
also to be used?

Sintering is an integral portion of the powder metallurgy process,


joining the powder particles together, reducing void space,
increasing density, and providing good mechanical properties after
the powder metallurgy part has been initially formed by compaction.

10. Which of the three ceramic processing methods mentioned in Table 1-3 do
you think is used to produce glass bottles?

The bottles are normally produced by a "compaction" process, in


which the glob of hot, viscous glass is introduced into a die and
then formed, often using gas pressure.

11. By which one of the four methods of producing composite materials listed
in Table 1-3 would you expect plywood to be made?

Plywood is produced by "joining"; the individual plies are joined by


adhesive bonding, or glueing.

12. Injection molding to produce plastic parts most closely resembles which
one of the metals processing methods?

Injection molding is very similar to die casting, in which pressure


is used to force a molten material into a metal die to give the
desired shape.

13. The Voyager is an experimental aircraft that flew around the world
non-stop on a single tank of fuel. What type of material do you think
made up most of the aircraft? Explain why this type of material was
selected.

The Voyager was produced primarily from composite materials,


including carbon fiber-epoxy and fiberglass materials. These
materials provided both the exceptionally light weight and the high
strength and stiffness required.

2
14. United Stages coinage, such as the quarter, appear silvery on the face,
but close inspection reveals a reddish color at the edges. Based on your
observations, to which one of the five categories of materials should
a quarter belong? Explain.

The coinage is a composite material composed of high nickel sheets


on the two flat surfaces surrounding a core sheet of high copper.
the high nickel provides good corrosion resistance and the
appropriate silvery appearance, while the high copper in the core
minimizes cost. The edge appears reddish because when the coins are
stamped from the original sheet, the copper core is partly revealed.

15. Relays in electrical circuits open and close frequently, causing the
electrical contacts to wear. MgO is a very hard, wear resistant
material. Why would this material not be suitable for use as the
contacts in a relay?

The MgO is a ceramic material and consequently acts as an electrical


insulator rather than as a conductor. Although it may not wear, it
also will never allow current to flow through the relay. Also, if
the relay closes very rapidly, the brittle MgO could fracture;
however this latter point is not very important compared to the
electrical properties.

16. What mechanical properties would you consider most important when
selecting a material to serve as a spring for an automobile suspension?
Explain.

The spring must have a high strength in order to support the


automobile; i t must have a high modulus of elasticity so little
elastic deformation occurs; it must have sufficient ductility so
that it can be formed in the first place; it should have reasonably
good resistance to corrosion, particularly to salt that might be
picked up from the highway during the winter.

17. The devices used for memory in personal computers typically contain an
integrated circuit, electrical leads, a strong, non-conducting base, and
an insulating coating. From what material should each of these four
basic components be made? Explain your selections.

The heart of the integrated circuit should be a semiconducting


material such as silicon or GaAs so that electrical signals can be
properly processed and information can be stored. The electrical
leads must have a high electrical conductivity and might be made of
aluminum or gold. Because the base must be both strong and
non-conducting, it should be made from a ceramic material. Finally,
the insulating coating could be made from either ceramic or polymer
material. Polymers are most often used.

3
18. Automobile bumpers might be made from a polymer material. Would you
recommend a thermoplastic of a thermosetting polymer for this
application? Explain.

A thermosetting polymer, due to its network structure, is expected


to be very brittle; even slight impacts of the bumper against
another car, the end of the garage, or flying rock or gravel could
cause it to break. The thermoplastic polymer has better ductility
and impact resistance and consequently would be the better choice.

19. Sometimes a nearly finished part is coined. During coining, a force is


applied to deform the part into its final shape. For which of the
following could this be done without danger of breaking the part - brass,
Al 2 0 3 , thermoplastic polymers, thermosetting polymers, silicon?

In order to be coined, the material must possess at least some


ductili ty. Of the materials mentioned, Al 2 0 3 is a ceramic and is
very brittle, thermosetting polymers are brittle, and silicon is
brittle; none of these could easily be coined without a danger of
introducing cracks or even. fracture. Both brass and thermoplastic
polymers have good ductility and can be deformed.

20. A scrap metal processor would like to be able to identify different


materials quickly, without resorting to chemical analysis or lengthy
testing. Describe some possible testing techniques based on the physical
properties of materials.

He could separate copper-base alloys from other metals by color -


copper, brass, and bronze are yellow or red. A magnet could be used
to identify most iron and steel alloys - with only a few exceptions
these are magnetic while most other common alloys that a scrap yard
might encounter are not. Austenitic stainless steels could be
separated from other stainless steels by the same method. The
weight or density might also be used; aluminum and magnesium are
lightweight compared to iron, copper, or nickel. Chapter 21 will
also describe a variety of non-destructive tests, some of which
might be easily adapted by a scrap metal processor.

4
Chapter 2

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

1. Silicon, which has an atomic number of 14, is composed of three isotopes:


92.21% of the Si atoms contain 14 neutrons, 4.7% contain 15 neutrons and
3.09% contain 16 neutrons. Estimate the atomic mass of silicon.

MSi (0.9221)(14 + 14) + (0.047)(15 + 14) + (0.0309)(16 + 14)

28.1099 g/mol

2. Titanium, which has an atomic number of 22, is composed of five isotopes:


7.93% of the Ti atoms contain 24 neutrons, 7.28% contain 25 neutrons,
73.94% contain 26 neutrons, 5.51% contain 27 neutrons and 5.34% contain
28 neutrons. Estimate the atomic mass of titanium.

MTi = (0.0793)(24 + 22) + (0.0728)(25 + 22) + (0.7394)(26 + 22) +


(0.0551)(27 + 22) + (0.0534)(28 + 22) 47.9305 g/mol

3. Bromine, which has an atomic number of 35 and an atomic mass of 79.909


g/mol, contains two isotopes - Br79 and Br8l. Determine the percentage of
each isotope of bromine.

Let "x" represent the fraction of the Br 79 isotopes and "x-l"


represent the fraction of the Br 81 isotopes. Then

79.909 (x)(79) + (1 - x)(81) = 79x + 81 - 81x


x = (81 - 79.909)/(81 - 79) = 0.5455

Therefore Br contains 54.55% Br79 and 45.45% Br8l.

4. Silver, which has an atomic number of 47 and an atomic mass of 107.87


g/mol, contains two isotopes - Ag l07 and Ag l09 . Determine the percentage
of each isotope of silver.

Let "x" represent the fraction of AgI07 isotopes and "x-1" represent
the fraction of Agl09 isotopes. Then

107.87 (x)(107) + (1 - x)(109) =


107x + 109 - 109x
x = (109 - 107.87)/(109 - 107) = 0.565

Therefore Ag contains 56.5% Ag l07 and 43.5% Ag l09 .

5
5. Tin, with an atomic number of 50, has all of its inner energy levels
filled except the 4f level, which is empty. From its electronic
structure, determine the expected valence of tin.

First let's sum the electrons in the first four energy shells:

lS2 = 2 electrons
2s 22p 6 = 8 electrons
3s23p63dl0 18 electrons
4s24p64dl04fO 18 electrons
46 electrons
There must be SO - 46 = 4 electrons in the outer energy shell:
5s 2Sp2= 4 electrons = valence of tin

6. Mercury, with an atomic number of 80, has all of its inner energy levels
filled except the Sf and 5g levels, which are empty. From its electronic
structure, determine the expected valence of mercury.

First let's sum the electrons in the first five energy shells:

2 electrons
8 electrons
3s23p63dl0 = 18 electrons
4s24p64JO 4[4 32 electrons
5s25p6Sdl05f05g0 = 18 electrons
78 electrons

There must be 80 - 78 2 electrons in the outer energy shell:

2 electrons = valence of mercury

7. Calculate the number of atoms in 100 grams of silver. Assuming that all
of the valence electrons can carry an electrical current, calculate the
number of these charge carriers per 100 grams.

(a) The number of atoms in 100 grams of Ag can be calculated from


the molecular weight 107.87 g/mol and Avogadro's number:
number of atoms = (100 g)(6.02 x 10 23 atoms/mol) = 5.58 x 10 23 atoms
107.87 g/mol

(b) From Table 2-2, we expect silver to have a valence of 1.


Therefore is all of the valence electrons can carry a current,
the number of valence electrons equals the number of atoms in
the 100 gram sample, or

number of charge carriers 5.58 X 10 23 electrons

6
8. Suppose there are 8 x 1013 electrons in 100 grams of germanium that are
free to move and carry an electrical current. (a) What fraction of the
total valence electrons are free to move? (b) What fraction of the
covalent bonds must be broken? (On average, there is one covalent bond
per germanium atom and two electrons in each covalent bond. )

(a) First let's calculate the total number of valence electrons,


using the molecular weight of 72.59 g/mole and the valence of
germanium, which is 4.
(100 g)(6.02 x 10 atoms/mol) 23
number of atoms = ~--~~~~~~~~--------~
72.59 g/mol
8.293 X 10 23

number of valence electrons = (4 electrons/atom) (8.293 X 10 23 atoms)


= 3.7317 x 1024electrons
8 x 10 13
fraction that move = 2.41 X 10- 11
3.317 X 10 24

(b) Because on the average there is one covalent bond per Ge atom,
the number of covalent bonds in 100 g is 8.293 X 10 23 Since
each broken covalent bond frees two electrons, the number of
broken bonds is half the number of free electrons, or 4 x 10 13
bonds. The fraction of broken bonds is therefore

4 X 10 13
fraction = ----------- = 4.82 x 10- 11
8.293 X 10 23

9. Compare the number of a toms in one gram of uranium wi th the number of


atoms in one gram of boron. Then, using the densities of each (See
Appendix A), calculate the number of atoms per cubic centimeter in
uranium and boron.

(a) The molecular weights of uranium and boron are 238.03 g/mol
and 10.81 g/mol. In 1 gram of metal,
(1 g)(6.02 x 10 atoms/mol) 23
U atoms = ~~~~~~~~~~~------~
238.03 g/mol
2.53 X 10 21

(1 g)(6.02 x 1023 atoms/mol)


B atoms 5.57 X 10 22
10.81 g/mol

(b) The densities of uranium and boron are 19.05 Mg/m 3 and
2.3 Mg/m 3. The volumes of one gram of U and Bare
3
volume of U 1 g / 19.05 Mg/m 3 = 5.25 x 10- 8 m
volume of B 1 g / 2.3 Mg/m 3 = 4.35 x 10- 8 m3

(2.53 x 10 21 atoms) / 0.0525 cm 3 )


3
U atoms/cm 4.82 x 10 22
1. 28 x 1023
3
B atoms/cm (5.57 x 1022 atoms) / 0.435 cm3 )

7
10. Suppose you collect 5 x 1026 atoms of nickel. Calculate the mass in
grams and volume in cubic centimeters represented by this number of
atoms. See Appendix A for the density.

The molecular weight and density of nickel are 58.71 g/mol and
8.902 Mg/m .
(5 x 1026 atoms) (58. 71 g/moU
mass 48.76 x 103 g
6.02 X 1023

11. Calculate the volume in cubic centimeters occupied by one mol of gold.
See Appendix A for the necessary data.

The mass of 1 mol of gold is equal to its atom\c weight, or


196.97 g. The density of gold is 19.302 Mg/m. The volume of one
mol is therefore

12. Suppose you have 15 mols of iron. Calculate the number of grams and the
volume in cubic centimeters occupied by the iron. See Appendix A for the
necessary data.

The mass of 15 mols of iron, which has an atomic weight of 55.847


g/mol is

mass = (15 mols) (55. 847 g/mol) = 837.7 g

The volume of 15 mols of iron which has a density of 7.87 Mg/m3, is

volume = (837.7 g) / (7.87 Mg/m3 ) (10- 6 cm3/m3 ) = 106.4 cm3

13. A decorative steel item having a surface area of 93750 mm2 is plated with
a layer of chromium 0.125 mm thick. Calculate the number of atoms
required to produce the plating.

The number of atoms can be determined by calculating the volume of


chromium (Cr), then calculating the mass of chromium from its
density (7.19 Mg/m 3 ) , and finally calculating the number of atoms
from the atomic mass (51.996 g mol-i).

Volume area x thickness (93i~g cm2) (0'i~5)cm


11. 72 cm3

Mass volume x density


= 84.26 g
mass
Number of atoms = mass/mol x number of atoms/mol

( 84.26 g _1)(6.02 x 1023 atoms mol-i) = 9.76 x 1023


51. 996 g mol

8
14. Examine the elements in the IVB and VIIIB columns of the periodic table.
As you go to a higher atomic number in each column (as from Ni to Pd to
Pt), how does the melting temperature change? Would you expect this,
based on the atomic structure?
IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB

Ti-1668 V-1900 Cr-1875 Mn-1244 Fe-1538 Co-1495 Ni-1453


Zr-1852 Nb-2468 Mo-2610 Tc-2200 Ru-2310 Rh-1963 Pd-1552
Hf-2227 Ra-2996 W-3410 Re-3180 Os-2700 Ir-2447 Pt-1769

For the elements listed, the melting temperature increases for each
column as the atomic number increases.

15. Examine the elements in IA column of the periodic table. As you go to a


higher atomic number, how does the melting temperature change? Would you
expect this, based on the atomic structure? Is this behavior different
from what was observed in the elements in Problem 14? Can you explain
this difference?

H-gas
Li-180.7
Na-97.8
K-63.2
Rb-38.9
Cs-28.6

The melting temperature decreases as the atomic number increases; this


is opposite the behavior noted in Problem 14.

16. Determine the formulas of the compounds formed when each of the following
metals react with oxygen. (a) calcium, (b) aluminum, (c) germanium,
(d) potassium.

(a) Ca: ... 4s 2 0: ... 2s 2 p 4 ~ CaO


4
(b) AI: ... 3s2 p 1 0: ... 2s 2 p ~ Al 0
2 3
2 4
(c) Ge: ... 4s 2 p 0: ... 2s 2 p ~ GeO
2
(d) K: ... 4s1 0: ... 2s 2 p 4 ~ K2 0

17. Would you expect Al 2 0 3 or aluminum to have the higher modulus of


elasticity? Explain.

The ions in the ceramic Al 2 0 3 are joined primarily by the


particularly strong ionic bonds; aluminum atoms are joined by
metallic bonding, which is normally less strong. We would expect a
deeper energy trough in the alumina than in the aluminum, leading to
a higher modulus of elasticity for Al 20 3 . The actual values are
A1 20 3 : 380 GPa
aluminum: 69 GPa

9
18. Would you expect silicon or nickel to have the higher coefficient of
thermal expansion? Explain.

Atoms in silicon are joined by covalent bonds, while atoms in nickel


are joined by metallic bonds. We expect the covalent bonds to be
stronger, leading to a deeper energy trough, a high modulus of
elasticity, and a lower coefficient of thermal expansion in the
silicon than in the nickel. the actual values are:

silicon: 3 x 10- 6 / o C
nickel: 13 x 10-6 / o C

19. The compound GaAs is an important semiconductor material in which the


atoms are joined by mixed ionic-covalent bonding. What fraction of the
bonding is ionic?

The electronegativity of Ga is about 1.8 and the electronegativity


of As is about 2.2. From Equation 2-1, the fraction of bonding that
is covalent is

fcovalent exp[(-0.25)(2.2 - 1.8)2] = exp [-0.04] = 0.961

The fraction of bonding that is ionic must be 0.039 or 3.9%.

20. The compound InP is an important semiconductor material in which the


atoms are joined by mixed ionic-covalent boding. I f the fraction of
covalent bonding is found to be 0.914, estimate the electronegativity of
indium. Does your calculated value compare well with what you might
expect, based on Figure 2-3?

The electronegativity of P from Figure 2-3 is about 2.1. From


Equation 2-1, letting E be the electronegativity of Indium,
2
fcovalent = 0.914 = exp[(-0.25)(2.1 - E) ]
In(0.914) = -0.0899 = (-0.25)(2.1 - E)2
(2.1 - E)2= 0.3596
2.1 - E 0.6
E 1. 5

21. Would you expect bonding in the intermetallic compound Ca 2Mg to be


predominantly ionic or metallic? Explain.

The electronegativity of Ca is about 1. 1 and that of Mg is about


1. 3. The electronegativities are relatively the same, so we would
expect that bonding might be predominantly metallic.

22. The electronegativities of both nickel and copper are 1. 8. Would you
expect bonding in the intermetallic compound Ni Mg to be more or less
metallic than in CuAI? Explain. 2
2

The electronegativities are Ni: 1.8, Mg: 1.3, Cu: 1.8, and
AI: 1.5. There is a greater difference in electronegativies between
Ni and Mg than there is between Cu and AI. Therefore we would
expect bonding in CuAl 2to be more metallic than in Ni 2Mg.

10
Chapter 3

ATOMIC ARRANGEMENT

1. How many lattice points are unique to the base-centered orthorhombic unit
cell?

(1/8)(8 corners) + (1/2) (2 faces) =2 points/cell

2. Why is there no base-centered tetragonal structure? Draw a lattice for


this structure, then determine what the actual unit cell is.

As the sketch indicates, the


base centered tetragonal
structure could be redrawn
as a simple tetragonal
structure.

3. Why is there no base-centered cubic structure? Draw a lattice for this


structure, then determine what the actual unit cell is.

As the sketch indicates, the


base-centered cubic structure
could be redrawn as a
simple tetragonal structure.

4. A material has a cubic unit cell with one atom per lattice point.
If a 0 = 4.0786 A and r = 1. 442 A. determine the crystal structure.
For simple cubic, a
0
= 2r = 2.884 ~ 4.0786
For BCC, a
0
4r/V3 = 3.33 ~ 4.0786

For FCC, a
0
= 4r/Y2 = 4.079 9! 4.0786 Material is FCC!

5. A material has a cubic unit cell with one atom per lattice point. If
a = 5.025 Aand r = 2.176 A, determine the crystal structure.
o

For simple cubic, a = 2r 4.352 ~ 5.025


0
For BCC, a 4r/V3 5.025 5.025 Material is BCC!
0
For FCC, a 4r/Y2 6. 156 ~ 5.025

11
6. Using the atomic radius data in Appendix B, calculate the packing
factor for crystalline polyethylene.

The lattice parameters for orthorhombic polyethylene are


a = 7.41 A, b = 4.94 Aand c = 2.55 A. The atomic radii are
o 0 0
rC = 0.77 Aand r H= 0.46 A. From example 3-22, there are 8 H
atoms and 4 C atoms per cell
(4 C atoms) [4n(0.77)3/ 31 + 8 H atoms) [4n(0.46)3/ 31
PF = (7.41}(4.94)(2.55) 0.117

The unusually low packing factor is due to the restrictions of


covalent bonding and partly to the use of the particular atomic
radii listed in the Appendix.

7. The density of lead is 11.36 Mg/m3 , its atomic mass is 207.19 g/mol and
the crystal structure is FCC. Calculate (a) the lattice parameter and
(b) the atomic radius for lead.

(a) Because lead is FCC, there are 4 atoms/unit cell and we can
calculate the lattice parameter from the density equation

(4 atoms/cell) (207. 19 x 10- 6 )


p = 11.36
(a )3 (6.02 x 1023 )
o

121. 18 x 10- 30
:. a
o
4.9485 X 10-10 m = 4.9485 A
(b) For FCC unit cells

r = iZ a o/4 = (iZ) (4.9485) /4= 1.749 A

8. The density of tantalum is 16.6 Mg/m3 , its atomic mass is 180.95 g/mol
and the crystal structure is BCC. Calculate (a) the lattice parameter
and (b) the atomic radius for tantalum.

(a) From the density equation, with 2 atoms per unit cell,
(2 atoms/cell) (180.95 x 10-6 Mg/mol)
p = 16.6
(a )3 (6.02 x 1023 )
o
(ao )3 = 36.215 x 10-30

:. a
o
=3.3085 x 10- 10 m = 3.3085 A
(b) For BCC unit cells

r = 13 a /4
o
= (13) (3.3085)/4 1. 433 A

12
9. How many unit cells are present in a cubic centimeter of face-centered
cubic nickel? The atomic radius of nickel is 1.243 A.

The lattice parameter and unit cell volume for FCC nickel are

a = 4r/V2 = (4)(1.243)/12 = 3.5163 A


o
V = (ao )3 = (3.5163)3 = 43.4768 A3 = 43.4768
-24
unit cells/cm = 1 / 43.4758 x 10 = 2.3 x
3

10. Calculate (a) the volume and (b) the mass of one million unit cells of
body-centered cubic iron. The atomic radius of iron is 1.241 A.

The lattice parameter and unit cell volume for BCC iron are

a = 4r/13 = (4)(1.241)/13 = 2.866 A


o
V = (a )3 = (2.866)3 = 23.541 A3 = 23.541 X 10- 24 cm3
o
(a) The volume of one million unit cells is

(b) The mass of one million unit cells can be obtained from the
density which is 7.87 Mg/m 3.

mass = pV = (7.87 g/cm 3 )(23.541 x 10- 18 cm3 )

11. A material with a cubic structure has a density of 0.855 Mg/m 3, an atomic
mass of 39.09 g/mol, and a lattice parameter of 5.344 A. If one atom is
located at each lattice point, determine the type of unit cell.

We would like to find "x", the number of atoms per unit cell, using
the density equation.
(x)(39.09 x 10- ) 6
p = 0.855 = --~~~--------~---------
(5.344 x 10- 10 )3(6.02 x 10 23 )

.. x = 2 a toms/unit ce 11
.. BCC structure

12. A material with a cubic structure has a density of 10.49 M$/m3, an atomic
mass of 107.868 g/mol, and a lattice parameter of 4.0862 A. If one atom
is located at each lattice point, determine the type of unit cell.

We would like to find "x", the number of atoms per unit cell, using
the density equation.
-6
P = 10.49 = (x) (107.868 x 10 )
(4.0862 x 10- 1)3(6.02 x 10 23 )

.. x = 4 atoms/unit cell
.. FCC structure.

13
13. Antimony has a hexagonal unit cell with a o = 4.307 A and Co = 11.273 X.
If its density is 6.697 Mg/m3 and its atomic mass is 121. 75 g/mol,
calculate the number of atoms per cell.

v = a o2c 0 cos30 = (4.307)2(11.273)cos30 =181.1 X3 = 181.1 x 10-30m3


We would like to find "x", the number of atoms per unit cell, using
the density equation.
-6
P = 6.697 = (x) (121.75 x 10 )
(181.1 x 10-3)(6.02 x 1023 )

x = 6 atoms/unit cell

14. One of the forms of plutonium has a face-centered orthorhombic structure,


with a = 3.159 X, b = 5.768 X, and c = 10.162 X. The density of Pu is
17.14 Mg/m3 and the atomic mass is 239.052 g/mol. Determine (a) the
number of atoms per cell and (b) the number of atoms at each lattice
point.

(a) From the density equation we can calculate the number of atoms
per cell "x".
(x) (239.052 x 10- 6 )
p = 17.14 = ----:.::..::.:.---=..:::..::..:..:....:..::.::.....::..::....=-:~------::-:,---
(3.159) (5. 768) (10. 162) (10- 30 ) (6. 023 x 10 23 )

:. X = 8 a toms/unit ce 11

(b) There are 4 lattice points/unit cell in the face-centered


orthorhombic crystal structure. Therefore there must be 2
atoms per lattice point.

15. Prasiodymium has a special hexagonal structure with 4 atoms per uni t
cell; the lattice parameters are a = 3.6721 Aand c = 11.8326 X, while
o
the atomic radius is 1.8360 X. Calculate the packing factor of Pro

V
unit cell
(3.6721)3(11.8326)cos30 = 138.18 X3
Vatom 4nr 3/3 = (4) (n) (1.8360)3/3 = 25.9243 X3
PF
(4 atoms/cell) (25. 9243 X3/atom) 0.75
138.18 X3 /ce11

14
16. Gadolinium has a HCP structure just below 12600 C with a = 3.6745 Aand
c = 5.825 A. Just above 12600 C, Gd transforms to a BCC structure with
a = 4.06 A. Calculate the percent volume change when Gd cools from the
BCC to the HCP structure. Does the metal expand or contract during
cooling?

Below 12600 C: VHCP = (3.6745) 2 (5.8525)cos30 = 68.4335 93


A
Above 12600 C: VBCC = (4.06) 3 = 66.9234 03
A
Both unit cells contain 2 atoms, so we can directly compare the two
volumes.

%change 66.9234 - 68.4335 x 100 -2.26% expansion


66.9234

17. Lanthanum has a FCC structure just below 865C with a = 5.337 A, but has
a BCC structure with a = 4.26 A just above 865C. Calculate the percent
volume change when La heats from the FCC to the BCC structure. Does the
metal expand or contract during heating?

Below 865C: VFCC = (5.337) 3 = 152.02 A93


Above 865C: VBCC = (4.26) 3 = 77.309 A93
But the FCC structure contains 4 atoms/cell while the BCC structure
contains only 2 atoms/cell. To compare the volume of equal numbers
of atoms, we should use two BCC cells.

%change 152.02 - 2(77.309) x 100 -1.71% expansion


152.02

18. Lanthanum has a special HCP structure just below 325C and the FCC
structure just above 3250 C. At 3250 C, the lattice parameters for the HCP
structure are a = 3.779 A and c = 12.270 X; the lattice parameter for
the FCC structure at this temperature is 5.303 X. Lanthanum has a
density of 6.146 Mg/m3and an atomic mass of 138.9055 g/mol. (a)
Calculate the number of atoms in the special HCP unit cell. (b)
Calculate the percent volume change when the FCC form of La transforms to
the HCP structure on cooling. Does the metal expand or contract during
cooling?

(a) The volume of the special HCP structure is

V (3.779)2(12.270)cos30 = 151.75 A3= 151.75 x 10- 30 m3


(x) (138. 9055 x 1(f6 Mg/moll
p 6.146 Mg/m3 =
(151.75 x 10- 3)(6.02 x 1023 )
~ x =4 atoms/cell

(b) Below 325 0 C: 151. 75 X3


Above 325 C: 0 (5.303)3 = 149.13 X3
Both structures have 4 atoms/cell so the volumes can be
compared directly.

%change = 149.13 - 151.75 x 100


149.13 -1.76% expansion

15
19. At 1450o C, thorium changes from one type of cubic unit cell to a
different cubic cell, with a 0.5% decrease in volume during heating.
Below 1450oC, the lattice parameter is 5.187 X while the lattice
parameter of the higher temperature form is 4.11 X. What is the ratio
between the number of atoms in the unit cell of the high-temperature from
the the number of atoms in the unit cell of the low-temperature form of
Th?

v low= (5.187)3 = 139.556 X3


Vhigh= (4.11)3 = 69.4265 X3

We really do not need to consider the 0.5% volume difference. By


inspection of the volumes of the unit cells, it is apparent that the
high temperature form of thorium must contain half the number of
atoms as the low temperature form.

atoms in high T form 1


atoms in low T form =2

20. a-Mn has a cubic structure with a 8.931A and a density of 7.47 Mg/m 3
o
~-Mn has a different cubic structure with a o = 6.326 AOand a density of
7. 26 ~/m3. -r-Mn has a tetragonal structure with a = 3.784 A and c =
9.40 X and a density of 7.21 Mg/m3 The atomic mass of manganese is
54.9380 g/mol. (a) Calculate the number of atoms in each of the three
polymorphic forms of manganese. (b) Assuming that the radius of the Mn
atom is 1.12 A in all three forms, calculate the packing factor for each
of the three unit cells.
(x)(54.938 x 10-6 )
(a) a-Mn: p = 7.47 Mg/m3 =
(8.931 x 10-1 )3(6.02 x 1023 )

:. x = 58
(x) (54. 938 x 10- 6 )
~-Mn: p 7.26 Mg/m3
(6.326 x 10- 1)3(6.02 x 1023 )

:. x = 20
(x)(54.938 x 10-6 )
-r-Mn: P 7.21 Mg/m 3
(9.4)(3.784)2 X (10- 3) (6. 02 x 102~)

:. x = 10
(b) The packing factors are approximately

vatom = ~nr3
3
4(n) (1. 12 x 10- 1)3 /3
5.8849 x 10- 30m3
(58) (5. 8849 x 10-30 )
PF(a-Mn) = -'.....-....:....:---~-=---'- 0.479
(8.931 x 10-1)3

16
20(5.8849 x 10- 3 )
PF(/3-Mn) = = 0.465
(6.326 x 10- 1 )3

(10)(5.8849 x 10-30 )
PF(7-Mn) -'---'-'---'--'~"--'-:= = O. 437
(9.40)(3.784)2 X 10- 30

21. Determine the Miller indices for the directions in the cubic unit cell
shown in Figure 3-35

A: (1, 0, 0) - (0, 1, 1/2) = 1, -1, -1/2 [221]


B: (0, 112, 1) - (1, 1/2, 0) = -1, 0, 1 [101]
c: (1, 0, 1) - (0, 1, 0) 1, -1, 1 [1111
D: (3/4, 1, 0) - (1, 0, 213) = -1/4, 1, -2/3 = [3 12 8]
22. Determine the Miller indices for the directions in the cubic unit cell
shown in Figure 3-36.

A: 0, 112, 1) (0, 1, 1) 1, -1/2, 0 [210]


B: (0, 1/3, 1) 0, 1, 0) -1, -2/3, 1 [323]
C: (1/4, 1, 0) (0, 0, 0) 114, 1, 0 [140]
D: 0, 3/4, 0) 0, 1/4, 1) = 0, 1/2, -1 [012]

23. Determine the Miller indices for the planes in the cubic unit cell shown
in Figure 3-37.

A: x = -1, Y = 1/2, z 1
l/x -1 l/y = 2, liz 1 (121)

B: x = "', y = "', z = 2/3


l/x 0, l/y = 0, liz = 3/2
l/x = 0, 1/y = 0, liz =3 (003)

c: X = "', y = -2/3, z = -1
1/x = 0, l/y = -3/2,l/z -1
l/x = 0, l/y = -3, liz = -2 (032)

24. Determine the Miller indices for the planes in the cubic unit cell shown
in figure 3-38.

A: x = -1, y = 3/4, z -1/2


l/x = -1, l/y = 4/3, liz -2
l/x = -3, l/y = 4. liz -6 (346)

B: x = 2, y = 1, z 1/4
l/x 1/2,l/y = 1, liz 4
l/x = 1, l/y = 2, liz 8 (128)

C: x = 01), Y = -1, z 114


l/x = 0, l/y = -1, liz 4 (014)

17
25. Determine the Miller indices for the directions in the hexagonal unit
cell in Figure 3-39. using the three-digit system.

A: (1. o. 0) - (-1. -1. 0) 2. 1. a [210]


B: (0. -1. 3/4) - (1. 1. 0) -1. -2. 3/4. -4. -8. 3 [483]
c: (1. 1/2. 0) - (1. 1. II O. -112. -1 O. -1. -2 [012]
D: (0. 1. 0) - (-1. -1. II 1. 2. -1 [121]

26. Determine the Miller indices for the directions in the hexagonal unit
cell in Figure 3-40. using the three-digit system.
A: (0. -1. 1) - (1. 1. II -1. -2. a [120]
B: (1. O. 1) - (0. o. 0) 1. O. 1 [lOll
c: (0. 1. 112) - (0. -1. 0) O. 2. 112 O. 4. 1 [04ll
D: (1. O. 0) - (112. 1. 0) 112. -1. a 1. -2. a [120]

27. Determine the Miller-Bravais indices for the planes in the hexagonal unit
cell in Figure 3-41.

A: a a =-1 a = 00 c = 1
1 2 3
l/a
1
1 lIa
2
=-1 l/a
3
=a llc =1 (1101 )

B: a
1
a
2
00 a
3
-1 c =
l/a
1
l/a
2
a l/a
3
-1 llc -1 (1011)

C: a
1
a
2
-1/2 a
3
c = 00

lIa
1
l/a
2
-2 l/a
3
lIc a (1210)

28. Determine the Mi ller-Bravai s indices for the planes in the hexagonal unit
cell in Figure 3-42.

A: a
1
= 00 a
2
= 1 a
3
= -1 c = 1/3
l/a
1
=a l/a
2
l/a
3
-1 llc =3 (0113)

B: a
1
= 00 a
2
a
3
-1 c = 1/2
l/a
1
a l/a
2
1/a
3
-1 lIc 2 (0112)

c: a
1
= 00 a
2
= 00 a
3
00 c = 2/3
lIa
1
a l/a
2
a l/a
3
a lie 3/2
l/a
1
a l/a
2
a l/a
3
a llc 3 (0003)

18
29. Sketch the following directions and planes within a cubic unit cell.
z

a. [112] b. [310] c. [111]


(111)
d. [101] e. [041] f. [203]

g. crOll h. (111) 1. (013)


y
J. (12ll k. (20ll l. (120)
x
z z (201 )

/--=--+---7- y y

x x

30. Sketch the following directions and planes within a cubic unit cell.
1 2
a. [123] b. [lID] c. [010]
z 3'3,1

d. [131] e. [1211 f. [134]


g. (220) h. (301) i. (112)
j. (011) k. (421) l. (141)

z z (301) (220) z

y y

x x

31. Draw the (111) plane and identify the six <110> directions that lie in
that plane in a cubic lattice.
z

[lOll [101]

~--+--+-y [011] [OIl]

x [lID] [110]
19
32. Draw the (110) plane and identify the four directions of the form <111>
that lie in that plane in a cubic lattice.
z

[111] 611]
[111] [111]

33. How many planes of the form {131} are found in a cubic system? Would you
give the same answer if we used a tetragonal or orthorhombic system?
Explain.

For the cubic system. there are 12 unique planes of the form {131}.
or 24 planes if the negatives are included.

(13) (113) (13) (113)


(131) (131) (131) (31)
(311) (311) (311) (311)

In the tetragonal system. planes of the form {131} would only


include 2/3 of those listed above. giving 8 unique planes or 16
planes if the negatives are included.

(131) (131 ) (131) (131)


(311) (311 ) (311) (311)

In the orthorhombic system. only 4 unique planes. or 8 if the


negatives are included. belong to planes of the form {131}.

(31) (131 ) (31) (131)

34. How many planes of the form {123} are found in a cubic system? What are
the indices of the planes of the form {123} in a tetragonal system?

In the cubic system. there are 24 planes of the form {123}. or 48


planes if the negatives are included.

(23) (123) (123) (123)


(132) (132) (32) (132)
(213) (213) (213) (213)
(231) (231) (231 ) (231)
(312) (312) (312) (312)
(321) (321) (321) (321)
In the tetragonal system. there are 8 unique planes of the form
{123}. or 16 planes if the negatives are included.
(123) (123) (23) (23)
(213) (213) (213) (213)

20
35. How many directions of the form <123> are found in a cubic system? Would
you give the same answer if we used a tetragonal or orthorhombic system?
Explain.

In a cubic system there are 48 directions of the form <123>,


including the following plus their negatives.

[123] [123] [123] [123]


[132] [132] [132] [132]
[213] [213] [213] [213]
[231] [231] [231] [231]
[312] [312] [312] [312]
[321] [321] [321] [321]
In tetragonal systems, there are 16 directions of the form <123>,
including the following plus their negatives.

[123] [123] [123]


[213] [213] [213]

In orthorhombic systems, there are 8 directions of the form <123>,


including the following plus their negatives.

[123] [123]

36. How many directions of the form <221> are found in a cubic system? What
are the indices of the directions of the form <221> in a tetragonal
system?

There are 24 directions of the form <221> in cubic systems,


including the following and their negatives.

[221] [221] [221] [221]


[122] [122] [122] [122]
[212] [212] [212] [212]

In a tetragonal system, there are 8 directions of the form <221>,


including the following and their negatives.

[221] [221] [221] [221]

37. What are the indices of the planes of the form {412} in an orthorhombic
system?

Planes of the form {412} in orthorhombic systems include the


following 4 planes plus the 4 negatives.

(412) (412)

38. What are the indices of the directions of the form <121>, in an
orthorhombic system?
Directions of the form <121> include the following 4 directions plus
the 4 negatives.

[121] [121] [121]

21
39. Determine whether the [101] direction in a tetragonal unit cell with a
c/a ratio of 1.5 is perpendicular to the (101). plane. If it is not
perpendicular, calculate the angle between the direction and the plane.

The sketch shows the [101] direction and (101) plane in a tetragonal
unit cell with a= 2 and c = 3 (giving a c/a ratio of 1.5). The
second sketch shows the trace that the plane and direction make on
the (010) face of the cell.
z

tan(et/2) 1. 5/1. 0 1.5


et/2 56.30
CIt 112.60

Obviously the direction and


plane are not perpendicular
to one another, as they would
be in a cubic system.

40. Determine whether the [110] direction in an orthorhombic unit cell with
a = 3 A, b = 4 A, and c = 5 Ais perpendicular to the (110) plane. If it
is not perpendicular, calculate the angle between the direction and the
plane. z

The sketches show the plane and


direction in the unit cell and
a view of the (001) plane which
contains the trace of the plane
and direction.
k--t--::::;r#-- Y
tan(et/2) 2/1. 5 1. 3333
et/2 53.130
IX 106.260
x

41. Draw the plane in a cubic system that passes through the coordinates I,
I, 0; 0, I, 1; and 0, 0, 1. What are the Hiller indices of this plane?
z

x 1 Y co Z 1
l/x 1 l/y o l/z 1

(101)
r----I+-+-- Y

22
42. Draw the plane in a cubic system that passes through the coordinates 1,
1, 0; 0, 0, 1; and 0, 1, O. What are the Miller indices of this plane?
z

x =m y = 1 z 1
l/x = ally = 1 liz 1

(all)
)-->',.--H'JIJ-- Y

43. Draw the plane in a cubic system that passes through the coordinates
1, 0, 1; 1/2, 0, 1; and 1, 1/2, O. What are the Miller indices of the
plane?
z

x = m y = 1/2 z 1
l/x = ally = 2 liz 1

(021)
Jr-+-+---;f- y

44. Draw the plane in a cubic system that passes through the coordinates
1, 0, 0; 0, 0, 1; and 1/2, 1, 1/2. what are the Miller indices of this
plane?
z

x 1 y =m Z 1
l/x 1 lly a liz 1

(010)
J----+hf-y

x
45. In the four-digit system for finding the indices for a direction in HCP
unit cells, is [110] equal to a [1120]? Show this by constructing the
path from the tail to the head of the direction. c
The sketch below shows the [110] Direction,
which is actually the negative a axis.
Let's let the origin be one of the p5ints on
our [1120]direction,. If we start at the
origin and move 1 lattice parameter in the
a direction, 1 lattice parameter in the a
direction, and -2 lattice parameters in th~
a direction, we have a second point on the
d~rection. This point and the origin form a
direction that also is the negative a
direction and is identical in direction t5 + \-z
,
I
\
the [110] direction. \

23 ~ to]:[f t2.0]
46. In the four-digit system for finding the indices for a direction in HCP
unit cells, is the [100] equal to a [2110]7 Show this by constructing
the path from the tail to the head of the direction.

The [100] direction is the at direction. t


Let's let the origin be one point on the
[2110] direction. We move 2 lattice
parameters in the a l direction, -1 lattice
parameters in the a2 direction, and -1
lattice parameter in the a 3 direction and
produce a point 3 lattice parameters along
the at direction. The [2110] direction also
lies on the at axis and is identical to the ,
-I ,'.z
[110] direction. r ---- #'
-I'
~OOl" c%.iiol
47. In the four-digit system for finding the indices for a direction in HCP
unit cells, is the [011] equal to a [1213]7 Show this by constructing
the path from the tail to the head of the direction.

The [011] direction is shown in the sketch and


lies in the plane formed by the a 2 and c
axes. Let's let one point on the [1213]
direction lie at the origin we move -1
lattice parameter in the a 1 direction, 2
lattice parameters in the a 2 direction, -1
lattice parameter in the a 3 direction, and 3
lattice parameters in the c direction. This
puts us at coordinates indicated by +3 in the
a 2 direction and +3 in the c direction and
gives a direction that is identical to the
[011].

,.,
1

,
I

I
}t--+:HlIIl-- - - _._l.. - --- - .:
-I \~

0..

24
48. Is the [1210] direction in an HCP unit cell perpendicular to the (1210)
plane? Draw each and verify your answer.

First we need to construct the direction and


plane in the unit cell. We let the origin be
one point on [1210]. We move 1 lattice c
parameter in the a 1 direction, -2 lattice
parameters in the aa direction and 1 lattice
parameter in the a 3 direction, giving a second
point that lies 3 lattice parameters in the
negative aa direction. The [1210] direction
is the same as the negative aa axis.

The intercepts for the plane will be a 1 = 1;


a = -1/2, a 3 = 1; c = m. The plane shown in
ct.

a
the sketch satisfies these four intercepts.
It shol!.1d be aeparent by simple inspection
that [1210] ~ (1210).

49. Calculate the linear density of a line in the [111] direction in (a)
simple cubic, (b) body-centered cubic, and (cl face-centered cubic unit
cells, assuming a lattice parameter of 4.0 A in each case.

(al In simple cubic, atoms are located at corners of the cube. If


we start at the origin and move in the [111] direction, or body
diagonal, we do not encounter another lattice point until
coordinates 1, 1, 1.

repeat distance = iJao = (iJl(4 Al = 6.9282 x 10-8 cm


linear density = l/repeat distance = 1.443 x 107 points/cm

(bl When we start at the origin of BCC and move in the [111]
direction we encounter the body centered atom at 1/2. 1/2. 1/2.

repeat distance = iJao/2 = (iJl(4 Al/2 = 3.4641 x 10-8 cm


linear density = l/repeat distance = 2.887 x 107 points/cm

(cl In FCC, we again do not encounter a second lattice point until


coordinates 1, 1, 1, just as in simple cubic.

repeat distance = 6.9282 x 10-8 cm

linear density = 1.443 x 107 points/cm

25
50. Calculate the linear density of a line in the [110] direction in (a)
simple cubic, (b) body-centered cubic, and (c) face-centered cubic unit
cells, assuming a lattice parameter of 4.0 X in each case.

(a) As we move in a simple cubic structure from the origin along


the [110], or face diagonal, we do not encounter another
lattice point until coordinates 1, 1, O.

repeat distance = iZa = (iZ)(4 X) 5.6569 X 10-8 cm


o
linear density = l/repeat distance 1.768 X 107 points/cm

(b) In BCC, the situation is identical to that in simple cubic


along the [110] direction.

repeat distance = iZa = (iZ)(4 X) 5.6569 X 10- 8 cm

linear density = l/repeat distance 1.768 x 107 points/cm

(c) As we move along the [110] direction in FCC, we encounter


another lattice point at 1/2, 1/2, o.

repeat distance = iZa/2 = (iZ)(4 X)/2 = 2.8284 x 10-8 cm


linear denSity = l/repeat distance = 3.536 x 107 points/cm

51. Calculate the packing fraction in the [111] direction in (a) simple cubic
(b) body-centered cubic, and (c) face-centered cubic unit cells. In
which, if any, of these structures is the [111] direction a close-packed
direction?

(a) Simple cubic: There are two atomic radii along the [111]

Length iJa
o
= iJ(2r) = 3. 464r or PF = 2r / 3. 464r 0.577

(b) BCC: There are four atomic radii along the [111]

Length = iJ(4r/iJ) = 4r or PF = 4r / 4r = 1.00


(c) FCC: There are two atomic radii along the [111]
Length = iJ(4riZ) 4.899r or PF = 2r / 4. 899r = 0.408
The [111] direction is a close packed direction in the BCC structure

52. Calculate the packing fraction in the [110] direction in (a) simple
cubic, (b) body-centered cubic, and (c) face-centered cubic unit
cells. In which, if any, of these structures is the [110] direction a
close-packed direction?

(a) Simple cubic: There are two atomic radii along the [110]

Length iZa o = iZ(2r) = 2. 828r or PF = 2r / 2. 828r 0.707

(b) BCC: There are two atomic radii along the [110]

26
Length = iZ(4r/iJ) = 3.266r or PF = 2r I 3.266r = 0.612
(c) FCC: There are four atomic radii along the [110]
Length = iZ(4riZ) = 4.r or PF = 4r I 4r = 1.00
The [111] direction is a close packed direction in the FCC structure

53. Calculate the packing fraction of a (111) plane in (a) a simple cubic,
(b) a body-centered cubic, and (c) a face-centered cubic unit cell. In
which, i f any, of these structures is the (111) plane a close-packed
plane?

Sketches of the atoms centered on the (111) plane in each unit cell
are shown.

11

(a) Simple cubic: Only 1/6 of each corner atom is included in the
plane within the cell.

(iZa 12)(iJa liZ)


0 0 0
= 0.866a2 = 0.866(2r)2 = 3. 464r2
Aatoms = (3 corners) (1/6 atomlcorner)nr 2 = nr2/2

PFSC = [nr 212] 1 3.464r2 = 0.453

(b) Body-Centred cubic: (Note that the (111) plane does not pass
through the center atom! )

A = 0.866(4r/iJ) = 4.619r 2
111
Aatoms = (3 corners) (1/6)nr
2
= nr 212
PF = (nr 2 /2) I 4. 619r 2 = 0.34
(c) Face-centered cubic: (Note that the (111) plane also bisects
an atom along each of the three edges)
_'" 2
Alll = 0.866(4r/v2) = 6.928 r2
Aatoms = [(3 corners)(1/6) + (3 edges)(1/2)]nr
2
= 2nr2
PF = 2nr2 I 6. 928r 2 = 0.907
The (111) plane is a close packed plane in FCC unit cells.

27
54. Calculate the packing fraction of a (110) plane in (a) a simple cubic,
(b) a body-centered cubic, and (c) a face-centered cubic unit cell. In
which, if any, of these structures is the (110) plane a close-packed
plane?

(a) Simple cubic ""fio.'


A = iZa Z = iZ(2r)z = 5. 657rZ
110 0
Z Z
Aatoms = (4 corners)(1/4 atom/corner)nr = nr

PF = nrZ / 5.657rZ = 0.555

(b) Body-centered cubic:

A = iZa Z = iZ(4r~)Z = 7. 542rz


110 0

A = [(4 corners)(1/4) + 1 centre]nr z = nrz


atoms
PF =2nr z / 7. 542rz = 0.833
(c) Face-centered cubic:

Z
A110 = iZa o = iZ(4r/iZ)z = 11.314rz

Aatoms = [(4 corners)(1/4) + (2 edges) (1/2)]nrZ 2nr Z

PF = 2nr Z / 11.314rZ = 0.555

55. Calculate the planar density on a (111) plane in (a) simple cubic, (b)
body-centered cubic, and (c) face-centered cubic unit cells assuming a
lattice parameter in each case of 4.0 A.

Referring to the sketches in problem 53.

A = 0.866a Z = 0.866(4 x 10-8 )z = 13.856 x 10-16 Cia


Z
111 0

(a) Simple cubic: The number of atoms located on the (111) plane
is (3 corners)(1/6 atom/corner) = 0.5 atom.

PO = 0.5 atom / 13.586 x 10-16 = 3.61 X 1014 atoms/cmZ

(b) BCC: The number of atoms located on the (111) plane is (3


corners)(1/6 atom/corner) = 0.5 atom

PO = 0.5 atom / 13.856 x 10-16 = 3.61 X 1014 atoms/cmZ

(c) FCC: The number of atoms located on the (111) plane is (3'
corners) (1/6 atom/corner) + (3 edges)(1/2 atom/edge) = 2 atoms

PO = 2 atoms / 13.856 x 10-16 = 14.43 x 1414 atoms/cmZ

28
56. Calculate the planar density of a (110) plane in (a) simple cubic, (b)
body-centered cubic, and (c) face-centered cubic unit cells assuming a
lattice parameter in each case of 4.0 A.

Referring to the sketches in problem 54:

A
110
= .f2a'2.0 = .f2(4 x 10-8 )'2. = 22.627 x 10-16 cm'2.

(a) Simple cubic: There is one atom located on the (110 plane)

PD =1 atom / 22.627 x 10-16 = 4.42 X 101 ' atoms/cm'2.

(b) BCC: There are two atoms located on the (110) plane.

PD = 2 atoms / 22.627 x 10-16 = 8.84 X 101 ' atoms/cm'2.

(c) FCC: There are two atoms located on the (110) plane.

PD = 2 atoms / 22.627 x 10-16 = 8.84 X 101 ' atoms/cm'2.

57. Calculate the llnear densities in the [110] and [101] directions in a
face-centered tetragonal unit cell with a = 4.0 Aand 6 = 6.0 A.

(110): The [110] passes through a face-centered lattice point

repeat distance = (1/2) (.f2)a = (1/2)(.f2)(4) = 2.828 x 10-8


LD =1 / repeat distance = 3.54 x 107 points/cm

[101]: The [101] passes through a face-centered lattice point

repeat distance = (1/2)(..4'2. + 6'2.) = 3.6055 X 10-8 cm


LD =1 / repeat distance = 2.774 x 107 points/cm

58. Calculate the planar densities in the (110) and (101) planes "in a
face-centered tetragonal unit cell with a = 4.0 A and c = 6.0 A.

(110): There are (4 corners) (1/4) +(2 faces) (1/2) or two atoms
located on the (110) plane

A110 = .f2ac= (.f2) (4) (6)


33.94 x 10-16 cm'2.

PD 2 atoms / 33.94 x 10-16


5.89 X 1014 atoms/cm'2.
"
(101): There are (4 corners)(1I4) + (2 faces)(1/2) or two atoms
located on the (101) plane

A101 = a./a'2. + c'2. = (4) (/4'2. + 6'2.


= 28.84 X 10-16 cm'2. (101)

PD 2 atoms/ 28.84 x 10-16


= 6.93 X 1014 atoms/cm'2.

29
59. Calculate the linear densities in the [100], [010], [110] and [0011
directions of a base-centered orthorhombic unit cell with a = 3.0 A,
b = 5.0 A, and c = B.O-A.

[100]: repeat distance = a = 3 x 10-8 cm f

LD = l/repeat distance = 3.33 x 107 points/cm

[010]: repeat distance =b =5 X 10-8 cm

LD = l/repeat distance = 2.0 x 107 points/cm


[110]: There are two points along the [110]

repeat distance (1/2)/a2 + b 2 = (1/2) ,h2 + 52


2.9155 X 10-8 cm

LD = l/repeat distance = 3.43 x 107 points/cm

[001]: repeat distance = c B X 10-8 cm


LD = l/repeat distance = 1.25 x 107 points/cm
60. Calculate the planar densities in the (100), (010), (110), and (00l)
planes of a base-centered orthorhombic unit cell with a = 3.0 A ,
b = 5.0 Aand c = B.O A.

(100): There is one atom located on the plane (only corners


contribute)

\00 = bc = (5) (B) = 40 x 10-16 cm2


-16
PO 1 atom /ti0 x 10 2
2.5 x 10 atoms/cm

(010): There is one atom located on the plane (only corners


contribute)

!l
A010 = ac = (3) (B) = 24 x 10-16 cm2
~>.:
.- . . . 8
,:, .
PO 1 atom / 24 x 10-16 '.,-' .
,', .
4.17 X 1014 atoms/cm2 3

(110) There are two atoms located on the plane (corners and half
of each base centered atom contribute)

~ ~
A = cVa- + b- = (B)"'3- + 5-
110
46.65 x 10-16 cm2

PO =2 atoms / 46.65 x 10-16


= 4.29 X 1014 atoms/cm2

30
(001) : There are two atoms located on the plane (corners and one
base centered atom contribute)

AOO1 = ab = (3) (5) = 15 x 10-16 cm2

PD 2 atoms I 15 x 10-16
13.33 X 1014 atoms/cm2

61. Calculate the interplanar spacing between the following planes in gold
(see Appendix A for the lattice parameter).

(a) (12i) (b) (201 (c) (li2) (d) (~21)

The lattice parameter for gold is 4.0786 A


(a) d 4.0786 I ~2 + 22 + 42 0.890 A

(b) d
201
= 4.0786 I /z2 + 02 + 12 = 1. 824 A
(c) d 4.0786 I ~2 + 12 + 22 1. 665 A
112

(d) d
321
4.0786 I /32 + 22 + 12 1. 090 A

62. The interplanar spacing between (231) planes is found to be 0.89 A.


Calculate the lattice parameter if the material has a cubic crystal
structure.

d
231
a I /z2 + 32 + 12 = 0.89 or a = 0.89V14 = 3.33 A
63. Show that the radius ratio for an atom or ion that just fits into a
tetrahedral interstitial site without disturbing the surrounding atoms or
ions is 0.225.

Let "R" be the radius of the normal atoms and "r" be the radius of
the interstitial site. The atoms in a tetrahedron actually touch
one another along the face diagonal. Along the body diagonal or the
tetrahedral cube

2r + 2R = v'3a = v'3VZR = v'6R


2r v'6R - 2R = 0.4495R
rlR = 0.225
64. Show that the radius ratio for an atom or ion that just fits into a
triangular interstitial site without disturbing the surrounding atoms or
ions is o. 155

cos30 = R I r (r + R) 0.866

R = 0.866r + 0.866R
rlR = 0.134 I 0.866 0.155

31
65. List the coordinates for all six of the octahedral sites that lie in a
BCC unit cell. How many of these sites belong uniquely to one BCC cell?

The six octahedral sites are the faces of the cube.

1/2, 1/2, 0 0, 112, 1/2 112, O. 112


1, 112, 1/2 1/2, 1, 112 112, 112, 1

Each is shared with another cell, so only three sites belong


uniquely to one cell.

66. Using the ionic radii given in Appendix B, determine the coordination
number expected for the following compounds.

(a) FeO (b) CaO (c) SiC (d) PbS (e) BO


2 3

From Appendix B, we find the ionic radii.

(a) r Fe 0.74, rO 1. 32, rFe/rO = 0.56 CN =6


(b) rCa 0.99, rO .1. 32, rCa/rO = 0.75 CN 8

(c) r Si 0.42, rC 0.16, rC/rSi 0.38 CN 4

(d) rpb 0.84, rS 1. 84, rpb/r S 0.46 CN 6

(e) rB 0.23, rO 1. 32, rB/r O 0.17 CN 3

67. Using the ionic radii given in Appendix B, determine the coordination
number expected for the following compounds.

(a) Al 0 (b) no (c) MgO (d) SiO (e) CuZn


2 3 2 2

From Appendix B, we find the ionic radii:

(a) r AI 0.51, rO 1. 32, rAl/rO 0.39 CN 4

(b) rn 0.68, rO 1. 32, rn/rO 0.52 CN 6

(c) r Mg 0.66, rO 1. 32, rMlr o 0.50 CN 6

(d) rCu 0.96, r


Zn = 0.74, rcu/rZn 0.77 CN 8

68. Based on the ionic radius ratio and the necessity for charge balance,
which of the cubic structures discussed in the text would you expect CdS
to possess?

From the ionic radii,

rCd = 0.97, rs = 1.84, rCd/rS = 0.527 CN =6


The two ions have equal but opposite charges, and with the
coordination number of 6, a sodium chloride structure seems likely.

32
69. Based on the ionic radius ratio and the necessity for charge balance
which of the cubic structures discussed in the text would you expect CoO
to possess?

From the ionic radii,

rCo = 0.72, rO = 1.32, rCo/rO = 0.545 CN =6


The ions have equal but opposite charges and the coordination number
is six, making the sodium chloride structure a possibility.

70. The compound NiO has the sodium chloride crystal structure. Based on the
data in Appendix B, calculate (a) the lattice parameter, (b) the
density, and (c) the packing factor for NiO.

The ionic radii are r Ni = 0.69 and rO = 1.32


(a) the ions touch along the [100] direction, so

ao = 2r Ni + 2rO = 2(0.69) + 2(1.32) = 4.02 A


(b) MNi = 58.71 g/mol, MO = 16 g/mol, and there are 4
nickel and 4 oxygen ions per unit cell.
p = (4)(58.71) + (4)(16) = 7.64 g/cm3= 7.64 Mg/m3
(4. 02 x 10- 8 )3(6. 02 x 10 23 )

4(4n/3)r Ni 3 + 4(4n/3)rO 3
(cl PF
(4.02)3

4(4n/3) (0. 69)3 + 4(4n/3) (1. 32)3


PF
(4.02)3

71. The compound Te0 2 has the fluorite structure. Determine (a) the number
of tellurian and oxygen ions in each unit cell, (b) the expected
coordination number based on the radius ratio, (c) the lattice
parameter, and (d) the packing factor for the compound.

(a) From inspection of the fluorite crystal structure and the


formula of the compound, there must be 4 tellurium ions and 8
oxygen ions.

(b) The ionic radii are

r Te = 2.11, rO = 1.32, rO/r Te = 0.626 CN =6


Note, however, that the expected coordination number is not
achieved by the fluorite crystal structure due to the
requirements of the charge balance.

33
(c) The ions touch along the body diagonal. There are 4 tellurium
ionic radii and 4 oxygen ionic radii along the body diagonal,
al though not all of the positions are actually occupied by
ions. Therefore
v'3a
o
4r Te + 4rO 4(2.11) + 4(1.32) = 13.72
13.72 I v'3 7.92 A
3 3
4(4nI3)r Te + 8(4nI3)r o
(d) PF
(7.92)3
4(4nI3) (2. 11)3 + 8 (4nI3) (1. 32)3
PF 0.472
(7.92)3

72. One of the forms of BeO has the zinc blende structure at high
temperatures Determine (a) the lattice parameter, (b) the density,
and (c) the packing factor for the compound.

From Appendix B, r Be = 0.35 A, ro = 1.32 A, MBe = 9.01 g/mol,


and MO = 16 g/mol.
(a) The ions touch along the body diagonal of the zinc blende
unit cell. There are 4 beryllium and 4 oxygen ionic radii
along this distance.

v'3a
o
4r Be + 4rO = 4(0.35) + 4(1.32) 6.68 A
a
o
6.68 I v'3 = 3.857 A
4(9.01) + 4(16)
(b) p 2.896 g/cm3
(3.857) x 10- 6 )3(6.02 x 10 23 )
3
4(4nI3)r Be 3 + 4(4nI3)r o
(c) PF
(3.857)3
4(4nI3)(0.35)3 + 4(4nI3)(1.32)3
PF 0.684
(3.857)3

73. Which of the cubic structures discussed in the text would you expect CsBr
to possess, based on its expected coordination? Calculate (a) the
lattice parameter, (b) the packing factor, and (c) the density of the
compound.
o
From Appendix B, rcs 1. 67 A and r Br 1. 96 A.

rCs/rBr = 1.67 I 1.96 = 0.852 CN 8

(a) The ions touch along the body diagonal. there are 2 Cs ionic
radii and 2 Br ionic radii along this distance.
v'3a
o
2rCs + 2r Br = 2(1.67) + 2(1.96) = 7.26
a
o
7.26 I v'3 = 4.1917 A

34
(b) There is one Cs ion and one Br ion per unit cell.
(4n/3)r Cs3 + (4n/3)r Br3
PF '" ---=-=------==-
(4.1917)3
(4n/3)(1.67)3 + (4n/3)(1.96)3
PF 0.693
(4.1917)3

132.91 g/mol and MBr 79.909 g/mol

p 132.91 + 79.909 '" 4.S g/cm3 4.S Mg/m3


(4.1917 x 10- 8 )3(6.02 x 1023 )

74. Germanium has the diamond cubic structure with a lattice parameter of
5.6575 A. Calculate the size of the germanium atom in the unit cell.
Does this best match up with germanium's atomic radius or ionic radius?

The atoms in diamond cubic touch along the body diagonal. there are
S atomic radii (although not all are actually occupied by atoms)
along this distance.

V3a o '" Sr r = V3a o /S = V3(5.6575) / S = 1.2249 A


The atomic radius listed in Appendix B is 1. 225 A and the ionic
radius is 0.53 A. It appears that we should use the atomic
rather than the ionic radius.

75. Calculate the fraction of the [111] direction and the fraction of the
(111) plane actually covered by atoms in the diamond cubic cell.

There is space along the [111] direction for S atomic radii.


although only 2 atoms (4 atomic radii) are actually located along
this distance. Therefore

fraction [111] = 4r/Sr = 0.50


The area of the (111) plane is 0.S66a 2 In diamond cubic,
o

a
o
= Sr / V3
A
111
= O. S66(Sr / V3)2 = lS.4747r 2
Only the corners and face-centered atoms lie on the (111) plane:

A
atoms
= [(3 corners) (1/6) + (3 edges) (1/2)]nr 2 = 2nr2
fraction (111) = 2nr2 / lS.4747r 2 = 0.34

35
76. Calculate the fraction of the [111] direction and the fraction of the
(111) plane actually covered by sodium ions in the NaCI unit cell.

Let's assume that the Na + ions are located at normal FCC lattice
points. In the NaCI structure, ions touch along the edge of the
cell, or

ao 2r Na + 2r CI = 2(0.97) + 2(1.81) = 5.56 X


There are only two Na+ionic radii along the [111] direction of the
unit cell.

fraction = 2r / V3a
o
= 2(0.97) / V3(5.56) = 0.201
Note: The [111} also passes through a CI ions at the center of
the cell so the total fraction covered by ions is

The area of the (111) plane' is

A
111
= 0.866a 0 2 = 0.866(5.56)2 = 26.77 X2
~a ions [(3 corners)(1/6) + (3 edges) (1/2)]rrr Na 2
2rrrNa2 = 2rr(0.97) 2 = 5.912 92
A

fraction = 5.912 / 26.77 = 0.221


77. How many oxygen and silicon ions are present in cristobalite? Using the
ionic radii in Appendix B, calculate (a) the lattice parameter, (b)
the packing factor, and (c) the density of cristobalite.

Silicon ions are located at face centered positions and at four


tetrahedral locations, giving 8 Si ions per cell. There must
therefore be 16 0 ions per cell, since the formula is Si02.

(a) The ionic radii are r Si = 0.42 X and rO = 1.32 X. The


ions touch along a body diagonal, with 8 silicon radii and
8 oxygen radii along that length.

V3a
o
= 8(rSi + rO) = 8(0.42 + 1.32) 13.92 a
o
= 8.037 A
(8 Si ions) [4rr(0.42)3/3 ] + (160 ions) [4rr( 1. 32)3/3 ]
(b) PF
(8.037)3

PF = 156.628 / 519.1369 = 0.302


(8 Si ions)(28.08) + (16 0 ions) (16)
(c) p = ~------~~--~--~--------~~ 1. 538 g/cm3
(8.037 X 10-8 )3 (6.02 X 1023 )
1. 538 Mg/m3

36
Chapter 4

IMPERFECTIONS IN TIlE ATOMIC ARRANGEMENT

1. Calculate, using the data in Appendix A, the c/a ratios for magnesium,
cadmium, rhenium and beryllium. In which of these metals is slip
expected to occur easily on the basal planes? In which is slip expected
to occur on the prismatic planes?

Mg: c/a 5.209 / 3.2087 1.623 basal plane slip


Cd: c/a 5.6181 / 2.9793 1.886 basal plane slip
Rh: c/a 4.458 /2.760 1.615 prismatic plane slip
Be: c/a 3.5842/2.2858 1.568 prismatic plane slip

2. Determine the Miller indices of the slip directions on the (111) plane in
an FCC unit cell.

[101] [101]
[110] [110]
[011] [011]

3. Determine the Miller indices of the slip directions on the (101) plane in
a BCC unit cell.

4. Determine the Miller indices of the slip planes in FCC unit cells that
include the (110) slip direction.

(111)
(111)

37
5. Determine the Miller indices of the {110} slip planes in Bee unit cells
that include the [111] slip direction.

(110) (110)
(101) (101)
(011) (011)

6. Does the [111] slip direction lie in the (112) slip plane in the BCC unit
cell? Show by suitable drawings .

~,
Yes

Note that the direction drawn in the sketch is:

. 0, 0, 1/2, -1/2, 112, 0 = -1/2, -1/2, 112


or -I, -I, I, = [111]

7. Does the [111]slip direction lie in the (123) slip plane in the Bee unit
cell? Show by suitable drawings.
1:

No

Simple inspection reveals that the direction


does not lie in the plane.

8. Using the three-digit form for indices in the HCP unit cell, determine
the slip directions the (0111) slip plane.

[100] [100]

9. Using the thr~e-digit form for indices in the HCP unit cell, determine
the slip directions in the (1010) slip plane.

[010] [010]

38
10. Verify that \he planar density of the {112} planes in BCC iron is 9.94 x
10 atomslcm, as used in Example 4-3.

The (112) plane is shown in the cubic cell and is also isolated to
better illustrate the dimensions and atom locations. The three
corners of tpe plane contribute a total of 1/2 atom to the plane;
one edge contributes 1/2 atoms to the plane; and the center
contributes 1 atom to the plane.

atoms = 1/2 + 1/2 + 1 =2 atoms.

A = (112) (2v'2a Hv'3a ) = v'6a 2


112 0 0 0

o
= 2.866 A
a
A
112
= v'6(2.866 x 10- 1)2 = 2. 012 X 10-19 m = 2. 012 X 10-15 cm2

PD
112
=2 atoms I 2. 012 X 10-15 cm2 = 9.94 X 1014 atoms/cm2

11. Determine the length of the Burger's vector in BCC tungsten.

3.1652 A
The Burger's vector is the repeat distance rd 111 along the <111>
direction, which is half of the body diagonal.

b rd = (1/2)v'3a = (1/2) (v'3) (3.1652 x 10-10)


111 0
b 2.7411 X 10- 10 m

12. Compare the planar density and interplanar spacings for the Ull} and
{1l0} planes in FCC aluminum. Based on your calculations, on which
planes would slip occur?

a
o
= 4.04958 A
For (110): atoms = (4 corners)(1/4) + (2 edges) (1/2) 2
A
110
= (v'2a 0 )( (a0 ) = v'2a 0 2
PD
110
=2 I v'2a
0
2 =2 I v'2(4. 04958 x 10- 1)2 = 8.625 X 1018 pOints/m2

For (111) atoms = (3 corners) (1/6) + (3 edges) (1/2) =2


A (1/2)(v'3a 1v'2)(v'2a) 0.866a 2
111 0 0 0

39
PD
111
= 2 / 0.866a0 2 = 2 / (0.866) (4. 04958) x 10- 1 )2
= 14.083 X 10 18 points/m2
Slip will occur on the (111) planes due to the higher planar
density.

13. When BCC iron is in the softest condition, the dislocation density is
about 106cm/cm3; large amounts of deformation of the iron increase
the dislocation density to 10 12 cm/cm3. How many grams of iron are
necessary to produce 1600 kilometers of dislocation in (a) soft iron and
(b) deformed iron?

Firstly, find the volume of iron containing the length of


dislocation, and hence the mass of iron.

length of dislocation 1 = 1600


km = 1600 x 1000 m
= 1600
x 1000 x 100 cm = 1.6 x 108 cm
density of iron, p = 7.87 Mg m3 = 7.87 g cm- 3

(a) mass [1.6 X 10 8 cm/10 6 cm cm- 3 ] [7.87 g cm- 3 ]


1259 g

(b) mass [1.6 x 10 8 cm/10 12 cm cm- 3 ] [7.87 g cm- 3 ] = 0.00126 g

14. The dislocation density in an aluminum sample is found to be 5 x


10 7 cm/cm3. Calculate the total length of dislocations in 100 g of
aluminum (see Appendix A for the necessary data). How many kilometers of
dislocation are present in the sample?

p 2.669 g/cm3
(100 g)(5 x 107 cm cm3 )
1 1. 87 X 109 cm
2.669 g/cm 3

18730 km

15. The circumference of the earth is roughly 38,600 kilometers. If


dislocations totalling this length were placed into one cubic centimeter,
what would be the dislocation density?
Dislocation density = length of dislocations
volume

(38.600 km)(1000 m/km) (100 cm/m)


1 cm3

3.86 X 109 cm/cm3

40
16. Suppose that a single crystal of an FCC metal is oriented so that the
[0011 direction is parallel to an applied stress of 20 HPa. Calculate
the resolved shear stress acting on the (111) slip plane in the [110],
[011] and [101] slip directions. Which slip system(s) will become active
first?

~ = 54. 76cos ~ = 0.577 T =~ cos ~ cos A


[110]: A = 90, cos A = 0
T = (20)(0)(0.577) = 0 HPa

[011]: A 45, cos A = 0.707


T = (20)(0.707)(0.577) = 8.16 HPa

[101]: A 45, cos A = 0.707


T = (20)(0.707)(0.577) = 8.16 HPa

Slip begins first on [011] and [101]; no slip occurs on [110].

17. Suppose that a single crystal of an FCC metal is oriented so that the
[001] direction is parallel to the applied stress. If the critical
resolved shear stress required for slip is 1.5 HPa, calculate the
magnitude of the _appliec!. stress reguired to cause slip to begin on the
(111) plane in [110], [011] and [101] slip directions.

~ = 54.76 cos ~ = 0.577 ~ = T/cos ~ cos A

[lio]: A = 90 cos A =0
~ = 1.5/(0)(0.577) = ~ HPa

[011]: A = 45, cos A = 0.707


~ = 1.5/(0.707)(0.577) 3.67 HPa

[101]: A = 45, cos A = 0.707


~ = 1.5/(0.707)(0.577) = 3.67 HPa

Slip never occurs in the [110] direction.

18. Suppose that a single crystal of a BCC metal is oriented so that the
[001] is parallel to an applied stress of 80 HPa. Calculate the resolved
shear stress acting on the (110), (011) and (101) planes in the [111]
slip directions. Which slip system(s) will become active first?

A = 54.76, cos A = 0.577 T =~ cos ~ cos A

(110) ~ = 90, cos ~ =0


T = (80)(0.577)(0) = 0 HPa

(010): ~ = 45, cos ~ = 0.707


T = (80)(0.577)(0.707) 32.6 HPa

(101): ~ = 45, cos ~ = 0.707


T = (80)(0.577)(0.707) = 32.6 HPa

Slip begins first on the (011) and (101) slip planes.

41
19. Suppose that a single crystal of a BCC metal is oriented so that the
[001] direction is parallel to the applied stress. If the critical
resolved shear stress required for slip is 58.6 MPa, calculate _the
magnitude of the applied stress to cause slip to begin in the [1111
direction on the (110), (Olll and (10ll slip planes.

A = '54.76 cos A = 0.577 u = cos ~ cos A

(11)): ~ = 90, cos ~ = 0,


u = 58.6/(0.577)(0) = m MPa

(011): ~ = 45, cos ~ = 0.707,


u =-58.6/(0.577)(0.707) 143.6 MPa

(101): ~ = 45, cos ~ = 0.707,


u = 58.6/(0.577)(0.707) = 143.6 MPa

20. Suppose that a single crystal of an FCC metal is oriented so that the
[0011 direction is parallel to an applied stress. When the applied
stress is 48 MPa, a dislocation on the (111) plane just begins to move in
the [011]direction. Calculate the critical resolved shear stress in this
material. Based on this result, do you suspect that there are numerous
lattice imperfections in the metal?

cos ~ 0.577
cos A 0.707

T = TCRSS U cos ~ cos A


= 48(0.577)(0.707) = 19.6 MPa

Because TCRSS 0.34 - 0.69 MPa

there must be many lattice imperfections which make it more


difficult for the dislocations to move.

21. Suppose that a single crystal of a BCC metal is oriented so that the
[001] direction is parallel to an applied stress. When the applied
stress is 93 MPa, a dislocation on the (101) plane begins to move in the
[111] direction. Calculate the critical resolved shear stress in this
material. Based on this result, do you suspect that there are numerous
lattice imperfections in the metal?

cos A 0.577
cos ~ 0.707

T = TCRSS U cos ~ cos A


93(0.707)(0.577) = 37.9 MPa

This is a typical value for the critical resolved shear stress in


BCC metals; there are probably few lattice imperfections that are
capable of interfering with slip.

42
22. Suppose a single crystal of a hexagonal~close packed metal is oriented so
that the [001] direction is parallel to an applied stress. Can slip
occur in the basal plane? Can slip occur in the prismatic planes such as
(1010)? Explain your answer to both questions.

In the basal plane. A = 90; in the prismatic planes.


Consequently slip will not occur in either plane.
+= 90.
23. FCC aluminum has a density of 2.695 Mg/m3 and a lattice parameter of
4.04958 A. Calculate (a) the fraction of the lattice points that
contain vacancies and (b) the. total number of vacancies in a cubic
centimeter of aluminum.

Using the density equation.


2.695 x 106 /m3 = (x atoms/cell) (26.981 g/mol)
g (4.04958 x 10- 10 m)3(6.02 x 10 23 atoms/mol)

x = 3.9933 Al atoms/cell

vacancies/cell =4 - 3.9933 = 0.0067 vacancies/cell


(a)
0.0067 vacancies/cell
fraction = 4.0000 lattice points/cell = 0.001675

(b) vacancies/cm3 = (0.0067 vacancies/cell) =.1 x 1020 vacancies/cm3


(4.04958 x 10- 8 cm)3

24. HCP magnesium has a density of 1.735 Mg/m3 and lattice parameters of
a = 3.2087 A and c = 5.209 A . Calculate (a) the average number of
o 0
atoms per lattice point in the unit cell and (b) the total number of
vacancies in a cubic centimeter of magnesium.

Using the density equation:


1.735 x 106 = (x atoms/cell) (24.312 g/mol)
(46.4455 x 10- 29 m3 )(6.02 x 10 23 atoms/mol)

x = 1.99535 Mg atoms/cell

(a) average Mg atoms/lattice point = 1.99535 / 2 0.99767

(b) vacancies/cell =2 - 1.99535 = 0.00465


vacancies/cm3 = ____0_._0_0_4_6_5_____ =1 x 1026 m3
4.64455 x 10-24m3

43
25. The lattice parameter of BCC caesium is 6.13 A. If one atom is missing
from one out of 800 unit cells, calculate (a) the number of vacancies per
cubic centimeter and (b) the density of caesium.
(a) vacancies/cm3 = (1 vacancy / 8000 cells) 5.43 X 101B
(6.13 x 1O-B cm )3

(b) In 800 cells of a BCC metal, there are 1600 lattice points.
Since one atom is missing in 800 cells, the average number of
Cs atoms per cell is

(1599 / 1600)(2 lattice points/cell) = 1.99875 Cs atoms/cell


p = ~9875 atoms/cell) (132.91 g/mol) 1.9157 g/cm3
(6.0849 x 10- B cm)3(6.02 x 1023 atoms/mol)

26. The lattice parameter of FCC strontium is 6.0849 A. If one atom is


missing for each 1,500 strontium atoms, calculate (a) the density of
strontium and (b) the number of vacancies per gram.

(a) The number of Sr atoms/cell is

(1499/1500)(4 lattice points/cell) = 3.99733 Sr atoms/cell

= (3.99733 atoms/cell) (87.62 g/mol) = 2.582 M /m3


p -B 3 23 g
(6.0849 x 10 cm) (6.02 x 10 atoms/mol)

(b) vacancies/m3 = (1 vacancy/1500 atoms) (4 atoms/cell)


(6.0849 x 10- 10 m)3
0.11836 x 1026

(0.11836 X 1026 vacancies/m3 ) 4.552 101B


vacancies/gram X
2.582 x 106 g/m 3

27. A BCC alloy of tungsten containing substitutional atoms of vanadium has a


density of 16.912 Mg/m3 with a lattice parameter of 3.1378 A. Calculate
the fraction of vanadium atoms in the alloy

Let Fy be the fraction of Y atoms; then (1 - fy) is the fraction of


tungsten atoms. The molecular weight of Y is 50.941 g/mol and that
of W is 183.85 g/mol. From the density equation
6 3 (2 atoms/cell)[(~ )(50.941) + (1 - f y )(183.85)
16.912 x 10 g/m
(3.1378 x 10-10 m)3(6.02 x 1023 atoms/mol)

fy 0.2

44
28. An FCC alloy of co~per containing substitutional atoms of tin has a
density of 7.17 Mg/m and a lattice parameter of 3.903 A. Calculate the
fraction of tin atoms in the alloy.

Let fSn be the fraction of Sn atoms; then (1 - fSn) is the fraction


of copper atoms. The molecular weight of tin is 118.69 g/mol and
that of copper is 63.54 g/mol. From the density equation

(4 atoms/cell) [(fSn )(118.69) + (1 - f Sn )(63.65)


7.727 x 10 6 g/m 3 ; ------------~~~~------~~----------~-
(3.903 X 10- 10 m)3(6.02 x 10 23 atoms/mole)

29. Suppose that when one-third of the atoms in RCP magnesium are replaced by
cadmium atoms, the lattice parameters of the alloy are a ; 3.133 A and
o
c 5.344 A. Calculate the expected density of the alloy.
o

MWMg ; 24.312 g/mol MWCd ; 112.4 g/mol


-10 3 -10 -29 3
Vcell; (3.133 x 10 m) (5.344 x 10 m)cos30; 4.54274 x 10 m

p ; (2 atoms/cell) [(0.667)(24.312) + (0.333)(112.4) = 3.924 Mg/m3


(4.54274 x 10- 29 m3 )(6.02 x 10 23 atoms/mol)

30. Body centered cubic iron has a lattice' parameter of 2.868 A after a
carbon atom enters one interstitial site in every twentieth unit cell.
Estimate (a) the density of the iron-carbon alloy and (b) the packing
factor for the structure, assuming r Fe = 1.241 Aand rC = 0.77 A.

(a) When we use the density equation, we must add onto the usual 3
Fe atoms per cell a factor of 1/20 of a carbon atom per cell.

MW = 55.847 g/mol MWC 12 g/mol


Fe
(2 Fe/cell) (55. 847) + (1/20 C/cell)(12) 7.907 Mg/m 3
p
(2.868 x 10- 10 m)3(6.02 x 1023 atoms/mol)

(b) In each unit cell, there are 2 Fe atoms and 0.05 C atoms.

2(4/3)(n)(1.241 A)3 + (0.05)(4/3)(n)(0.77 A)3


PF 0.6828
(2.868 A)3

45
31. Carbon atoms enter interstitial positions in FCC nickel. producing a
lattice parameter of 3.5198 A and a density of 8.955 Mg/m3 Calculate
(a) the atomic fraction of carbon atoms in the nickel and (b) the number
of unit cells you would have to examine to find one carbon atom.

(a) The unit cell will contain 4 nickel atoms and "x" carbon atoms.
From the density equation. using MWNi = 58.71 g/mol and

MWC = 12 g/mol.

8.955 x 106 = (4 Ni atoms/cell)(58.71) + (x C atoms/cell) (12)


(3.5198 x 10- 10 m)3(6.02 x 10 23 atoms/mol)

235.08 = 234.84 + 12x or x = 0.2 carbon atom per cell

0.02 atoms/cell 0.005


fraction carbon atoms/cell
4 Ni atoms/ cell

(b) Since there is 0.02 carbon atoms/cell. then 1/0.02 50 unit


cells would be required to find one carbon atom.

32. Would you expect a Frenkel defect to change the lattice parameter or
density of MgO? Explain.

Yes; the misplaced ion will strain the lattice. causing the lattice
parameter to increase and therefore reducing the density.

33. Suppose one Schottky defect occurred in every tenth unit cell of NaCI.
producing a lattice parameter of 5. 57A.I Calculate the density of the
sodium chloride.

Although normally there are 4 sodium ions and 4 chlorine ions per
cell. the Schottky defects in every tenth unit cell produce. on the
average. (39/40) (4) sodium ions and (39/40) (4) chloride ions per
cell.

MWNa 22.99 g/mol MWCI = 35.453 g/mol

(39/40)(4)(22.99 + 35.453)
p 2.191 Mg/m3
(5.57 X 10- 10 m)3(6.02 x 10 23 ions/mol)

46
34. Suppose th3e lattice parameter of CsCI is 4.0185 A and the density is
4.285 Mg/m. Calculate the number of Schottky defects per unit cell.

Let "x" be the average number of Cs and CI ions in the unit cell.

MWCs = 132.91 g/mol MWCI = 35.453 g/mol

4.285 X 106 = ____-'x:.c. :. :(1:.. :3c.2::c:.. . :. 9.:. 1::-+---=3.::.5.:.....4.:..5:...:3:....:)---=-=--_ __


(4.0185 x 10 10 m)3(6.02 x 1023 ions/mol)

x 0.99424 ions/cell

There should be 1 of each ion in the caesium chloride structure.


The number of Schottky defects is therefore

defects/cell =1 - 0.99424 = 0.00576


35. Suppose the (111) plane is parallel to the surface of an FCC metal. What
is the coordination number for each atom at the surface?

At the surface, 6 atoms would touch a central atom at the surface, 3


more atoms from beneath the surface would contact the central atom,
but the other 3 atoms are not present. Therefore the coordination
number would be 9.

36. The ASTM grain size number for a metal is 6. How many grains would be
observed per square inch in a photograph taken at a magnification of 100?
How many actual grains are present per square inch?

N = 2n - 1 = 26 - 1 = 25 = 32 grains at 100x

total grains = 32(100)2 = 320,000 grains

37. Twelve grains per square inch are counted in a photograph taken at a
magnification of 500. Calculate the ASTM grain size number. Is this a
coarse, medium, or fine grain size?

At 100x, the number of grains N would be

N = 12(500/100)2 = 300 = 2n- 1


In(300) (n-l)(ln(2) or 5.7038 = (n-1)(0.693) or n 9.23

This is a fine grain size.

47
38. Eighteen grains per square inch are counted in a photograph taken at a
magnifIcation of 75. Calculate the ASTM grain size number. Is this a
coarse, medium or fine grain size?

At 100x, the number of grains N would be

N = 18(75/100)2 = 10.125 = 2n- 1


In(10.125) = (n-l)ln(2) or 2.315 = (n-l)(0.693) or n = 4.34
This is medium grain size.

39. Figure 4-23 shows the microstructure of a material at a magnification


of 100. Estimate the ASTM grain size number.

From the photograph, there are approximately 7 grains/in2.

7 = 2n - 1
In(7) = (n-l)ln(2) or 1.95 (n-l)(0.693) or n 3.8

40. Figure 4-24 shows the microstructure of a material at a magnification of


500. Estimate the ASTM grain size number.

There are approximately 25 grains/in2 at 500x. Therefore at 100x

N = 25 (500/100) 2 = 625 = 2n - 1
In(625) = (n-l)ln(2) or 6.44 = (n-l)(0.693) or n 10.3

41. Calculate the angle 9 of a small angle grain boundary in BCC iron when
the dislocations are 7500 A apart.

The lattice parameter for BCC iron is 2.866 A. The repeat distance
of Burger's vector is half of the body diagonal, or

b = (1/2)(13)(2.866) = 2.482 A
sin(9/2) = 2.482/7500 = 0.0003309
9/2 = 0.01896 or 9 = 0.038
42. A small angle grain boundary is tilted 0.75 in FCC copper. Calculate
the average distance between the dislocations.

The lattice parameter is 3.6151 A. The repeat distance of Burger's


vector is half of the face diagonal, or

b = (1/2)(i2)(3.6151) = 2.556 A
If "x" is the distance between dislocations, then

sin(0.7512) 2. 556/x

0.006545 2.556/x or x 390 A


48
43. Suppose that 2 Fe3 + ions are substituted for normal Fe2 + ions in FeO.
What other changes in the atom arrangement (creation of vacancies etc)
would be required to maintain the proper charge balance?

We must create a Fe 2 + vacancy. The addition of two Fe 3 + ions


introduces a charge of +6; removal of the two Fe 2 + ions only removes
a charge of +4. However. if three Fe 2 + ions are removed. then a
total of +6 charge is removed~+the charge is balanced. but a vacancy
is created where the third Fe ion was removed.

44. Suppose an Fe 2+ ion is substituted for an Na+ ion in NaCl. Explain why
you would expect that the charge balance would be maintained by forming a
vacancy rather than by adding another Cl- ion to the lattice.

The large Cl- ion would be added as an interstitial ion and would
create a larger amount of lattice strain than would be caused by the
formation of a vacancy.

49
Chapter 5

ATOM MOVEMENT IN MATERIALS

1. When a force is applied at 300C, each inch of a metal stretches at the


rate of 0.025 mmlmin; at 400C, the rate of stretching is 0.09375 mmlmin;
and at 500C, the rate is 0.25 mmlmin. Calculate (a) the activation
energy for the stretching process and (b) the constant co' What are the
units for each?

(a) From the equation rate = coexp(-QlRT):


0.025 _ c oexp[-Q/(8. 314) (300 + 273)]
0.25 - c exp[ 01(8.314)(500 +2731)]
o

0.1 = exp [(-Q) (0.0002099 - 0.0001556)]


0.1 = exp [-Q(0.0000543)]

In(O.l) = -2.302585 =.-0.00005430

:. Q = 42,405 J/mol

0.025 = c oexp[-42,405/(8.314) (573)]


0.025 = c oexp(-8/9012792)
0.025 = c o (0.0001362)

c = 183.55 mmlminute
o
2. The fraction of the lattice points containing vacancies in copper is
2.24 x 10-15 at 100C but is 2.42 X 10-6 at 700C. Calculate (a) the
activation energy required to form a vacanc~, (b) the fraction of the
lattice points that contain vacancies 5 C below the melting point
(l085C), and (c) the number of vacancies per unit cell 5C below the
melting point.

(a) 2.24 x 10-15 _ exp!-Q/(8.314)(373)]


2.42 x 10- 6 - exp[-Q/(8.314)(973)]
9.256 x 10-10 = exp!-Q(0.0003224 - 0.0001236)]

In(9.256 x 10-19 ) = -20.80056 = -0.0001988Q

Q = 104,631 J/mol

(b) To find the constant c


o
2.42 X 10- 6 = c exp[-104,631)/(8.314) (973)]
o
c exp(-12.934143 = c (2.42 x 10-6 )
o 0

.. c 1. 0
o

50
At 5C below the metling point, or 1080C, the fraction 'f' is

f 1.0 exp [-104,631/(8.314)(1353)]

1.0 exp(-9.3014908)

9. 12 X 10- 5 vacancies/ lattice point.

(c) In FCC copper there are 4 lattice points/cell

:. vacancies/cell (9.12 x 10-5 ) (4)


36.48 x 10-5

3. The diffusion coefficient for Al in Al 0 is 7.48 x 10-23 m2 /s at 1000C


2 3
and is 2.48 x 10-14 m2/s at 1500C. Calculate the activation energy and
the diffusion constant D .
o
7.48 X 10-23 D o[exp -Q/(8.314)(1273)]
2.48 x 10-14 Do[exp - Q/(8.314)(1773l]

3.016 x 10- 9 = exp[-Q(0.0000944 x 0.0000678)]


= exp[-Q(0.0000266)]
In(3.016 x 10- 9 ) = -19.619334 = -Q(0.0000266)
Q = 737,569 J/mol

2.48 x 10-14 = D Jxp[-737,569/(8.314)(1773)]


= Doexp(-50.036152)
2.48 x 10- 14 = Do (1. 8602 x 10- 22 )

4. The diffusion coefficient for Ni in MgO is 1.23 X 10- 16 m2 /s at 1200C


and 1.45 x 10- 14 m2 /s at 1800C. Calculate the activation energy and
the diffusion constant D .
o
1.23 X 10- 16 D J xp[-Q/(8.314)(1473)]
1.45 x 10- 14 Do exp[-Q/(8.314) (2073)]

8.427 x 10- 3 = exp[-Q(0.0000816 - 0.000058)]

= exp[-Q(0.0000236)]
In(8.4827 x 10- 3 ) = -4.7697 = -Q(0.0000236)
Q = 202, 107 J/mol

1.23 x 10-16 = D exp[-202,107/(8.314)(1473)]


o

51
1.23 X 10-16 = (6.8036 x 10-8)D
o
:. DO = 1. 808 x 10
-8 2
m Is

5. Estimate the activation energy for self-diffusion in titanium.

From Figure 5-S the activation energy is approximately 293,000 to


314,000 J/mol because the melting point is 166SoC.

6. Would you expect the activation energy for self-diffusion in silicon,


which has the covalent bond, to follow the curve in Figure 5-8? Explain.

No. We would expect a higher activation energy for silicon due to


the strong covalent bonds.

7. Suypose a 0.1 mm thick wafer of germanium contains one8 gallium atom per
10 Ge atoms on one surface and 1000 Ga atoms per 10 Ge atoms at the
other surface. Calculate lhe concentration gradient (a) in atomic
percent/m and (b) in atoms/m .m. The lattice parameter for Fe is 5. 66A.

(1 Ga/108 Ge)(100) = 0.000001 at % Ga

c2 (10 3 Ga/10 8 Ge)(100) = 0.001 at % Ga

dc _ (0.000001 - 0.001)
dx - (0.1)(10-3)
-9.999 at % Ga/m

(b) Vcell = (0.566 x 10-9 )3 = 0.18132 X 10-27 m3

(l08 Ge) (0.18132 x 10-27 )


V(10 8 atoms)
8 Ge atoms/cell
2.2665 X 10-21 m3
1
c
1
0.441 X 1021 Ga atoms/m3
2.2665 X 10-21
1000
c2 441. 21 x 1021 Ge atoms/m3
2.2665 x 10-21

(0.441 - 441.21) x 1021


-4.408 x 10 27 atoms/m3 . m
0.1 X 10-3

8. One surface ~f an 0.5 mm thick wafer of germanium ~ontains 5 gallium


atoms per 10 Ge atoms. How many gallium atoms per 10 Ge atoms must be
in*t0duced at the other surface to give a concentration gradient of -2 x
10 atoms/m3.m? The lattice parameter for Ge is 5.66 A.
-9 3 -28 3
Vcell = (0.566 x 10 ) = 1. 8132 x 10 m
5 28
V(10S Ge atoms) = (0 ) (1. 8132 x 10- )
8
2.2665 X 10-24 m3

52
512.2665 x 10-24

y/2.2665 x 10-24

[(y - 5)/2.2665 x 10- 24 )10.5 X 103


-2 X 1027 atoms/m3.m

(y - 5) -2.2665

.. y = 2.7335 Ga atoms/lOs Ge atoms

9. A 0.01 wm thick foil of iron separates a gas 2fontaining ~ x 1028 H


atoms/m from another chamber containing 6 x 10 H atoms/m. If the
system is operating at 1000C and the iron is FCC, calculate (a) the
concentration gradient of hydrogen through the foil and (b) the flux of
hydrogen atoms through the foil.

(a) the concentration gradient is:


22 28
fJ.c =6 x 10 - 1 x 10 = -9.9999 x Hj32 atoms/ffi. m
fJ.x 0.01 x 10- 3
Using D for H in FCC Fe at 1000C = 1.07 X 10-8 m2s- 1.

(b) The flux is:

J -DfJ.c/fJ.x
- (1.07 x 10-8 )(-9.9999 x 1032 )
10.69 X 10 24 atoms/(m2 s)

10. Nitrogen is held in a pressure chamber by a BCC iron foil only 0.2 mm
thick. The concentrgtion of 3nitrogen is 3 x 1026 atoms/m3 on one side of
the foil but 5 x 10 atoms/m on the other side. Calculate the flux of
nitrogen atoms through the foil at 750C.

u
'c/'x
u
= 5 x 1016 - 3 X lcf 6 = -1. 5 x 10 30 atoms/m.
3 m
0.2 x 10- 3
-11 2-1
D for N in BCC Fe at 750C 5.784. x 10 ms

.. J - D fJ.c/fJ.x

- (5.784 x 10- 11 )(-1.5 x 1030 )

8.676 X 1019 atoms/(m2 s)

11. Cat~ulate the concent[ation gradient required .to produ~e a flux of 10 x


10 hydrogen atoms/m . s through a BCC iron fOll at 800 C.

D for C in BCC Fe at 800C = 2.217 X 10-8 m2s- 1

10 x 109 atoms/m2 /s = -(2.217 x 10-8 ) fJ.c/fJ.x

fJ.c/fJ.x = -4.5095 x 1017 atoms/m3.m

53
12. An FCC iron structure is to be manufactured that will allow no more than
100 x 104 H atoms/m2 to pass through it in one minute at 950C. the
composition of the hydrogen is 1 x 1026H atoms/m3 on one side of the foil
and 5 x 1023 H atoms/m3 on the other side. Calculate (a) the
concentration gradient and (b) the minimum thickness of the iron
required.

J = 106 atoms/(m 2 minute) = 166.67 atoms/(m2 s)


D for H in FCC Fe at 950C = 9.09 x 10- 9 m2 /s

166.67 = -(9.09 x 10-9 ) ~c


~x

~~ = -1. 8335 x 1012 atoms/m3 .m

~c 5 X 1023 - 1 X 1026 = -9.95 X 1025 atoms/m3

~ -(9.95 x 10 25 )/(-1.8335 x 1012 ) = 5.43 X 1013 m

:. minimum thickness is impr.actical.

13. Determine the maximum allowable temperature that will produce a flux of
less than 950 x 10 4 N atoms/(m2 s) through a BCC iron foil when
the concentration gradient is -3 x 1024 atoms/m3 .m.

950 X 104 atoms/(m2 s) = -(0.0047 x 10-14 )exp [ - (8.314)


76571 (T) ] x (-3 X 1024 )

950 X 10 4
exp (- 9209.86/T)
(0.0047 x 10-4 )(3 x 10 24 )

In(6.7375 x 10- 12 ) = -25.723319 -9209.86/T

:. T = 358 K = 85C

14. Suppose a diffusion couple is produced between pure nickel and pure
copper at 1000C. Will the interface tend to move toward the pure nickel
or the pure copper side? Explain using suitable calculations.

For Ni diffusing in Cu
242,265]
(2.3 x 10 )exp - (8.314)(1273) = (2.3 x 10 )exp(-22.890343)
-4 [ -4
DNi

(2.3 x 10- 4 )(1.1451 x 10-1)

2.6338 x 10- 14 m2 /s

For Cu diffusing in Ni
-4 [ 257, 328 ]
DCu = (0.65 x 10 )exp -(8.314)(1273)

54
(0.65 x 10- 4 )exp(-24.313576)
(0.65 x 10-4 )(2.7589 x 10- 11 )
1. 7932 x 10- 15 m2 /s

DNi > DCu :. more nickel will move towards the copper.

15. A carburizing process is done to a 0.15% C steel by introducing 1.1% C at


the surface at 1000C, where the iron is FCC. Calculate the carbon
content at 0.1 mm, 0.5 mrn and 1 mm beneath the surface after 1 h.

137,660 ]
D = 0.23 x 10
-4 [
exp (8.314)(1273)

1.1 - x
1. 1 - 0.5 = erf --:;::::=========
Y
2v15.1637 x 10-11 (3600)

erf (1159.68 y)

~ x 1.1 - (0.95) erf (1159.68 y)

For y = 0.1 mm = 0.1 x 10- 3 m

erf[(1159.68)(0.1 x 10- 3 )] = erf (0.11597)

= 0.1
~ x = 1.1 - [(0.95)(0.1)] = 1.005% C

For y = 0.5 mrn 0.5 x 10- 3 m

erf[(1159.60)(0.1 x 10- 3 )] = erf (0.5798) = 0.6


~ x = 1.1 - [(0.95)(0.6)] = 0.53% C
For y = 1 mm = 1 x 10- 3 m

erf[(1159.68)(1 x 10- 3 )] = erf (1.1597) 0.9

:. X = 1. 1 - [( O. 95) (0. 9)] = O. 245% C

16. A carburizing process is done to a 0.0% C steel by introducing 1.0% C at


the surface. Calculate the carbon content 1 mm beneath the surface after
holding at 912C for 1 h if (a) the iron is FCC and (b) the iron is BCC.
Explain the difference that the structure makes.
[-137 660 ]
(a) DFCC = 0.23 x 10
-4
exp (8.314i(1185)

(0.23 x 10- 4 ) exp (- 13.9727)

1.9654 x 10-11 m2 s-l

55
1 - x { 0.001 }
r=ci = erf I
2 v1.9654 x 10-11 (3600)

= erf (1.88) = 0.98


.. x = 0.02% C

-4 [ 87,450 ]
(b) DBCC = (0.011 x 10 ) exp -(8.3147)(1187)

(0.011 x 10- 4 ) exp(-8.8763)

1. 536 x 10- to m2 Is

1 - x { 0.001 }
- - = erf
1 - 0 2 ~.5364 x 10-1 (3600)

= erf (0.6724) 0.62

:. X = 0.38% C

Diffusion occurs more rapidly in BCC iron due to the more open
crystal structure.

17. We would like to produce 0.45% C at a distance of 2.5 mm beneath the


surface of a steel part by carburizing. If the steel originally contains
0.15% C and 1.2% C is introduced to the surface, how long will
carburizing take at 1100C. Assume the iron is FCC.

137,660 ]
D = 0.23 exp [ -(8.314)((1373) = 0.23 exp (-12.05945)
1. 332 x 10-10 m2 /s

2.5 X 10-3 ]
1.2 - 0.45 = erf [
1.2 - 0.15 2 It. 332 x 10- 10 t

0.7143 = erf(108.324/vt)
:. t = 239475 = 6.65 hours

18. We would like to produce 0.3% C at a distance of 1.5 mm beneath the


surface of a steel part by carburizing. If the steel originally contains
0.10% C and 1.0% C is introduced to the surface, what carburizing
temperature is required if the treatment is to be accomplished in 0.33
hours? Assume the iron is FCC.

-3

! = ~:t = 0.7778 erf [1. 5 x 10 ]


2v'Dt

56
1. 5 X 10-3
0.8
2v'Dt

.. 9.375 X 10- 4 = v'Dt


.. 8.8 X 10-7 = Dt
.. D = (8.8 x 10-7 )/(0.33)(3600) = 7.398 x 10- 10 m2 /s

7.398 x 10-10 = 0.23 X 10- 4 exp [ -~~~i:~~)]

In [7.398 x 1~:10) = In (3.21 x 10-5 ) =- 10.3446 137660


8.314(T)
0.23 x 10

.. T 1600 K 1328C

19. We would like to produce 0.2% C at a distance of 1 mm beneath the surface


of a 0.01% C steel part by carburizing. If we carburize at 975C for
10 h, how much carbon must we expose to the surface of the part? Assume
the steel is FCC during treatment.

D (0.23 x 10- 4 ) exp [ 137,660]


- (8.314)(1248)

(0.23 x 10- 4 ) exp (-13.26732)

3.979 x 10-11 m2 /s

t = (10) (3600) = 36,000 s

-3

]
1. 0 x 10
x - 0.2
erf
x - 0.01
[ 2 /c3.979 x 10- 11 )(36,000)

erf (0.42) = 0.4


.. x - 0.2 0.4 (x - 0.001) = 0.4x - 0.004

.. 0.6x 0.196

.. x = 0.327% C

20. We would like to produce 0.12% N at a distance of 4 mm beneath the


surface of a steel containing 0.002% N by introducing 0.35% N to the
surface of the steel. How long would this nitriding require if it were
done at 700C? Assume the iron is BCC.

-4 76570
[ ]
D = (0.0047 x 10 ~4exp - (8.314)(973)
:. D = (0.0047 x 10 ) exp (-9.46543)

57
0.35 - 0.12
0.35 - 0.002 = 0.661

J'Lt = 331. 42
.. Yl; 0.7

:. t 2.2416 X 105 s
62.27 hours

21. During nitriding of a BCC steel containing 0.005% N, 0.45% N is


introduced to the surface at 650C for 4 h. Calculate the nitrogen
content at a distance of 2 mm beneath the surface of the steel.

D = (0.0047 x 10-4 ) exp (- 76570


(8.314)(923)
)

(0.0047 x 10- 4 ) exp (-9.97808)


2.18 x 10-11 m2 S-l

t 4 x 3600 = 14,400 s

2 X 10-3
0.45 - x
0.45 0.005
erf (
2 yf(2.18 x 10- 11 )(14,400) )
= erf (1.7848) 0.97

0.45 - x (0.97) (0. 445)

x = 0.018% N

22. Calculate the nitriding temperature when a BCC steel containing 0.075% N
is exposed to 0.25% N for 18 h, producing 0.12% N at a distance of 8 mm
beneath the surface.

t = (18)(3600) = 64,800 s

0.25 - 0.12 3
0.7429 erf (0.8 x 10- )
0.25 - 0.0075
2m

= erf (1. 5~3 x 10- )


6

1. 5713 x 10- 6
.. 0.78
Vi)

58
:. D = 4.0584 X 10-12 m2 /s

:. 4.0584 x 10 -12 = (0.0047 x 10-4 ) exp [76,570]


- (8.314) (T)

In ( 4.0584 x 10- _ 4 )
12 =- 11.659699 =- 76,570
8.314(T)
0.0047 x 10

~ T = 790 K 517C

23. Decarburization of a steel occurs when carbon diffuses from the steel to
the surface and enters the atmosphere. How long will it take for a 0.60%
C steel surface to decarburize below 0.10% C for a depth of 2 mm if the
FCC steel is held at 1250C in an atmosphere containing zero carbon?

D = (0.23 x 10- 4 ) exp [ 137,660


- (8.314) (523) ]
(0.23 x 10- 4 ) exp (-10.8717)

4.3672 x 10- 10 m2 /s

o- 0.1 x 10- 3 ]
erf 2
0 - 0.6
[2/4.3672 x 10- 1O (t)

.. 0.1667 erf [47.852 )


2v'Dt

.. 0.15 vt = 47.852
:. t = 101,768 s = 28.27 hours

24. Calculate the distance below the surface of 0.80% C steel that, after
exposure to air for 100 h at 1200C, is decarburized to 0.2% C or less.
The steel is FCC during this process.
137660)
D = (0.23 x 10
-4
) exp
(
- (8.314)(1473)

0.23 x 10- 4 exp (-11.24075)

3.01948 x 10- 10 m2 /s

t 360,000 s

.. Dt = 0.0001087
and v'Dt = 0.010426
o- 0.2
o- 0.8 = 0.25 = erf (2(0~010426)
x
.. 0.2
0.020852

59
.. 0.00417 m =x
x = 4.17 mm

25. A carburizing heat treatment of an FCC steel normally can be successfully


completed at 1250C in 2 h. What time would be necessary if the
temperature were lowered to 1100C?
-4 (137,600)
D1 (0.23 x 10 ) exp - (8.314)(1523)

4.3672 X 10- 10 m2/s


-4 (137,600)
D2 (0.23 x 10 ) exp - (8.314)(1373)

.. D t
..2...2.
D
= t
2
2

(4.3672 x 10-10 ) (2)


t
2
(1.3316 x 10- 10 )

.. t2 = 6.56 hours

26. A nitriding heat treatment of a BCC steel normally requires 2 h at 600C.


What temperature would be required to reduce the heat treatment time to
1 h?

D (0.0047 x 10- 4 ) exp ( 76570 )


- (8.314) (873)

= 1. 2316 X 10- 11 m2/s

t
1
2 hr t
2
=1 hr

:. D2 T
D t
= (1. 2316 ~ 10
-11
)(2) = 2.4632 X 10-11 m2/s
2 -11 (76570 )
2.4632 x 10 = (0.0047 x 10
-4
) exp - (8.314)T

In(2.4632 x 10- 11 ) = _ 9.8564 = _ 76570


0.0047 x 10- 4 8.314(T)

.. T 934 K 661 0 C

60
27. Suppose, during a diffusion bonding process used to join copper to
nickel, that bonding was 90% complete after 1 h at 800C. But at 900C,
only 5.9 min were required to obtain the same bonding. Assuming that the
rate of bonding is related only to diffusion, calculate the activation
energy for the process. Consulting Table 5-1, is it likely that bonding
is controlled primarily by diffusion of Cu into the nickel or by
diffusion of Ni into the copper? (Note that rate is the reciprocal of
time. )
1
Co exp [-01(8.314)(1073)]
3600

(5.9) (60) Co exp [-Q/(8.34)(1173)

0.00027778 exp(- 0.000112Q)


0.00282486 exp(-0.0001025Q)

0.098334 = exp(- 0.0000095Q)


In 0.098334 = - 2.31939 = - 0.0000095Q

Q= 244,146 J/mol

This is close to the activation energy for the diffusion of nickel


in Cu.

28. Suppose the grain size of copper doubles when the metal is held at 500C
for 5 h, but doubles at 800C in only 8 min. Estimate the activation
energy for grain growth. Does this correlate with the activation energy
for self-diffusion of copper? Should it? (note that rate is the
reciprocal of time.)

We can set up two equations:

11(5) (3600) c exp [-Q/(8.314)(773)]


0

1/(8)(60) c exp [-Q/(8.314)(1073)]


0

0.00005563 exp(-0.0001556Q)
0.0020833 exp(-0.000112Q)

0.02667 exp (-0.0000436Q)

In(0.02667) = -3.624216 = -O.0000436Q


:. Q = 83,124 J/mol

It does not correlate. More likely, the rate of grain growth will
be related to the diffusion along grain boundaries, which has a
smaller activation energy.

61
29. Suppose we would like to join SiC to Si 3 N4 , by a diffusion bonding
process. What problems might we have during the first step in the
bonding process? Can you think of any way that these problems might be
minimized? Would you expect that diffusion bonding of these materials
would take more or less time than if two metals were joined at the same
temperature?

Both are brittle so the first step - localized deformation may


cause fracture rather than deformation.

We could put a soft inter layer material between the two ceramic
surfaces that would deform during the first stage and simultaneously
will almost completely fill in the interface area.

More time, since ceramics generally have higher activation energies.

30. Suppose we were to produce a silver contact for an electrical relay using
powder metallurgy. Sintering initially occurs very rapidly, but then
slows significantly at a later time. Explain why the rate decreases
during the latter stages of the 'process.

Initially we would expect both surface and grain boundary diffusion


to predominate. As the pores reduce in size and perhaps are even
isolated, sintering will depend more on volume diffusion. This will
be slower due to the higher activation energy.

31. At 6SOC, the electrical conductivity of NaCl is 10-2 ohm- 1 m- 1 , at


420C, the electrical conductivity is 10- 6 ohm- 1m- 1 . Which ion - Na or
Cl - do you expect is transferring the greater portion of the charge?
What is the activation energy for diffusion of this ion in NaCl?

Most of the charge will be carried by sodium - it is cation and is


expected to be smaller and more mobile.

10- 2 = exp [-Q/(S.314)(953)] = exp (-0.0001262Q)


10- 6 = exp [-Q/(S.314)(693)] = exp (-0.0001735Q)

10- 4 = exp [(-0.0001262 + 0.0001735)Q] = exp (0.0000473Q)

In(10 4 ) = 9.21034 = 0.0000473Q

:. Q = 194,722 J/mol

32. A balloon filled with helium deflates more rapidly than a balloon filled
with air. Explain.

Helium atoms are smaller and can diffuse through the polymer
balloons more quickly.

62
Chapter 6

MECHANICAL TESTING AND PROPERTIES

1. A 800 N force is applied to a 2.5 mm diameter copper wire having a yield


strength of 135 MPa and a tensile strength of 270 MPa. Determine (a)
whether the wire will plastically deform and (b) whether the wire will
experience necking.
F 800 N 163 MPa
cr = So = 4.9087 -2
mm

(a) Wire will plastically deform.

(b) Wire will not neck.

2. Calculate the maximum force that a 2.5 mm thick and 50 mm wide nickel
strip, having a yield strength of 310 MPa and a tensile strength of 430
MPa, can withstand with no plastic deformation.
F
cr -
y - S-y
o

310 x 125 = 387.5 kN

(ie) a force less than 387.5 kN can be withstood with no plastic


deformation.

3. A titanium bar 8.75 mm in diameter will stretch from a 150 mm length to a


150.5 mm length when a force of 23 kN is exerted. Calculate the modulus
of elasticity of the alloy.
E = Stress = 23000/60.13 = 382.49 = 1149 GPa
Strain 0.5/150 0.00333 .

4. The modulus of elasticity of nickel is 209 GPa. Determine the length of


the bar when a force of 6.82 kN is applied to a 12.5 mm x 7.5 mm bar
originally 900 mm long without causing plastic deformation.
209000 = 6820/9~.75
straln
x
0.00033807 = strain
900

.. 0.3133 mm =x
.. length of the bar = 900.313 mm

5. We would like to plastically deform a 25 mm diameter bar of aluminum


having a yield strength of 170 MPa and a tensile strength of 270 MPa.
Can this be accomplished using a forging machine that can exert a maximum
force of 150 kN?
F
cr = S- = 170 N mm
-2

63
s o = 490.87 mm2
:. F = 170 x 490.87 = 83.45 kN < 150 kN

Yes, the forging machine has sufficient capacity.

6. A landing gear must be capable of supporting one-third of an airplane


that weighs 200,000 Kg. Just to be safe, we would like the landing gear
to be able to support twice its maximum load. Determine the minimum
cross-sectional area of the landing gear if it is made of a heat-treated
steel having a yield strength of 860 MPa and a tensile strength of 900
MPa.
Load to be supported = 2 x 200,000 = 133,333 kg/gear
3
~ = s- = 860
F
N mm
~
= 87.69 Kgf/mm
2

o
133,333
87.69
S
o
.. S = 1520 mm
2
o

7. We would like to produce a copper plate that is 6.25 mm thick by a


rolling process. The yield strength is 240 MPa, the tensile strength is
380 MPa, and the modulus of elasticity is 127 GPa. Calculate the
separation between the rolls that we should use, assuming that the rolls
do not deflect.

240
=E
~
C 127000 = 0.001889 mmlmm

h - h 6.25 - h
f
C = h
0
h
0
0.001889
0 0
.. 6.25 - h
0
0.001889 h
0

.. 6.25 h (1 + 0.001889)
o
.. 6.238 mm
o
=h
Roll separation 6.238 mm

8. We plan to stretch a steel bar until it has a final length of 1.8 m.


What length should the bar be before the forming stress is removed? The
yield strength is 427 MPa, the tensile strength is 572 MPa, and the
modulus of elasticity is 210 GPa.
If - 10 427
C = I = 210000 = 0.002035 mmlmm
o
If - 1.8 = 1.8 x 0.002035 = 0.003664

:. If = 1. 8037 m

64
9. A titanium bar 9.4 mm in diameter with a gauge length of 50 mm is pulled
in tension to failure. After, failure, the gauge length is 53.75 mm and
the diameter is 8.8 mm. Calculate the % elongation and % reduction in
area.
Lu - L 3.75
% Elongation LOx 100 = -so-
x 100 7.50%
o

So - Su 69.3977 - 60.8212
%Reduction in area
S 69.3977
o
12.4%

10. The % elongation of a magnesium alloy is 12.5%. If a magnesium bar 600


mm long is pulled until it breaks, and if the deformation is uniform
during this process, what is the final length of the bar? If necking
occurred during this process, would the final length be longer or shorter
than your calculation?

12.5% of 600 mm = 75 mm

:. Bar's final length = 675 mm

If necking occurred the final length would be shorter.

11. The following data were collected from a standard 12.5 mm diameter test
specimen of magnesium:

Load Gauge Length


(kN) (mm)

o o
5 50.045
10 50.090
15 50.135
20 50.175
22 50.195
23.9 50.350
26.4 51. 250
27.2 (maximum) 53.250
26.4 (fracture) 56.375

After fracture the gauge length is 56.125 mm and the diameter is 11.54
mm. Plot the data and calculate (a) the 0.2% proof stress, (b) the
tensile strength, (c) the modulus of elasticity, (d) the % elongation,
(el the % reduction in area, (f) the engineering stress at fracture, and
(g) the true stress at fracture.

65
300 400

Stress S tre ss
I~ Po. .M Po
300
200

200.

100
Problem 11 100 Problem 12

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.06


0002 0.002
Strain (mm/mm) Strain(mm/mm)

600 300
Stress Stress
M Po M Po
400 200

200 100
Problem 13 Problem 14

0.002 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.002 0.02 0.04 0.06


Strain (mm/mm) Strain(mm/mm)

66
2
S 122.72 mm
0

Stress/Nmm-2 Strain mm/mm

0 0
40.74 0.0009
81. 49 0.0018
122.23 0.0027
162.97 0.0035
179.27 0.0039
194.75 0.007
215.13 0.025
221. 65 0.065
215.13 O. 1275

(a) 0.2% offset yield strength = 191.5 N mm- 2

(b) tensile strength = 221.65 N mm- 2

(c) E = 81.49/0.0018
45272 MN m- 2
= 45.3 GPa

(d) % elongation 56.125 - 50 x 100


50
= 12.25%
(e) % reduction in area = rr/4(12.5)2 - rr/4(11.54)2
x 100
rr/4(12. 5) 2

= i~2~~~ x 100 = 114.8%


(f) fracture stress 215.13 N mm- 2
26400 26400 -2
(g) true stress = --~~~~ = 104.59 = 252 N mm 252 MPa
rr/4(11. 54)2

12. A standard 12.5 mm diameter tensile bar is machined from a


copper-nickel alloy; the results of a tensile test are described in the
following table.

Load Gauge Length


(kN) (mm)

o o
5 50.015
10 50.030
15 50.045
17.6 50.05
26.4 50.50
35.2 51. 30
48.4 (maximum) 57.00
39 :> (fracture) 68.70

67
After fracture, the gauge length is 67.95mm and the diameter is 9.05 mm.
Plot the data and calculate (a) the 0.2% proof stress, (b) the tensile
strength, (c) the modulus of elasticity, (d) the % elongation, (e) the %
reduction in area, (f) the engineering stress at fracture, and (g) the
true stress at fracture.

Stress/Nmm-2 Strain mmlmm

o o
40.74 0.0003
8~. 49 0.0006
122.23 0.0009
143.42 0.001
215.13 0.01
286.84 0.026
394.4 0.014
322.69 0.374

(a) 0.2% proof stress = 183 N mm- 2

(b) tensile strength = 394.4 N mm- 2


_ 81. 49 _ -2
(c) E - 0.0006 - 135816.7 MN m = 135.82 GPa

(d) % elongation 67.95 - 50 x 100 35.9%


50

- nI4(9.05)2
(e) % elongation in area = nI4(12.5)2 x 100
n/4( 12.5)2

47.6%

(f) fracture stress 322.69 N mm- 2

(g) true stress = __39_6_0_0__ 615.6 N mm- 2


n/4(9.05)2

68
13. A 25 mm diameter tensile bar is prepared from a silver alloy and pulled
in a tensile test with the following results.

Load Gauge Length


(kN) (mm)

o 50.0000
50,000 50.0613
100,000 50. 1227
150,000 50.1848
175,000 50.50
200,000 51. 35
225,000 (maximum) 52.90
231,000 (fracture) 53.40

StresslMPa Strain mm/mm

o o
101. 86 0.001226
203. 72 0.002454
305.58 0.003696
356.51 0.01
407.44 0.027
458.37 0.058
470.59 0.068

After fracture, the gauge length is 53.1 mm and the diameter is 24.25 mm.
Plot the data and calculate (a) the 0.2% offset yield strength, (b) the
tensile strength, (c) the modulus of elasticity, (d) the % elongation,
(e) the % reduction in area, (f) the engineering stress at fracture, and
(g) the true stress at fracture.

The load and gauge length are converted to stress and strain in the
table above.

(a) yield strength 320 MPa

(b) tensile strength = 470.59 MPa

(c) E 305.58/0.003696 = 82,680 MPa 82.68 GPa

(d) %e 53.1 - 50.0 x 100 = 6.2%


50.0
2 2
(e) r~ = (rr/4) (25) - (rr/4)(24.25) x 100 5.19%
(rr/4) (25)2
(f) fracture stress = 470.59 MPa

(g) true stress = 231,OOO/(rr/4) (24. 25)2 500.15 MPa

69
14. A 15 mm diameter tensile bar of an aluminum alloy is pulled in a tensile
test with the following results.

Load Gauge Length


(N) (mm)

10,000
20,000
60.0000
60.0469
60.0938
30,000 60.1407
35,000 60.210
37,500 60.300
40,000 60.600
42,500 61. 200
45,000 (maximum) 63.000
44,200 (fracture) 63.900

Stress/MPa Stl'ain mm/mm

o o
56.59 0.00078
113.18 0.00130
169.77 0.00235
198.06 0.0035
212.21 0.005
226.35 0.010
240.50 0.020
254.65 0.050
250.12 0.065

After fracture, the gauge length is 63.66 mm and the diameter is 14.5 mm.
Plot the data and calculate (a) the 0.2% offset yield strength, (b) the
tensile strength, (c) the modulus of elasticity, (d) the % elongation,
(e) the %reduction in area, (f) the stress at fracture, and (g) the true
stress at fracture.

The load and gauge length are converted to stress and strain in the
table above.

(a) yield strength 200 MPa

(b) tensile strength 254.65 MPa

(c) E = 113.18/0.00130 = 87,060 MPa 87.06 GPa

(d) %
e I onga ti on = 63.6660- 60 x 100 6 . 1%

(el %RA = (n/4l(15) 2 2


- (n/4)(14.5) x 100 6.56%
(n/4) (15)2
(f) fracture stress = 250.12 MPa

(g) true stress = 44,200/(nI4)(14.5)2 267.7 MPa

70
15. A three-point bend test is performed on a block of Al 20 3 that is 127 mm
long, 8.26 mm wide, and 6.35 mm tall and is resting on two supports 76.2
mm apart. A force of 1.6014 kN is required to break the ceramic.
Calculate the flexural strength in MPa.
FS 3FL/2wh2 = 3(1601.4)(76.2)
2(8.26)(6.35)2
FS = 549.9 N mm- 2 = 549.9 MPa

16. A three-point bend test is performed on a block of silicon nitride that


is 100 mm long, 8 mm wide, and 6 mm tall and is resting on two supports
80 mm apart. The modulus of rupture is 896 MPa. Calculate the force
required to break the test block in newtons.
3FL
FS=~~
3.F.80
896

F = 2.15 kN

17. Suppose a stainless steel is to be selected as a valve in a system


designed to pump liquid helium at 4 K. A severe impact may be observed
during opening and closing of the valve. Would you select a stainless
steel that has an FCC or a BCC structure? Explain.

FCC structure; because this crystal structure does not undergo a


brittle transition.

18. Fiberglass is made by introducing short glass fibers into a more ductile
polymer matrix. Would you expect the fiberglass to be notch sensitive or
insensitive in a series of impact tests? Explain

Notch insensitive: the short glass fibers already act like notches
in the polymer matrix.

19. A cylindrical tool steel specimen (Figure 6-17) which is 230 mm long and
12.5 mm in diameter is to be designed so that failure never occurs. What
is the maximum load than can be applied?

Endurance Limit = 413.8 MPa


95.01.t.w
d3
413.8 x 1953
95.01 x 230 =w 36.98 kg

.. a load less than 36.98 kg will not cause fatigue failure.

71
20. A cylindrical aluminum test specimen (Figure 6-17) which is 200 mm long
and 18.75 mm in diameter is to be designed so that failure does not occur
within ten million cycles. What is the maximum load that can be applied?

IT = 95.01 t w
1
stress = 33500 x 145 = 224.14 MPa

to cause failure in 107 cycles

224.14 X (18.75)2
90.11 x 200 = w = 82 kg
Thus a load of less than 82 kg will not cause failure in 107 cycles.

21. A cylindrical tool steel test specimen (Figure 6-17) which is 250 mm long
is to be subjected to a load of 6600 N. What is the minimum diameter of
the specimen if failure is never to occur?
d3= 95.01 x 6600 x 250 = 38537
413.8 x 9.8306
d = 33.78 mm

22. A cylindrical aluminum test specimen (Figure 6-17) which is 250 mm in


length is to be subjected to a load of 20,000 N. What is the minimum
diameter of the specimen if failure within one million cycles is to be
prevented?

Stress to cause failure in 106 cycles = 241.4 MPa


d3 = 95.01 x 20,000 x 250
241. 4 x 9.8306
d = 58.5 mm

(ie) minimum diameter to avoid failure in 106 cycles = 58.5 mm

23. A cylindrical tool steel test specimen (Figure 6-17) which is 150mm long
and 9.4 mm in diameter is to have a fatigue life of 500,000 cycles. What
is the maximum allowable load?

Fatigue life =5 x 105

Applied stress = 508.6 MPa

for failure at 5 x 10 5 cycles

IT =
95.01 t w
d3
(9.4)3 x 508.6
95.01 x 150 =w
.. w = 29.64 kg

(ie) Maximum allowable load 29.6 kg

72
24. A cylindrical aluminum test specimen (Figure 6-17) which is 175 mm long
and 12.5 mm in diameter is rotating at 3000 rpm. If a load of 350 N is
applied to the specimen, how many hours of operation are expected before
failure?
95.01. t. F
0' =
d3
95.01 x 175 x 350
.. 0' 303 N mm- 2 303 MPa
02.5)3 x 9.0306

303 MPa 5 No of cycles = 105


105 33.33 minutes 0.56 hours
:. Time to failure = 3000 minutes

25. A cylindrical tool steel test specimen (Figure 6-17) which is 250 mm long
and 37.5 mm in diameter is rotating at 60 rpm. If a load of 11.7 kN is
applied to the specimen, how many days of operation are expected before
failure?

= 95.01 x 117000 x 250


0' --~----~~~~~~ 536 MPa
(37.5)3 x 9.8306
536 MPa 5 No of cycles

.. Time to failure 300000 3.47 days


60 x 60 x 24

26. To avoid failure by fatigue, the maximum force that can be applied to the
end of a rotating cylindrical steel specimen which is 125 mm long and
6.25 mm in diameter is 66 N. Estimate the tensile strength of the steel.

Fatigue limlt 95.01 x 125 x 66


= ~~~~~~~~
(6.25)3 x 9.8036

Fatlgue iimit = 1/2 x tensile strength


2 x 95.01 x 125 x 66
:. tensile strength = ------------- 707 MPa
(6.25)3 x 9.8036

27. Which of the following would you expect to show the temperature
dependence of the creep rate (e): e - T; e - r2; e - liT; or e - exp
(-ciT)? Explain your answer

exp(-c/T): diffusion determines the rate of creep, so the


temperature dependence of creep should be the same as that for
diffusion.

73
28. The following data are the results of a creep test performed on a
material. The original gauge length was 50 Mm. Calculate the creep rate
in XIh.

Length of Specimen Time


(_) (h)

50.5 5
50.95 200
51.15 500
51.50 1450
52.30 3450
53.05 5500
53.80 7500
54.50 8500
55.00 8950
II

Extension/mm X time (h)


0.5 1.0 5
0.95 1.9 200
1. 15 2.3 500
1. 50 3.0 1450
2.3 4.6 3450
3.05 6.1 5550

-
3.8 7.6 7500
4.5 9.0 8500
5.0 rupture 8750
......,....... .-
Ca.,
&1 (53.8 - 50)/50 = 0.076 mm/mm
= 7.6X
&2 (51.50 - 50)/50 = 0.03 mm/mm
= 3X
:. creep rate (7.6 - 3)/(7500 - 1450)

= 7.6 X 10-4 X/hour

29. A 50 mm diameter bar of an iron-chromium-nickel alloy is subjected to a


load of 26.4 kN. How many days will i t survive at (a) 980C, (b) 1040C,
and (cl 1090C?

v = 26400/(W/4)!~0)2
= 13.445 N mm
(a) at 980C rupture time = 10,000 hours = 416.7 days
(b) at 1040C rupture time = 2,000 hours = 83.3 days
(c) at 1090C rupture time = 300 hours = 12.5 days

74
30. What is the maximum load that a 20 mm x 30 mm bar of an
iron-chromium-nickel alloy can withstand at 870C without falling within
10 years?

Time = (10)(365)(24) = 87,600 hours

The maximum stress at 870C for a 10 year life is


v = 20.7 MN m- 2 = 20.7 N mm- 2
F = vA = 20.7 x 20 x 30 124105 N
= 12.41 kN

31. An iron-chromium-nickel alloy is to withstand a load of 11 kN at 1090C


for 15 years. What is the minimum diameter of the bar that is necessary?

Time = (15)(365)(24) = 131,400 hours


Maximum allowable stress at 1090C is
v = 2.76 MPa = 2.76 N mm- 2

A = v~ = 11000
2.76
= 3988 . 6 mm2

= ~3988.6/(n/4) = 71.26 mm

32. Develop an equation of the form v = ct-n that will relate the applied
stress v to the rupture time for an iron-chromium-nickel alloy held at
760C. Using this equation, calculate the maximum load that a 25 mm
diameter bar of the alloy can withstand if it is to survive for 50 years.

(a) From Figure 6-24, the stress is 110 MPa at 100 hours and 55 MPa
at 100,000 hours. The equatIon can be written and solved for n
and c:

In v = In c - n In t

In(llO) In(c) - n In(100)


4.7005 In(c) 4.605 n - (i)
In(55) In(c) - n In(100,OOO)
4.0073 In(c) - 11.5 n -(11 )

(i) - (11) gives 0.6932 = 6.895 n

:. n 0.1

110 C(100)-o.t
110 0.6309 c
:. C 174.3

(b) time = (50) (365) (2~J t


438, 000 hou~~
v = 174.3(438,000) . = 47.55 N mm
F = 47.55 x (n/4) (25)2 = 23.341 kN

75
33. An iron-chromium-nickel alloy is to operate for 10,000 h under a load of
154 kN. What is the maximum operating temperature if the bar is 37.5 mm
in diameter?

u = 15400 = 13.94 MPa


1l/4(37.5)2
:. maximum temperature = 980C

34. Suppose a stress of 138 MPa is applied to the heat-resistant alloy shown
in Figure 6-24(b). (a) Determine the equation for the Arrhenius
relationship between the rupture time t f and the operating temperature
and (b) determine the rupture time if the alloy operates at 500C.

(a) The Arrhenius equation is rate = coexp(-Q/RT).


Therefore we can use reciprocal time as our rate. From the
graph at 138 MPa we can pick off two points:

t 10 4 hr l/t = 0.0001 h- 1 1/T = 10.4 X 10- 4 K- 1 T = 961. 54 K


t 10 hr l/t = 0.1 h- 1 l/T = 7.9 x 10- 4 K- 1 T = 1265.82
0.0001 _ Co exp[-Q/(8.314)(961.54)) _ exp(-0.000125Q)
~ - c exp[-Q/(8.314)(1265.82)) - exp(-O.00009SQ)
o

:. 0.001 exp [( -0.000125 + 0.000095 )Q] = exp [-0. 00003Q]


In(O.OOl) -6.907753 = -0.00003Q
~ 230,258.5 J/mol =Q
0.0001 Co exp[-230, 258. 5/(8.314)(961.54)]
0.0001 Co exp(-28/803) c (3.0974 x 10- 13 )
o
.. c 3.228 x 108 h- 1
o

.. t1_
- (3.228) X 10 8 ) exp ( _ 230,258.5)
f (8.314)T

(b) at 500C 773 K

t1f = (3 . 228 x 10 ) exp (230,258.5 )


8
- (8.314)773

t1f -_ 3.228 X 10 8 exp(-35.8283)

(3.228 x 108 )(2.754 x 10- 16 )


8.89 x 10- 8 h- 1

.. t f = 1. 1248583 X 107 h

76
35. Suppose the heat-resistant alloy shown in Figure 6-24(b) is to survive
for a minimum of 20 years. Calculate the maximum temperature to which
the alloy can be heated if the stress is 138 MPa. (Use the equation
developed in Problem 34. )

t = (20)(365)(24) = 175.200 h

From the equation developed in Problem 34

t1 = 1/175.200 = (3.228 8
x 10 ) exp (-27696.3/T)
1.7682 x 10- 14 = exp (-27.69S.3)/T)
In(1.7682 x 10-14 ) = 31.666227 = -27.69S.3/T
T = 874.6 K = 601.6C

36. A 12.5 mm diameter bar of tantalum alloy is originally 250 mm long.


After operating at 131S o C for 50 h, its length must be less than 262.5
mm. What is the maximum allowable load?
Creep ra t e = 12.5 mm per 250 mm
50 h
0.05 mm/mm
50 h
= S~%h = 0.01% h- 1

From Figure 6-24(c). the maximum stress for this creep rate is 186 MPa
(1' = 186 N mm- 2 = F
(1l/4) (12. 5)2

:. F = 22825.6 N = 22.826 kN

37. A 30 mm diameter bar of tantalum alloy is originally 600 mm long. It


operates at a load of 198 kN at 131S o C. Assuming it does not fail. what
is the length after 8 h?
198.000 = 280 MPa
(1l/4) (30)2

Creep rate = l%/hour


In 8 hours. the total creep will be 8%

If - 600
600 x 100 =8
.. If 600 + 48 = 648 mm

38. A ductile cast iron bar is to operate at a stress of 28 MPa for 2500 h
without failing. what is the maximum allowable temperature?

For a stress of 28 MPa. the Larson-Miller parameter is about 36 .

.. 36 (T/I000)[36 + 0.78 In(2S00)]


. 36 (T/I000) (42.1)
.. T 8SSK=S82C

77
39. A ductile cast iron bar is to operate at 600C for 10,000 h. If the bar
has a diameter of 18.75 mm what is the maximum allowable load?

Larson Miller parameter (873/1000)[36 + 0.78 1n(10,OOO))


(873/1000)(43.184) = 37.7

(1' = 172 MPa


F = (172.367)(n/4)(18.75)2
= 47593.5 N = 47.594 kN

40. A 3000 kg load is applied to a 10mm diameter indentor, producing an


impression having a diameter of 2.2 mm on a steel plate. Calculate the
Brinell hardness number of the steel, then estimate the tensile strength
and fatigue limit of the steel.
BHN = _ _ _ _3_0_0_0-;:=:::;:::=:==;- 3000
780
(n/2)(10)(10 -1(10)2 - (2.2)2) 5n(10 - "95.16)

tensile strength = (3. 45)BHN = (3.45)(780) = 2691 MPa

endurance limit (1/2) tensile strength


(0.5)(2691)
1345 MPa

41. A 500 kg load is applied to a 10 mm diameter indentor, producing an


impression on a steel plate having a tensile strength of 520 MPa.
Estimate the diameter of the impression.
BHN 520 150.7
= 3.45 =

150; 7 = _ _ _--'5:....:0...::..0_--;::.:=:=~
(nl2) (10) (10 - /100 - n2 )

.. 10 + Aoo - n2 = 5001 (1l12) (10) (150.7) 0.2112

:. Aoo - n2 = 9.7888

100 - n2 = 95.82

D = 2.044 mm
42. Estimate the Brinel1 hardness number of a steel having a tensile strength
of 937 MPa.
. 937
BHN ~3.45 = 271.6
43. The fracture toughness of a materici1 is 45,000 psi inl12 What is the
fracture toughness expressed in MPa m1/ 2? .
1/2 ' . 1/2
K Ic = (45,000 psi in )(0.006895 MPa/psi )(0; 0254 mlin)

= 49.4496 MPa. m1/2

78
44. A Ni-Cr steel with a yield strength of 1640 MPa (Table 6-8) contains
internal flaws that may be as long as 0.025 mm. What is the maximum
allowable applied stress if these flaws are not to propagate? How does
this compare with the yield strength?

K = fcrV'all = 50.33
MPa ml12
where 2a 2.5 x 10- 5 m
a = 1. 25 X 10-5 m

~ = 50.33/~.25 X 10- 5 n = 8031 MPa

Because the allowable stress is much greater than the yield


strength, the flaws will not propagate.

45. An aluminum-copper alloy with a yield strength of 325 MPa (Table 6-8)
contains surface flaws that are 0.0075 mm deep. What is the maximum
allowable applied stress if these flaws are not to propagate? How does
this compare with the yield strength?

K 36.26 MFa. mIn = (J" h.


5 X 10-6 n
~ 7470 MPa > yield strength and flaw will not propagate.

46. A ceramic has a fracture toughness of 2.75 MPa m1 / 2 and must experience
an applied stress of 100 MPa. Calculate the size of the maximum
allowable (a) internal flaw and (bl surface flaw.

2.75 = 100 v'ai


0.0007562 = an
2.4 x 10-4 m = a if a surface flaw

and 4.8 x 10- 4 m = 2a if an internal flaw

47. A polymer material has a fracture toughness of 1.65 MPa m1 / 2 and must
experience an applied stress of 30 MFa. Calculate the size of the
maximum allowable (a) internal flaw and (b) surface flaw.

1. 65 = 30 v'ai
0.003025 = an
9.63 x 10- 4 m =a if an internal flaw

1.926 X 10- 3 m = 2a if a surface flaw

48. A titanium alloy (Table 6-8) contains internal flaws that


are 5 mm in
length. Will these flaws propagate if a stress of one-half the yield
strength is applied? Consider both a high strength and a low strength
alloy.

K crV'aIl = (0.5)(YS) vO.005 n = 0.06267(YS)


For high strength Ti, YS = 896 MPa
K = (0.06267)(896) = 56.15 MPa m
1/2
> KIC = 55

79
iO~ ~~~0:~~;~:~2~i~ ~~ ~:6~lW~ K IC = 98.9 MPa mi /2
The cracks may propagate in the high strength alloy but not in the
low strength alloy.

49. A sIlicon nitride ceramic (Table 6-8) contains surface flaws that are
0.02 mm in length. Will these flaws propagate if a stress of one-half
the yield strength is applied?

K = (0.5)(551) ~ x 10-5 W

"'>
2. 186 MP mi /2
5 MPa. mi K

thus the flaws will not propagate.

80
Chapter 7

DEFORMATION, STRAIN HARDENING AND ANNEALING

1. A 12.5 mm diameter bar with a gauge length of 50 mm is subjected to a


tensile test. When a force of 52.8 kN is applied, the specimen has a
diameter of 12.30 mm and a gauge length of 50.115 mm. When a force of
100 kN is applied, the diameter is 10.54 mm and the gauge length is 58.85
mm. (a) Determine the strain-hardening coefficient. (b) Would you
expect the metal to have the FCC structure? Explain.

(a) ~T1 = 52.8 kN/(n/4) (12.30 mm)2 = 0.444 kN/mm2


T1 In(50.175150) = 0.003494

~T2 100 kN/(n/4)(10.54 mm)2 = 1.146 kN/mm2


~T2 = In(58.85150) = 0.16291
In(0.444) InK + nln(0.003494) 11.033 InK - 5.651 n
In(1. 146) InK + nln(0.16291) 11.991 InK = 1.841 n

0.948 = 3.843 n n = 0.25


(b) the strain hardening coefficient of 0.25 is a little low for
the FCC metals listed in Table (1-1).

2. A copper-nickel alloy tensile bar, originally having a 12.5 mm diameter


and a 50 mm gauge length, has a strain-hardening coefficient of 0.48.
The bar falls at an engineering stress of 675 MPa; its gauge length at
the time of failure is 56.5 mm and its diameter is 11.76 mm; no necking
occurred. Calculate the true stress on the bar when the engineering
strain was 0.05.

F = vAo = (615 x 106 Pa)(n/4) (0.0125 m)2 = 82800 N

VT = F/A = (82800 N)/(n/4) (0.01115 m)2


= 188.6 MPa

= In(lllo) = In(56.5150) = 0.1222


~ = 1( 0.48
T T
188.6 = 1(0.1222)48 = 0.3646 I(

I( = 2163 MPa

If the engineering strain is 0.05, then If = 52.5 mm


= In(lll ) = In(52.5150) = 0.04879
T 0
v t = 2163(0.04819)48 = 507.5 MPa

81
3. The Frank-Read source in Figure 7-3(e) has created four dislocation loops
from the original dislocation line. Estimate the total dislocation line
present in the photograph and determine the percent increase in the
length of dislocations produced by the deformation.

If the length of the original dislocation line is 1 mm on the


photograph, then we can estimate the circumference of the
dislocation loops. The loops are not perfect circles, so we might
measure the smallest and largest diameters, then use the average.

first loop: D
small
= 10 mm; Dlarge 14 mm D
average = 12.0 mm
circumference = 12.0'lr

second loop: D
small
= 20 mm; Dlarge 18 mm D
average
19.0 mm
circumference = 19.0'lr

third loop: Dsmall = 28 mm; D 30 mm D 29.0 mm


large average
circumference = 29.0'lr

fourth loop: Dsmall = -42 mm; Dlarge 45 mm D 43.5 mm


average
circumference = 43.5'1r

Therefore in the photograph itself:

total length =1 + (12.0 + 19.0 + 29.0 + 43.5)'Ir = 362.2 mm

The magnification in the photograph is 30,000. Therefore

total length (actual) = 362.2 / 30,000 = 0.0109 mm

The original dislocation line is 1 mm / 30,000 = 0.0000333 mm

%increase = (0.0109 mm / 0.0000333 mm) x 100 32,700%

4. Suppose we begin with a copper plate 75 mm thick. Calculate the total


percent cold work i f (a) we reduce the plate-to 12.5 mm thick and (b) we
reduce the plate first to 25 mm, then later to 12.5 mm.

(a) %CW 75 ;5 12 .5 x 100 = 6~55 x 100 83.3%

(b) %CW 83.3% (the intermediate step does not affect total CW).

5. Suppose we begin with an aluminum bar 75 mm thick. Calculate the total


percent cold work if (a) we reduce the bar to a 12.5 mm diameter and (b)
we reduce the bar first to a 25 mm diameter, then later to a 12.5 mm
diameter.
(75)2 - 02.5)2 5625 - 156
(a) %CW X 100
5625
x 100 97.2%
(75)2

(b) %CW 97.2% (the intermediate step does not affect total CW).

82
6. Calculate (a) the percent cold work and (b) the final properties i f we
reduce a 3105 aluminum plate from an original thickness of 50 mm to a
final thickness of 6.25 mm (See Figure 7-22).

(a) %CW 50 - 6.25 x 100 (b) tensile strength 210 MPa


50
yield strength 200 MPa
87.5% %elongation 2.5%
(Assuming no fracture during deformation. )

7. Calculate (a) the percent cold work and (b) the final properties if we
reduce a C-30% Zn brass bar from an original diameter of 25 mm to a
final diameter of 7 mm (See Figure 7-24).
(25)2 _ (7)2
(a) %CW = x 100 = 92.2%
(25)2

(b) tensile strength 667 MPa


yield strength 450 MPa
%elongation 0% (Assuming no fracture. )

8. Calculate (a) the total percent cold work and (b) the final properties if
we reduce a copper plate from 37.5 mm to 25 mm to 18.75 mm to 15 mm in
three passes through a rolling mill. (See Figure 7-6. )
%CW = 37.5 - 15 x 100 (b) tensile strength 560 MPa
37.5
yield strength 550 MPa
%elongati6n 2%
60%

9. We wish to produce a 3105 aluminum rod having a final yield strength of


at least 170 MPa and a final diameter of 5.625 mm. Using Figure 7.23,
calculate the minimum original diameter required.

To obtain the yield strength, we need at least 50% cold work.

d 2 _ (5.625)2
%CW = _0"--_--::-_----,-_ x 100 = 50
d 2

0.5d 2 31. 64 d = 7.95 mm


o

10. We wish to produce a Cu-30% Zn brass plate having a final % elongation of
at least 20% and a final thickness of 9.375 mm. Using Figure 7.24,
calculate the maximum original thickness required.

We must use no more than 25% cold work.


t - 9.375
0
%CW = x 100 25
t
0.75t
9.375 t = 12.5 mm
0 0

83
11. We would like to produce a copper plate 6.25 mm thick having at least 10%
elongation and a 310 MPa yield strength. Is this possible? If so,
calculate (a) the required percent cold work and (b) the original
thickness of the plate. (See Figure 7-6. )
(a) possible if the percent cold work is between 20 and 30 percent.
t - 6.25
(b) %CW
minimum = 0
t
x 100 = 20% t
0
= 7.81 mm
0
t - 6.25
%CWmaximum
0
t
x 100 = 30% t
0
= 8.93 mm
Any original thickness between 7.81 and 8.93 mm will work.

12. We would like to produce a Cu-30% Zn wire 2.5 mm in diameter with at


least 20% elongation and a 400 MPa tensile strength. Is this possible?
If so, calculate (a) the required percent cold work and (b) the original
diameter of the wire. (See Figure 7-24. )

(a) possible if the percent cold work is between 18 and 23 percent.


d 2 _ (2.5)2
(b) %CW = __o__~_____ x 100 = 18% do = 2.76 mm
minimum d 2
o

d = 2.85 mm
d 2 o
o
Any diameter between 2.76 and 0.285 mm will work.

13. We would like to produce a 3105 aluminum wire 1.25 mm in diameter with at
least 10% elongation and a 170 MPa tensile strength. Is this possible?
If so, calculate (a) the required percent cold work and (b) the original
diameter of the wire. (See Figure 7-23).

(a) To obtain at least 10% elongation, the cold work should be less
than 12%; however, to obtain at least 170 MPa tensile strength,
the cold work should be more than 33%. Consequently it is not
possible to do this.
(b) Does not apply.

14. We would like to produce a Cu-30% Zn wire 5 mm in diameter having at


least 10% elongation and a 480 MPa tensile strength. The original
diameter of the bar Is 100 mm. The maximum allowable cold work is -75%.
Describe the steps required, including percent cold work and intermediate
thicknesses. (See Figure 7-24. )
In order to obtain the desired properties, we need between 25 and 35
percent cold work. Therefore the intermediate diameter should be
d 2 _ (5)2
minimum: __i _______ x 100 = 25% di = 5.77 mm
d 2
1
d 2 _ (5)2
maximum: ....;::.i_-:-_ x 100 35% d i .. 6.20 mm
d 2
i

84
Method 1: Cold work 75% from 100 mm to 50 mm; anneal; cold work 75%
from 50 to 25 mm; anneal; cold work 75% from 25 to 12.5 mm; anneal;
cold work 75% from 12.5 to 6.25 mm; anneal; cold work from 6.25 to
between 5.77 and 6.20 mm; anneal; cold work the final 25 to 35
percent to 5 mm.

Method 2: Hot work from 100 mm to between 0.577 and 6.20 mm; cold
work the final 25 to 35 percent to 5 mm.

15. We would like to produce a copper sheet 3.75 mm thick from an original
plate that is 45 mm thick. The final required properties include at
least a 345 MPa yield strength and 5% elongation. The maximum allowable
cold work per pass is 80%. Describe the steps required, including
percent cold work and intermediate thicknesses. (See Figure 7-6. )

In order to obtain the desired properties, we need between 25 and 40


percent cold work. Therefore the intermediate thickness should be
t.
1
- 3.75
minimum:
t.1
x 100 = 25% t.
1
=5 rom

t.
1
- 3.75
maximum:
t.
x 100 = 40% t.1 = 6.25 mm
1

Method 1: Cold work 80% from 45 to 9 mm; anneal; cold work from 9
mm to between 5 and 6.25 mm; anneal; cold work the final 25 to 40%
to 3.75 mm.

Method 2: Hot work from 45 mm to between 5 and 6.25 mm; cold work
the final 25 to 40% to 3.75 mm.

16. A 5 rom titanium wire is passed through a 4.5 mm diameter die in a


wire-drawing process, producing a wire with a 400 MPa yield strength and
a 580 MPa tensile strength. If the modulus of elasticity of the titanium
is 112 GPa, calculate the diameter of the final wire product.

c = u/E = 400 x 106 /112 X 109 = 0.00357


The stress is compressive as the wire passes through the 45 mm die;
the diameter of the wire increases elastically after deformation.
Therefore the sign of the strain should be negative.

-0.00357

4.5 ,.. d f
-0.00357 4.516 mm
4.5

85
17. A 1.5 mm magnesium wire with a yield strength of 170 MPa is to be
produced by a wire-drawing process. If the modulus of elasticity of the
magnesium is 45.5 GPa calculate the necessary diameter of the opening in
the die.

E = ~IE = 170 x 10 6 /45.5 x 109 = 0.003736


The stress is compressive as the wire passes through the die; the
diameter of the wire increases elastically after deformation.
Therefore the sign of the strain should be negative.
d - 1. 5
E = -o-d.---- = -0.003736
o
d
o
- 1.5 = -0.003846do d
o
= 1. 4944 mm

18. We plan to draw a 6.25 mm diameter Cu-30% Zn wire having a yield strength
of 70 MPa into a 5 mm diameter wire. (a) Using Figure 7-24, calculate
the draw force, assuming no friction. (b) Will the drawn force cause
the drawn wire to break? (Prove by calculating the maximum force that
the drawn wire can withstand. )
(6.25)2 - (5)2
CW = x 100 36%
(6.25)2

Final yield strength = 400 MPa

(a) Fdraw = ~yAo (70 MPa) (n/4) (6.25/1000 m)2


F 2147 N

(b) ~ = 400 = F/(n/4) (5/1000)2 F = 7854 N


The wire will not break because the draw force is less than the
maximum force the drawn wire can withstand.

19. A 3105 aluminum wire 2.5 mm in diameter is to be made having a tensile


strength of 170 MPa. Using Figure 7-23, determine (a) the original
diameter of the wire, (b) the required draw force, and (c) whether the
as-drawn wire will survive the drawing process.

(a) We need 30% cold work to obtain the desired tensile strength
d 2 (2.5)2
o
30% x 100 d
o
2.99 mm
d 2
o

(b) The yield strength before cold working is 56 MPa.

F = (56 MPa) (n/4) (2. 99 x 10- 3 m)2 = 372 N

(c) The yield strength after cold working 30% is 147 MPa.

F = (20,000) (n/4) (2. 5/1000)2 = 720 N

Because the draw force is less than the maximum force that the
wire can withstand, wire drawing is possible.

86
20. Successful wire drawing requires that strain hardening occur during
deformation; what other process(es) in Figure 7-4 might also require
strain hardening?

Deep drawing.

21. (a) From the data below, estimate recovery, recrystallisation, and grain
growth temperatures. (b) Recommend a suitable temperature for stress
relief heat treatment. (c) Recommend a suitable temperature for a
hot-working process. (d) Estimate the melting temperature of the alloy.

Annealing Electrical Yield Grain


Temperature Conductivity Strength Size
(C) (x 10 7 Q- 1 m- ) (MPa) (mm)

200 0.85 830 0.1


400 0.86 830 0.1
600 1. 08 830 0.1
800 1. 24 830 0.1
1000 1. 25 620 0.0375
1200 1. 25 580 0.0375
1400 1. 26 565 0.0625
1600 1. 26 550 0.1625
2000 1. 26 545 0.375

(a) Electrical conductivity begins to increase between 400 and


600C; yield strength and grain size both decrease between 800
and 1000C; grain size begins to increase between 1200 and
1400 C. Therefore

recovery temperature 500C


recrystallization temperature 900C
grain growth temperature 1300C

(b) Stress relieve above the recovery temperature but below the
recrystallization temperature. A temperature of about 700C
might be appropriate.

(c) hot-work above the recrystallization temperature but below the


grain growth temperature. A temperature of about 1100C might
be appropriate.

(d) The recrystallization temperature is approximately 0.4 times


the absolute melting temperature of the metal:

T
r
= 0.4Tmp (abs) = 900 + 273 = 1173 K

Tmp = 2933 K = 2660C

87
22. (a) From the data below, estimate the recovery, recrystallization, and
grain growth temperatures. (b) Recommend a suitable temperature for a
stress relief heat treatment. (c) Recommend a suitable temperature for
a hot-working process. (d) Estimate the melting temperature of the
alloy.

Annealing Residual Yield Grain


Temperature Stresses Strength Size
(oC) (MPa) (MPa) (mm)

100 310 550 0.20


200 310 550 0.20
~O 310 550 0.20
400 0 550 0.20
500 0 310 0.06
600 0 260 0.06
700 0 255 0.08
800 0 255 0.18

(a) Residual stresses are eliminated between 300 and 400C; yield
strength and grain size decrease between 400 and 500C; grain size
increases between 600 and 700C. therefore

recovery temperature = 350C


recrystallization temperature 450C
grain growth temperature = 650C
(b) Stress relieve above the recovery but below recrystallization
temperature. A stress relief temperature of about 400C is
appropriate.

(c) Hot-work above the recrystallization but below the irain growth
temperature. A hot-working temperature of about 550 C might be
appropriate.

(d) Recrystallization occurs at about 0.4 times the absolute melting


temperature of the metal.

Tr = 0.4Tmp (abs) = 450 + 273 723 K

Tmp = 1808 K = 1535C

23. Aluminum is often added to liquid steel, causing deoxidation by producing


tiny Al a0 3 inclusions which are dispersed uniformly throughout the steel
after solidification. What effects will the alumina particles have on
the recrystallized grain size and the temperature at which grain growth
will become a problem?

The aluminum oxide particles will produce a smaller grain size and
will increase the temperature required for grain growth to occur.

88
24. From the photomicrographs in Figure 7-16, estimate the ASTM grain size
numbers and plot the grain size number versus the annealing temperature.

The approximate number of grains per square inch in each


photomicrograph at 75x is:

400C: N = 26/in 2 @l 75x (26) (75/100)2 @l100x


(26) (75/100)2 14.6 = 2 n- 1
In(14.6) (n - 1)1n(2)
2.683 = (n - 1) (0. 693) n = 4.9
650C: N 3/in2 @l 75x (3)(75/100)2 @l100x
(3) (75/100)2 1. 7 = -f1- 1
In( 1. 7) (n - 1)1n(2)
0.53 (n - 1)(0.693) n = 1.8

800C: N 0.7/in 2 @l 75x (0.7)(75/100)2 @l 100x


(0.7) (75/100)2 0.4 = 2 n- 1
In(0.4) (n - 1)ln(2)
(-0.92) (n - 1) (0. 693) n = -0.3
25. Using the data in Table 7-4, plot the recrystallization temperature
versus the melting temperature of each metal, using absolute
temperatures. Measure the slope and compare with the expected
relationship between these two temperatures. Is our approximation a good
one?

converting to absolute temperature and plotting, we find that the


approximation is accurate.

T T
~ r

-
Al 933 K 423 K 2000
Mg 923 K 473 K :i'
Ag 1235 K 473 K
Au 1337 K 473 K ...=
1000
Cu 1358 K 473 K
Fe 1811 K 723K
Pt 2042 K 723K
Ni 1726 K 873 K
Mo 2883 K 1173 K Melting Temperature (K)
Ta 3269 K 1273 K
W 3683 K 1473 K

26. When copper is joined to nickel by a roll bonding process, a minimum of


85% deformation is required. Measure the thickness of a quarter, then
estimate the minimum combined original thickness of the copper and nickel
alloy sheets from which the quarter was produced.

The thickness of a quarter is approximately 0.062 in


t - 0.062
%CW -O--t,------- x 100 = 85 t = 0.413 in
o
o

89
27. Two sheets of annealed aluminum alloy 3105, each 2.5 mm thick, are to be
joined by cold indentation welding. A total deformation of 67% is
required at the joint to obtain bonding. (a) What is the final
thickness of the joint? (b) What is the final yield strength of the
material in the joint? (c) Estimate the force that each individual
sheet could withstand and the force that the joint could withstand if the
force was applied parallel to the surface of the sheets. (Refer to
Figure 7-23. )

(a) %CW 67 1. 65 mm

(b) 177 MPa

(c) Each individual sheet, whose cross-sectional area is 2.5 w,


where w is the width in mm, has a yield strength of 56 MPa.
The joint, which has a cross-sectional area 1.65 w, has a yield
strength of 177 MPa. Therefore

sheet: F (56 x 106 )(2.5w/10 6 ) = 140 N/mm length

joint: F 292 N/mm length

28. We plan to produce a cold indentation weld in annealed copper alloy


(Figure 7-6) sheet material. Each sheet is 5 mm thick. the final
thickness of the joint is 3.75 mm. (a) Estimate the percent cold work
done in the joining process. (b) Estimate the yield strength in the
original material and in the final joint.
(a) %CW = 10 ~03.76 x 100 = 62.5%
(b) The yield strength of the original material is 150 MPa; the
yield strength of the joint is 480 MPa.

29. Suppose two sheets of aluminum alloy 3105 were to be jOined by cold
indentation welding. What effect, if any, would there be on the joining
process if the aluminum sheet had been cold worked 50% prior to JOInIng
compared with the originally annealed sheet? (Refer to Figure 7-23)

Less deformation could be done without embrittling the joint. If


insufficient deformation could be accomplished due to this
embrittling potential, then no bonding would occur.

30. Annealing of a nickel alloy requires 1 h at 620C. If you wanted to


complete the annealing process in 15 min, what temperature would you
recommend?

The time for annealing approximately doubles for every decrease of


10C, or it would be cut in half for each increase of 10C. If it
takes 60 minutes at 620C, then it would take 30 minutes at 630C,
and would take 15 minutes at 640C. Therefore we recommend an
annealing temperature of 640C.

90
31. You would like to produce the following.products. For each one, tell
whether you would recommend hot working, cold working. or a combination
of cold working and annealing; tell which, if any, of the processes shown
in Figure 7-4 would be suitable; and explain your choice.

(a) Paper clips: cold working would be appropriate - the parts are
small so little force is required, processing would be very
rapid, and little or no finishing to remove oxidation products
would be necessary.

(b) I-beams that will be welded to produce a portion of a bridge:


hot working would be more appropriate = the parts are rather
large, so less force would be required for deformation, a
continuous hot forming process could be developed, and surface
finish is not critical.

(c) Copper tubing that will connect a water tap to the main copper
plumbing: a cold work and annealing cycle would be desired
the cold working would permit a good surface finish to be
obtained, while annealing would then soften the tubing so it
could be deformed during installation and would also improve
the corrosion resistance.

(d) The steel tape in a tape measure: cold working would be


desired to produce a good surface finish, to give rapid
production rates, and to provide good stiffness to the tape.

(e) A head for a carpenter's hammer formed from a round rod: hot
working would be desired to assure adequate ductility and metal
flow during a forging process, giving the detail that is
necessary. The hammer head would later be heat treated to
obtain the desired strength, hardness, and toughness.

32. What deformation bonding process would you recommend for each of the
following? Explain your choices.

(a) Joining a 100 mm diameter steel shaft to a 100 mm diameter


stainless steel shaft: friction welding would be appropriate,
since the shafts are both symmetrical.

(b) Sealing an electronic device in a protective box made from 0.5


mm thick stainless steel: ultrasonic bonding would be
appropriate since the material is rather thin.

(c) Joining a 25 mm thick steel plate to a 6.25 mm thick titanium


plate, where the length and width of the plates are each 1.8 m:
roll bonding or explosive bonding would both be appropriate for
producing complete bonding in material of this size.

91
Chapter 8

SOLIDIFICATION AND GRAIN SIZE STRENGTHENING

1. Plot the maximum observed undercooling versus the freezing temperature


for the metals listed in Table 8-1. Do the data in the table confirm the
relationship expressed in Equation 8-5?
500
Metal l1T(K) T (K)
m
400
Ga 76 30 + 273 303
Bi 90 271 + 273 544 300
Pb 80 327 + 273 600
Ag 250 962 + 273 1235 g200
H
Cu 236 1085 + 273 1358 <l
Ni 480 1453 + 273 1726 100
Fe 420 1538 + 273 1811
0

T (K)
m
The graph shows that there is a
rough correlation between the
observed data and the generalised
Equation 8-5

2. Calculate the temperature and the number of degrees of undercooling at


which lead (Pb) should nucleate homogeneously.

l1T ~ 0.2(327 + 273) ~ 120C T ~ 327 - 120 207C


n

3. Calculate the size of the critical radius when lead nucleates


homogeneously.
2uT
r
m (2) (33 x 10- 3 J/rt ) (600 K) ~ 1. 39 x 10-9m ~ 13.9 A
l1Hf l1T (237 X 106 J/m2 ) (120 K)

4. Calculate the number of atoms in the critical radius when lead nucleates
homogeneously. the lattice parameter of FCC lead is about 4.9489 A.

(41[/3) (13. 9 x 10-scm)3 11.249 X 10- 24 cm3


Vnucleus

Vunit cell
(4.9489 x 10-s )3 121.207 x 10- 24 cm 3

11. 249 x 10- 24


unit cells/nucleus 92.8
121. 207 x 10-24

atoms/nucleus ~ (4 atoms/cell) (92.8 cells) ~ 371

5. Calculate the temperature and the number of degrees of undercooling at


which silver (Ag) should nucleate homogeneously.

l1T ~ (0.2)(962 + 273) ~ 0.2(1235) = 247C T


n
962 - 247 ~ 715C

92
6. calculate the size of the critical radius when silver nucleates
homogeneously.
2O'Tm
r = 6Hf 6T

For Ag Tm 1235 K
6T 247C
latent heat of fusion = aHf = 965 x 106 J/m3
surface energy = 0' = 126 X 10-3 J/m2
(2)((126 x 10-3 )(1235)
:. r = ..:..=.:...:...:.=;=....:.:.-=..:=--~~=..:..
(965 x 106 )(247)

13.06 x 10-10 m = 13.06 A


7. Calculate the number of atoms in the critical radius when silver
nucleates homogeneously. the lattice parameter of FCC silver is about
4.0862 A.

(4'/[/3) (13. 069 x 10- 1)3 = 9.3307 X 10-27 m3


Vnucleus

Vunit cell = (4.0862 x 10-1)3 = 6.8227 X 10-29 m3


9.3307 x 10-27
unit cells/nucleus 136.76 = - - - - - -
6.8227 X 10-29
4 atoms/cell in FCC structure

.. atoms/nucleus = (4) (136. 76) 547

8. Suppose that a nucleus of lead is formed homogeneously with an


undercooling of only 10C. How many atoms would have had to
spontaneously group together in order for this to occur?

20' T
m
r*
= aRfaT

(2) (33 x 10-3 ) (600)


(237 x 106 )(10)

vnucleus (4'/[/3)( 1. 6708 x 10-8 )3 = 1. 9537 x 10-23m3

v = (4.9489 x to- 10 )3 = 1. 212 X 10-28 m3


uni t cell
1. 9537 X 10- 23
unit cells/nucleus = -------------- 1. 612 X 105
1. 212 X 10-28

atoms/nucleus (4)(1.612 X 105 ) = 6.448 X 105

93
9. Suppose that a nucleus of silver is formed homogeneously with an
undercooling of only 25C. How many atoms would have had to
spontaneously group together in order for this to occur?

20' Tm
r = LllifflT

2(126 x 10-3 ) (1235)


1. 29 X 10-8 m
(965 x 106 )(25)

Vnucleus

Vunit cell
-24
unit cells/nucleus = 8.992 x 10 = 131,790
6.823 x 10-29
atoms/nucleus = (4)(131,790) = 527,160

10. Calculate and plot how the total free energy flF changes with the radius
of a spherical nucleus of nickel at undercoolings of 25C and 350C.
3 2
flF = (4n/3)r (-flHfflT/Tm) + 4nO'r

2756 x 106 fiT) 3


flF = -(4n/3) ( (1453 + 273) r + 4n(255 x

flF = =(6.688474 x 106 )flTr3 + 3.2044 r2

For fiT = 25C


f.F = 3.2044r2 - 1.6721 x 108 r3

rim flF/J
0 0
50 X 10- 10 5.921 X 10-17 = 0.05921 X 10-15
100 X 10- 10 1. 5323 X 10-16 = 0.15323 X 10-15
150 X 10- 10 1. 5666 X 10-16 = O. 1566 X 10-15
200 X 10- 10 -0.0559 X 10-15
250 X 10- 10 -0.6099 X 10-15

For fiT = 350C


flF = 3.2044r2 - 2.3409 X 109 r3

rim flF/J
0 0
5 X 10- 10 5.0849 X 10-19 = 0.5085 X 10-18
10 X 10- 10 o 8635 X 10-18
12 X 10- 10 0.5693 X 10-18
15 X 10- 10 -0.6906 X 10-18
20 X 10- 10 -0.591 X 10-17 = 5.91 X 10- 18

94
0.15

[) T ';0 25
1.D [) T -:: 3500
010

~ 0.05 - ~
U'l

"0 <0
-10
.x 0 r><1 0-10 m '0
0 r><10 m
LL 100 )(
20
<I LL.
<I

-Q.1 0

11. Estimate the percent of solidification that will occur in a dendritic


manner when nickel nucleates (a) with 10C undercooling, (b) with 100C
undercooiing ~ ~nd (c) homogeneously. The specific heat of nickel is
4.1 x 10 J/m. C.
_ ct.T
(a) f - rul
f
(4.1 x 106 )(10)
= 0.0149
2756 x 106
ct.T
(b) f = t.Hf
(4.1 x 106 )(100)
= 0.149
2756 x 106
f ct.T
(c)
= t.Hf
(4.1 x 106 )(0.2)(1453 + 273)
..:...:.c:...::...::.....=-=-~.::.:..::::..:...:.::...:::=---.:::.:.:::..:. = O. 514
2756 x 106

12. For silver, plot the percent of solidification that will occur in a
dendritic manner versus the undercooling produ~ed 3 P!ior to
solidification. The specific heat of silver is 3.25 x 10 J/a. C.
f _ ct.T _ (3.25 x 106 )t.T
= 0.00337 t.T
- t.Hf -
(965 X 10 6 )
100
80
CJ
f ~
~

10 0.0337
~
...
"tI
I'l
50 0.1685 Q)

100 0.337 ~ t.T(oC)


N
250 0.843

95
13. If 38% of solidification of iron occurs by dendritic growth, estimate the
undercooling that must have been achieved ;riolj oto nucleation. The
specific heat of the iron liquid is 5.78 x 10 Jim. C.
6
f ~ 0.38 ~ (5.78 x 10 )~T
(1737 x 106 )

14. If a 75 mm cube solidifies in 35 min, calculate (a) the mold constant and
(b) the total solidification time for a 25 mm x 175 mm x 375 mm plate.

(a) t ~ B(V/A)2

.. 35 ~B ( 75 3 )2
75 2 X 6
35 2
.. 156. 25 ~ 0.224 minutes/mm ~ B

(b) time ~ 0.224 ( 25 x 175 x 375 )2


(2 x 25 x 175)+(2 x 175 x 375)+(2 x 375 x 25)

1640625)2
0.224 ( 158750

0.224 x 106.8
23.9 minutes

15. If a 3 cm x 8 cm x 18 cm plate solidifies in 16 min, calculate (a) the


mold constant and (b) the total solidification time for a 6 cm diameter
sphere.
3
(a) V (3)(9)(18) ~ 432 cm
2
A 2(3)(8) + 2(3)(18) + 2(8) (18) ~ 444 cm

B(432/444)2 B 2
16 ~ 16.9 min/cm

(b) V (4nI3) (612)3 ~ 113.097 cm3


A 4n(6/2)3 = 113.097 cm2

t
s
16.9(113.097/113.097)2 = 16.9 min

16. The following data are obtained from a series of copper castings.
Determine the mold constant B and the exponent n in Chvorinov's rule for
copper.

Size Solidification Time


(mm) (min)
6.25 x 6.25 x 150 0.2
23 x 25 x 200 2.7
75 mm diameter sphere 5.9
150 mm cube 18.0

96
V/A log t log V/A
mm

5859.4 3828 1.53 -0.69897 0.1847


125000 16250 7.6923 0.43136 0.8861
220593 17671 12.5 0.77085 1. 0969
3375000 135000 25 1. 25527 1. 3979 "'01>
L -__________________________________________ ~~

o
n = gradient = 1.25527
1.3979
- 0.43136
_ 0.8861 1.61 ..J ot---::-!:'l~--.-__:_T"t
't'OC.IJj4
log t = log B when log V/A = 0 .ooG

17. During conventional castigg of an aluminum alloy, Chvorinov's rule is


given by ts = 0.26(V/A)1.6, using units of mm and minutes. Using the
evaporative pattern casting process (see Chapter 1), a series of aluminum
castings solidifies according to the following data. Determine the
constants Band n in Chvorinov's rule and determine the effect of the
Styrofoam pattern on solidification time.

Size Solidification Time


(mm))mm (min)
6.25 x 150 x 150 1.3
12.5 x 150 x 150 3.5
25 x 150 x 150 8.5
75 x 150 x 150 25.9

Volume Area2 V/A log t log V/A


3
mm mm mm

140625 48750 2.88 0.1149 0.4594


281250 52500 5.357 0.5441 0.7289
,.0
562500 60000 9.375 0.9294 0.9719
1.687500 90000 18.75 1.4133 1. 273
L -____________________________________ ~~~,
.it

1. 4133 - 0.5441
o
n = gradient = 1.273 _ 0.7289 1.6 .J 0 I--,h-------r~
..., ,..G
I-OGlV/R:
log t = log B when log v/a =0

The effect of the styrofoam is to decrease the cooling time because


B = 0.24 < 0.26 for conventional process and 'n' remains the same,
because heat is used to melt and vaporise the foam.

97
18. Figure 8-7(b) shows a photograph of an aluminum alloy. Estimate (a) the
secondary dendrite arm spacing and (b) the local solidification time for
that area of the casting.

(a) The distance between adjacent dendrite arms can be measured.


Although most people doing these measurements will arrive at
slightly different numbers, the author's calculations obtained
from four different arms are:

16 mm / 6 arms 2.67 mm
9mm/5arms 1. 80 mm
13 mm / 7 arms 1. 85 mm
18 mm / 9 arms 2.00 mm average = 2.08 mm 0.208 cm

Dividing through by the magnification:

SDAS = 0.208 cm / SOx = 0.00416 cm = 4.16 x 10-3 cm

(b) From Figure 8-8, LST = 90 s.

19. Figure 8-26 shows a photograph of a copper alloy. Estimate (a) the
secondary dendrite arm spacing and (b) the local solidification time for
that area of the casting.

(a) the distance between adjacent dendrite arms can be measured.


Although most people doing these measurements will arrive at
slightly different numbers, the author's calculations obtained
from four different arms are:

33 mm / 11 arms 3.0 mm
27 mm / 9 arms 3.0 mm
23 mm / 6 arms 3.8 mm
24 mm / 8 arms 3.0 mm average 3.2 mm 0.32 cm

Dividing through by the magnification:

SDAS = 0.32 cm / 30x 0.0107 cm = 1.07 x 10-2 cm

(b) From Figure 8-8, LST 10 s.

20. Which aluminum casting will have the higher strength - a 25 mm x 200 mm x
200 mm plate or a 31.25 mm x 200 mm bar? Estimate the secondary dendrite
arm spacing in the center of each casting, using the equation for
solidification time given in Problem 8-17.

For casting 1, V 25 x 200 x 200 105 mm3


A (4 x 25 x 200) + 2(200) (200)
20000 + 80000
104 mm
V/A 10

From the equation in Problem 8-17


t = 0.26 (V/A)1.6 10.35 minutes
= 621 seconds

98
For casting 2, V = (31.25)(31 j 25)(200)
= 195312.5 nun
A(4 x 31.25 x 200) + 2(31.25)2
25000 + 1953.13
26953 nun2
.. VIA = 7.2464

t = 0.26 (VIA) 1. 6 = 0.26 (7.2464)1. 6


(0.26) (23. 779)
= 6.18 min = 371 s

SDAS = K t sn
From the example in the text,

assuming K = (8 x 10-3 ) mm and n = 0.42


SDAS for casting 1 = (8 X 10- 3 )(621).42 = 0.12 nun
SDAS for casting 2 = (8 X 10- 3 )(371).42 = 0.096 mm
Casting 2 is the stronger; i t has the shorter solidification time
and the smaller secondary dendrite arm spacing.

21. Which copper casting will have the higher strength = a cylindrical bar
37.5 mm in diameter and 200 mm taIlor a 25 nun x 300 nun x 300 mm plate?
(VIA) = (n/4) (37.5) x 200
2
220893
1 2(n/4)(37.5)2 + n(37.5)200 25770.9
= 8.57
(300)2 X 25 2250000
4(25)(300) + 2(300)(300) 210000
10.7
Casting 1 will be stronger, because its VIA ratio is smaller and
therefore it will solidify in a shorter time and possess a
smaller SDAS.

22. Calculate (a) the diameter of the sphere that would freeze in the same
time as a 62.5 nun x 150 mm x 225 nun plate and (b) the ratio of the volume
of the sphere to the volume of the plate.
(62.5)(150)(225)
(VIA) plate
(2)(62.5)(225) + (2)(150)(225) + (2)(150)(62.5)

2109375 nun3
114375 nuns.
18.4426 nun

(VIA) sphere = (4/3nr 3 )/(4nr2 ) r/3 = D/6 18.4426


:. D = 110.66 mm

( 110.66)3
V sphere (4n/3~ -2-- ?09529.8
V plate 2109375 2109375

= 0.336

99
23. We need a riser for an aluminum casting that takes at le~st 25 min to
solidify. Suppose that the mold constant is 0.26 min mm. Which one
of the following riser shapes will satisfy this requirement with the
least riser volume or mass - a cube, a sphere, or a cylinder with an HID
ratio of 1. 07

Assuming mould constant = 0.26 mins/mm2


and t = 0.26 (V/A)1.6
Cube: 25 0.26 (a3 /6a2 )1.6 = 0.26 (a/6)1.6
a 104.11 mm
V a 3 = 1,128,538 mm3

Sphere: 25 0.26 [(4nr 3 /3)/(4nr 2 )]1.6 = 0.26 (r/3)1.6


r = 52 mm V = 4/3nr 3 = 590,901 mm3

Cylinder: 25 0.26 [(n/4}D 3 12(n/4)D2 + nD2]1.6


0.26 (D/6) .6
. D 104.11 mm
V (n/4)D 3
886,354 mm 3

Therefore, the sphere requires the least volume or mass.

24. Calculate the volume, diameter, and height of the cylindrical riser
having an HID ratio of 2 that would be required to prevent shrinkage in a
steel casting having dimensions of 50 mm x 225 mm x 250 mm.

V casting (50)(225)(250) = 2812500 mm3


A casting (50)(225) + 2(50)(250) + 2(225)(250)
22500 +4250~0 + 112500
16 x 10 mm

V riser (n/4)D 2H (n/4)D 2 (2D) = nD 3 /2


A riser 2(n/4)D 2 + nDH = 2(n/4)D2 + nD(2D)
5nD 2/2

(VIA) riser ~ (VIA) casting


3
nD 12 ~ 2812500 or DIS ~ 17.5781
5nD2/2 160000
D = 87.89 mm
H = 175.78 mm 3
V= 1,066,444.5 mm

25. Calculate the volume, diameter, and height of the cylindrical riser
having and HID ratio of 1.5 that would be required to prevent shrinkage
in an aluminum casting having dimensions of 75 mm x 100 mm x 125 mm.

V casting (75)(100)(125) = 937500 mm3


A casting 2(75)(100) + 2(75)(125) + 2(100)(125)
15000 + 18750 + 25000
58750 mm2

V riser (n/4)D 2H (3n/8)D 3


A riser 2(n/4)D 2 + nDH = 2nD2

100
(VIA) riser ~ (VIA) casting

(3K/8)D3/2KDz ~ ~~~~~O

3D/16 ~ 15.957
D ~ 85.1 DIID
(ie) D = 85.1 DIID, H = 127.66 DIID, V = 726055 mm3

26. A step-block casting is shown in Figure 8-27, along with an attached


riser. Compare the solidification times of each casting section and
riser and decide if the riser will prevent shrinkage.
(2)(6)(8) 96
(V/A)1 = 2(2)(6) + 2(6)(8) + 2(2)(8) = 152 = 0.632 t = 0.40B

(4)(6)(6) 144
(V/A)z = 2(6)(6) + 2(4)(6) + (4)(6) + (2)(6) = 156 = 0.923 t = 0.85B
(Kl4)(5)z(8) 157.1
(V/A)R = = 145.29 = 1.081 t = 1.17B
(K/4)(5)z + K(5)(8)

The solidification time progressively increases from the extremity


of the casting towards the riser; therefore the riser will be
effective and will prevent shrinkage.

27. A step-block casting is shown in Figure 8-28, along with an attached


riser. Compare the solidification times of each casting section and
riser and decide if the riser will prevent shrinkage.
(4)(5)(6) 120
(V/A)1 = 2(4)(6) + 2(3)(5) + (4)(5) + (3)(4)= 110 = 1.091 t = 1.19B
(5)(4)(2) 40
(V/A)z 2(2)(5) + (2)(4) + 2(5)(4) = 68 = 0.589 t = 0.35B

(VIA) = (K/4) (4) z (8)


_ 100.5
R 2(K/4) (4)z + K(4)(8)- 125.7 = 0.80 t = 0.64B

The first section to freeze is that portion of the casting adjacent


to the riser. This freezing will then isolate the thick casting
part from the riser; consequently shrinkage will occur in the thick
section and the riser is not effective.

28. The following data were obtained from castings poured using a superalloy.
Determine the constants k and m that relate secondary dendrite" arm
spacing to local solidification time.

Solidification time Dendrite Arm spacing


(s) (mm)

300 0.020
1000 0.032
2500 0.046
5000 0.060

101
From the graph,
o.1o.----------------------------------,
n = 3.9/10 = 0.39
SO.05
From the equation <J
"J

SDAS = k(LST)0.39
0.032 = kOOOOO)0.39
0.032 = 14.791k

k = 0.0022 0.01~1~0~0--------'5~0~0.---1~0~0~0.---~5~6~0~0~1~0,~000
Solidification Time (s)

29. When aluminum powder particles are produced by rapid solidification


processing, solidification times of 0.0005 s are observed. Estimate the
secondary dendrite arm spacing of the metal powders and compare to the
SDAS of an aluminum casting that is 25 mm x 250 mm x 250 mm, using the
expression for Chvorinov's rule given in Problem 8-17.

Solidification time for the casting is


t = 0.26(V/A)1.6
s
volume (25)(250)(250) = 1562500 mm3
Area 4(25)(250) + 2(250)(250)
25000 + 125000 =
150000 mm2

.. t 0.26 0562500/150000)1.6
s
11.05 minutes = 663 s

SDAS(cm)

:. SDAS casting 8 x 10- 4 (663)42


0.0122 cm
and SDAS powder 8 x 10- 4 (0.0005).42
0.000033 cm

30. The solidification time of a typical aluminum weld is about 4s. Compare
the secondary dendrite arm spacing in the fusion zone of the weld to that
in a 75 rom x 125 rom x 200 mm aluminum casting whose mold constant is
0.072 min/mm2 and whose exponent n is 1.5.

For the casting


V 75 x 125 x 200 = 1875000 mm3
A 2(75)(125) + 2(75)(200) + 2(125)(200)
48750 + ~OOOO
98750 mm
1875000) 1. 5
~ts 0.26 ( 98750

0.26 (18.9873)1.5
= 21. 51 minutes
1291 s

102
SDAS = 8 X 10- 4 to. 42
.. SDAS casting 0.016 em
SDAS weld = 0.001 em
31. The cooling curves in Figure 8-29 were obtained from the surface,
mid-radius, and center of a continuously cast copper bar. Determine the
local solidification time and the SDAS at each location. Is the surface
of a casting expected to be weaker or stronger than the center?

surface: LST 9 - 3 = 6 min = 360 s SDAS 0.04 cm


mid-radius: LST 20 - 8 = 12 min = 720 s SDAS 0.06 cm
center: LST 38 - 18 = 20 min = 1200 s SDAS 0.10 em

The surface will be the strongest.

32. A cooling curve is shown in Figure 8-30. Determine (a) the pouring
temperature, (b) the freezing temperature, (c) the superheat, (d) the
cooling rate just before freezing begins, (e) the total solidification
time, (n the local solidification time and (g) the probable identity of
the material.

(a) pouring temperature = 800C


freezing temperature = 650C
.
(b)
(c) superheat = 800 - 650 = 150C
(d) cooling rate = ~T/~t = 150/10 15 C/min
(e) total solidification time 40 min
(n local solidification time = 40 - 10 = 30 min
(g) magnesium

33. A cooling curve is shown in Figure 8-31. Determine (al the pouring
temperature, (b) the freezing temperature, (cl the superheat, (d) the
cooling rate just before freezing begins, (e) the total solidification
time, (f) the local solidification time, and (g) the undercooling.

(a) pouring temperature = 2100C


(b) freezing temperature = 1750C
(c) superheat = 2100 - 1750 = 350C
(d) cooling rate = ~T/~t = (2100 - 1650) / 50 = 9C/s
(e) total solidification time = 350 s
(f) local solidification time = 350 - 50 = 300 s
(g) undercooling = 1750 - 1650 = 100C

34. Suppose a 125 mm cube of copper is allowed to solidify and all of the
shrinkage occurs in the center of the casting as a spherical cavity.
Estimate the diameter and volume of the shrinkage cavity.

V casting = (125)3 = 1953125 mm3

V shrinkage = 5.1% = (0.051)(19~3125)


= 99609.4 mm

volume (4n/3)r 3 99609.4 mm3


r 28.757 mm
d = 57.5 mm

103
35. The entire shrinkage in a 125 mm spherical casting is found as a
spherical cavity with a diameter of 43.75 Mm. Estimate the percent
volume change during solidification.

(4n/3) (43.75/2)3
Xvolume change = x 100
(4n/3) 025/2)3

~~:~~o~~ x 100
= 4.29X
36. A 30 mm x 60 mm x 80 mm copper casting is produced which weighs 1220 g.
Calculate the percent shrinkage that occurred during the solidification
process. What would be the volume of the shrinkage cavity at the center
of the casting?

V casting (30)(60)(80) = 144000 mm3

P 0.00893 g mm- 3
expected weight = 1285.92 ~
X h ink _ 1285.92 - 1220 x 100 = 5.13X
.. s rage - 1285.92
65.92 3
Shrinkage volume = 0.00893 7381.9 mm

37. A 25 mm x 300 mm x 300 mm aluminum casting is produced which weighs 5.9


kg. Calculate the percent shrinkage that occurred during the
solidification process. If the shrinkage is distributed as spherical
pores, each having a diameter of 0.05 mm, how many pores are present in
the casting?

V casting = 25 x 300 x 300 2,250,000 mm3

PAl = 2.699 Mg/m


3

~ weight = 2.25 x 2.699 = 6.07275 kg

:.X shrinkage = 6. ~~~~~7; 5.9 x 100

= 2.845X

shrinkage volume = 64012.5 mm


volume of pores = (4n/3)(0.025)3
= 6.54 x 10-5 mm3
Number of pores = 64012.5/6.54 x 10-5
= 9.8 X 108
38. Suppose liquid aluminum completely fills a metal mold that is 75 mm x 75
mm x 900 mm and is controlled so that all of the shrinkage occurs along
the length of the casting. What is the length of the aluminum casting
immediately after solidification?

Assuming Xshrinkage for Al 7


93
Lf = 100 x 900 = 837 mm

104
39. The density of liquid bismuth is 10.067 Mg/m3 and the density of solid
bismuth is 9.6 Mg/m 3 Determine (a) the percent volume change during
freezing and (b) whether the casting shrinks or expands during freezing.

(a) "change (1 I 10.067) = (1 I 9.5) x 100 0.09933 - 0.10526 x 100


(1 I 10.067) 0.09933
"change -5.97"

(b) bismuth expands during freezing.

40. Suppose we produce an aluminum casting containing gas porosity. What


forming process discussed in Chapter 7 would best be used to help close
up the porosity without creating any major change in the dimensions of
the casting?

Isotactic compaction.

41. Figure 8-10 shows the dendrites in a titanium powder particle that has
been rapidly solidified. Assuming that the size of the titanium
dendrites is related to solidification time by the same relationship as
in aluminum, estimate the solidification time of the powder.

the secondary dendrite arm spacing can be estimated from the


photograph at several locations. the author's calculations, derived
from measurements at three locations, are

11 mm I 8 arms 1. 375 mm
13 mm I 8 arms 1. 625 mm
13 mm I 8 arms 1. 625 mm
average 1. 540 mm

Dividing by the magnification of 2200:

SDAS = 1.540 mm I 2200 =7 x 10- 4 mm =7 x 10-S cm

The relationship between SDAS and solidification time, Example 8-5,


is

SDAS

t (0.0875)1/0.42 = 0.003 s

105
Chapter 9

SOLIDIFICATION AND SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING

1. The triple point for water occurs at 0.007 atm and 0.0075C. Using this
information and your knowledge of the behaviour of water at atmospheric
pressure, construct a schematic unary phase diagram.

------1 atm

2. The unary phase diagram for 5i02 is shown in Figure 14-6. Locate the
triple point where solid, liquid and vapour coexist and give the
temperature and type of solid present. What do other "triple" points
indicate?

(a) The solid-liquid-vapour triple point occurs at 1713C; the


solid present is ~-cristobalite.

(b) The other triple points give an equilibrium between two solids
and a vapour.

3. Which of the following systems would be expected to display unlimited


solid solubility?

(a) Au-Ag: both are FCC


both have a valence of +1 and similar
electronegativities
%~r = (1.442 - 1.445)/1.442 x 100 = 0.2

(b) Ag-Na both are FCC


both have a valence of +1, although
electronegativities are not similar
%~r = (1.858 - 1.445)/1.445 x 100 29

(c) AI-Cu both are FCC


Al has a valence of +3; Cu has a valence of +1
Y~r = (1.432 - 1.278)/1.278 x 100 = 12

(d) Al-Li Al is FCC; Li is BCC


Al has a valence of +3; Li has a valence of +1
%~r = (1.519 - 1.432)/1.432 x 100 = 6

Only the Au-Ag system should display complete solid solubility.

106
4. Which of the following systems would be expected to display unlimited
solid solubility?

(a) Cs-K: both are BCC


both have a valence of +1
%ll.r = (2.65 - 2.314)/2.314 x 100 14.5

(b) AI-Au: both are FCC


Al has a valence of +3; Au has a valence of +1
%ll.r = (1.442 - 1.432)/1.432 x 100 = 0.7

(c) U-W: uranium is orthorhombic: tungsten is BCC


both have a valence of +4
%ll.r = (1.38 - 1.371)/1.371 x 100 = 0.7

(d) Mo-Ta both are BCC


Mo has a valence of +4; Ta has a valence of +5
%ll.r = (1.43 - 1.363)/(1.363 x 100 = 5

The Cs-K system has the best chance for complete solid solubility
although the radius ratio is very close.

5. Suppose 1 at% of the following elements are added to aluminum without


exceeding the solubility limit. Which one would be expected to give the
higher strength alloy? Will any alloying element have unlimited solid
solubility in aluminum?

Aluminum is FCC, has a valence of +3, and an atomic radius of 1. 432 A.

(a) Ge: DC, +4 valence, r = 1.225 -7 14.5% ll.r

(b) Ag: FCC, +1 valence, r = 1.445 -7 0.9% ll.r

(c) Cu: FCC, +1 valence, r = 1.278 -7 10.8% ll.r

(d) Mg: HCP, +2 valence, r = 1.604 -7 12.0% ll.r

(e) Li: BCC, +1 valence, r = 1. 519 -7 6.1% ll.r

(0 Zn: HCP, +2 valence, r = 1.332 -7 7.0% ll.r

Because Ge atoms have the largest size difference compared to


aluminum, we might expect the greatest solid solution strengthening
effect from germanium.

We do not expect to have complete solid solubility in any of these


systems.

6. Determine the liquidus temperature, solidus temperature, and freezing


range for a Cu-25% Ni alloy.

liquidus = 1210 0
C solidus = 1170C
freezing range = 1210 - 1170 = 40C

107
7. Determine the liquidus temperature, solidus temperature, and freezing
range for a Cu-50% Ni alloy

liquidus = 1310C solidus = 1260C


freezing range = 1310 - 1260 = 50C
8. Determine the phases present, the compositions of each phase, and the
amounts of each phase in wt% for a Cu-50% Ni alloy at 1250C, 1200C, and
1250C.

1150C: 0: 0:: 25% Ni 100% 0:

1200C: 0: + L 0:: 30% Ni (25-20)/(30-20) x 100 50% 0:


L: 20% Ni (30-25)/(30-20) x 100 50% L

1250C: L: 25% Ni 100% L

9. Determine the phases present, the compositions of each phase, and the
amounts of each phase in wt% for a Cu-50% Ni alloy at 1250C, 1300C and
1350C.

1250C: 0: 0:: 50% Ni 100% 0:

1300C: 0: + L 0:: 58% Ni (50-46)/(58-46) x 100 33% 0:


L: 46% Ni (58-50)/(58-46) x 100 67% L
1350C: L L: 50% Ni 100% L

10. Figure 9-7(b) shows the NiO and MgO display complete solid solubility.
What does this suggest concerning the crystal structures of NiO and MgO?
What structure does each have? What does this suggest about the ionic
radii and valences of the cations in each ceramic compound? Do NiO and
MgO satisfy Hume-Rothery's conditions?

They have the same crystal structure (sodium chloride type)


Ni and Mg have the same valence or electrical charge
r Ni = 0.69 A; rMg = 0.65; %~r = 4.5

NiO and MgO do satisfy Hume-Rothery conditions.

11. Determine the phases present, the compositions of each phase,


amounts of each phase in mole% for a NiO-50% MgO mixture at
2400C and 2600C.

2200C: 5 5:50% MgO 100 5

2400C: 5 + L 5: 62% MgO (50-37)/(62-37) x 100 52% 5


L: 37% MgO (62-50)/(62-37) x 100 48% L

2600C: L L: 50% MgO 100 L

108
12. A total of 100 g of NiO and MgO is heated to 2500C, producing a
structure containing 33% liquid and 67% solid. How many grams of NiO
must be in the mixture?

At 2500C, the liquid contains 52% MgO and the solid contains 72%
MgO.
Consequently the overall composition of the ceramic is

%5 = 67 = (x - 52)/(72 - 52) x 100 x = 65.4 mol% MgO

16 + 24.312 = 40.312 g/mol


16 + 58.71 = 74.71 g/mol
(65.4 mol)(40.312) 2636
wt% MgO = (65.4)(40.312) + (34.6)(74.71) x 100 5221
50.5%

Therefore there are 50.5 g MgO and 49.5 NiO.

13. The MgO-FeO systems is shown in Figure 9-20. What crystal structure do
you expect each ceramic compound to have? (You may need to review
Chapter 3.) Based on ionic radii and valences of the cations in each
ceramic compound, do FeO and MgO satisfy Hume-Rothery's conditions?

Both have the sodium chloride crystal structure


Both have the same valence or electrical charge
r Mg = 0.66 r Fe = 0.74 %~r = 12.1

Therefore FeO and MgO do satisfy the Hume-Rothery conditions.

14. For a MgO-60% FeO mixture, determine (a) the liquidus temperature, (b)
the solidus temperature, (c) the com~osition of each phase at 2200C, and
(d) the amount of each phase at 2200 C.

(a) liquidus temperature = 2100C


(b) solidus temperature = 1700C
(c) at 2200 o C, only liquid is present. The composition is L:
60% FeO

(d) since only liquid is present, its amount is 100% L

15. For a MgO-30% FeO mixture, determine (a) the liquidus temperature," (b)
the solidus temperature, (c) the com~osition of each phase at 2400C, and
(d) the amount of each phase at 2400 C.

(a) liquidus temperature = 2520C


(b) solidus temperature = 2150 0
C

(c) L: 40% FeO 5: 18% FeO

(d) %L (30-18)/(40-18) x 100 54.5


%5 (40-30)/(40-18) x 100 45.5

109
16. Plot how the freezing range depends on the % FeO in the MgO-FeO system.
At what composition is the maximum freezing range obtained?

0% FeO: OC 500
10% FeO: 2740 - 2570 170C 8
20% FeO: 2640 - 2370 270C 0...,
30% FeO: 2530 - 2170 360C
40% FeO: 2400 - 2000 = 400C III
be

50% FeO: 2260 - 1820. = 440C ~


~
60% FeO: 2100 - 1700 400C be
70% FeO: 1920 - 1560 360C t:i
80% FeO: 1740 - 1480 260C '"N
Q)
90% FeO: 1550 - 1400 150C Q)

100% FeO: OC '"


f%.<

MgO %FeO ~ FeO

Maximum freezing range occurs at 50% FeO.

17. At 2000C, a mixture of MgO and FeO contains 60% liquid. What is the
composition of the original mixture?
At 2000C, the compositions of each phase are:

s: 40% FeO L: 65% FeO

%L = (x - 40) / (65 - 40) x 100 = 60 x = 55% feO

18. A mixture of MgO and FeO is heated to produce a solid containing 60% FeO.
Determine the temperature at which the mixture is held. Can you
determine the composition of the original mixture? Explain and point
out whether this result confirms the phase rule.
The solid has a composition of 60% FeO when the temperature is
1700C.

No. the composition of the original mixture may be anywhere between


60 and 83% FeO. Fixing just one composition is not enough to fix
the entire system in a two phase region, since the phase rule says
there are two degrees of freedom.

19. A MgO-40% FeO ceramic is heated until only 25% solid remains. By trial
and error, estimate the temperature to which the ceramic was heated.

@2400C: 0% S (This is the liquidus temperature)


@2300C: (46-40)/(46-28) x 100 25% S
@2200C: (53-40)/(53-28) x 100 = 52% S

The temperature is about 2300C.

20. Figure 9-21 shows the Nb-W phase diagram. Verify that this system
satisfies Hume-Rothery's rules.
Both have the BCC crystal structure and a valence of +4
r Nb = 1.426 r = 1.3171 w Y~r = 4.0
Hume-Rothery's conditions are satisfied.

110
21. For a Nb-70% W alloy, determine (a) the liquidus temperature b (b) the
solidus temperature, (c) the com~osition of each phase at 3000 C, and (d)
the amount of each phase at 3000 C.

(a) liquidus temperature 3020C (b) solidus temperature 2820C

(c) ~: 83% W L: 68% W

(d) roO: (70-68)/(83-68) x 100 13.3


%L (83-70)/(83-68) x 100 86.7

22. Plot how the freezing range depends on the % W in the Nb-W system. At
what composition is the maximum freezing range obtained? Would you
expect shrinkage defects to be more concentrated in a Nb-70% W alloy or a
Nb-30% W alloy?

0% W: OC 250
10% W: 2540 - 2490 50C '"'
u
20% W: 2590 - 2520 70C 0 200
'-'
30% W: 2660 - 2550 110 C Q}
40% W: 2730 - 2600 130C bO
~
50% W: 2810 - 2650 160C oj
~
60% W: 2910 - 2720 190C
bO
70% W: 3020 - 2820 200C t::
oM
80% W: 3120 - 2950 170C N
Q}
90% W: 3260 - 3140 120C Q}
I-<
100% W: OC ~

Nb %W ~ W
The maximum freezing range occurs neat 70% W.

We would expect more concentrated shrinkage in the 30% W alloy since


it has the shorter freezing range.

23. When a Nb-W alloy is heated to 2800C, only 33% solid remains. Determine
the composition of the original alloy.

At 2800C, the compositions of the two phases are ~ 68% Wand


48%.

%~ = (x - 48)/(68 - 48) x 100 = 33 x = 54.6% W

24. A Nb-60% W alloy is heated until 40% liquid is produced. By trial and
error, determine the temperature that must have been obtained.

@2900C: (76-60)/(76-59) x 100 94% L


@2850C: (73-60)/(73-54) x 100 68%L
@2800C: (68-60)/(68-49) x 100 42% L
@2750C: (64-60)/(64-44) x 100 20% L

The temperature must be about 2800C.

111
25. A Nb-30Y. W alloy is heated to 2600C, producing a mixture of solid and
liquid. Determine (a) the composition of the original alloy in atomic
percent, (b) the composition of the solid and liquid phases in both wt%
and at%, and (c) the amount of solid and liquid phases on a weight basis.

(a) MWW = 183.85 g/mol: MWNb = 92.91 g/mol

at% = (3D g 1 183.85) 0.163


17.8
(3D g 1 183.85) + (70 g 1 92.91) 0.916

(b) Compositions in weight percent from the tie line at 2600C are

ex: 40% W L:21% W


(401 183.85) 0.218 _
at% = (40 1 183.85) + (60 1 92.91) 0.864 - 25.2

(21 1 183.85) 0.114


at% 0.964 - 11. 8
(21 1 183.85) + (79 1 92.91)

(c) %ex (30-21)/(40-21) x 100 47.4


%L (40-30)/(40-21) x 100 52.6

26. A MgO-40% FeO ceramic is heated to 2300C, producing a mixture of solid


and liquid. Determine (a) the composition of the original alloy in mole
percent, (b) the composition of the solid and liquid phases in both wt%
and mol%, and (c) the amount of solid and liquid phases on a weight
basis.

(a) MWMgO = 16 + 24.312 = 40.312 g/mol

MWFeO = 16 + 55.847 = 71.847 g/mol

_ (40 g 1 71. 847) _ 0.557


mole% FeO - (40 g 1 71.847) + (60 g 1 40.312) - 2.045 27.2

(b) Compositions in weight percent from the tie line are

L: 47% FeO S: 23% FeO


(47/71.847) _ 0.654
mole% FeO(S) (47 1 71.847) + (53 1 40.312) - 1.969 = 33.2
(23/71.847) _ 0.320
mole% FeO(L) = (23 1 71.847) + (77 1 40.312) - 2.230 14.3

(c) %S (47-40)/(47-23) x 100 29


%L (40-23)/(47-23) x 100 71

27. Suppose we prepare a Nb-W alloy by mixing together equal numbers of atoms
of each, then heat the alloy to 2800C. Calculate the composition of the
alloy in wt%, then determine which phases are present.
(50)(183.85) 9192.5
wt% W (50)(183.85) + (50)(92.91) = 13.838 = 66.4
L and ex are both present in this alloy at 2800C.

112
28. Suppose we combine 50 cm3 of Nb with 30.cm3 of Wand heat to 2800C.
Calculate the composition of the alloy in wt%, then determine which
phases are present.

Pw = 19.265 glcm
3
PNb = 8.57 glcm
3

(30)(19.254) 577.62
wt% W = (30)(19.254) + (50)(8.57) = 1006.12 = 57.4
From the phase diagram, both L and a are present in this alloy at
2800C.

29. A MgO-60% FeO ceramic is allowed to cool from the liquid. Under
equilibrium conditions, calculate the composition of (a) the first solid
to form on freezing and (b) the last liquid to solidify.

(a) 34% FeO (b) 82% FeO

30. A Nb-70% W alloy is allowed to cool from the liquid. Under equilibrium
conditions, calculate the composition of (a) the first solid to form on
freezing and (b) the last liquid to solidify.

(a) 84% W (b) 50% W

31. Consider a Nb-70% W alloy which cools rapidly to produce the


non-equilibrium solidus shown as a dashed line in Figure 9-21. (a) What
is the composition of the first solid to form? (b) Determine the
composition and amount of each phase present during equilibrium
solidification at 2900C, 2800C, and 2700C. (c) Determine the
composition and amount of each phase present during non-equilibrium
solidification at 2900C, 2800C, and 2700C. Under equilibrium
conditions, determine the compositions of the last liquid to freeze and
the last solid to form. (e) Under non-equilibrium conditions, determine
the compositions of the last liquid to freeze and the last solid to form.
(f) Compare the equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidus temperature.

(a) 84%

(b) 2900C: L: 59% W (76-70)/(76-59) x 100 35.3% L


ex: 76% W (70-59)/(76-59) x 100 64.7% a
2800C: a: 70% W 100% a
2700C: a: 70% W 100% a

(c) 2900C: L: 59% W (81-70)/(81-59) x 100 50% L


ex: 81% W (70-59)1(81-59) x 100 50% a

2800X: L: 48% W (77-70)/(77-48) x 100 24% L


a: 77% W (70-48)/(77-48) x 100 76% a

2700C: L: 37% W (72-72)1(72-37) x 100 5.7% L


ex: 72%W (70-37)/(72-37) x 100 94.3& a

(d) last liquid is L: 50% W (e) last liquid is L: 32% W


last solid is ex: 70% W last solid is a: 54% W

(f) equilibrium solidus = 2820C non-equilibrium solidus = 2660C

113
32. Consider a HgO-40% FeO ceramic which cools to produce the non-equilibrium
solidus shown as a dashed line in Figure 9-20. (a) What is the
composition of the first solid to form? (b) Determine the composition
and amount of each phase present during equilibrium solidification at
220C, 2000C, and 1800C. (c) Determine the composition and amount of
each phase present during non-equilibrium solidification at 2200C,
2000C, and 1800C. (d) under equilibrium conditions, determine the
compositions of~the last liquid to freeze and the last solid to form.
(e) Under non-equilibrium conditions, determine the compositions of the
last liquid to freeze and the last solid to form. (f) Compare the
equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidus temperatures.

(a) 18% FeO

(b) 2200C: L: 53% FeO (48-28)/(53-28) x 100 48% L


s: 28% FeO (53-40)/(53-28) x 100 52% S

2000C: L: 65% FeO (40-39)/(65-39) x 100 3.8% L


S: 39% FeO (65-40)/(65-39) x 100 = 96.2% S

1800C: s: 40% FeO 100% S

(c) 2200C: L: 53% FeO (40-22)/(53-22) x 100 = 58% L


S: 22% FeO (53-40)/(53-22) x 100 = 42% S
2000C: L: 65% FeO (40-28)/(65-28) x 100 = 32% L
S: 28% FeO (65-40)/(65-28) x 100 = 68% S
1800C: L: 77% FeO (40-33)/(77-33) x 100 = 16% L
S: = 33% FeO (77-40)/(77-33) xl00 = 84% S

(d) last liquid is L: 65% FeO (e) last liquid is L: 88% FeO
last solid is S: 40% FeO last solid is S: 67% FeO

(f) equilibrium solidus = 2000C non-equilibrium solidus = 1600C


33. Consider the cooling curve for the Nb-W alloy shown in Figure 9-22.
Determine (a) the liquidus temperature, (b) the solidus temperature, (c)
the freezing range, (d) the pouring temperature, (e) the superheat, (f)
the local solidification time, (g) the total solidification time, and
(h) the composition of the alloy.

(a) liquidus temperature = 2970C


(b) solidus temperature = 2760C
(c) freezing range = 2970 - 2760 = 210C
(d) pouring temperature = 3200C
(e) superheat = 3200 - 2970 = 230C
(f) local solidification time 12 - 4 = 8 min
(g) total solidification time = 12 min
(h) 65% W

114
34. Consider the cooling curve for the MgO-FeO ceramic shown in Figure 9-23.
Determine (a) the liquidus temperature, (b) the solidus temperature, (c)
the freezing range, (d) the pouring temperature, (e) the superheat, (:tJ
the local solidification time, (g) the total solidification time, and (h)
the composition of the ceramic.

(a) liquidus temperature = 1900C


(b) solidus temperature = 1500C
(c) freezing range = 1900 - 1500 = 400C
(d) pouring temperature = 2800C
(e) superheat = 2800 - 1900 = .900C
(f) local solidification time 400 - 100 300 s
(g) total solidification time = 400 s
(h) 72% FeO

35. Cooling curves are shown in Figure 9-24 for the bismuth-antimony system.
Based on these curves, construct the Bi-Sb diagram.

700
Sb: T 630C
mp
20% Bi: liquidus 590C
solidus 475C
40% Bi: liquidus 540C
solidus 390C
60% Bi: liquidus 490C
solidus 325C ,.-.,
80% Bi: liquidus 400C OU
solidus 305C '-'
Bi: T 270C I-<Q)
mp
...
;:I
til
I-<
Q) a
p.
IS 200
Q)
Eo-<

100

o
S~b--~2~0--~4~0--~6~0~~8~0--~Bi

%Bi ~

115
Chapter 10

SOLIDIFICATION AND DISPERSION STRENGTHENING

1. A hypothetical phase diagram is shown in Figure 10-30. (a) What


intermetallic compound is present? Is it stoichiometric or
non-stoichiometric? (b) Identify the 4 solid solutions present in the
system. (c) Identify the three-phase reactions by writing down the
temperature, the reaction in equation form, the composition of each phase
in the reaction, and the name of the reaction.

(a) ~ - non-stoichiometric (b) ,~, ~, 5

(c) peritectic @ 1150: L (30% B) + 5 (5% B) ~ ~ (15% B)


monotectic @ 950: L (40 % B) ~ L (60% B) + ~ (25% B)
eutectic @ 750: Ll(67% B) ~ ~ (~5% B) + ~ (90% B)
eutectoid @ 450: ~ (20% B) ~ (10% B) + ~ (92% B)
peritectoid @ 300: (5% B) + ~ (95% B) ~ ~ (50% B)

2. A hypothetical phase diagram is shown in Figure 10-31. (a) What


intermetallic compound is present? Is it stoichiometric or
non-stoichiometric? (b) Identify the 4 solid solutions present in the
system. (c) Identify the three-phase reactions by writing down the
temperature, the reaction in equation form, the composition of each phase
in the reaction, and the name of the reaction.

(a) e - non-stoichiometric (b) , ~, ~, ~

(c) peritectic @ 1100: ~ (95% B) + L (80% B) ~ ~ (90% B)


monotectic @ 900: Ll (30 % B ~ (5% B) + L2 (50% B)
eutectic @ 680: L (60% B) ~ (5% B) + ~ (80% B)
peritectoid @ 600: (5% B) + ~ (80% B) ~ a (38% B)
eutectoid @ 300: ~ (90% B) ~ a (40% B) + ~ (95% B)

3. A portion of the Cu-Al phase diagram is shown in Figure 13-8(d). (a)


What intermetallic compounds are present in the system? Are they
stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric compounds? (b) Identify the solid
solution present in the system. (c) Identify the three-phase reactions
by writing down the temperature, the reaction in equation form and the
name of the reaction.

(a) X, ~l' ~2' ~, ~ - all non-stoichiometric (b)


(c) eutectic @10200: L ~ + ~
peritectic @10200: L + ~ ~ X
eutectoid @9600: X ~ ~ + ~
eutectoid @780o: ~ ~ ~ + t
eutectoid @550o: ~l~ + ~ 2
peritectoid @3800: + ~ ~ f
2

116
4. The Co-Mo phase diagram is shown in Figure 10-32. (a) What
intermetallic compounds are present? Are they stoichiometric or
non-stoichiometric compounds? (b) Identify the solid solutions present
in the system. (c) Identify the three-phase reactions by writing down
the temperature, the reaction in equation form, and the name of the
reaction.

(a) '1, e, (1' (b) 0:, f3


(c) eutectic @1610o:, L + f3 ~ (1'

peritectic @1530o: L + (1' ~ e


eutectoid @1334: L ~ 0: + e
eutectoid @1250o: (1' ~ e + f3
peritectoid @1200o: 0: + e ~ '1

5. The Si02-MgO phase diagram for a ceramic system is shown in Figure


14-22(d). (a) What intermediate compounds are present? Is their
composition fixed or variable? (b) Is there any solid solubility of one
oxide in the other? Is this unusual for ceramic systems? (c) Identify
the three-phase reactions by writing down the temperature, the reaction
equation form, and the name of the reaction.

(a) MgSi0 3 , Mg2Si0 4 - both are stoichiometric


(b) no solid solubility; this is quite typical of many ceramics

(c) monotectic @1690 : L ~ SiO + L


1 2 2
eutectic @1850O: L ~ Mg2Si04 + MgO
peritectic @1550o: L + Mg2S104 ~ MgS103
eutectic @1530o: L ~ S10 2 + MgS103

6. A portion of the Zr0 2-CaO phase diagram for a ceramic system is shown in
Figure 14-23(b). (a) Is there any solid solubility of CaO in ZrO/ (b)
Identify the three-phase reactions by writing down the temperature, the
reaction in equation form, and the name of the reaction.

(a) yes; up to about 12% CaO may dissolve in tetragonal Zr0 2 and 3%
CaO in monoclinic ZrO
2

(b) peritectic @2600o: L + tetragonal ZrO ~ cubic ZrO


eutectic @2300o: L ~ cubic ZrO + Z~CaO 2
eutectoid @900o: tetragonal ZrO 2~ monocl~nic ZrO + cubic ZrO
2 2 2

1. Consider a Pb-12% Sn alloy. During solidification, determine (a) the


composition of the first solid to form, (b) the amounts and compositions
of each phase at 290C, (c) the liquidus, solidus, and solvus
temperatures, (d) the amounts and compositions of each ~hase at 200C.
and (e) the amount and compositions of each phase at 0 C. (f) Suppose,
due to rapid cooling, that the composition of the last primary 0: was 6%
Sn. Calculate the amount of non-equilibrium eutectic microconstituent.

111
(a) first solid is a: 5% Sn

(b) L: 15% Sn (12-8)/(15-8) x 100 ; 57% L


a: 8% Sn (15-12)/(15-8) x 10-0 ; 43% a

(c) liquidus ; 300C solidus; 270C solvus 150C

(d) a: 12% Sn 100% a

(e) a: 2% Sn (110-12)/(100~2) x 100 90% a


fJ: 100% Sn (12-2)/(100-2) x 100 10% fJ
(f) L = eutectic (12-6)/(61.9-6) x 100 = 10.7%

8. Consider an AI-l0% Mg alloy [Figure 13-1(b)]. During solidification,


determine (a) the composition of the first solid to form, (b) the amounts
and compositions of each phase at 500C, (c) the liquidus, solidus, and
solvus temperature, (d) the amounts and compositions of each phase at
OoC. (f) Suppose, due to rapid cooling, that the composition of the
last primary a was 7% Mg. Calculate the amount of non-equilibrium
eutectic microconstituent.

(a) first solid a: 2.5% Mg

(b) a: 6% Mg (24-10)/(24-6) x 100 ; 78% a


fJ: 24% Mg (10-6)1(24-6) x 100 ; 22% fJ

(c) liquidus; 610C solvus 370C

(d) a: 10% Mg 100% a

(e) a: 0% Mg (35-10)/(25-0) x 100 ; 71.4% a


fJ: 35% Mg (10-0)1(35-7) x 100 ; 28.6% fJ

(f) eutectic = (10-7)/(35-7) x 100 = 10.7%


9.- Locate the eutectic reaction in the hypothetical phase diagram in Figure
10-30. Calculate the amount of each phase in the eutectic
microconstituent.

%a = (90-70)/(90-25) x 100 = 31
~ = (70-25)/(90-25) x 100 = 69

10. Locate the eutectic in the Co-Mo phase diagram in Figure 1-32. Calculate
the amount of each phase in the eutectic microconstituent. Assuming that
the solid solutions are soft and ductile, will the eutectic
microconstituent be ductile or brittle?

%a = (57-36)/(57-25) x 100 = 66
% (36-25)1(57-25) x 100 = 34

The eutectic microconstituent is composed primarily of the solid


solution a; therefore it is expected to be ductile.

118
11. Locate the eutectic reactions in
the Si02-MgO phase diagram (Figure
14-22(d)]. Calculate the amount of each phase in each of the eutectic
microconstituents. Would you expect the eutectic microconstituents to be
ductile or brittle?

Si02 (4-35)/(40-0) x 100 = 12.5%


MgSi03 = (25-0)/(40-0) x 100 = 87.5%

L -+ Mg2Si04 + MgO @ 1850 0 C

(100-61)/(100-58) x 100 = 92.9%

MgO (61-58)1(100-61) x 100 = 7.1%

Both eutectics will be brittle, since there are composed completely


ceramics.

12. Consider a Pb-25% Sn alloy. Determine (a) if the alloy is hypoeutectic


or hypereutectic, (b) the composition of the first solid to form duri~
solidification, (c) the amounts and compositions of each phase at 184C,
(d) the amounts and compositions of each phase at 182C, and (e) the
amounts and compositions of each microconstituent at 182C.

(a) hypoeutectic (b) first solid 0:: 10% Sn

(c) 0:: 19% Sn (61.9-25)/(61.9-19) x 100 = 86% 0:


L: 61. 9% Sn (25-19)/(61.9-19) x 100 14% L

(d) IX: 19% Sn (97.5-25)/(97.5-19) x 100 92.4% 0:


(3: 97.5% Sn (25-19)/(97.5-19) x 100 = 7.6% (3
(e) primary 0:: 19% Sn (61.9-25)/(61.9-19) x 100 = 86% 0:
eutectic: 61. 9% Sn (25-19)/(61.9-19) x 100 = 14% eutectic

13. Consider a Pb-75% Sn alloy. Determine (a) if the alloy is hypoeutectic


or hypereutectic, (b) the composition of the first solid to form during
solidification, (c) the amounts and compositions of each phase at 184C.
(d) the amounts and compositions of each phase at 182C, and (e) the
amounts and compositions of each microconstituent at 182C.

(a) hypereutectic (b) first solid (3: 98% Sn

(c) L: 61. 9% Sn (97.5-75)/(97.5-61.9) x 100 = 63% L


(3: 97.5% Sn (75-61.9)/(97.5-61.9) x 100 = 37% (3
(d) 0:: 19% Sn (97.5-75)/(97.5-19) x 100 = 28.7% 0:
(3: 97.5% Sn (75-19)/(97.5-19) x 100 = 71. 3% (3
(e) primary (3: 97.5% Sn (75-19)/(97.5-61.9) x 100 = 37% (3
eutectic: 61.9% Sn (97.5-75)/(97.5-61.9) x 100 = 63% eutectic

119
14. Consider a Co-50% Mo alloy (Figure 10-32). Determine (a) if the alloy is
hypoeutectic or hypereutectic, (b) the composition of the first solid to
form during solidification, (c) the amounts and compositions of each
phase at 1400C, (d) the amounts and compositions of each phase at
1300C, and (e) the amounts and compositions of each phase at 1100C.

(a) hypereutectic (b) first solid is : 61% Mo

(c) L: 41% Mo (58-50)/(58-41) x 100 = 47% L


: 58% Mo (50-41)/(58-41) x 100 = 53%

(d) 0:: 24% Mo (57-50)/(57-24) x 100 = 21% 0:


: 57%'Mo (50-24)/(57-24) x 100 = 79%

(e) 7: 27% Mo (57-50)/(57-27) x 100 = 23% 7


: 57% Mo (50-27)/(57-27) x 100 = 77%

15. Consider an AI-75% Si alloy. Determine (a) if the alloy is hypoeutectic


or hypereutectic, (b) the composition of the first solid to form during
solidification, (c) the amounts and compositions of each phase at 578C.
(d) the amounts and compositions of each phase at 576C, and (e) the
amounts and compositions of each microconstituent at 576C.

(a) hypereutectic (b) first solid is ~: 100% Si

(c) ~: 99.83% Si = 71. 5% ~


(75-12.6)/(99.83-12.6) x 100
L: 12.6% Si = 28.5% L
(99.83-75)/(99.83-12.6) x 100

(d) ~: 99.83% Si (75-1.65)1(99.83-1.65) x 100 = 74.7% ~


0:: 1. 65% Si (99.83-75)/(99.83-1.65) x 100 = 25.3% 0:

(e) primary~: 99.83% Si (75-12.6)1(99.83-12.6) x 100 = 71.5% ~


eutectic: 12.6% Si (99.83-75)/(99.83-12.6) x 100 = 28.5% eut

16. A Pb-Sn alloy contains 35% primary 0: and 65% eutectic. What is the
composition of the overall alloy?

pr 1mary 0: -- 61. 8 -_ x19 x 100 -- 35% x = 46 .9%


61.9

17. A Pb-Sn alloy contaIns 26% 0: and 74% ~ at room temperature. What is the
composItIon of the overall alloy? Is the alloy hypoeutectic" or
hypereutectic?
- x
0: = 100
100 _ 2 x 100 = 26% x = 74.5% Sn hypereutectic

18. An AI-Sl alloy contaIns 40% 0: and 60% ~ at 450C. What is the
composItion of the overall alloy? Is the alloy hypoeutectic or
hypereutectlc?

= ~gg = ~ x 100 40% x = 60.4% hypereutectlc

120
19. An AI-5i alloy contains 17% primary {3 and 82% eutectic. What is the
composition of the overall alloy?
t t
eu ec lC
99.83 - x
= 99.83 _ 12.6 x
100 82% x = 28.3% 5i

20. In the hypothetical phase diagram in Figure 10-30, 30% '1 and 70% {3 are
found at 740C. What is the overall composition of the alloy?

90 - x
90 _ 25 x 100 = 30% x = 70.5% B

21. In the hypothetical phase diagram in Figure 10-30, 25% primary {3 and 75%
eutectic are observed. What is the overall composition of the alloy?

eu t ec t lC 90
= 90 -_ x
68 x 100 = 75% x - 73.5% B
22. A cooling curve for a Pb-5n alloy is shown in Figure 10.33. Determine
(a) the pouring temperature, (b) the superheat, (c) the liquidus
temperature, (d) the eutectic temperature, (e) the freezing range, (f)
the local solidification time, and (g) the total solidification time.
From the cooling curve, can you determine the composition of the alloy?

(a) pouring temperature = 400C


(b) superheat = 400 - 270 = 130C
(c) liquidus temperature 270C
(d) eutectic temperature = 160C
(el freezing range = 270 - 160 = 110C
(f) local solidification time 400 - 60 340 s
(g) total solidification time = 400 s

The alloy contains about 25% 5n.

23. A cooling curve for a AI-5i alloy is shown in Figure 10.34. Determine
(a) the pouring temperature, (b) the superheat, (c) the liquidus
temperature, (d) the eutectic temperature, (e) the freezing range, (f)
the local solidification time, and (g) the total solidification time.
From the cooling curve, can you determine the composition of the alloy?

(a) pouring temperature = 1400C


(b) superheat = 1400 - 1200 = 200C
(c) liquidus temperature = 1200C
(d) eutectic temperature = 570C
(e) freezing range = 1200 - 570 630C
(f) local solidification time 240 - 20 220 s
(g) total solidification time = 240 s

The alloy contains about 60% 5i

121
24. Construct a phase diagram from the following information: element A melts
at 1200C and element B melts at 1000C; element B has a maximum
solubility of 10% in element A, and element A has a maximum solubility
of 20% in element B; the number of degrees of freedom from the phase rule
is zero when the temperature is 800C and there is 45% B present; at room
temperature 3% A is soluble in Band 0% B is soluble in A.

ex + {3

oA 20 40 60 B
%B ~

25. Cooling curves are obtained for a series of Cd-Zn alloys (Figure 10-35).
Use the cooling curves to produce the Cd-Zn phase diagram. The maximum
solubility of Zn in Cd is 2.6%, the maximum solubility of Cd in Zn is
about 2%, and the solubilities at room temperature are about zero.

Cd: T 321C 400


5% Zn: liquidrlIl 300C
eutectic 270C
12% Zn: liquidus 275C U 300
eutectic 270C 0 ~ {3
20% Zn: liquidus 280C OJ 98
eutectic 270C ..,
':I"' 200
40% Zn: liquidus 310C to
eutectic 270C kOJ
ex + {3
70% Zn: liquidus 350C !" 100
eutectic 270C E-<OJ
90% Zn: liquidus 390 C
eutectic 270C 0
Zn: T 420C Cd 20 40 60 80 Zn
mp
% Zinc ~

122
26. What fraction of the solidification of an Fe-0.35% C alloy occurs by the
peritectic reaction?

Just below the peritectic temperature, the amount of each phase is

(0.53-0.35)/(0.53-0.17) x 100 50
(0.35-0.17)/(0.53-0.17) x 100 50

All of the ~ forms by the peritectic reaction. Therefore the


fraction of solidification by the peritectic reaction is 50%.

27. What fraction of the solidification of an Fe-0.15% C alloy occurs by the


peritectic reaction?

Just below the perltectic temperature, the amount of each phase is

%~ (0.15-0.09)/(0.17-0.09) x 100 = 75
%0 (0.167-0.15)/(0.17-0.09) x 100 = 25

28. Calculate the amount of ~ and liquid that must comblne to produce 100% ~
phase by the peritectic reaction in the Al-Li system (Figure 13-4).

The compositions of each phase involved in the peritectic reaction


are:

L: 47% Li ~: 25% Li ~: 34% Li

We can use the lever law with an original composition equal to the
peritec~ic composition.

%~ (47-34)/(47-25) x 100 59
%L (34-25)/(47-25) x 100 41

Therefore when a mixture of 59% ~ and 41% L combine, 100% ~ is


formed by the peritectic reaction.

29. An Al-Li alloy (Figure 13-4) contains a microstructure composed of 30% ~


and 70% liquid just below the peritectic temperature. Determine the
overall composition of the alloy. If this composition solidified under
non-equilibrium conditions, would you expect to have more or less liquid
present at this temperature?

47 - x
x 100 30 x = 43. 1% Li
47 34

We would expect more than 70% L if the peritectic reaction occurred


under non-equilibrium conditions.

30. Calculate the amounts and compositions of the two liquids present in a
Cu-70% Pb alloy at 956C.

L : 36% Pb
1
(87-70)/(87 - 36) x 100 = 33
L : 87% Pb (70-36)/(87-36) x 100 = 67
2

123
31. A Cu-Pb alloy contains 75% a and 25% L2 immediately after the monotectic
reaction. Calculate (a) the composition of the overall alloy and (b) the
amounts of Ll and L2 just before the monotectic reaction.

87 - x
(a) :.'.0: 87 - 0 x 100 = 75 x = 21. 75% Pb

(b) :.'~ = (21.75-0)/(36-0) x 100 = 60.4


L2 = 0% (the alloy is hypomonotectic; the remaining 39.6% is a)

32. What is the solubility of lead in copper? Discuss this observation in


terms of Hume-Rothery's conditions.

The solubility of Pb in Cu is about 0% Pb. Hume-Rothery's


conditions are not satisfied. Both have the FCC crystal structure
but copper has a valence of +1 while lead has a valence of +4. Also
rCu = 1. 278 %I!.r = 36.9
33. When a ternary eutectic reaction occurs, there are zero degrees of
freedom. How many solid phases are produced as a result of the ternary
eutectic? How many total phases are in equilibrium?

In a ternary diagram, there are three components. At the eutectic


point, there are zero degrees of freedom. Therefore the total
number of phases is:

F =C - P + 1 or o =3 - P + 1 or P =4 phases

The phases present during the ternary eutectic are liquid plus three
solids, whose reaction is of the form

34. Consider the liquidus plot in Figure 10-27. For a constant 20% C, draw a
graph showing how the liquidus temperature changes from 80% A-)% B-20% C
to 0% A-80% B-20% C. I I Liquidus
80% A- 0% B-20% C: 400C
70% A-10% B-20% C: 360C ,...,
u
60% A-20% B-20% C: 300C 0....,
50% A-30% B-20% C: 200C
40% A-40% B-20% C: 320C ~
30% A-SO% B-20% C: 375C H
20% A-60% B-20% C: 420C Ul
~ @ 20% C
10% A-70% B-20% C: 490C '"d
..-I
0% A-80% B-20% C: 525C ~ 100
C"
..-I
,..:I
O%B 20 40 60 80%B
80:.'.A O%A

124
35. Consider the liquidus plot for the AI-5i-Mg alloy in Figure 10-36. For a
constant 20% AI, draw a graph showing how the liquidus temperature
changes from 20% AI-80% Mg-O% 5i to 20% AI-O% Mg-80% 5i.

Liquidus
550C 1200
20% AI-80% Mg- 0% 5i:
20% AI-70% Mg-10% 5i: 805C
1000C ,.... 1000
20% AI-60% Mg-20% 5i: u
20% AI-50% Mg-30% 5i: 1050C o
'-'
20% AI-40% Mg-40% 5i: 1005C
.g
OJ
20% AI-30% Mg-50% 5i: 950C
20% AI-20% Mg-60% 51: 1120C ..-I
;:I @ 20% Al
20% AI-10% Mg-70% 5i: 1230C 0'

20% AI- 0% Mg-80% 5i: 1320C :3 400

0%5i 2 40 60 80%5i
80%Mg 0% Mg

36. From the hypothetical ternary phase diagrams in Figures 10-27 and 10-28,
determine for an A-40% B-20% C alloy (al the liquidus temperature, (bl
the primary phase, and (cl each phase present at room temperature.

(al liquidus temperature 310C


(bl primary phase is ~
(cl phases present are oc + ~ + ~

37. From the hypothetical ternary phase diagrams in Figure 10-27 and 10-28,
determine for an A-10% B-60% C alloy (al the liquidus temperature, (bl
the primary phase, and (cl each phase present at room temperature.

(al liquidus temperature 270/C


(b) primary phase 1s ~
(cl phases present are oc + ~

125
Chapter 11

DISPERSION STRENGTIlENING BY PHASE TRANSFORMATION AND HEAT TREATMENT

1. Under equilibrium conditions. what is the maximum amount of 9 that can


form during aging of an AI-3.5% Cu alloy at 300C? What is the maximum
amount of 9 that can form in the same alloy if natural aging occurs?

@300C (artificial): 9 (3.5-1.0)/(54-1.0) x 100 4.72%

@25C (natural): 9 (3.5-0)/(54-0) x 100 6.48%

2. The 9 particles that form in an AI-3% Cu alloy aged at 200C have an


average diameter of 500 x 10-8 cm and a density of 4.26 Mg/m3 Calculate
the number of these particles per cubic centimeter of the alloy.

9 = (3.0-0.5)/(54-0.5) x 100 = 4.67%


p (9) = 4.26 Mg/m3 = (4.26 x 106 g/m3 ) (10- 6 m3 /cm 3 ) 4.26 g/cm3
p (AI) = 2.7 Mg/m 3

vol% 9 (4.67/4.26) x 100 = 1.096 x 100 3.01


(4.67/4.26) + (95.33/2.7) 36.40

V
particle
3 3
number of particles 0.0301 cm Icm = 4.6 x 1014 cm3
65.45 x 10- 18

3. The AI-Li phase diagram is shown in Figure 13-4. Describe a heat


treatment required to produce age hardening in an AI-2% Li alloy.
including appropriate temperatures.

The solvus temperature is about 300C and the eutectic temperature


is about 600C. Therefore

(a) solution treat between 300C and 600C


(b) quench
(c) age below 300C

4. In rapid solidification processing. an AI-12% Cu alloy could be quenched


from above the liquidus temperature to produce a supersaturated 'solid
solution of . Compare the percent 9 produced when this alloy is aged at
250C with the percent 9 produced when a conventional AI-4% Cu alloy is
aged at the same temperature.

conventional alloy (4% Cu): 9 (4-1)1(54-1) x 100 5.66%


RSP alloy (12% Cu): 9 (12-1)/(54-1) x 100 20.75%

126
5. In rapid solidification processing, an AI-8% Li alloy could be quenched
from above the liquidus temperature to produce a supersaturated solid
solution of . Compare the percent ~ produced when this alloy is aged at
300C with the percent ~ produced when a conventional Al-2% Li alloy is
aged at the same temperature.

conventional alloy (2% Li): ~ (2-1)/(21-1) x 100 5%


RSP alloy (8% Li): ~ (8-1)/(21-1) x 100 35%

6. Caloulate the amount of each phase and the amount of each


microconstituent in an Fe-0.25% C alloy at 700C

= (6.67-0.25)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 = 96.57%


Fe 3C = (0.25-0.0218)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 = 3.43%

primary (0.77-0.25)/(0.77-0.0218) x 100 = 69.50%


pearlite (0.25-0.0218)/(0.77-0.0218) x 100 = 30.5%

7. Calculate the amount of each phase and the amount of each


microconstituent in an Fe-1.25% C alloy at 700C

= (6.67-1.25)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 = 81.53%


Fe 3C = (1.25=0.0218)/(6/67-0.0218) x 100 = 18.47%

primary Fe3C = (1.25-0.77)/(6.67-0.77) x 100 = 8.14%


pearlite = (6.67-1.25)/(6.67-0.77) x 100 = 91.86%
8. The microstructure of a steel contains 9% Fe C and 91% at 500C. What
is the carbon content of the steel? Is3 the steel hypoeutectoid
or hypereutectoid?

6.67 - x 100 91% = 0.62% hypoeutectoid


= 6.67 - 0.0218 x x

9. The microstructure of a steel contains 35% and 65% '1 at 800C. What is
the carbon content of the steel?

The compositions of the two phases at 800C are '1: 0.32r. and :
0.02% C
0.32 - x 100 35r. x = 0.215r. C
= 0.32 - 0.02 x

10. The microstructure of an iron-carbon alloy contains 25% Fe 3C and 75% '1
at 800C. What is the carbon content of the alloy?

The compositions of the two phases at 800C are '1: 0.92% C and Fe C:
3
6.67% C
'1 = 6.67 - x
6.67 - 0.92
x 100 = 75% x = 2.36% C

This is a hypoeutectic cast iron.

127
11. The microstructure of a steel contains .18% Fe C and 82% a. at room
temperature. What is the carbon content of the 3 steel? Is the' steel
hypoeutectoid or hypereutectoid?

6.67 - x
a. = 67.0 - 0 x 100 = 82% x = 1. 20% C hypereutectoid

12. The microstructure of an iron-carbon alloy contains 33% proeutectoid Fe 3 C


and 67% pearlite at 700C. What is the carbon content of the alloy?

The alloy must be hypereutectoid since Fe C is the primary


3
microconstituent.

6.67 - x
pear Ii te = 6.67 _ 0.77 x 100 = 67% x = 2.717% C

13. The microstructure of a steel contains 33% proeutectoid a. and 67%


pearlite at 700C. What is the carbon content of the steel?

The alloy must be hypoeutectoid since is the primary


microconstituent.
0.77 - x
primary a. 0.77 _ 0.0218 x 100 = 33% x = 0.52% C

14. When a steel is heated, the austenite phase contains 0.4% C and
constitutes 60% of the structure. Estimate the temperature and overall
carbon content of the steel.

Austenite contains 0.4% C when the temperature is about 780C.

x = 0.248% C

15. When an iron-carbon alloy is heated, the austenite phase contains 1.0% C
and constitutes 80% of the structure. Estimate the temperature and
overall carbon content of the alloy.

Austenite contains 1.0% C when the temperature is about 830C.


6.67 - x
~ = 6.67 - 1 x 100 80% x = 2.134% C

16. A de~sity of a.-Fe is 7.87 Mg/m 3 , and the density of cementite is 7.66
Mg/m If a cementite lamella in pearlite is 3 x 10- 3 cm thick,
calculate the thickness of the ferrite lamella.

p -Fe
a.
= 7.87 Mg/m3 = 7.87 g/cm3 , p cementite 7.66 Mg/m3 7.66 g/cm3

In pearlite

wt% a. = (6.67-0.77)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 88.746


wtY~e3C (0.77-0.0.218)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 11. 254

a. = (88.74617.87) 11. 276


vol% (88.746/7.87) + (11.254/7.66) x 100 12.745 x 100 88.474

128
vol% Fe C
3
= 11.526
Fe3 C thickness
Fe C thickness + a thickness x 100= 11.526
3
a thickness = 0.023 = 23 x 10-3 cm = 0.23 mm

17. Calculate the density of pearlite, using the densities of each phase
given in problem 16.

let ff = 0.88474 be the volume fraction of ferrite and fc 0.11526


be the volume fraction of cementite (See Problem 16). Then

Ppearlite

Ppearlite = (0.88474)(7.87) + (0.11526)(7.66) = 7.846 Mg/m3

18. When we examine the microstructure of a steel, we find that the structure
contains about 20 vol% primary a and 80 %vol pearlite. Using the
densities of a (Problem 16) and pearlite (Problem 17), estimate the
percent carbon in the steel.
(20)(7.87) 157.4
wt% primary a (20)(7.87) + (80)(7.846) x 100 ="785.08 x 100 20.05

primary a 0.77 - x x 100 = 20.05% x = 0.62% C


0.77 - 0.0.218

19. When we examine the microstructure of a steel, we find that the structure
contains about 15 vol% primary Fe 3 C and 85 vol% pearlite. Using the
densities of Fe 3 C (Problem 16) and pearlite (Problem 17), estimate the
percent carbon in the steel.

, (15)(7.66) 114.9
wt% Fe 3 C = (15)(7.66) + (85)(7.846) x 100 = 781.81 x 100 = 14.497

primary Fe 3 C = 6.6~ = g:~~ x 100 = 14.697% x = 1.6367% C

20. Determine the percent of monoclinic ZrO present in the eutectoid product
formed when tetragonal ZrO transforms 2[Figure 14-23(b)].
2

monoclinic Zr0 2 = (15-12)/(15-3) x 100 = 25%


21. Calculate the amollilt of each phase in the eutectoid reaction that occurs
in the Co-Mo system (Figure 1-32) when ~ cools. Based on this result, do
you expect the eutectoid product to be ductile or brittle? Do you expect
any alloy containing the eutectoid product to be ductile or brittle?

c = (99-74)/(99-62) x 100 68%


~ (74-62)/(99-62) x 100 32%

129
Most of the eutectoid is composed of the brittle intermetallic
compound, so the eutectoid might be relatively brittle as well.

Any alloy containing ~ as the primary microconstituent is expected


to be brittle.

22. Calculate the amount of each phase in the eutectoid reaction that occurs
in the Cu-Al system [Figure 13-8(d)] when ~ cools. Based on this result,
do you expect the eutectoid product to be ductile or brittle? Do you
expect any alloy containing the eutectoid product to be ductile or
brittle?

= (15.6-11.8)/(15.6/9.4) x 100 = 61%


72 = (11.8-9.4)/(15.6-9.4) x 100 = 39%
The eutectoid should be relatively ductile.

Only hypereutectoid alloys, containing primary 7 2 , should be


brittle.

23. Calculate the amount of eutectoid microconstituent when an Al-72% Zn


alloy (Figure 13-13) cools under equilibrium conditions.

eutectoid = (72-34)/(78-34) x 100 = 86%


24. Calculate the amount of eutectoid microconstituent when a Cu-3% Be alloy
[Figure 13-8(e)] cools under equilibrium conditions.

eutectoid = (3-1.3)/(6-1.3) x 100 36%

25. Sup~ose austenite in a eutectoid steel is transformed to pearlite at


650 C. Estimate (a) the interlamellar spacing and (b) the yield strength
of the pearlite.

(a) from Figure 11-19, A = 3.5 X 10- 4 mm

(b) From Figure 11-18, yield strength = 300 MFa

26. Suppose the strength of an isothermically transformed eutectoid steel is


448 MFa. Estimate (a) the interlamellar spacing and (b) the
transformation temperature.

(a) From Figure 11-18, l/A = 60,000 or A = 1.67 X 10-4 mm

(b) From Figure 11-19, the temperature must be about 600C

27. A eutectoid steel is to be isothermally transformed to produce a hardness


of Rc45. Determine (a) the microconstituent that is produced and (b) the
transformation temperature required.

(a) From Figure 11-20, the microconstituent is bainite.

(b) The transformation temperature is about 375C.

130
28. A eutectoid steel is to be isothermally transformed to produce a hardness
of Rc38. Determine (a) the microconstituent that is produced and (b) the
transformation temperature required.

(a) From Figure 11-20, the microconstituent is pearlite

(b) The transformation temperature is about 600C

29. We would like to produce a bainitic structure in a eutectoid steel having


a hardness of R 52. Describe the complete heat treatment that would be
required. c

From Figure 11-20, the heat treatment is

a. austenitize @ 800C for perhaps 1 hour


b. quench to about 300C and hold for more than 2000 s (0.55 h)
c. cool to room temperature

30. We would like to produce a pearlitic structure in a eutectoid steel


having a hardness of R 30. Describe the complete heat treatment that
would be required. c

From Figure 11-20, the heat treatment is

a. austenitize @ 800C for perhaps 1 h


b. quench to about 600C and hold for more than 10 s
c. cool to room temperature

31. Describe the microstructure in a eutectoid steel that has been heated to
800C for 1 n, quenched to 600C and held for 100 s, and finally quenched
to room temperature.

relatively fine pearlite

32. Describe the microstructure in a eutectoid steel that has been heated to
800C for 1 h, quenched to 300C and held for 1000 s, and finally
quenched to room temperature.

fine bainite and martensite

33. Describe the microstructure in a eutectoid steel that has been heated to
800C for 1 h, quenched to 400C and held for 1000 s, and finally
quenched to room temperature.

bainite

34. Describe the microstructure in a eutectoid steel that has been heated to
800C for 1 h, quenched to 300C and held for 60 s, and finally quenched
to room temperature.

martensite

131
35. Describe the microstructure in a eutectoid steel that has been heated to
SOOC for 1 h, quenched to room temperature and held for 1000 s, reheated
to 300C and held for 10,000 s, and finally quenched to room temperature.

tempered martensite

36. A steel containing 0.2% C is held at SOOC for 1 h and is then quenched
to room temperature. Calculate the composition and amount of the
martensite that forms during the quench.

At SOOC, the steel is in an austenite plus ferrite portion of the


phase diagram. From the tie line, the composition of the austenite
is 7: 0.32% C. During quenching, the composition does not change,
so the composition of the martensite produced is M: 0.32% C.

The amount of martensite equals the amount of austenite at the high


temperature

M = 7 = (0.2-0.2)/(0.32-0.02) x 100 = 60%


37. A steel containing 1.4% C is held at 800C for 1 hr and is then quenched
to room temperature. Calculate the composition and amount of the
martensite that forms during the quench.

At SOOC, the steel is in an austenite plus cementite portion of the


phase diagram. From the tie line, the composition of the austenite
is 7; 0.92% C. During quenching, the composition does not change,
so the composition of the martensite produced is M: 0.92% C

The amount of martensite equals the amount of austenite at the high


temperature:

M =7 = (6.67-1.4)/(6.67-0.92) x 100 = 91.7%


3S. A steel microstructure contains 40% martensite containing 0.7% C.
Determine (a) the temperature from which the steel was quenched and (b)
the overall carbon content of the steel. Refer to Figure 12-2.

The martensite has the same composition as the austenite from which
it forms. According to a tie line, a temperature of about 735C is
required to give austenite of 0.7% C.

the amount of martensite and original austenite are the same. From
the lever law at 735C:
M= 7 = x - 0.2 x 100 40% x = 0.296% C
0.7 - 0.01

132
39. A steel microstructure contains 85% martensite containing 0.9% C.
Determine (a) the temperature from which the steel was quenched and (b)
the overall carbon content of the steel.

The martensite has the same composition as the austenite from which
it forms. According to a tie line, a temperature of about 790C is
required to give austenite of 0.9% C.

The amount of martensite and original austenite are the same. From
the lever law at 790C
M- - 6.67 - x x 100 85% x 1. 77% C
- ~ - 6.67 - 0.9

40. The lattice parameter of FCC austenite is about 3.6X. Calculate the
volume change that occurs when a steel containing 0.5% C is quenched to
produce martensite. Does the steel expand or contract during quenching?

From Figure 11-23(b), the lattice parameters and volume of the unit
cell of the martensite are about

ao = 2.86 X c
o
= 2.92 X VM = (2.86) 2 (2.92) 23.884 X3

The volume of the austenite unit cell is


3 93
VA = (3.6) = 46.656 A

However there are two atoms/cell in body-centered tetragonal


martensite and four atoms/cell in face-centered cubic austenite.
thus the volume change is

%AV 46.656 - 2(23.884) x 100 = -2.38%


46.656
The steel expands 2.38% when austenite transforms to martensite.

41. A dilatometer is a device used to measure the volume change that occurs
during a transformation. If a 3% increase in volume Is measured when a
steel is quenched from the austenite region, estimate by trial and error
the carbon content of the steel. The lattice parameter of the original
FCC austenite is 3.6 X.

The volume of the austenite unit cell is VA = (3.6) 3 46.656 X.

46.656 - 2VM
%AV 46.656 x 100 -3%

From Figure 11-23(b), we determine the volume vs percent carbon:

0.2% C: a 2.86 c 2.89 VM 23.6 X3


0 0
0.4% C: a 2.86 c 2.91 VM 23.8 X3
0 0
0.5% C: a 2.86 c 2.925 VM 23.9 X3
0 0
0.6% C: a 2.86 c 2.94 VM 24.1 X3
0 0
The amount of carbon in the martensite is approximately 0.55% C.

133
42. You would like to produce a quenched and tempered eutectoid steel having
a yield strength of 700 MPa. Describe the complete heat treatment,
including approximate temperatures that would be needed to produce this
structure and strength.

(a) austenitize @ 800C for about 1 hour


(b) quench to room temperature to produce martensite
(c) temper @ 600C for 1 hour to temper the martensite
(d) cool to room temperature

43. You would like to produce a quenched and tempered eutectoid steel having
a tensile strength of at least 1050 MPa but a hardness below Rc 40. What
range of tempering temperatures would be satisfactory?

To obtain the desired tensile strength, we must temper below 590C;


to obtain the desired Rc hardness, we must temper above 500C.
Therefore any tempering temperature between 500 and 590C will be
satisfactory.

44. In eutectic alloys, the eutectic microconstituent is generally the


continuous one, but in the' eutectoid structures, the primary
microconstituent is normally continuous. Explain how this difference is
a natural consequence of the reactions.

In a eutectoid reaction, the original grain boundaries serve as


nucleation sites; consequently the primary microconstituent outline
the original grain boundaries and isolates the eutectoid product as
a discontinuous constituent.

In a eutectic reaction, the primary phase nucleates from the liquid


and grows. When the liquid composition approaches the eutectic
composition, the eutectic constituent forms around the primary
constituent, making the eutectic product the continuous constituent.

45. Describe how the memory metals might be useful as plates to be surgically
placed around broken bones to provide more rapid healing.

We would make the plates a little longer than is required. the


plates would then be fastened to the bone on either side of the
fracture with screws. The heat of the body would cause the plate to
attempt to become shorter, forcing the two halves of the bone
securely together to give a good tight fit.

46. List several everyday items for which the memory metals might be useful
(eyeglass frames are one example).

A few examples might include: activating sensors for fire


extinguishers; switches in electric irons, curling irons,
coffee-makers, etc that might overheat; switches to open windows in
greenhouses when temperatures become excessive; thermostats;
switches to prevent accidental scalding from hot water in a shower;
do-it-yourself plumbing connectors; electrical connectors; solar.
activated engines; dental apparatus; artificial hearts.

134
Chapter 12

FERROUS ALLOYS

1. Calculate the amounts of ferrite, cementite, primary ferrite and pearlite


in a 1030 steel.

~ (6.67-0.3)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 95.82%


Fe C (0.3-0.0218)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 4.18%
3

primary ~ (0.77-0.3)/(0.77-0.0218) x 100 62.82%


pearlite (0.3-0.0218)/(0.77-0.0218) x 100 = 37.18%

2. Calculate the amounts of ferrite, cementite, primary cementite and


pearlite in a 10140 steel.

~ (6.67-1.4)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 79.27%


= (1.4-010218)/(6.67-0.0218) x
Fe 3 C 100 = 20.73%
primary Fe C = (1.4-0.77)/(6.67-0.77) x 100 = 10.68%
pearllie = (6.67-1.4)/(6.67-0.77) x 100 = 89.32%

3. A plain carbon steel contains 14% pearlite and 86% primary ferrite. What
is the probable AISI-SAE number for the steel?

primary ~ = 0.7~770~0~18 x 100 = 86% x = 0.127% C AISll0l0

4. A plain carbon steel contains 92% ferrite and 8% cementite. What is the
probable AISI-SAE number for the steel?

~
~
= 6.676.67 - x
- 0.0218
x 100 = 92% x = 0.554% C AISI 1055

5. A spheroidized steel contains 15% cementite in a ferrite matrix.


Estimate the AISI-SAE number for the steel.

6.67 - x 100 = 85% x = 1.02% C AISI 10100


~ = 6.67 - 0.0218 x

135
6. Complete the table below

1050 steel 10120 steel

A temperature 727C 727C


A~ or A cmtemperature 770C 895C
Full annealing temperature 800C 757C
Normalizing temperature 825C 950C
Process Annealing temperature 557-647C
Spheroidizing temperature

7. A 1030 steel is to be hot rolled, with subsequent air cooling giving a


normalized structure. What should be the last hot rolling temperature?

A
3
= 810C' therefore hot work at 810 + 55 = 865C
8. During spheroidizing of a 10100 steel,a uniform distribution of
spherical cementite particles, 'each 0.002 cm in diameter, is produced.
Estimate (a) the number of these particles per cubic centimeter of the
steel and (b) the number of these ?articles per kilogramme of steel.
The density of ferrite is 7.87 Mg/m and that of Fe C is 7.66 Mg/m 3
3

wt% a = (6.67-1.0)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 85.285


wt% Fe 3 C (1.0-0.0218)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 14.714

(85.28617.87) 10.837 100


vol% a (85.286/7.87) + (14.714/7.66) x 100 12.758 x 84.94

vol% Fe C
3
= 15.06
Vparticle (4n/3)(0.001 x 10- 2 )3
4.189 X 10-15 m3

(a) The number of particles per cm 3 is


0.1506 cm3 Fe C/cm3
number of particles = _____________3_____
4. 189 X 10- 9 cm3

(b) The number of particles per kilogramme is

p
steel
= (0.1506)(7.66) + (0.8494)(7.87) = 7.8384 Mg/m 3

(3.6 x 10 13/m 3 ) (10- 3 kglMg)/7.8384 Mg/m3 = 4.593 x 10 9 /kg

9. Suppose a 1080 steel is available in either the pearlitic or spheroidized


condition. In the pearlite, the cementite platelets are 0.00002 cm
thick, while the ferrite platelets are 0.00007 cm thick. In the
spheroidite, the cementite spheres are 0.003 cm in diameter. Estimate.
the total interface area between the ferrite and cementite in a cubic
centimeter of each steel. Densities of each phase are given in Problem 8.

136
wt% Fe 3 C = (0.8-0.0218)/(6.67-0.0218) x 100 = 11.705

(11.705/7.66) 1.528
vol% Fe 3 C = (11.705/7.66) + (88.295/7.87) x 100 = 12.747 x 100 11.897

For pearlite:

There are two ferrite/cementite interfaces every (0.00002 + 0.00007)


= 0.00009 cm or one ferrite/cementite interface every 0.000045 cm.
In a cube one cm thick, there are

1 cm/0.000045 cm 22.222 interfaces

The total interfacial area is then 22.222 cm2/cm3

For spheroidite:

Vsphere (4n/3)(0.0015)3 = 1.4137 x 10-8 cm3

number of spheres = 0.11987/1.4137 x 10-8 = 8.479 x 106 /cm3

A 4n(0.0015)2 = 2.827 x 10-5 cm2


sphere

total area = (8.479 x 10 6 )(2.827 x 10-5 ) = 240 cm2 /cm3

The interface area is much greater in pearlite than in spheroidite.

10. Describe the final microstructure obtained in a 1050 steel after each of
the following heat treatments.

(a) Heat at 820C, quench to 700C and hold for 5 s, quench to room
temperature...... martensite
(b) Heat at 820C, quench to 400C and hold for 1000 s, quench to
room temperature ... bainite

(c) Heat at 820C, quench to 600C and hold for 100 s, quench to
room temperature ... ferrite and pearlite.

(d) Heat at 820C, quench to 350C and hold for 50 s, quench


to room temperature. bainite and martensite

(e) Heat at 820C, quench to 600C and hold for 100 s, quench to
400 C and hold for 100 s, cool slowly to room temperature .....
ferrite and pearlite

11. Describe the final microstructure obtained in a 10110 steel after each of
the following heat treatments.

(a) Heat to 900C, quench to 700C and hold for 5 s, quench to


300C and hold for 100 s, quench to room temperature ....
cementite and martensite

137
(b) Heat to 900C, quench to 600C and hold for 1 s, quench to room
temperature..... cementIte, pearlite and martensite

(c) Heat to 900C, quench to 400C and hold for 10,000 s, cool to
room temperature .. bainite

(d) Heat to 900C, quench to 700C and hold for 5 s, quench to


400C and hold for 1000 s, cool to room temperature ..
cementite and bainite

(e) Heat to 900C, quench to 250C and hold for 100 s, quench to
room temperature, heat to 400C and hold for 3600 s, cool to
room temperature .. tempered martensite

(f) Heat to 900C, quench to 600C and hold for 100 s, quench to
room temperature ... cementite and pearlite

12. Recommend an appropriate isothermal annealing heat treatment for a 1050


steel which will give a Rockwell C hardness of 25.

a. austenitize at 820C
b. quench to 600C and hold for more than 10 s to give ferrite and
pearlite of the correct hardness
c. cool to room temperature

13. Recommend an appropriate austempering heat treatment for a 10110 steel


which will give a Rockwell C hardness of 49.

a. austenitize at 900C
b. quench to 400C and hold for more than 200 s to give all
bainite of the correct hardness
c. cool to room temperature

14. After austempering, a 1050 steel has a hardness of Rc40. Estimate the
temperature at which the austenite was transformed.

15. After an isothermal transformation heat treatment, a 10110 steel has a


~~~~~~~~m~!. Rc57 . Estimate the temperature at which the austenite was

16. A 1080 steel (Figure 11-20) is austempered to produce a hardness of Rc 52.


Estimate (a) the transformation temperature and (b) the minimum
transformation time required.

(b) 3000 s

17. Estimate the minimum times required to isothermally anneal (a) 1050,
(b) 1080, and (c) 10110 steels at 600C.

(a) 8 s (b) 10 s (c) 2 s

138
18. A 1050 steel is to be quenched and tempered to produce a minimum Brinell
hardness of 300 and a minimum elongation of 15%. Is this possible? if
so, what tempering temperature would you recommend?

The tempering temperature must be less than 500C to assure adequate


Brinell hardness but must be greater than 425C to permit sufficient
% elongation. Any tempering temperature between 425 and 500C will
be appropriate.

19. A 1050 steel is to be quenched and tempered to produce a minimum yield


strength of 1000 MPa and a minimum reduction in area of 55%. Is this
possible? If so, what tempering temperature would you recommend?

The tempering temperature must be less than 460C to assure a


sufficient yield strength and must be greater than 460C to produce
an adequate % reduction in area. A tempering temperature of exactly
460C might work.

20. In one case, a 1030 steel is austenitized at 850C and quenched. In a


second case, a 1030 steel is austenitized at 750C and quenched.
Calculate (a) the composition and (b) the amount of martensite formed in
each example.

At 850C, 100% austenite forms of composition 0.3% C. During


quenching, 100% martensite also containing 0.3% C is produced.

At 750C, the steel is in the austenite plus ferrite region of the


phase diagram. The austenite has a composition of 0.60% C and its
amount is

r = (0.3-0.02)/(0.60-0.02) x 100 = 48%


After quenching, 48% martensite containing 0.60% C is formed.

21. A 1020 steel is improperly austenitized and quenched, giving a structure


composed of 30% martensite and 70% ferrite. Estimate (a) the carbon
content of martensite and (b) the austenitizing temperature. What
austenitizing temperature should have been used?

Let's calculate the amount of ferrite we should expect at different


austenitizing temperatures:

730C; ex. (0.77-0.20)/(0.77-0.02) x 100 76%


740C: ex. (0.66-0.20)/(0.66-0.02) x 100 72%
750C: ex. (0.60-0.20)/(0.60-0.02) x 100 69%
760C: ex. (0.55-0.20)/(0.55-0.02) x 100 66%

The steel must have been austenitized just below 750C.

Just below 750C, the composition of the austenite is about 0.60% C;


therefore the martensite also has this approximate composition.

The steel should have been austenitized perhaps 30 to 50C above the
A3 temperature, or 840 + (30 to 50) = 870 to 890C.

139
22. A 1050 steel develops surface cracks during quenching. Describe a heat
treatment, including appropriate temperatures and times, that might help
minimize this problem. What is this treatment called?

a. austenitize at 820C for about one hour


b. quench to 350C and hold for 10 S so no bainite forms
c. quench to room temperature to produce martensite

This treatment is marquenching.

23. What difficulties would you expect if you attempted a marquenching heat
treatment using a 1050 steel?

The bainite start time is so short that it is unlikely that the


temperature can be equalized throughout the entire steel piece
before the surface begins to transform to bainite.

24. Suppose a new polymer quenching medium has an H coefficient of 0.5.


Would this quenchant be more likely to produce quench cracks than a
typical water quench?

Water has an H coefficient of between 0.9 and 4.0, depending on the


amount of agitation. The polymer is a less severe quench than the
water; consequently quench cracking is less likely in the polymer.

25. We would like to perform a marquenching heat treatment for a 1050 steel.
What is the minimum quenching temperature that we could use?

26. When a 1080 steel is quenched in a particular medium, a mixture of


pearlite and martensite forms. What microstructure would be produced in
an identical treatment for a 1020 steel?

To produce a mixture of pearlite and martensite in a 1080 steel, a


cooling rate of 40 to 140C/s is required. For this same range of
cooling rates in a 1020 steel, either ferrite and martensite (for
cooling rates greater than 100C/s) or ferrite, bainite, and
martensite (for cooling rates less than 100C/s) will be produced.

21. When a 1020 steel is quenched in a particular medium, a mixture of


ferri te, pearlite, and bainite is produced. What microstructure would
form in an identical treatment for a 1080 steel?

A cooling rate of 2 to 10C is required to produce ferrite,


pearlite, and bainite in a 1020 steel. For the same range of
cooling rates in a 1080 steel, the microstructure will be all
pearlite.

28. A steel containing 8% Mn and 0.5% C is heated to 100C. (a) Is this a


hypoeutectoid or a hypereutectoid steel? (b) What phases will be
present in the steel at 100C? (c) Would this treatment be an'
appropriate spheroidizing treatment?

140
For this composition, the A = 660C and the eutectoid composition
is 0.38% C. 1

(a) the alloy steel is now hypereutectoid

(b) the phases at 700C are austenite and cementite

(c) the treatment is not an appropriate spheroidization treatment


because of the formation of the austenite.

29. A steel containing 4% Mo and 0.4% C is heated to 850C, which is well


above the A3 temperature for a plain carbon steel. (al Is this a
hypoeutectoid or a hpereutectoid steel? (bl What phases will be present
in the steel at 850 C? (c) Would this be an appropriate austenitizing
treatment if the steel is to be quenched to produce all martensite?

For this composition, the A = 930C and the eutectoid composition


is 0.17% C. 1

(a) the alloy steel is hypereutectoid

(b) the phases present at 850C are still ferrite and cementite

(c) this is not an appropriate austenitizing treatment because


austenite is not formed.

30. Using average values for the alloying elements, estimate the Ms
temperatures for the following steels. (a) 1140, (b) 4620, (c) 52100,
(d) 8620, and (e) 6150.

1140: M 539 - 36(0.405) - 39(0.875) 490C


4620: MS 539 - 36(0.195) - 39(0.55) - 19(1.825) 476C
52100: MS 539 - 36(1. 04) - 39(0.35) - 39(1.45) 431C
8620: MS 539 - 36(0.205) - 39(0.80) - 39(0.50) - 19(0.55)= 470C
6150: MS 539 - 36(0.60) - 39(0.875) 483C
s

31. For a 4030 steel, estimate (a) the maximum allowable time for a
martempering heat treatment and (b) the maximum allowable time for an
ausforming process. At what temperature would each of these treatments
be conducted?

(al for martempering, 3 s at 300C


(b) for ausforming, 30,000 s at 540C

32. For a 4340 steel, describe the microstructure obtained for the following
heat treatments.

(a) heat at 800C, quench to 300C and hold for 100 s, quench to
room temperature ..... bainite and martensite

(b) heat at 800C, quench to 650C and hold for 105 s, cool to room
temperature ..... ferrite and pearlite

(c) heat at 800C, quench to 700C and hold for 104 s, quench to
room temperature .. ferrite and martensite

141
(d) heat at 800C, quench to 700C and hold for 10 4 s, quench
to 400C and hold for 10 3 s, quench to room temperature ...
ferrite, bainite and martensite

(e) Heat at 800C, quench to 600C and hold for 100 s, quench to
room temperature ..... martensite

(f) Heat at 800C, quench to 300C and hold for 10 4 s, quench to


room temperature ..... bainite

33. A quenched and tempered steel is to be exposed to 500C for brief periods
of time. It is expected to maintain a hardness of Rc40 after a number of
these exposures. Which of the following steels would be acceptable:
1030, 1040, 1095, 4340?

Based on the tempering curves in Figure 12-22, this is not possible


for the 1030 and 1040 steels; it is Just barely possible for the
1095 and 4340 steels.

34. A 4320 steel part quenched to give a hardness of Rc30 is found to wear at
an excessive rate. Estimate the hardness of the part if the steel were
1040, 9310 or 8640. Which of these alternatives might be better choices
than the 4320 steel?

The Jominy distance that gives Rc30 in a 4320 steel is 17 mm. For
this same Jominy distance:
1040: R 23
9310: RC39
8640: R C50
c
Either the 9310 or 8640 steel would be better choices than the 4320
steel.

35. An 8640 steel part is to have a hardness between Rc45 and Rc50. What
range of cooling rates must be obtained in order to satisfy this
requirement?

To obtain a hardness of Rc 45 to 50, the Jominy distances must be


between 17 and 22.7 mm. This in turn corresponds to a range of
cooling rates between 6.5 and 10C/s.

36. Consider that the H coefficient of oil is 1.0, that of unagitated-brine


is 2.0, and that of agitated brine is 5.0. Estimate the cooling rate in
the center of a 25 mm diameter bar produced by each of these quenching
media.

For oil, with an H coefficient of 1.0, the Jominy distance is 5 mm;


this corresponds to a cooling rate of 60C/s.

For unagi tated brine, with an H coefficient of 2.0, the Jominy


distance is 4.15 mm; this corresponds to a cooling rate of 72C/s.

For agitated brine, with an H coefficient of 5.0, the Jominy


distance is 2.1 mm; this corresponds to a cooling rate of 240C/s.

142
37. A SO mm diameter bar of 4320 steel is to have a hardness of R 30. What
c
is the required severity of the quench (H coefficient)? What type of
quenching medium would you recommend to produce the desired hardness with
the least chance of cracking?

To produce a hardness of Rc30 in a SO mm diameter bar of 4320, a


Jominy distance of 17 mm must be obtained. To obtain this Jominy
distance, an H coefficient of 0.4 or greater must be obtained.

To minimize quench cracks, we would like to cool as slowly as


possible but still produce the required hardness. Agitated oil
might be an appropriate choice.

38. A 25 mm diameter bar of 8640 steel is to have a minimum hardness of R 45.


c
Will (a) agitated brine, (b) still water, and (c) still oil be a
satisfactory quenching medium?

To produce the hardness of Rc 45, a Jominy distance of 22.7 mm is


needed. This in turn requires a quenching medium that has an H
coefficient of 0.1 or greater. Any of the three quenching media
will meet this requirement. Still oil would be preferred due to
less likelihood of stresses and cracking.

39. What is the maximum diameter of a 4320 steel bar quenched in unagitated
brine that will develop a hardness of Rc35?

A Jominy distance of 12 mm or less is required to give a hardness of


Rc35. An H coefficient of 2.0 is obtained by the unagitated brine.
With these conditions, a maximum diameter of 53 mm can be quenched
satisfactorily.

40. An 8640 steel is cooled at 8C/s. Estimate the hardness of the quenched
steel.

A cooling rate of 8C/s corresponds to a Jominy distance of 19 mm.


This Jominy distance produces a hardness of Rc 48.

41. A 4320 steel plate 37.5 mm thick is quenched in water. Plot the hardness
profile across the cross section of the plate after quenching.

We can obtain the Jominy distances that correspond to the surface,


1/4 thickness, and center of the plate, then find the hardness

so
Jominy Rockwell C
distance hardness
surface: 6 mm 44 R
c
40~
114 thickness: 12.5 mm 34
center: 16 mm 31 30 ~
S~--~1~/~4'---'C~--'1/+4'-~S

143
42. A 4320 steel plate 50 mm thick is water quenched. By plotting the
hardness profile across the cross section of the plate, determine the
depth of the plate which has a hardness of at least Rc40.

First we can determine the Jominy distance that correspond to


each location in the plate, then find the Rockwell C hardness.

50
Jominy Rockwell C
distance hardness
surface: 7.5 mm 40
41 R
1/4thickness: 15 mm c
32
center: 19 mm 29 30
S 1/4 S

The steel has a hardness of R 40 or greater to a depth of about 1/20


of the cross section. For a C50 mm plate, this distance is 2.5 Mm.

43. An 8640 steel plate is to be produced by water quenching, with the center
of the plate having a minimum hardness of Rc50. What is the maximum
plate thickness than can undergo this treatment?

To obtain a hardness of Rc50 in an 8640 steel plate, the Jominy


distance must be about 17.5 Mm. This corresponds to a maximum plate
thickness of 45 Mm.

44. A 50 mm plate of 1040 steel is to have a minimum surface hardness of Rc50


and a maximum center hardness of R 25. Is this possible using a water
quench? c

With a water quench, the Jominy distance at the surface of 50 mm


1040 steel plate is 7 mm and at the center is 19.mm. These Jominy
distances give surface hardness of Rc36 and a center hardness of
Rc24. Therefore the water quench will not be satisfactory.

45. The center of a 50 mm diameter bar of 9310 steel has a hardness of R 40.
c
Determine the hardness at the center of a 25 mm diameter bar of -4320
quenched in the same medium.

The 50 mm diameter 9310 steel bar must have been quenched at a rate
equivalent to a Jominy distance of 15.6 mm to produce the R 40
c
hardness. This in turn suggests that the H coefficient must have
been about 0.5.

For a 25 mm bar quenched in a medium having an H coefficient of 0.5, .


a Jominy distance of 7.5 mm will be produced. For a 4320 steel,
this cooling rate will give a hardness of Rc45.

144
46. A 1010 steel is to be gas carburized using an atmosphere that produces
1.2% C at the surface of the steel. The case depth is defined as the
distance below the surface that contains at least 0.5% C. If carburizing
is done at 950C, determine the time required to produce a case depth of
0.25 mm. (See Chapter 5 for review).

-4 [ 137850 ]
D = 0.23 x 10 _4oXP - (8.314)(1221)
= (0.23 x 10 )exp(-13.55721)

= 2.9778 X 10-11 m2/s

1.2 - 0.5
0.636
1. 2 - 0.1

0.25 X 10-3
0.7
21c2.9778 x 10-11 ) (t)

:.t = 1070.8 s = 0.3 hours

47. A dual phase steel containing o. 15% C is to be produced by originally


austenitizing at 750C. Determine the amounts of ferrite and martensite
in the final structure. What are the carbon content and approximate
R hardness of the martensite?
c

At 750C, the composition of the austenite in the ferrite plus


austenite portion of the phase diagram is 0.60% C and the amount of
austenite is
7 = (0.15-0.02)/(0.60-0.02) x 100 = 22.4%

The austenite transforms to martensite having the same composition


and amount; therefore

amounts: 22.4% martensite, 77.6% ferrite

composition of martensite: 0.60% C


hardness of martensite: R 65
c
48. Occasionally,when an austenitic stainless steel is welded, the weld
deposit may be slightly magnetic. Based on the Fe-Cr-Ni-C phase diagram,
what phase would you expect is causing the magnetic behaviour? Why might
this phase have formed? What could you do to restore the non-magnetic
behaviour?

Austenite is not magnetic. The magnetic behaviour might be caused


by the formation and retention of a-ferrite.

The a-ferrite may have formed during solidification of the weld and
may have been retained during the rapid cooling of the weldment.

We could allow the a-ferrite to dissolve by annealing the stainless


steel.

145
49. Determine the carbon equivalent for a gray iron containing 3.2% C and
2.7% 5i. Is the iron hypoeutectic or hypereutectic? What is the primary
phase that will form during solidification?

carbon equivalent CE = %C + (1/3)%5i = 3.2 + (1/3)(2.7) = 4.1%

This is a hypoeutectic cast iron, since the CE is less than 4.3%

The primary phase in a hypoeutectic cast iron is austenite.

50. A gray iron intended for particularly good vibration damping should have
a carbon equivalent of at least 4.4%. If the iron contains 3.8% C (a)
what is the minimum amount of silicon that must be added and (b) what is
the primary phase that will form during solidification?

(a) CE = %C (1/3)%5i = 3.8 + (1/3)%5i = 4.4%


%5i = 1. 8
(b) The primary phase in a hypereutectic cast iron intended to give
good vibration damping is graphite.

51. What is the difference in microstructure produced when a 1040 steel is


annealed versus when a gray cast iron is annealed?

1040 steel: annealing gives a microstructure composed of


approximately 50% coarse pearlite and 50% ferrite.

gray iron: annealing gives a microstructure composed of 100%


ferrite; the carbon that would otherwise be present in pearlite is
able to diffuse to the existing graphite flakes.

52. Explain why the thermal conductivity of ductile or malleable cast iron is
less than that of gray cast iron.

The graphite has a higher thermal conductivity than the matrix in


cast irons. This graphite is interconnected in gray iron and can
therefore remove heat from the surface into the interior of the
part. However, the graphite in ductile and malleable irons is not
continuous and therefore cannot transfer heat from the surface.

53. A gray iron contains 3.5% C and 2.4% 51. (a) Determine the carbon
equivalent. (b) What is the class number for the iron? (c) What is the
nominal tensile strength of the iron? (d) Estimate the tensile strength
of this iron in a 75 mm diameter bar.

(a) CE %C + (1/3)%5i = 3.5 + (1/3)(2.4) = 4.3%

(b) This carbon equivalent is typical of a Grade 180 gray iron.

(c) The nominal tensile strength of a Grade 180 iron is 180 MPa.

(d) In a 75 mm diameter bar, the cooling rates during'


solidification are very slow, coarse graphite and ferrite are
produced, and the tensile strength may be as low as about 110
MPa.

146
54. A Grade 260 gray iron casting is found to have a tensile strength of 207
MPa. What is the expected diameter of the bar? Would you expect this
casting to have more or less pearlite than normally would be expected?

In a Grade 260 gray iron, a tensile strength of 207 MPa is expected


for a 75 mm diameter bar.

With this thickness, we would expect to have less pearlite and more
ferri te than the nominal expected amounts due to the slow cooling
rates.

55. Suppose you could double the number of graphite nodules produced when a
white iron is heated to the malleablizing temperature. What effect would
this have on the time required for first stage graphitization and on the
cooling rate required for second stage graphitization?

By doubling the number of graphite nodules, the diffusion distances


for the carbon atoms to reach graphite nucleation sites or graphite
nodules is reduced, allowing the malleablizing transformations to
occur more rapidly. Therefore the time required for first stage
graphi tization would be shorter and faster cooling rates would be
permitted during second stage graphitization.

56. When the thickness of a ductile cast iron casting increases, the number
of graphite nodules normally decreases. (al What effect will this have
on the amount of ferrite that is present in the matrix? (b) Suppose you
observed the opposite effect of thickness on the amount of ferrite. How
would you explain this difference?

When the number of graphite nodules decreases, the diffusion


distance for carbon atoms to move from the matrix to the nodules is
increased.

(al Therefore the amount of ferrite in the matrix should


decrease and the amount of pearlite should increase for
low nodule count ductile irons.

(bl If a larger amount of ferrite is observed when the


thickness of the casting increases, we would expect that
the slower cooling rate, which tends to promote ferrite,
would have offset the lower nodule count, which tends to
promote pearlite. In this case, the slower cooling rate
would have predominated.

57. Suppose a ductile iron containing 0.1% S is nodulized by adding 0.05% Mg.
What fraction of the added magnesium will be lost by combining with
sulphur to produce MgS? Will there be enough Mg left to permit graphite
nodules to form?

When magnesium is added to iron containing sulphur, the reaction


that occurs is
Mg + S = MgS

In 100 grams of iron, we can calculate the amount of magnesium


required to neutralize the sulphur by this reaction:

147
x grams Hg _ 0.1 g S
24.312 g/mol - 32.064 glmol x = 0.0758 g Hg

However, only 0.05 g of Hg was added to the iron. Therefore there


is not even enough Hg to neutralize the sulphur, let alone permi t
the formation of graphite nodules.

58. We would like to produce a 420/12 grade of ductile cast iron without heat
treating. (a) What is the major phase that should be present in the
matrix? (b) Would increasing the number of graphite nodules produced
during solidification help or hinder our efforts to produce this
structure? Explain.

(a) A 420/12 grade of ductile iron should contain a matrix composed


of all ferrite.

(b) Increasing the number of graphite nodules will reduce the


diffusion distance of the carbon atoms and will make it easier
to produce all ferrite in the matrix.

59. We would like to produce a quenched and tempered ductile cast iron. (a)
Would you expect the hardenabillty of the cast iron to be better or worse
than for a plain carbon steel? Explain. (b) Would you expect the
hardenability of the ductile iron to be better or worse than for a
malleable coast iron? Explain.

(a) The hardenability of the cast iron should be better than that
of a plain carbon steel due to the presence of 1 to 3% silicon
in the iron. The silicon increases the hardenabil1ty of the
matrix.

(b) The hardenability of ductile iron is better than that of


malleable iron. The silicon content of ductile iron should be
relatively high to promote graphitization during
solidification; the silicon content of malleable iron is
comparatively low to prevent graphitization during
solidification.

60. A B320-10 malleable cast iron contains large primary cementite after the
heat treatment is completed. Is this undesirable structure a result of
poor FSG or poor SSG treatment? Explain.

Presence of large undissolved primary cementite suggests that FSG


was not completed. The purpose of FSG is to break down the pr~mary
cementite, while the purpose of SSG is to control the matrix. The
problem in this case is too short of an FSG time, too low of an FSG
temperature, too few nuclei produced during heating, or the presence
of alloying elements that stabilize the cementite.

61. A B350-12 malleable cast iron contains a mixture of ferrite and pearlite
in the matrix after heat treatment. Is this undesirable structure a
result of poor FSG or poor SSG treatment? Explain.
A B350-12 malleable iron is intended to have a completely ferrite'
matrix; this is achieved by using a sufficiently slow cooling rate
during SSG. This present of pearlite in the matrix suggests that
the cooling rate was too rapid, the nodule count was too low, or
pearlite stabilizing alloying elements were present in the iron.

148
62. An Fe-3.6% C cast iron is allowed to solidify. Calculate (a) the amount
of cementite in both weight percent and volume percent that forms if
white iron is produced, (b) the amount of graphite in both weight percent
and volume percent that forms if gray iron is produced, and (cO the
change in volume during solidification for both gray and wh~te cast
irons. (The deysities of the phases i~volved are 7.0 Mg/m for th~
liquid, 7.69 Mg/m for austenite, 7.66 Mg/m for cementite, and 1.5 Mg/m
for graphite. )

(a) In white cast iron, we expect a structure of austenite and


cementite immediately after solidification:

wt% Fe 3 C = (3.6-2.11)/(6.67/2.11) x 100 = 32.675

(32.67517.66)
vol% Fe 3 C = (32.675/7.66) + (67.325/7.69) x 100 = 32.761

(b) In gray cast iron, we expect a structure of austenite and


graphite immediately after solidification:

wt% Gr = (3.6-2.08)/(100-2.08) x 100 = 1.552


1% G - (1.552/1.5) 100 - 7 478
vo r - (1.552/1.5) + (98.448/7.69) x -.

(c) Assume that we have 1 Mg of cast iron as our basis.

For white iron

VL = (1/7) = 0.14286 m3

V7 = O.~:~~ = 0.08754 m3

VFe C = O.~~:: = 0.04266 m3


3
volume change 0.14286 - (0.08754 + 0.04266) x 100
O. 14286
= 8.86% contraction

In gray iron
VL = (1/7) = 0.14286 m3
V7 = 0.;~!:8 = 0.12802 m3

VG = 0.0~~;2 = 0.01035 m2

volume change 0.14286 - (0.12802 + 0.01035) x 100


0.14286
= 3.14% contraction

Note that much less solidification shrinkage occurs in the gray iron.

149
63. Calculate the percent carbon in an iron-carbon alloy that will give no
volume change when the liquid transforms to austenite plus graphite
during solidification. (Use the data in Problem 62. )

Assume that we start with 1 Mg of liquid iron. Let "x" be the


number of Mg of austenite hence (l-x) will be the number of Mg of
graphite.

volume change = 0%
.. 0= (117) - [(xl7.69~/; (1 - x)(l/1.5)] x 100

o 0.14286 - (O.13x + 0.6666 - 0.667x)


0.52381 = 0.537x
.. 0.97544 Mg of 7 = x
& 0.02456 Mg of G
Using the lever rule, with "y" representing the overall % carbon
content
_ _ y - 2.08
% graphite - 2.456 - 100 _ 2.08 x 100
:. y = 4. 485% carbon

The cast iron must be slightly hypereutectic in order to prevent


any shrinkage on solidification.

64. Figure 12-52 illustrates the cooling curves at several distance from the
surface of a gray cast iron. Based on these curves, estimate the chill
depth in the casting.

The cooling curve at 3 mm and 6 mm from the surface show a thermal


arrest at 1131C, so white iron forms. the remaining locations have
an arrest between 1131C and 1155C, indicating that gray iron
forms. By plotting the arrest temperature versus distance, we can
estimate the chill depth to be about 7.8 mm.

1180

1170
Whi te ~ : f - Gray
.-..1160
Col
o
'-' 1150
cu
eco 1140
~

Eo<
t l130
1120
L-~3---'6--~9~-'ln2~-'1~5---'1"8

Distance from surface (mm)

150
Chapter 13

NON-FERROUS ALLOYS

1. Calculate the modulus of elasticity-to-density ratio for an AI-4% Li


alloy and compare with the ratio for pure aluminum.

The density of pure aluminum is 2.70 Mg/m3 ; that for the AI-4% Li
alloy is 2.48 Mg/m3 , Figure 13-3.
10 GPa
Pure AI: modulusldensity =
2.70 Mg/m3 2.70 X 103 kg/m3

10 X 10 9 kg m s-2
2.70 x 10 3 kg/m 3

AI-4% Li: modulusldensity 11. 4 GPa 4.6 x 106 m2 S-2


2.48 Mg/m 3

2. Explain why aluminum alloys containing more than 15% Mg are not used.

When more than 15% Mg is added to AI, a eutectic microconstltuent is


produced during solidification. This eutectic contains
~ = (35-14.9)/(35.5-14.9) x 100 = 97.6%
Since most of the eutectic is the brittle intermetaillc compound ~,
the eutectic, which is the continuous microconstituent, and
consequently the entire alloy are likely to be very brittle.

3. Determine the formula for the ~ phase in AI-Mn alloys.

The ~ phase has a composition of 25 wt% Mn. the atomic percent Mn


is 925/54.93) _ 0.455 _
at% Mn = (25/54.93) + (75/26.98) x 100 - 3.235 - 14.1
The Mn/Al ratio is 0.14 = 1/7. Therefore ~ = AI 7Mn.
4. Determine the formulas for the ~ and 7 intermetallic compounds in the
AI-Li system. Which of these is a stoichiometric intermetallic compound?

7 is a stoichiometric intermetallic compound; is a


non-stoichiometric compound.
7 contains approximately 34 wt% Li. In atomic percent
t% L'
a 1 = (34/6.94)
(34/6.94) + (66/26.981) x
100 = 74 . 9305 = 66.7
Therefore 7 is AlLi2

~ contains 22 wt% Li. In atomic percent:


t% L - (22/6.94) 100 3.17
a (22/6.94) + (78/26.981) x 52
1 - 6.06
Therefore ~ is AlLi

151
5. Calculate the amount of each phase in the AI-Li eutectic.
= (20.4-9.9)/(20.4-4.0) x 100 64%
~ = (9.9-4.0)1(20.4-4.0) x 100 = 36%
6. Estimate the secondary dendrite arm spacing for each structure in Figure
13-5 and, from Figure 8-8, estimate the solidification time obtained by
each of the three casting processes. Do you expect higher strengths for
die casting, permanent mold casting, or sand casting?

The secondary dendrite arm spacing is related to the local


solidification time by the equation
SDAS = (8 x 10-4 )(LST)o.42 or LST = (SDAS/8 x 10- 4 )2.38

We can measure the distance between the center of one dendrite and
the center of another dendrite, divide by the number of dendrite
spacings measured, and then divide by the magnification; this will
give us the SDAS. From the equation above, we can calculate the
solidification time.
sand cast: SDAS (25 mmll dendrite spacing)/350 = 0.071 mm
LST 180 s

permanent mold: SDAS (28 mml4 dendrite spacings)/350 0.02 mm


LST 9 s

die cast: SDAS (18 mml5 dendrite spacings)/350 = 0.01 mm


LST 1.7 s
We expect the highest strength from the die casting.

7. Would you expect a 2024-T9 aluminum alloy to be stronger or weaker than a


2024-T6 alloy? Explain.

The T9 treatment will give the higher strength; in this temper cold
working and age hardening are combined, while in T6, only age
hardening is done.

8. Estimate the tensile strength expected for an 1100-H12 aluminum alloy.

The tensile strength for 1100-0 (annealed) is 90 MPa and that for
1100-H18 is 165.5 MPa. then the tensile strength for 1100-H14 is
the average

1100-H14: tensile strength = (165.5 + 90)/2 = 108.9 MPa

9. Estimate the tensile strength expected for a 5056-H16 aluminum alloy.

The tensile strength for 5056-0 (annealed) is 290 MPa and that for
5056-H18 is 414 MPa. Then the tensile strength for 5056-H14 is the
average of these two:
5056-H14: tensile strength = (414 + 290)/2 = 352 MPa

The tensile strength for 5056-H16 is the average between the H14 and
H18 tempers, or

5056-H16: tensile strength (414 + 352)/2 383 MPa

152
10. Suppose you prepare an AI-8% Li alloy by rapid solidification processing
to produce a single phase at room temperature. How much precipitate will
form during aging?

~ = (8-3)/(21-3) = 28%
11. How much Mg 2A13 , (~), forms in a 518-T7 aluminum alloy?

The T7 temper means that the alloy has been deliberately overaged,
or stabilized, so the equilibrium amount of ~ should be present.

~ = (8-0)/(35-0) x 100 = 23%


12. Determine the designation for a magnesium alloy containing 4.3% Al and
11.9% Zn that has been hot rolled, cooled, and allowed to naturally age.

ZA124-T1

13. An HK31A-24 magnesium alloy has a tensile strength of 262 MPa. Would you
expect that the alloy could have an H28 designation? Explain.

No; an H28 temper suggests a large percent deformation. However the


magnesium alloys are relatively brittle and typically cannot be cold
worked this amount.

14. Suppose a 300 mm long round bar is to support a load of 226 kg without
any permanent deformation. Calculate the minimum diameter of the bar if
it is made of (a) ZK40A-T5 magnesium and (b) 390-F aluminum. Calculate
the weight of the bar in each case.

(a) The yield strength for ZK40A is 255 MPa. A load F


corresponding to 225 kg mass is

mass x acceleration = (225 kg)(9.81 m s-2) = 2217 N

A F/~ = (2217N)/(255 x 10 6 N m- 2 ) = 8.69 x 10 6 m2


d 3.33 mm

The density of magnesium is 1.738 Mg/m3 . The mass is

w = pV = pAl (1.738 Mg/m 3 ) (8.69 x 10- 6 m2 )(330/1000 m)


4.609 g

(b) A F/~ = (2217N)/(241 x 106 N m- 2 ) = 9.20 x 10-6 m2


or d = 3.42 mm

The density of aluminum is 2.7 Mg/ml. The mass is

w pV = pAl
7.452 g

153
15. 600 mm long wire that is 2.5 mm in diameter is expected to elongate no
more than 0.75 mm under load. What is the maximum force that can be
applied if the wire is made of (a) aluminum, and (b) beryllium?

The maximum allowable strain is e = (600.75 - 600)/(600) = 0.00125


The cross-sectional area of the wire is A = (n/4) (2.5)2 = 4.9087 mm2
The maximum allowable load F = uA = eEA
(a) For aluminum F = (0.00125)(69 X 109 N/m2 ) (4. 9087 mm2 )(10-6 m2/mm2 )
4.23 N
(b) For beryllium F (0.00125)(290 x 109 N/m 2 ) (4.9087 mm2 )(10- 6 m2/mm2)
= 1780 N

16. A 2700-H10 copper alloy plate 6.25 mm thick is to be produced. Calculate


the original thickness of the plate before rolling. Should the
deformation be done by hot or cold working? Explain.

An H10 temper means that 68.6% cold work is done.

%CW = (t - 6.25)/t x 100 = 68.6 t = 19.9 mm

The deformation should be done using cold working in order to obtain


the strengthening effect.

17. Figure 7-16 shows micrographs of a Cu-Zn alloy that has been annealed at
different temperatures. Determine the "xxx" in the OSxxx designation
obtained for each of the annealing temperatures.

We want to measure the average grain diameter in the photographs and


divide by the magnification.

400C: d 8 mm/75 107 X 10-3 mm II XXXII 107


650C: d 20 mm/75 267 x 10-3 mm "xxx" 267
800C: d 50 mm/75 667 x 10-3 mm II XXX" 667

18. Estimate the minimum tensile and yield strengths for a Cu-30% Zn alloy
having the H10 temper. See Figure 7-24

The H10 temper indicates 68.6% cold work. From Figure 7-24, the
strength is

tensile strength = 650 Mpa


yield strength = 440 MFa

19. A 101000-0S050 copper alloy is cold extruded from a 11.25 mm diameter to


a 5.75 mm diameter. What is the approximate temper of the final bar?
2 2
%CW = (11.25) - (5.75) x 100 = 73.9
(11.25)2
this corresponds to an H12 temper.

154
20. Consider a Cu-20% Sn alloy. Describe the sequence by which the alloy
freezes and cools to room temperature. Is it likely that the equilibrium
a + E structure will be produced?

a. primary a precipitates from the liquid to give L + a


b. the remaining liquid and some of the a go through a peritectic
reaction to give a + ~
c. the ~ goes through a eutectoid reaction, giving a + 7
d. the 7 goes through a eutectoid reaction, giving a + 0
e. the 0 goes through a eutectoid reaction, giving oc + E

21. We would like to produce a TQ temper in an aluminum bronze containing 13%


AI. How much 7 precipitate will form during tempering at 450C?
2

The aluminum bronze is heated, quenched to produce martensite, and


then tempered to allow the equilibrium precipitates to form. From
the lever law

72 = (13-9.4)/(16-9.4) x 100 = 54.5%


22. Suppose we would like to plastically deform a Cu-l0% Pb alloy. Based on
Figure 10-25, estimate the maximum temperature we should use during
deformation. What would happen if we sued a higher temperature?

The maximum temperature should be about 326C; at any higher


temperature, we exceed the eutectic temperature, the lead-rich phase
melts. and hot shortness occurs.

23. Would you expect the fracture toughness of quenched and tempered aluminum
bronze to be high or low? Explain. (You might compare this structure
with some of those produced in oc + ~ titanium alloys. )

The fracture toughness should be relatively good. The acicular, or


Widmanstatten, microstructure forces a crack to follow a very
tortuous path.

24. Based on the micrograph in Figure 13-12, would you expect the
7'precipitate or the carbides to produce a greater strengthening effect
in superalloys? Explain your answer.

The 7' is more numerous and also more uniformly and closely spaced;
consequently the 7' should be more effective than the smaller number
of coarse carbides.

25. Under equilibrium freezing, no eutectic microconstituent is expected in a


Zn-27% Al alloy. However, some eutectic is generally found in the last
regions to solidify. Using Figure 13-13, show how this non-equilibrium
eutectic will form.

During solidification, oc first precipitates from the liqUid. As


the liquid is enriched in zinc, ~ will form. the liquid is enriched
still further in zinc until some non-equilibrium liquid reaches the
eutectic composition. The final microstructure may include primary
a, ~ and eutectic.

155
26. Under non-equilibrium cooling conditions, the center of the dendrites
that form in a Zn-27% Al alloy contain no eutectoid product, while a
lamellar pearlite eutectoid structure is found near the edges of the
dendrites. Using Figure 13-13, explain this behaviour.

During solidification, the first solid a to precipitate from the


liquid is very rich in aluminum. If cooling is rapid, diffusion is
not fast enough to permit the composition of the a to follow the
solidus line. Consequently the composition of the a dendrites
gradually changes from the aluminum-rich core to the zinc-rich
periphery.

During subsequent cooling, the dendrite cores are so rich in


aluminum that the composition does not pass through the eutectoid
reaction. However the edges of the dendrites are richer in zinc,
pass through the eutectoid reaction during cooling, and produce the
lamellar pearlitic structure.

27. What is the eutectoid reaction that causes growth in the Zn-4% Al die
casting alloys? What is the maximum temperature you would select to
stabilize the die castings prior to finish machining?

The eutectoid reaction is ~ a +~. the eutectoid reaction occurs


at 270C; you would stabilize the die castings below this
temperature.

28. When liquid Zn-27% Al alloy is very slowly cooled to permit


solidification, shrinkage is found in the bottom half of the casting. In
most other alloys, shrinkage is more commonly found in the top half of
the casting. Explain why the Zn-27% al alloy is different.

During solidification, the primary a forms first. the a is very


rich in aluminum and, because aluminum is much less dense than zinc,
the a will float towards the top of the casting. The bottom of the
casting therefore becomes enriched in zinc. This zinc-rich liquid
has a low melting temperature, solidifies last, and the
solidification shrinkage is formed as this last liquid freezes.

29. By what mechanism does tin provide strengthening to titanium alloys?

In the usual amounts, the tin does not significantly affect the
equilibrium between a-Ti and ~-Ti. Instead, the tin only provides
solid solution strengthening of the a phase.

30. When steel is joined using arc welding, only the liquid fusion zone must
be protected by a gas or a flux. However, when titanium is welded, both
the front and back sides of the welded metal must be protected. Why must
these extra precautions be taken when joining titanium?

The titanium may be contaminated or embrittled anytime the


temperature is above about 535C. Therefore the titanium must be
protected until the metal cools below this critical temperature.-
Since both sides of the titanium plate will be heated by the welding
process, special provisions must be made to shield all sides of the
titanium until the metal cools sufficiently.

156
31. Select an appropriate annealing temperature for a Ti-l0% Mo alloy.

The critical temperature above which all ~ forms is about 8S0C.


The annealing temperature may be slightly above this temperature or,
in some cases, even slightly below, allowing a small amount of to
remain to prevent grain growth.

32. The Ti-Y phase diagram is shown in Figure 13-22. For a Ti-l0% Y alloy,
(a) estimate the solution treating temperature that will control grain
growth by remaining 10% in the microstructure, (b) determine the
phase(s) present after quenching to room temperature from the
solution-treating temperature, (c) calculate the amount of each phase
after reheating to produce equilibrium at 400C, and (d) describe the
microstructure after reheating at 400C for 1 h. Is this an
age-hardening treatment of a quench and temper treatment?

(a) 750C is just slightly below the critical temperature, so on


the order of 10% will remain.

(b) After quenching, the structure will contain about 10% and '
(martensite).

(c) After reheating, and ~ form;

(40-10)/(40-4) x 100 83.3%


(10-4)1(40-4) x 100 16.7%

(dO After reheating, the structure will be predominantly


precipitates in a matrix of .

This is a quench and temper heat treatment.

33. For a Ti-30% Y alloy (a) estimate the solution-treating temperature that
will control grain growth by retaining 15% in the microstructure, (b)
determine the phase(s) present after quenching to room temperature from
the solution-treating temperature, (c) calculate the amount of each phase
after reheating to 400C, and (d) describe the microstructure after
reheating at 400C for 1 h. Is this an age-hardening treatment or a
quench and temper treatment?

(a) 500C is just beneath the temperature at which all ~ forms, so


about 15% will remain.

(b) After quenching the structure will contain about 15% and ~ss
(supersaturated ~).
(c) After reheating, both and ~ will form:

= (40-30)/(40-4) x 100 27.8%


~ (30-4)1(40-4) x 100 72.2%

(d) The structure will consist primarily of precipitates in a ~


matrix.

This is an age hardening heat treatment.

157
34. What happens when the protective coating on a tungsten part expands more
than the tungsten? What happens when the protective coating on a
tungsten part expands less than the tungsten?

if the protective coating expands more than tungsten, compressive


stresses will build up in the coating and the coating will flake.

if the protective coating expands less than tungsten, tensile


stresses will build up in the coating and the coating will crack and
become porous.

35. Compare the % elongation of the aluminum and copper alloys with that of
the magnesium and titanium alloys. Which group generally tends to have
the higher ductility? Why is this expected?

AI: %elongation 10 to 40 FCC


Cu: %elongation 5 to 68 FCC
Mg: %elongation 1 to 15 HCP - basal slip
Tl: %elongation = 14 to 24 HCP - prismatic slip

The FCC alloys, which have .the optimum number of slip systems and
the ability for cross-slip, have the better ductility. In addition,
Ti has better ductility than Mg due to the different slip systems
available.

36. Determine the ratio between the yield strength of the strongest aluminum,
magnesium, copper, titanium and nickel-copper alloys with the yield
strengths of the pure metals. Compare the alloy systems and rank them in
order of their response to strengthening mechanisms.

pure
metal alloy response to
strength strength strengthening structure
lMPa lMPa
Cu 33 1207 1207/33 = 36.5 FCC
Al 34.5 504 504/34.5 = 14.6 FCC
Ni 110 760 760/110 = 6.9 FCC
Ti 172 1214 12141172 = 7.0 HCP
Mg 90 276 276/90 = 3.1 HCP

the FCC metals have the greater response to strengthening.

37. Determine the strength-to-weight ratios (using the yield strength) the of
the strongest aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium, tungsten, and Monel
alloys. Use the densities of the pure metals, in Mg/m3 , to form your
ratios. Rank the alloy systems according to their strength-to-weight
ratios.

158
strength-to-
strength density weight
/MPa ratio
Mg/m 3
Tl 1214 4.50 269
Al 504 2.7 187
Mg 276 1. 74 159
Cu 1207 8.93 135
Monel 759 8.93 85
W 1517 19.25 79

38. Explain why aluminum and magnesium alloys are commonly used in aerospace
and transportation applications, whereas copper and beryllium alloys are
not.

Aluminum and magnesium have light weight, good strength, relatively


low cost, and good strength-to-weight ratios. Copper alloys have
poor strength-to-weight ratios. Beryllium has a good strength-to
weight ratio, but is expensive and difficult to fabricate.

39. Based on the phase diagrams, estimate the solubilities of nickel, zinc,
silicon, aluminum, tine and beryllium in copper at room temperature. Are
these solubilities expected in view of Hume-Rothery's rules for solid
solubility? Explain.

solubility structure valence atom size difference

Cu-Ni 100% Ni FCC 1 (1. 278 - 1. 243)/1. 278 x 100 217%


Cu-Zn 30% Zn HCP 2 (1. 278 - 1. 332)/1. 287 x 100 -4.12%
Cu-AI 8% Al FCC 3 (1. 278 - 1. 432)/1. 278 x 100 -12. 1%
Cu-Si 2% Si DC 4 (1. 278 - 1.176)/1.278 x 100 8.0%
Cu-Be 0.2% Be hex 2 (1. 278 - 1. 143)11. 278 x 100 10.6%
Cu-Sn 0% Sn DC 4 (1.278 - 1. 405 )/1. 278 x 100 -9/9%

Hume-Rothery's conditions do help to explain the differences in


solubility.

159
Chapter 14

CERAMIC MATERIALS

1. Qua"rtz (SiD ) 'J-as an hexagonal lirystal structure with lat tic~ parameters
of a = 4.9~3 A and c = 5.405 A and a density of 2.65 Mg/m.
Dete~mine the number 8f silica (SiD ) groups in quartz.
2

V t = a c cos30
quar z o o
2
= (4.913) 2 (5.405)cos30 = 112.985 A23
= 28.08 2(16) = 60.08 g/mol = 60.08 x 10 Kg/mol
-6
MW (Si02 ) +
(# of S10 groups)60.08 x 10-6
2
P = ----------~=---------=
23
(112.985 x 10-
30 )(6.02 x 10 )

:.# of Si0 2 groups =3


2. Determine (a) the direction in the unit cell along which ions are in
contact in CaTiO , which has the perovskite structure, (b) the lattice
parameter for th~ unit cell, and (c) the density of the unit cell.

Let's calculate the lattice parameter in the <111>; <110> and <100>
directions:

<111>: a = (2rCa + 2rTi )V3 = 2(0.99 + 0.68) V3 = 1.93 A


<110>: a = (2r Ca + 2ro)/i2 = 2(0.99 + 1. 32)/12 = 3.27 A
<100>: a = 2rCa = 2(0.99) = 1. 98 A
(a) The direction in which the largest lattice parameter is
calculated must be the actual close packed direction. Thus the
ions touch along <110> directions.

(b) Since the ions touch along <110> directions, the lattice
parameter a = 3.27 A.
o

(c) Since MW Ca- 40.08 x 10-6 , MW Ti 47.9 x 10- 6


and MWO= 16 x 10-6 Mg/mol

[(1 Ca)(40.08 x 10- 6 ) + (1 Ti)(47.9 x 10- 6 ) + (20)(16 x 16 6 )]


p
(3.267 x 10-1 )3(6.02 x 1023 )

= 5.72 Mg/m3

3. The TiD structure is shown in figure 14-2(c). The lattice parameters


for the 2 tetragonal structure are a = 4.59 A and c = 2.96 A.
o 0

(a) Determine the numbers of each ion in the unit cell, (b) calculate the
packing factor for the unit cell, and (c) determine whether the oxygen
and titanium ions touch along the [110] direction.

160
(a) There are 2 titanium ions (one from the corners and one from
the center) and therefore 4 oxygen Ions per unit cell.

(b) the ionic radius for Ti is 0.68 Aand that for 0 is 1.32 A.
PF = 2 (4n/3) (0. 68)3 + 4(4n/3)(1.32)3 = 0.66
(4.59)2(2.96)

(c) We can check to see i f V2a:o is equal to the sum of two


titanium ionic radii:

2(0.68) + 4(1.32)

6.49 = 6.64

This is relatively close; the ionic radii are probably slightly


different from those given in Appendix B.

4. Tungsten carbide (We) has a hexagonal structure with lattice parameters


of a = 2.91 Aand c = 2.84 A. If one W atom is located at each corner
of tEe cell, estimatg the density of the ceramic.

There is one tungsten ion (MW = 183.85 x 10-6 Mg/mol)


one carbon ion (MW = 12 x 10- 6 Mg/mol)
(183.85 + 12) 10-6 3
P = = 13.2 Mg/m
(2.91 x 10- 1 )3(6.0.2 x 1023 )

5. In Ti02 , oxygen ions are located at the following coordinates:

0.3056, 0.3056, o
0.6944, 0.6944, o
0.8056, 0.1944, 0.5
0.1944, 0.8056, 0.5

(a) Based on the radius ratios, what should be the coordination number
for the titanium ions? (b) Based on the coordinates listed above and
Figure 14-2(c), does the titanium ion at 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 have this
coordination number? Use the lattice parameters given in problem 3 and
find the actual distance between the oxygen ions and the central titanium
ion.

(a) The ionic radius ratio is rTi/rO = 0.68/1.32 0.515.


Therefore the coordination number would be expected to be 6.

(b) The location of the first two ions can be illustrated with the
first sketch below, which is a trace of the (110) plane. The
distance "z" is the separation between the oxygen and titanium
ions.

x 0.5a - 0.3056a = 0.1944a = (0.1944)(4.59) = 0.8923 A


y = 0.5c (0.5)(2.96) = 1.48 A

161
z = /x2 + y2 = 1(08923)2 + (1. 48)2 = 1. 7266 A
The location of the other two ions can be illustrated with the
second sketch, which is a trace of the (002) plane. The distance
"z" is the separation between the oxygen and the titanium ions.

x 0.8056a - 0.5a = 0.3056a (0.3056)(4.59) 1. 4027 A


y= 0.5a - 0.1944a = 0.3056a (0.3056)(4.59) 1. 4027 A
z = /x2 + y2 = vi (1-4027)2 + (1.4027)2 = 1.9837 A
the four oxygen ions are not quite the same distance from the
central titanium ion.

6. Determine whether the following are orthosilicate, pyrosilicate,


metasilicate, or sheet types of ceramics.

FeO.S1O CaO. A1 20 3 . 2S102 MgO.CaO.Si02



2
3MgQ.2Si02 2MgO.Si02 Al 2 3
.2S1O
2

FeSi03 = Fe(Si0 3 ) metasilicate


Mg3 Si 207 = Mg3(Si 20 7 ) pyrosilicate

CaAl 2Si 20 S = CaAI 2 (SiO.)2 orthosilicate

Mg2 SiO = Mg2(SiO.) orthosilicate

MgCaSi0 4 = MgCa(Si0 4 ) orthosllicate

Al 2Si 20 7 = A1 2 (Si 20 7 ) pyrosilicate

7. Asbestos is a hydrated magnesium silicate that often has been used as a


fibrous material in insulation and brake linings. It is used in the
form of a fiber. Does this suggest that asbestos is an orthosilicate,
pyrosilicate, metasilicate or sheet type of material?

Because of the fibrous nature of asbestos, we would expect it to


be a metasilicate.

162
8. Is wollastonite CaSiO expected to have an orthosilicate, pyrosilicate,
metasilicate, or shee~ type of structure?

metasilicate

9. If 5% of the A1 3 + ions in montmorillonite (AI 20 3 .4Si0 2 .H20) are replaced


by Mg2+ ions, how many grams of K+ ions will be attracted to 100 g of
the clay?

The normal at% A1 3 + is

at% A1 3 + =2 Al / (2 Al + 4 Si + 12 + 2 H) x 100 = 10
After the ion exchange, 5% or 0.1 A1 3 + ion i~ missing and 0.1 Mg2+
is introduced. To satisfy t~~ charge'2+0.1 K \s also added.
number of ion~ is now 1. 9 Al , 0.1 Mg , 0.1 K , 4 Si, 12
H. The at% K ions is
The
and 2
at% K+ 0.1 / (1. 9 + 0.1 + 0.1 + 4 + 12 + 2) x 100
0.1 /20.1 x 100 0.4975

at% Al 1.9120.1 x 100 9.4527 at% Mg 0.1120 x 100 0.4975


at% Si
at% H
4/20.1 x 100
2/20.1 x 100
19.9005
9.9903
at% 12120.1 x 100 59.7015

Now find the wt% of each ion in the clay:

(at% K) (MWK) (0.4975)(39.092) 19.448


(at% (MWMg )
Mg) (0.4975)(24.312) 12.095
(at% Al (MWAI ) (9.4527)(26.981) 255.043
(at% Si)(MWSi ) (19.9005)(28.08) 558.806
(at% 0) (MWO) (59.7015) (16) 955.224
(at% H) (MWH ) (9.9903)(1) 9.950
1810.57

wt% K (at% K)(MWK) / ~(at% ion) (MWionl


19.448/1810.57 x 100 = 1.074

1.074% = x g K / 100 g clay x 100% x = 1. 074 g K

10. Suppose 5% of the Fe 2+ ions are removed when Fe 3 + ions are introduced
into FeO, which has the sodium chloride structure. Calculate (al the
number of vacancies per cubic centimeter, (b) the atomic percent oxygen
in the FeO, and (cl the weight percent oxygen in the FeO.

(al FeO has the sodium chloride structure; therefore we would


expect to have 4 Fe 2+ ions and 4 oxygen ions per cell. In 100
unit cells, there ordinarily would be 400 Fe 2+ions and 400
oxygen ions. If 5% of the Fe 2 + ions are removed during
replacement by Fe 3 + ions, then the number of Fe 2+ ions in 100
unit cells should be

163
Fe 2 + / 100 cells = 400 - (0.05)(400) = 380
The replacement occurs by the relationship

2Fe 3 + + 1 vacancy ~ 3Fe2 +

In 100 unit cells, 20 Fe 2 + ions are removed, (2/3)(20) = 13.33


Fe 3 + ions and (1/3)(20) = 6.67 vacancies are introduced. In
one unit cell, there is on the average 0.0667 vacancies.

In FeD, the ions touch along the <100> directions

ao = 2rFe + 2rO = 2(0.74) + 2(1.32) = 4.12 A


The number of vacancies per cm3 is

vacancies/cm3 = 0.0667 per cell / (4.12 x 10- 8 )3 = 9.5375 X 1020

(b) In 100 unit cells, there are 380 + 13.3 = 393.3 iron ions and
400 oxygen ions. The atomic percent oxygen is

at% 0 = 400 / (400 + 393.3) x 100 = 50.4


_ (50.4) (16 g/molJ _
(c)
wt% 0 - (50.4)(16) + (49.6)(55.847) g/mol) x 100 - 22.55

11. 5uppose 100 g of Mg 25i04 are combined with 150 g of Fe 25i04 to produce an
olivine solid solution. Calculate the weight percent of Mg. Fe. 5i and 0
ions in the solution.

(2 Mg)(24.312)
gMg (2 Mg) (24. 312) + (1 5i)(28.08) + (40)(16) x 100 g = 34.55 g

(1 5i )(28.08)
g 5i (2 Mg)(24.312) + (1 5i)(28.08) + (40)(16) x 100 g 19.96 g

(4 0) (16)
gO = (2 Mg)(24.312) + (1 5i)(28.08) + (40)(16) x 100 g 45.49 g

In Fe 5iD :
2 4

(2 Fe )(55.847)
g Fe = (2 Fe) (55.847) + (1 5i)(28.08) + (40)(16) x 150 g = 82.22 g

(1 5i )(28. 08)
g 5i = (2 Fe) (55. 847) + (1 5i)(28.08) + (4 0)(16) x 150 g = 20.67 g

g o = (4 0)(16) 150 47 11
(2 Fe)(55.847) + (1 5i)(28.08) + (4 0)(16) x g = . g

In the olivine solid solution:

r~ = 34.55 + 82.22 + ~19~~6 + 20.67) + (45.49 + 47.11)x 100 13.82

164
%Fe 82.22
34.55 + 82.22 + (19.96 + 20.67) + (45.49 + 47.11)x 100 = 32.89

19.96 + 20.67 16.25


%Si 34.55 + 82.22 + (19.96 + 20.67) + (45.49 + 47. 11)x 100

45.49 + 47.11
".0 34.55 + 82.22 + (19.96 + 20.67) + (45.49 + 47.11)x 100 = 37.04

12. Suppose 25 mol% Na


is added to S10 .
determine whether 2 this material ~ill
Calculate the 0:S1 ratio and
prov1de good glass-forming
tendencies.
(1 0INa 2 0)(25%/100%) +(2 0/S102 )(75%/100%)
O/Si = = 2.33
(1 S115i02 )(75%/I00%)

Because O/Si = 2.33 < 2.5, reasonably good glass-forming tendencies


are expected.

13. Suppose 25 wt% Na


determine whethe
isthisaddedmaterial
to S1O.
~111
Calculate
provide
the 0: Si ratio and
good glass-forming
tendencies.

MW (Na 2 0) = (2)(22.99) + 16 = 61.98 g/mol


MW (S102 ) = 28.08 + (2)(16) = 60.08 glmol

In a 100 g sample, there are 25 g Na2 0 and 75 g S10 2 :


_ (25/61. 98) _
mol% Na2 0 - (25/61.98) + (75/60.08) x 100 - 24.4

(1 0/Na 2 0)(24.4%/100%) + (20/Si02 )(75.6"J100%)


O/Si = (1 S1/SiO )(75.6%/100%)
2
= 2.32
Because 0/S1 = 2.32 < 2.5, reasonably good glass-form1ng tendencies
are expected.

14. A glass composed of 70 mol% S1O, 15 mol% CaO, and 15 mol% Na


produced. Determine the O:Si ritio of this glass.
is
Does the ma~rial

have good glass-forming tendenc1es?

(2 0/S102 ) (0.70) + (1 O/CaO) (0. 15) + 1 OlNa 0)(0.15)


O/Si: (1 S1/SiO )(0.70) 2 = 2.43
2
Because O/Si = 2.43 < 2.5, the material is capable of producing a
glass.

15. How many grams of PbO can be added to 1 kg of Si02 before the 0:S1 ratio
exceeds 2.5 and glass forming tendencies are poor? Compare this with
the number of grams of MgO that can be tolerated.

165
For PbO: We do not want to exceed an 0/5i ratio of 2.5. If we let
fpbO be the mol fraction of PbO, then (1 - f pbO ) is
the mol fraction of 510 .
2
(1 O/PbO)(fpbO ) + (2 0/5i0 2 )(1 - f pbO )
0/5i = 2.5 = -----rr--=--=-;=-""""<"7~___:=___....----
(1 51/5102 )(1 - f pbO )
fpbO = 0.33

MW (PbO) = 223.19 g/mol MW (5i02 ) = 60.08 g/mol

(0.33)(223.19)
wt% PbO = (0.33)(223.19) + (0.67)(60.08) x 100 = 64.7
64.7% = 1000x + x
x 100 x = 1833 g PbO

For MgO: Let f MgO be the mol fraction of MgO and (1 - f MgO ) be the
mol fraction of 5iO .
2

(1 O/MgO(fMgOJ + (20/5102 )(1 - f MgO )


0/5i = 2.5 (1 51/5i02 )(1 f MgO )

f MgO = 0.33
MW (MgO) = 40.312 g/mol MW(5102 ) = 60.08 g/mol

(0.33) (40. 312)


wt% MgO = (0.33)(40.312) + (0.67)(60.08) x 100 24.84

24.84% = 1000x+ x x 100 x = 330.5 g MgO

16. Alumina (Al 2 0 3 ) has a tensile strength of about 210 MPa. Calculate the
minimum radius of a flaw 18.75 mm deep in order to prevent an applied
stress of 85 MPa from causing fracture.

K = 2u-1a7r
210 = 2(85) 118.75/r
r = 12.29 mm

17. Hot pressed 5i3N4 has a tensile strength of about 550 MPa. If a crack
3.125 mm deep with a radius of 0.025 mm is present at the surface, what
is the max1mum allowable applied stress?

K = 2u-1a7r
550 2~ 13.125/0.025
2~(11.18)

.. ~ = 24.597 MPa

166
18. Partially stabilized ZrO has a tensile strength of about 450 MFa. A
microcrack at the surfac~ is 0.01 rom deep with a radius of 1000 A~ Is
this crack likely to propagate when an applied stress of 20 MFa is
applied? Show by suitable calculations.

a = 0.01 rom r = 1000 x 10-7 rom = 0.0001 rom


k = 20' Va7r
.. 450 <> 2(20)v'0.01/0.0001
450 <> 2(20)(10)
450 > 400

The stress is just a little too small to propagate the crack.

19. From Figure 14-21, estimate the activation energy for viscous flow in a
borosilicate glass.

@~ 108 poise, l/T = 9.5 x 10- 4 or T = 1053 K


@~ 10 4 poise, l/T = 6.2 x 10- 4 or T = 1613 K

~ = ~o exp(E~/RT)

108 ~oexp[E~/(8.314)(1053)]

104 = ~oexptE~/(8.314)(1613)J
104 = exp(0.0001142 E~)
exp(0.0000745 E~)

.. 10 4 =
4
exp[E~(O.0001142 - 0.0000745)]
10 = exp[E~(0.0000396)]

.. In(10 4 ) = 9.2103 = E~(O. 0000396)


E~ = 232584 J/mol

20. A glass is found to have an annealing temperature of 700C and enters the
working range at or above 1200C. Determine (a) the activation energy
for viscous flow and (b) the approximate melting temperature for the
glass.
1013 ~oexp[E~/(8.314)(973)]

107 = ~oexp[E~/(8.314)(1473)1
~oexp(0.0001236 E~)

~ exp(0.0000816 E~)
o

106 = exp[E~(0.0001236 - 0.0000816)]

In(10 6 ) = 13.8155 = 0.0000419 E~

E~ = 329,726 J/mol

167
21. Suppose you combine 5 mol of Si02 with 1 mol of Na 20. Determine (a) the
weight percent Na 20 in the ceramic, (b) the liquidus temperature of the
ceramic, and (c) the amount of solid Si02 if the ceramic is held at 900C
long enough for the equilibrium phases to precipitate. (d) Explain in
terms of the structure why this ceramic should have a lower activation
energy for viscous flow than does pure Si02

MW (Na20) = 61.98 g/mol MW (Si02 ) = 60.08 g/mol

(a)
w
t% N
0a2 - (1 mol)(61.98)
-
(1 mol)(61.98)
(5 mol) (60.08) x
+
100 17 1
=.
(b) From the Si02 -Na20 phase diagram, liquidus T = 1100 0
C

(c) Si02 = (21-17)/(21-0) x 100 = 19%


(d) The presence of the Na
reduces the melting temperature of
the ceramic material~ which is expected to reduce the
activation energy for'viscous flow.

22. Calculate (a) the amount of mullite that must be comblned with Si02 to
produce an equilibrium structure of 30% liquid-70% muilite at 1800C and
(b) the weight percent Al 20 3 present in this ceramic.

The overall composition of the ceramic in terms of %Al 20 3 is:

mullite = 72x - 30
30 x 100 = 70%
The amount of mullite that must be combined with silica to give this
composition is:

muillte = (59.4-0)/(72-0) x 100 = 82.5%


23. Suppose, when preparing forsterite (Mg2Si04), that we add 10% more Si0 2
than is required. Determine (a) the weight percent MgO in the overall
ceramic, (b) the percent forsterite in the ceramic at 1600C, and (c)
the liquidus temperature for the ceramic.

(a) To obtain 100% forsterite, we should add one mol of Si02 to


two mol of MgO. The weight percent Si02 would then be:

o (1 mol) (60. 08)


wt% Si02 = (1 mol)(60.08) + (2 mol) (40.312) x 100 = 42.7
Suppose we initially prepare 100 g of forsterite; we would
have combined 42.7 g of S102 with 57.3 MgO. If we added 10%
too much S102 , the the amount of S102 added would be 42.7 +
(0.1)(42.7) = 46.97 g

Mg In ceramic = 57.3 / (57.3 + 46.97) x 100 55%

168
(b) At 1600C, the percent forsterite is

forsterite = (55-40)/(58-40) x 100 = 83.3%


(c) From the MgO-Si02 phase diagram, the liquidus is 1850C

24. How many mol of CaO must be added to 10 mol of ZrO to assure that
the zirconia is stabilized, or retains the same crystal structure until
melting begins?

In order to produce stabilized zirconia, we need to add a minimum of


16 wt% CaO to the Zr0 2 . This produces a ceramic that has the cubic
Zr0 2 structure at all temperatures.

06/56.08) 0.285 100


mol% CaO (16/56.08) + (84/123.22) x 100 0.967 x 29.5

x
29.5 10 _ x x 100 x = 4.18 mol CaO

25. Determine the liquidus temperature of a ceramic prepared from 70% Al 20 3 ,


20% Si0 2 and 10% CaO.

From the phase diagram, the liquidus is 1805C.

26. Suppose iron ore contains 35% SiD, with the remainder being iron oxide
(FeO). How many grams of CaO per 2 kilogram of iron ore should be added to
a blast furnace operating at 1600C to produce a completely liquid
CaO-Si0 2 slag, assuming all of the iron oxide is reduced to produce
liquid steeL?

At 1600C, the composition of the slag should be Si0 2 -32% CaO to


just produce 100% liquid. In 1000 g of ore, there are 350 g of
510. Therefore
2

x
32% CaD = 350 + x x 100 x = 164.7 g CaO

27. A fireclay containing 50% SiD , 40% Al 0 , and 10% CaO is melted and
allowed to cool under equilib~ium conai~ions. Determine the liquidus
temperature.

From the phase diagram, the liquidus is 1680C.

28. A ceramic glaze is prepared containing 25% SiD , 45% Al 0 , and 30% CaO.
(a) Determine the liquidus temperature of the 2 glaze. ~b~ Based on the
liquidus temperature, is this a reasonable composition for a glaze? (c)
Do you expect the glaze to contain the equilibrium amounts of solids at
room temperature? Explain.

(a) From the phase diagram, the liquidus is 1500C.

169
(b) This is a reasonable composition for a glaze. This composition
has a relatively low melting temperature so that it would be
easy to apply.

(c) No. The glaze will almost surely produce a large amount of a
glassy phase rather than cool to produce the equilibrium solid
crystalline phases that would be predicted by the phase
diagram.

29. Suppose 50 kg of Al 2 0 3 , 4Si02 .H20 are combined with 100 kg of


2CaO.AI 2 0 3 .Si02 to produce a clay body. The ceramic is dried and fired
at 1600C. (a) Determine the weight and composition of the clay body
after firing. (b) Did any melting occur during firing? Explain.

In AI 2 0 3 .4SiD2 .H2 0: there is 1 mol of Al2 03 (MW = 74.981),


4 mol of Si0 2 (MW = 60.08), and 1 mol of H20 (MW = 18)
(1 )(74. 981)
kg Al 20 3
(1 )(74. 981) + (4) (60. 08) + (1)(18)
x 50 kg = 11. 248
(4)(60.08)
kg SiD 36.052
2 (1 )(74. 981) + (4)(60.08) + (1 )(18) x 50 kg

(1)(18)
kg H2 O 2.700
0)(74.981) + (4) (60. 08) + (1)(18) x 50 kg

In 2CaO.Al 20 3 .Si02 : there are 2 mol of CaO (MW = 56.08),


mol of Al 2 0 3 (MW = 74.981), and 1 mol of Si0 2 (MW= 60.08)

(2)(56.08)
kg CaO (2)(56.08) + (1)(74.981) + (1)(60.08) x 100 kg = 45.37

(1) (74. 981)


(2)(56.08) + (1)(74.981) + (1)(60.08) x 100 kg 30.33

(1 )(60.08)
kg Si02 = (2)(56.08) + (1)(74.981) + (1)(60.08) x 100 kg = 24.30
(a) Total weight after firing = 150 kg - 2.7 kg = 147.3 kg, since
the water is driven off.


Al 2 3 = (11.248 + 30.33) / 147.3 x 100 = 28.2%
SiD = (36.052 + 24.30) / 147.3 x 100 = 41.0%
2
CaO 45.37 / 147.3 x 100 = 30.8%
(b) This composition has a liquidus temperature of 1420C;
consequently the ceramic is completely melted during firing if
equilibrium is reached.

170
30. Suppose we combine 20 kg of mullite (3Al 2 0 3 .2Si02 ), 30 kg of kaolinite
clay (Al 20 3 2Si0 2 2H20) , and 15 kg of silica. The ceramic is dried and
fired at 1500C. (a) Determine the weight and composition of the clay
body after firing. (b) Did any melting occur during firing? Explain.
(c) What solid phases are present at room temperature for equilibrium
cooling?

(a) In mullite, there are 3 mol of Al 2 0 3 (MW 74.981) and


2 mol of Si0 2 (MW = 60.08):
(3)(74.981)
(3)(74.981) + (2)(60.08) x 20 kg 13.04

(2)(60.08)
(3)(74.981) + (2)(60.08) x 20 kg 6.96

In kaolinite, there are 1 mol of Al 2 0 3 (MW = 74.981).


2 mol of Si0 2 (MW = 60.08), and 2 mol of water (MW = 18).
(1)(74.981)
(1)(74.981) + (2)(60.08) + (2)(18) x 30 kg = 9.732

(2)(60.08)
(1)(74.981) + (2)(60.08) + (2)(18) x 30 kg 15.596

(2)(18)
(1)(74.981) + (2)(60.08) + (2)(18) x 30 kg 4.672

In silica, kg Si0 2 = 15

During firing, the water is driven off and the total weight of
ceramic body is (20 + 30 + 15) - 4.672 60.328 kg

A1 20 3 = (13.04 + 9.732) /60.328 x 100 = 37.7%


Si02 = (6.96 + 15.596 + 15) / 60.328 x 100 = 62.3%
(b) This ceramic body has an eutectic temperature of about 1590C.
Because the firing temperature was only 1500C, no melting
should have occurred.

(c) From the phase diagram, SiO and mullite should be present
in the equilibrium room tem~erature microstructure.

31. Suppose we combined 30 kg of Na O.SiO with 10 kg of 3CaO.2SiO and 20 kg


of SiO. (a) Determine the co~posit~on of the material afte~ melting.
(b) W~at is the minimum temperature to which we would have to heat this
material to produce all liquid, from which a glass could then be
produced?
(a) In Na 20.Si0 2 , there is 1 mol of Na 20 (MW = 61.98) and
1 mol Si02 (MW = 60.08):

171
(1 )(61. 98)
kg Na2 0 (1)(61.98) + (1}(60.08) x 30 kg 15.23

(1) (60. 08)


kg Si0 2 = (1)(61.98) + (1)(60.08) x 30 kg 14.77

In 3CaO.2Si02 , there are 3 mol of CaO (MW 56.08) and


2 mol of Si0 2 (MW = 60.08)
(3) (56. 08)
kg CaO 7':(3""')....,('""5"'"6-,.0""8"'):-'-:-+-r;(2")C"7(7
60""."""'0""8") X 10 kg 5.83

(2)(60.08)
kg 5 iD = 7'(3""')'-:("'5"""6-.0"'8:-;)"':'-+-""'(2=-<)"';(--:-6-=-0.""'0'""8") x 10 kg 4.17

the total weight is 60 kg.

Na 0 15.23 1 60 x 100 25.4%


2
Si0 2 (14.77 + 4.17 +20) 160 x 100 64.9%
CaO = 5.83 1 60 x 100 9.7%

(b) the minimum temperature required to produce all liquid is the


liquidus temperature, which for this composition is 1020C.

32. We would like to produce 100 kg of a soda-lime glass containing 80% SiD
2
with a liquidus temperature of 1400C. How many kg of Na 0 and how many
kg of CaO must be added? 2

To produce a soda-lime glass containing 80% Si0 2 with a liquidus of


1400C, the overall composition of the ceramic must be:

Si0 2 - 9% CaO - 11% Na 20


Therefore the 100 kg of glass must include 9 kg CaO and 11 kg Na 20.

33. After weighing out 250 g of Al 0 particles, with a density of 3.9 Mg/m3 ,
a ceramic body is produced by 2 f 1ring. When suspended in water, the
ceramic part weighs 160 g. After removal from the water, the part weighs
295 g. Calculate (a) the apparent porosity, (b) the true porosity,
and (c) the fraction of the pore volume that is closed.
W - W
(a) apparent porosity = WW _ wd x 100
w s
295 - 250 x 100 = 33%
295 - 160
Wd 250
(b) bulk density B W - W 295 160 = 1.85
w s

true porosity = p - B x 100 3.9 - 1.85 x 100 52.56%


P 3.9

(c) closed pores = 52.56 - 33 = 19.56% or


fraction closed pore volume = 19.56/52.56 0.372

172
34. A reaction bonded Si N part weighs 500 g and occupies a volume of 200
3 3 4
cm. (a) What is the bulk density of the ceramic? (b) The actual
density of Si N is 3.2 Mg/m3 . What is the true porosity of the ceramic
3 4
part? (c) When the ceramic is weighed after soaking in water, the part
weighs 525 g. What fraction of the pores are closed?

(a) The bulk density is simply the weight divided by the volume:
-6
B = 500
x 10 Mg/m3 = 2.5 Mg/m3
200 x 10- 6
(b) true porosity p - B x 100 3.2 - 2.5 x 100 21. 9%
P 3.2
Wd 500
(c) B
W - W 525 - W = 2.5 W
s
325 g
w s s
W - Wd
w 525 - 500
apparent porosity = W x 100 x 100 12.5%
W 525 - 325
w s

closed porosity 21.9 - 12.5 = 9.4%


fraction closed 9.4/21.9 = 0.429

35. How much water is required to completely hydrate 40 kg of tricalcium


aluminate cement?

3CaO.Al 20 3 + 6H20 ~ Ca 3 AI 2 (OH)12


Let x equal the wight of the water; then

40 _ x
(3)(56.08) + 74.981 - 6(18) x = 17.76 kg

36. Suppose 2 kg of calcined plaster of paris are mixed with 500 g of water.
(a) How much extra water was added beyond that required for cementation?
(b) What ratio of water to plaster of paris would be required to just
provide the cementation reaction?

The amount of water actually required for cementation is

CaSO . 1/2H 0 + 3/2H 0 ~ CaSO .2H 0


4 2 2 4 2
2 kg x
136.144 (3/2)(18) x = 0.397 kg water

We added 500 g of water but only 397 g was needed. Therefore we


added 103 g too much.

37. Suppose 30 kg of feldspar, 20 kg of montmorillonite clay, and 10 kg of


silica are combined. According to Figure 14-33, for what type of
application would this material be suited?

feldspar 30 / (30 + 20 + 10) x 100 50%


clay 20 / (30 + 20 + 10) x 100 33%
silica 10 / (30 + 20 + 10) x 100 17%
From Figure 14-33, this composition is typical of translucent
porcelain.

173
Chapter 15

POLYMERS

1. The formula for formaldehyde is HCHO. (a) Draw the structure of the
formaldehyde molecule and mer. (b) Does formaldehyde polymerise to
produce an acetal polymer by an addition reaction or a condensation
reaction? Try to produce a polymer by each method. (c) Draw the acetal
structure produced from formaldehyde.
H
(a) H I
):=0 -C-O-
H I
H

monomer mer

(b) Polymerisation occurs by an addition mechanism.

Mers of the type described above can be added together to


produce a chain. If a condensation reaction were to occur,
producing water as a byproduct, no hydrogen would remain to
provide side groups and the carbon atoms would not have all
four of their covalent bonds satisfied.

H I I
'c=0 ... -C-C- ...
if I I
(c) The acetal polymer is
H H H
I I I
... -C-O-C-O-C-O- ...
I I I
H H H

174
2. Show that the angle between the covalent bonds in the carbon tetrahedron
is 109 0

H
A portion of the (110) plane is sketched
which includes the tetrahedral atom:

cos (a/2) (1/2) / (v'J/2) = 0.57735


a/2 54.7356
0: = 109.47 0 C

~~.f2/2-7

3. The distance between the centers of two adjacent carbon atoms in linear
polymers is approximately 1.5 A. Determine the length of the
polyethylene chain containing 10,000 mers.

The sketch shows a portion of the


linear polymer chain. Distance .. z .. ~

.
which connects points "x" and "y" I.S
is the length of one mer. '6"-
II
sin(109/2) = (x/2) / 1. 5 ..
0.81649 = z/3 2
z = 2.4495 A
l = (10,000 mers) (2. 4495) 24,495 A

4. Suppose the distance between the centers of two adjacent carbon atoms in
polyvinyl chloride is 1.5 A. Determine the molecular weight of a polymer
chain that is 2500 A in length.

From problem 3, the length of one mer is 2.4495 A


number of mers = 2500 A / 2.4495 A = 1020.6
MWVC = (2 C)(12) + (3 H)(l) + (1 CI)(35.453) 62.453 g/mol
MWpvC = (62.453)(1020.6) = 63.74 g/mol

5. The molecular weight of a polypropylene polymer is 200,000 g/mol.


Determine the degree of polymerisation of the polymer.

MW = (3 C)(12) + (6 H)(l) = 42 g/mol


polypropylene

degree of polymerisation = 200,000 / 42 = 4762

175
6. The degree of polymerisation in polyethylene is 7500. Calculate the
number of polyethylene chains in one g of the polymer.

MW 1
po ymer
= (7500 mers) (28 g/mol per mer) = 210,000 g/mol

(1 g polyethylene) (6. 02 x 1023 chains/mol)


chains/g = (210,000 g/mol per chain)

= 2.867 X 1018

7. Calculate ~a) the weight and (b) the volume of polystyrene when we
produce 10 chains of polystyrene having a degree of polymerisation of
10,000.

MW (8 C)(12) + (8 H)(l) = 104 g/mol


styrene
MW (10,000 mers) (104 g/mol per mer) 1,040,000 g/mol
polymer

(a) the weight of 1020 chains is


w = (1,040,000 g/mol per chain) (10 20 chains)
6.02 X 1023 chains/mol

172.8 g

(b) The density of polystyrene is 1.06 Mg/m3 . Therefore the volume


is:

v = w/p = 172.8 g / 1.06 g/cm3 = 163 cm3

8. Suppose a polypropylene rope weighs 0.38 kg per m. If the degree of


polymerisation of the polymer is 5000, calculate the number of
polypropylene chains in a 10 ft length of rope.

length of rope = 10 ft = (10 ft)(0.305 m/ft) = 3.05 m

MW
propylene = 42 g/mol
MW
polypropylene = (42 g/mol) (5000 mers) = 210,000 g/mol

weight
rope
= (0.38 kg/m)(3.05 m) = 1.159 kg = 1159 g

chains = (1159 g)(6.02 x 1023 ) chains/mol) = 3.22 x 1023


(210,000 g/mol)

9. Calculate (a) the grams of H 0 initiator that must be added to 1000 g of


methyl methacrylate to produ~e2a degree of polymerisation of 5000 and (b)
the total number of chains produced. (See Table 15-6)

MWMMA = (5 C)(12) + (8 H)(l) + (2 0)(16) = 100 g/mol


MW 'd
peroxl e
= (2 H)(l) + (2 0)(16) = 34 g/mol

176
(a) mol of MMA = (1000 g MMA) / (100 g/mol) = 10 mol

We need one H 0 to initiate and terminate each chain of polymethyl


methacrylate;2 t g obtain a degree of polymerisation of 5000, we need
10 / 5000 = 0.002 mol of hydrogen peroxide.

g H20 2 = (0.002 mol)(34 g/mol) = 0.068 g

(b) The total number of chains is


(1000 g)(6.02 x 1023 chains per mol)
number = (5000 mers) (100 g/mol per mer) 12.04 X 1020

10. If 10 g of hydrogen peroxide (H 0 ) is added to 2000 g of acrylonitrile,


calculate (a) the degree of polm~rlsation of the polyacrylonitrile and
(b) the total number of chains that are formed.

MW = (3 C)(12) + (3 H)(l) + (1 N)(14) 53 g/mol


acrylonitrile
MW id = (2 H)(l) + (2 0)(16) = 34 g/mol
perox e

(a) mol of acrylonitrile 2000 g / (53 g/mol) 37.7358 mol

mol of peroxide = 10 g / (34 g/mol) = 0.2941 mol

degree of polymerisation = 37.7358 / 0.2941 mol

(b) Number of chains produced from 2000 g of acrylonitrile is:

number (2000 g)(6.02 x 1023 ) chains/mol) = 1.775 x 1023


(128 mers) (53 g/mol)

11. Suppose 1 kg of vinyl chloride is to be polymerised. (a) How many mol


of vinyl chloride are required? (b) How much energy is released during
polymerisation? (c) If the specific heat of polyvinyl chloride is 1 kJ
(kg k)-l, calculate the temperature change during polymerisation.

MWVC = (2 C)(12) + (3 H)(l) + (1 CI)(35.453) = 62.453 g/mol

(a) mol VC = 1000 g / 62.453 g/mol = 16.01

(b) For each step, 721 kJ/mol are required to break the C=C
double bond and 738 kJ/mol are released when the two C-C bonds
are formed. The net energy ~E is 17 kJ/mol evolved. The
total energy is therefore (17 kJ/mol)(16.01 mol) = 272.17 kJ

(c) ~T ~E (17 kJ/mol) = 272 K


= cMWVC (1 kJ/kg K) (62. 453 g/mol)

177
12. Suppose 1 kg of phenylene oxide is polymerised. The monomer for
polyphenylene oxide is shown below. (a) Describe the polymerisation of
phenylene oxide, including the by-product formed. (b) How many
individual condensation steps are required? (c) How many grams of the
by-product are produced?

..... ,H H H

H)b~H...;2~.. QH
C H
H-O ;O-H HfO- O-H
H....C H
.r'li He
H

(b) The molecular weight of phenylene oxide is

MWpo = (8 C)(12) + (2'0)(16) + (10 H)(1) = 138 g/mol

The number of mers in 1 kg of phenylene oxide is


g)(6.0.2 x 1023 mers/mol) = 4.362 x 1024
mers = (1000 138 g/mol

Therefore 4.362 x 1024 individual condensation steps are


required to completely polymerize the phenylene oxide.

(c) The molecular weight of water is 18 g/mol. One mol of water


is evolved for each mol of phenylene oxide.

mol H20 = mol phenylene oxide 1000 g / 138 g/mol 7.246

g H2 0 = (7.246 mol)(18 g/mol) = 130.42 g

13. The polymerisation of nylon 6,6 is shown in Example 15-5. Calculate (a)
the energy involved when 500 g of monomer are polymerised and (b) the
change in temperature when polymerisation occurs. The specific heat of
nylon is 1. 676 kJ(kg K)-1.

(a) When the C-O and N-H bonds are broken (360 + 461) = 821 kJ/mol
are required; however, during polymerisation N-C and O-H bonds
are formed, releasing (306 + 499) = 805 kJ/mol. A net loss of
16 kJ/mol is involved in polymerisation.

178
MW = (6 C)(12) + (2 N)(14) + (16 H)(l) 116 g/mol
hexa
MW
adipic
= (6 C)(12) + (4 0)(16) + (10 H)(l) 146 g/mol
MW (116 + 146)/2 = 131 g/mol
average =

In 500 g of nylon, the total decrease in energy aE is


aE (16 kJ/mol) (500 g)/(131) g/mol) = 61 kJ

(b) The decrease in temperature that would occur is


61 kJ
AT = (0.5 kg)(1.676 kJ/kg Kl = 72.8 K

14. Suppose a cellulose polymer as described in Table 15-7 is produced. (a)


Sketch the structure of the cellulose monomer, assuming that water is
produced as the by-product. (b) If 2 kg of the cellulose monomer are
polymerised, calculate the weight of the polymer and the weight of the
evolved water.

(a) the monomer is

(b) MWcellulose = (6 C)(12) + (60)(16) + (12 H)(l) = 180 g/mol


One mol of water is evolved for every monomer of cellulose.
The number of mol of cellulose is

cellulose = water = 2000 g 1 180 g/mol 11.11 mol

g H20 = (11.11 mol)(18 g/moll = 200 g

g polymer = 2000 - 200 = 1800 g of cellulose

15. A copolymer is produced by combining kg of ethylene and 2 kg of


propylene with 5 g of hydrogen peroxide. Calculate (al the degree of
polymerisation and (bl the molecular weight of the polymer.

propylene =
(al MW 28 g/mol MW 42 g/mol
ehtylene

mol PE 1000 g 1 28 g/mol 35.71


mol PP 2000 g 1 42 g/mol 47.62

total mol H20 2 =5 g 1 34 g/mol = O. 147


degree of polymerisation = 83.33 1 0.147 567

179
(b) The mol fraction of ethylene is 35.71/83.33 = 0.4285
The mol fraction of propylene is 47.62/83.33 = 0.5715

HWpolymer [(0.4285)(28 g/mol) + (0.5715)(42 g/mol)] (567 mers)


20,413 g/mol

16. Chlorotrifluoroethylene and ethylene are combined to give 5 kg of a


copolymer with a degree of polymerisation of 2500 and a molecular weight
of 128,600 g/mol. Determine (a) the amount in grams of each monomer used
and (b) the amount in grams of hydrogen peroxide initiator required.

(a) HWCTFE = (2 C )(12) + (3 F)(19) + (1 Cl)(35.453) 116.453 g/mol


MEPE = (2 C)(12) + (4 H)(1) = 28 g/mol

Let fCTFE be the mol fraction of chlorotrifluoroethylene and

(1 -f CTFE be the mol fraction of ethylene. Then

HWpolymer = [f CTFE (116.453) + (1 - f CTFE ) (28)] (2500 mers) 128,600

fCTFE = 0.265
Let x be weight of chlorotrifluoroethylene and (5 - x) be the weight
of polyethylene.
(x/116.453)
molY. CTFE = [(x/116.453) + (5 _ x)/(28)] x 100 26.5

x =3 kg chlorotrifluoroethylene
2 kg ethylene

(b) mol CTFE = 3000 g 1 116.453 g/mol = 25.671


mol PE = 2000 g 1 28 g/mol = 71.429 mol
mol H
z z
= molCTFE + PE
deg of polymer
= 25.761
2500
+ 71.429 0.03888 mol

g HzOz = (0.03888 mol)(34 g/mol) = 1.32 g

17. Would you expect that addition polymerisation would occur faster or
slower than condensation polymerisation. Explain.

You might expect addition polymerisation to require a longer time,


since monomers must migrate to the ends of the chains to keep the
polymerisation process continuing.

180
18. From the data in the table, determine the weight average molecular weight
and the number average molecular weight of the polymer.

Molecular Weight
Range (g/mol) fi xi fiM avg xi' Mavg

0-5,000 0.02 0.04 50 100


5,000-10,000 0.08 0.09 600 675
10,000-15,000 0.16 0.18 2000 2250
15,000-20,000 0.26 0.29 4550 5075
20,000-25,000 0.27 0.24 6075 5400
25,000-30,000 0.14 0.12 3850 3300
30,000-35,000 0.05 0.03 1625 975
35,000-40,000 0.02 0.01 750 375

1: = 19,500 18,150

weight average 19,500 glmol


number average 18,150 glmol

19. Figure 15-39 shows the distribution of molecular weight of polymer


chains, both by weight fraction and number fraction. Estimate the weight
average molecular weight and the number average molecular weight of the
polymer.

Molecular Weight
Range (g/mol) fi xi fiM avg xi' Mavg

0-5,000 0.02 0.05 50 125


5,000-10,000 0.13 0.18 975 1350
10,000-15,000 0.20 0.23 2500 2875
15,000-20,000 0.28 0.35 4900 6125
20,000-25,000 0.22 0.15 4950 3375
25,000-30,000 O. 15 0.04 4125 1100

1: = 17,500 14,950

weight average 17,500 glmol


number average 14,950 glmol

20. Explain why you would prefer that the number average molecular weight of
a polymer be as close as possible to the weight average molecular weight.

We do not want a large number of small chains in the polymer; the


small chains will reduce the mechanical properties.

181
21. Using Table 15-5, construct a graph to determine the relationship between
the glass transition temperatures and the melting temperatures of the
addition thermoplastic polymers.

Converting to Kelvin:

T T
m ~

LD polyethylene 388 153


lID polyethylene 410 153
PVC 448-485 360,...,
Polypropylene 441-449 257'::::' 400
Polystyrene 513 358-398
PAN 593 380 "-
Acetal 454 188 ~
6,6 Nylon 538 323 E-I
Polycarbonate 503 416 ~ 200
Polyester
Polybutadiene
528 348
183 E-I
e
393
Polychloroprene 353 223 ~ 0.5 T
Polyisoprene 303 220 ~ m
C!)
200 400 600
Melting TemperaturelK

Most of the Polymers fall between the lines constructed with the
relationships Tg = 0.5 Tm and Tg = 0.75 Tm.

22. The viscosity of polymers is typically 1011 poise at the glass transition
temperature and 104 poise 35C above the glass transition temperature.
(a) Estimate the activation energy for viscous flow in polyacrylonitrile.
(b) Estimate the viscosity at the melting temperature of PAN.

For polyacrylonitrile, T = 107C = 380 K and T = 320C = 593 K.


11 g 4 m
The viscosity is 10 polse at T and 10 poise at 35 above T , or
415 K. g g

(a) ~ = ~oexp(E~/RT)

1011 exp[E~/(8.31)(380)1 _ exp(0.0003167E~)


--=
10' exp[E~/(8.31)(415)1 - exp(0.0002900E~)

107 = exp[(0.0003167 - 0.0002900)(E~)1 = exp (0.0000267)E~)


In(107 ) = 16.118 = 0.0000267 E~ = 604000 J/mol

(b) At the melting temperature,

1011 _exp[604,OOO/(8.31)(380)] exp(191.2) 1.09 X 1083


-~--- - exp[604,OOO/(8.31) (593)] = exp(122.6) 1. 76 X 1053
~ = 1. 61 X 10- 19 poise

182
23. Silly putty is a polymer material used as a child's toy. This material
will bounce like a rubber ball but will flow like a liquid when left
undisturbed. Explain this behaviour.

This is a consequence of the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer.


when the ball is bounced, there is not sufficient time for plastic
flow to occur; the material behaves in an elastic manner. However,
at rest, creep can occur even at room temperature and what was once
a ball becomes a puddle.

24. You can change the grain size of crystalline polymers. What would be the
effect of annealing a crystalline polymer at a temperature below the
melting temperature? What would be the effect of allowing a liquid
polymer to crystallize at different temperatures below the melting
temperature?

When we anneal a crystalline polymer below the melting temperature,


grain growth may occur, just as in a metal or ceramic.

If we were to quench a liquid polymer to various temperatures below


the melting temperature, then hold and allow the polymer to
crystallise, we would find that the grain size would be smaller as
the quenching temperature decreased.

25. From Figure 3-34, calculate the theoretical density of crystalline


polyethylene and compare with the actual density. What does this tell
you about the percent crystallinity of the polymer?
p = (4 C)(12) + (8 H)(l) = 0.9966 Mg/m3
(7.41)(4.94)(2.55)(10- 24 )(6.02 x 1023 )

This is a larger value for the denSity than is actually observed and
reported in Table 15-6. Since we expect a higher density for a
crystalline structure, this suggests that normal polyethylene is not
completely crystalline.

26. Describe the relative tendencies of the following polymers to


crystallize.

(a) Branched polyethylene versus linear polyethylene:


linear polyethylene will crystallize more easily; the branches
prevent the chains from coming closely enough together to
produce a substantial degree of crystallinity.

(b) Polyethylene versus polyethylene-polypropylene copolymer:


polyethylene will crystallize more easily; the polypropylene is
not as symmetrical as the ethylene monomers and will make it
more difficult to achieve close packing and crystallinity.

(c) Isotactic polypropylene versus atactic polypropylene:


isotactic polypropylene will crystallize more easily than the
less symmetrical atactic polypropylene.

183
27. Suppose a thermoplastic polymer can be produced in sheet form either by
rolling or by continuous casting. In which case would you expect to
obtain the higher strength? Explain.

We expect higher strength in the rolled polymer; rolling will help


provide crystallization and alignment of the chains, producing
higher strengths than in the cast structure.

28. A strip of polyethylene 250 mm long and having a degree of polymerisation


of 1000 is pulled in tension until all of the polyethylene chains are
straightened, without distorting the covalent bonds and without allowing
any sliding of the chains. If the length of the strip is now 1875 mm,
estimate the original average distance between the ends of the chains.

From Problem 3, we found that the distance between one polyethylene


monomer and a second adjacent polyethylene monomer is 2.4495 X.
The total length of a polyethylene chain 1000 monomers long should
therefore be 2449.5 X .

However, the ends of the chain were originally separated by (250


mml1875 mm) (2449.5 X) = 327 X.

29. How much sulphur is required to provide 75% cross-linking of 5 kg of


polybutadiene?

(4 C)(12) + (6 H)(l) 54 g/mol


MWbutadiene
MW
sulphur 32 g/mol

For complete cross-linking, we would need one mol of sulphur per


mol of butadiene.

wt% S = 32 / (32 + 54) x 100 = 37.2093


For 75% cross-linking, the percent sulphur would be

(0.75)(37.2093) = 27.91%
The weight of sulphur needed is

27.91 x / (x + 5) x 100 x = 1.936 kg

30. How many grams of polychloroprene will be completely vulcanised by 10 g


of sulphur?

MW
chloroprene
= (4 C)(12) + (5 H)(l) + (1 CI)(35.453) 88.453 g/mol
MWsulphur 32 g/mol

For complete cross-linking, we would need one mol of sulphur per


mol of chloroprene.

wt% S = 32 / (32 + 88.453) x 100 = 26.566


26.566 = 10 / (10 + x) x 100 x = 27.64 grams polychloroprene

184
31. What fraction of the possible cross-linking sites are used if 50 g of
sulphur are added to 5 kg of polyisoprene?

MW (5 C)(12) + (8 H)(l) = 68 g/mol


isoprene
MWsulphur 32 g/mol

The number of mol of each involved in the reaction is

mol isoprene 5000 g I 68 g/mol 73.629 mol


mol sulphur 50 g I 32 g/mol 1. 5625 mol

We would need equal numbers of mol of isoprene and sulphur for


complete cross-linking. Therefore the fraction of sites
cross-linked is equal to the mol ratio, or

fraction = 1.5625 I 73.529 = 0.02125 or 2.125%

32. A butadiene-styrene elastomer is produced. We find that 30 g of sulphur


will completely cross-link 400 g of the elastomer. What fraction of the
mers in the elastomer are styrene?

MWbutadiene (4 C)(12) + (6 H)(l) 54 g/mol

MWstyrene (8 C)(12) + (8 H)(1) 10.4 g/mol

MWsulPhur 32 g/mol

mol sulphur = 30 g I 32 g/mol = 0.9375


If completely cross-linked, then there are also 0.9375 mol of
butadiene. Therefore the weight of butadiene is

g butadiene = (0.9375 mol)54 g/mol) 50.625 g

g styrene = 400 - 50.625 = 349.375 g

mol styrene = 349.375 g I 104 g/mol 3.359 mol

fraction styrene = 3.359 I (3.359 + 0.9375) = 0.78

33. We would like to produce 10 kg of butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomer.


Calculate and plot the amount of sulphur required to provide" 50%
cross-llnking versus the welght percent acrylonitrile present in the
rubber.

MWbutadiene (4 C)(12) + (6 H)(1) = 54 g/mol


(3 C)(12) + (1 N)(14) + (3 H)(l) 53 g/mol
MWacrylonitrlle
MWsulphur 32 g/mol

For complete cross-linking, the number of mol of sulphur and


butadiene should be equal. For 50% cross-linking, the number of mol
of sulphur would be half the number of butadiene.

185
g S = (g butadiene / 54 g/mol) (50YJ100%) (32 g/mol)

OY. PAN: g sulphur (10,000/54)(0.5)(32) 2963 g


2SY. PAN: g sulphur (7,500/54)(0.5)(32) 2222 g
50% PAN: g sulphur (5,000/54)(0.5)(32) 1481 g
7SY. PAN: g sulphur (2,500/54)(0.5)(32) 741 g
100Y. PAN: g sulphur o no cross-linking possible

34. You want to produce a complex component from an elastomer. Should you
vulcanize the rubber before or after the forming operation? Explain.

You want to form the elastomer first, while it still has a high
viscosity. After forming, you may then vulcanize to provide the
cross-linking; after cross-linking, the elastomer can no longer be
easily deformed.

35. Figure 15-31 shows the stress-strain curve for an elastomer. From the
curve, calculate and plot the modulus of elasticity versus strain and
explain the results.

To determine the modulus of elasticity, we can draw a tangent to the


stress-strain curve at various strains:

@O strain, E slope /1(1'//1 0.130 MPa


@2 strain, E slope /1(1'//1 0.692 MPa
@4 straln, E slope /1(1'//1 1.453 MPa
@6 strain, E' slope /1(1'//1 1. 816 MPa

186
70

60
/
/
'" Y
Stretching of honds
50

V
"""
20
Uncoiling of chains_
""- V
10
~
o -~
o 2
Strain
3 6

The modulus increases with increasing strain as the uncoiling effect


is nearly completed and stretching of the covalent bonds beCOBeS
more pronounced.

36. A stress of 15 MPa is applied an elastomer. After 3 weeks. the stress is


observed to be 14 MPa. What period of time is required before the stress
falls to 12 MPa?

(T = (Toexp(-t/i\)
14 = 15exp(-3/i\) or In(14/15) -0.06899 -3/i\

i\ = 43.483 wks

12 = 15exp(-t/43.483) or In(12/15) -0.2231 -t/43.483

t = 9.7 wks

37. An elastomer is stretched using a stress of 5 MPa. At 27C. the stress


is reduced to 4.66 MPa after 1 year. At 75C. the stress falls to 4.66
MPa after 1 week. Determine the activation energy for viscous flow in
the elastomer.

(T = (Toexp(-t/i\)
@27C = 300 Ie:

4.66 5exp(-365/i\) or In(4.66/5) -0.07042 -365/i\


i\ 5183.2 days

4.66 5exp(-7/i\) or In(4.66/5) -0.07042 -1/i\


i\ 99.4.days

187
From h = hoexp(E~IRT)
5183.2 ~oexp[(E~/(8.31)(300)1
99.4 ~ expt(E~/(8.31)(348)1
o
or = exp[(0.0004011 -
52.144 0.00034579)E~1 = exp(0.0000553E~)
In(52.144) = 3.9540 = 5.53 x 10-5E~ or E~ = 71,500 J/mol

38. The degree of polymerisation normally is not used to characterise network


polymers such as phenolics. Explain.

Individual chains are no longer present after the polymer is


completely cross-linked and polymerised; instead the entire polymer
should be considered continuous.

39. Suppose we wish to produce a linear amine chain by combining 5 kg of urea


with formaldehyde. Calculate (a) the amount of formaldehyde required to
produce the chains, (b) the amount of water evolved, and (c) the final
weight of the polymer. (d) How much additional formaldehyde is needed
to completely cross-link the linear chains into a network?

MW (1 C)(12) + )2 N)(14) + (1 0)(16) + (4 H)(1) = 60 g/mol


urea
MWformaldehyde = (1 C)(12) + (1 0)(16) + (2 H)(l) = 30 g/mol
mol urea = 5000 g/60 g/mol 83.333

(a) To produce chains only, we need equal numbers of mol or urea


and formaldehyde:

mol formaldehyde = 83.333 = (x grams) I (30 g/mol)


x = 2500 g formaldehyde
(b) One mol of water will be evolved for each mol of urea of
formaldehyde used in producing the chains:

mol water = 83.333 = (x grams) I (18 g/mol)


x = 1500 g water

(c) Total weight = g urea + g formaldehyde - g water


= 5000 + 2500 - 1500 = 6000 g
(d) The functionality of the urea is four. Two sites are used to
produce the chains. During cross-linking, each urea can form
two links with urea in other chains. Therefore we need two
additional formaldehyde molecules per original urea, or two
mol of formaldehyde per mol of urea.

extra formaldehyde = (83.333 urea) (2 formaldehyde/urea) (30) 5000 g

40. Explain why a thermosetting network polyester cannot be produced using


only adipic acid and ethylene glycol. (Example 15-16.)

Both monomers are bifunctional. There is no unsaturated bond in


either. Therefore there is no way to provide cross-linking of the
chains.

188
41. A thermosetting polyester is produced by combining 100 g adipic acid, 150
g maleic acid, and 50 g ethylene glycol. Calculate the amount of styrene
required to completely cross-link the chains.

We need one mol of styrene for each mol of maleic acid to provide
the cross-linking.

HWmaleic acid = (4 C)(12) + (40)(16) + (4 H)(l) 116 g/mol


HWs t yrene = (8 C)(12) + (8 H)(l) = 104 g/mol

mol maleic acid = 150 g 1 116 g/mol = 1.293 mol

g styrene = (1.293 mol)(104 g/mol) = 134.48 g

42. A polyester is produced by combining 500 g of maleic acid and 250 g of


ethylene glycol under conditions that give a degree of polymerisation of
700. Then 30 g of styrene are added. Calculate the fraction of the
possible cross-linking that are used.

HWmaleic acid = 116 glmol HW styrene= 104 g/mol


mol maleic acid = 500 g 1 116 g/mol = 4.31 mol

We need equal mol of styrene for complete cross-linking.


However,the actual number of mol of styrene added is

mol styrene = 30 g 1 104 g/mol = 0.288 mol

Therefore the fraction of the cross-linking sites that are used is

fraction = 0.288 1 4.31 = 0.067

43. 100 g of phenol are polymerised to produce a phenolic thermosetting


polymer. What is the total amount of formaldehyde required to produce
the chains and to satisfy one-third of the possible cross-linking sites?

HWphenol = (6 C)(12) + (1 0)(16) + (6 H)(l) = 94 g/mol


HWformaldehyde (1 C)(12) + (1 0)(16) + (2 H)(l) = 30 glmol
mol phenol = 100 g 1 94 = 1.0638 mol

To produce the chains we would need 1.0638 mol of formaldehyde. _ For


complete cross-linking, we would need an additional 1.0638 mol; however
we are only going to cross-link at 1/3 of the possible sites. Therefore
the total amount of formaldehyde required is

mol of formaldehyde = 1.0638 + (1/3)(1.0638) = 1.4184 mol

g of formaldehyde = (1.4184 mol) (30 g/mol) = 42,.552 g

44. Many paints are polymeric materials. Explain why plasticisers are added
to paints. What must happen to plasticisers after the paint is applied?

The plasticisers lower the viscosity and make the paint flow more
easily, providing better coverage. The plasticiser must evaporate
however, for the polymer material to harden.

189
45. The density of the Styrofoam used to make a cup is 0.0486 Mg/m3 . An
average-sized cup weighs about 2.5 g. What volume of solid polystyrene
is required to produce 1000 cups?

density = 0.0486 Mg/m3 = 0.0486 g/cm3


original volume = 2.5 g / 0.0486 g/cm3 = 51.44 cm3

46. Compare the tensile strength-to-weight ratios of the following


materials,using data from tables in Chapters 13, 14 and 15. How do the
polymers compare with other materials?
strength-to-weight ratio

polypropylene 41 MPa/(0.90 Mg/m~) 4.56 x 10' m


polyacrylonitrile 62 MPa/(1.15 Mg/m ) 5.39 x 10' m
polyetherimide 105 MPa/(1.27 Mg/m 3 ) 8.27 x 10' m
2024-T4 aluminum 469 MPa/(2.70 Mg/m 3 ) 17.4 x 10' m
aged Cu-2% Be 1310 MPa/(8.96 Mg/m~) 14.6 x 10' m
AMl00-T6 magnesium 276 MPa/(1.74 Mg/m ) 15.9 x 10' m
Al 0 210 MPa/(3.98 Mg/m 3 ) 5.28 x 10' m
2 3
SiC 115 MPa/(3.10 Mg/m~) 5.65 x 10' m
hot pressed Si 3 N, 560 MPa/(3.20 Mg/m ) 17.65 x 10' m

Polymers tend to have lower strength-to-weight ratios than ceramics


and metals.

47. Compare the modulus of elasticity-to-density ratio for the following


materials, using Table 6-3, Table 14-5, and data in this chapter. Are
the properties of the lightweight polymers comparable with those of other
materials?
modulus-to weight ratio Mg/m3

LD polyethylene (0.28 GPa)/(0.92 Mg/m 33 ) 0.304 X 106 m


polyacrylonitrile (4 GPa)/(1.15 Mg/m 3 ) 3.47 x 106 m
polyphenylene sulphide (3.3 GPa)/(1.30 Mg/m ) 2.54 x 106 m
Al 0 (392 GPa)/(3.98 Mg/m 3 ) 98.5 x 106 m
2 3
hot pressed Si 3 N, (315 GPa)/(3.20 Mg/m3 ) 98.4 x 106 m
3
aluminium alloys (70 GPa)/(2.70 Mg/m ~ 25.9 x 106 m
titanium alloys (106 GPa)/(4.507 Mg/~ )= 23.5 x 106 m
steels (210 GPa)/(7.87 Mg/m ) = 26.7 X 106 m

Polymers have a much lower modulus-to-weight ratio than ceramics


and metals.

190
Chapter 16

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

1. A dispersion strengthened SAP aluminum alloy is produced from metal


powder particles having a diameter of 0.01 mm. The Al 0 film on the
surface of each particle is spheroidised during the ~o~der metallurgy
manufacturing process. If the SAP contains 15% vol Al 0 , calculate the
original thickness of the oxide film on the aluminum p8waer particles.

VAl = (4n/3)(0.005) 3 = 5.236 x 10


-7
mm
3

vol% Al 2 03 = Voxide / (Voxide + VAl) x 100 15

Voxide / (Voxide + 5.236 x 10-7 ) = 0.15


0.924 X 10-7 mm3
Voxide
Voxide (4n/3)r 3 - 5.236 x 10-7 = 0.924 X 10-7

r3 =1.47 x 10-7 mm 3 r = 0.00528 mm


thickness = 0.00528 - 0.005 = 0.00028 mm

2. The density of Al 0 is about 3.85 Mg/m3 . An SAP aluminum alloy is


produced by powde~ ffietallurgy processing using powder particles having a
diameter of 0.01 mm with an oxide coating of 0.0001 mm. A dispersion of
spherical oxide particles 0.005 mm in diameter is produced. Calculate
(a) the vol% Al 0 present in the SAP, (b) the density of the SAP alloy,
and (c) the num~e~ of oxide particles per 1000 g of alloy.
3 -7 3
VAl = (4n/3)(0.005) = 5.236 x 10 mm
Vtotal (4n/3) (0. 0051)3 = 5.556 X 10-7 mm3
-7 -7 3
Vox ide = (5.556 - 5.236) x 10 = 0.32 x 10 mm

(a) vol% Al 0 = 0.32 / 5.556 x 100 = 5.76


2 3
(b) p

(0.0576)(3.85) + (0.9424)(2.7) = 2.7662 Mg/m3


(c) V = (4n/3) (0.0025)3 = 6.545 x 10-8 mm3
particle

In 1000 g of SAP, there are 1000 g / 2.7662 Mg/m3 = 361.51 cm3.


Of this volume, (361.51 cm3 )(0.0576) = 20.82 cm3 = 20,820 mm3
of Al 0 .
2 3
particles = 20.820 mm3 / 6.545 x 10- 8 mm3 = 3.18 X 1011

191
3. A tungsten alloy containing 2 wt% thorium is converted into a powder,
compacted into a desirable shape, and oxidized during sintering. ThO
particles with a diameter of 1000 Aare produced. If all of the thori~
is oxidized, calculate (a) the vol% ThO produced in the alloy and (b)
the number of oxide particles per cUbic 2 centimeter. (The density of Th02
is 9.86 Mg/m 3 .)
In 100 g of material, there are 98 g / 19.524 Mg/m3 = 5.0899 cm3 of
tungsten. Based on the reaction Th + 02 ~ Th02,

2 g Th / 232 g/mol =x g oxide / 264 g/mol oxide

x = 2.2759 g oxide
volume oxide = 2.2759 g / 9.86 Mg/m3 0.2308 cm3
(a) vol% Th02 = 0.2308 / (5.0899 + 0.2308) x 100 = 4.34
(b) V ti 1
par c e
= (41(/3) (500 x 10-8 cm)3 = 5.236 X 10-16 cm3
In one cubic centimeter, there is 0.0434 cm 3 of oxide. The
number of oxide particles is

number = 0.434 / 5.236 X 10-16 = 8.3 X 1013 per cm3

4. A nickel-yttrium alloy is internally oxidized to produced Y


each 1500 A in diameter. Careful measurements indicate the~e3are
particles
2 x 10 12 oxide particles per cubic centimeter of the composite. If the
density of Y is 5.01 Mg/m3, calculate (a) the vol% Y
and (b) the ~t7. Y originally in the alloy. 2 3
in the alloy
V
particle
= (41(/3) (750 x 10-8 cm)3 = 1. 7671 X 10-15 cm3
3 12 3 -15 3 3 3
Voxide/cm = (2 x 10 /cm )(1.7671 x 10 cm ) = 0.00353 cm /cm

(a) vol% Y20 3 = (0.00353)(100) = 0.353


(b) t% Y
- (0.353)(5.01)
w 23- (0.353)(5.01) + (99.647)(8.902) =x 100 = 0.2
In 100 g of the composite, there would be 0.2 g Y20 3 and 99.8 g Ni.

MWy = 88.91 g/mol


MW
yttria = 2(88.91) + 3(16) 225.82 g/mol

2Y + 1. 50 ~ YO
2 2 3
X g 0.2 g
2(88.91) (225.82) x = 0.1575 g Y

wt% Y = 0.1575 / (0.1575 + 99.8) x 100 0.158

192
5. Explain why aluminum, which is a more ductile, tougher material than
cobalt, is not used to produce cermets for hlgh speed machining tools.
Aluminum has a melting temperature (660 C) that is below that often
reached during high speed machining; consequently the aluminum
matrix may melt.

6. A C-6 cemented carbide cutting tool contains 8 wt~ Co, wt~ TaC, 10 wt%
TiC and 72 wt% WC. Calculate the density of the material. (See Example
16-2 for densities. )
F
Co
(8/8.9)
)-(r:il"'0"/14....,,9..)"":-+::..:("'1~0:-;/4.....,9"4"')-+..,....("'7"'2'/..
= 7C(8n/"8'."9.... 15.-.-;;7..,..,.7)
= 8.1785
0.8989 = 0 1099
.
(10/14.5) = 0.0843
8.1785

F TlC = (10/4.94) = 0.2475


8.1785
FWC = (72/15.77)
8.1785
= 0 . 5582
P = (0.1099)(8.~) + (0.0843)(14.5) + (0.2475)(4.94) + (0.5582)(15.77)
= 12.226 Mg/m

7. A grinding wheel is 200 mm in diameter and 25 Mm thick and weighs 2.28


kg. It is composed of SiC (density of 3.2 Mg/m3 ) bonded by silica glass
(density of 2.5 Mg/m3 ), with the SiC particles approximating cubes of
dimension 0.25 Mm. (a) Calculate the volume fraction of SiC particles in
the wheel and (b) determine the number of SiC particles lost from the
wheel after it is worn to a diameter of 175 Mm.
(a) Based on the weight and volume, we can calculate the overall
density of the composite wheel.
2.28 x 10-3 Mg m3
Pc = wlV = --------~~~~~------~
(1[/4) (200 x 10- 3 )2 (25 X 10-3 )
= 2.903 Mg m3
Pc = fglassPglass + (1 - fglass)PSiC
2.903 = fglass(2.5) + (1 - fglass)3.2
-0.297 = -0.7 f l
g ass
fglass = 0.42
f SiC = 0.58

(b) Total volume lost is

Vlos t = (1[/4)(200 x 10-3 )2(25 x 10-3 ) - (1[/4)(175 x 10-3 )2(25 x 10-3 )


= 0.000184 m3
3
VSiC lost = 0.000184 x 0.58 = 0.0001067 m
-3 3 -11 3
Vparticle = (0.25 x 10 ) = 1. 5625 x 10 m
:. Number of particles = 0.0001067,1. 5625 x 10-11
= 6.83 x 10

193
8. An abrasive grinding wheel contains 70 vol% Al a phenolic binder, and
porosity. Determine the volume percent porosity3 if the grinding wheel
,
has a density of 2.95 Mg/m3 . The density of the phenolic is 1.28 Mg/m3
3
and that of Al 2 0 3 is 3.96 Mg/m .

Let fpb be the volume fraction phenolic binder and (0.3 - f pb ) be


the fraction porosity.

P = 2.95 = (0.7(3.96) + (f pb )(1.28) + (0.3 - fpb)(O)

fpb = 0.139 or fporosity = 0.3 - 0.139 = 0.161

9. An electrical contact material is produced by infiltrating copper into a


poro~s tungsten compact. If the density of the finished composite is 15
Mg/m, calculate (a) the volume fraction of copper in the composite, (b)
the volume fraction of pores in the tungsten compact before infiltration,
and (c) the original density of the tungsten compact before infiltration.

(a) P 15 fCuPCu + F~w


15 f Cu (8.93) + (1 - fCu) (19.254)
fCu 0.412

(b) The copper in the finished composite filled the porosity in


the compact prior to infiltration. Therefore

f
porosity
= 0.412
(c) P = (0.588) (19. 254) + (0.412) (0) = 11. 321 Mg/m3

10. Suppose we use hollow glass beads as extenders in a thermosetting


polyester. The glass beads have an outside diameter of 1 mm and a wall
thickness of 0.01 mm. The glass has a density of 2.5 Mg/m3 and the
polyester has a density of 1.28 Mg/m 3. Calculate the number of beads
1
requ red per cubic meter to produce a composite with a density of 0.85
Mg/m.
In each glass bead

Yair (4n/3) (0.98/2)3 = 0.4928 mm 3


V (4n/3)(1/2)3 - 0.4928 = 0.030798 mm3
glass
f 0.030798 I (0.030798 + 0.4928) = 0.0588
glass
Pbead (0.0588)(2.5) + (0.9412)(0) = 0.147 Mg/m3
For a composite with a density of 0.85 Mg/m 3
0.85 f P + (1 f )p
g g g polyester
0.85 f (0.147) + (1 - f )(1.28)
g g
f 0.38
g
In one m3 , there are 0.38 m3 = 0.38 x 10 9 mm3 of beads
number of beads = 0.38 x 109 / (4nI3) (1/2)3 = 7.26 x 10 8 /mm 3

194
11. Calculate the number of grams of clay that must be added to 1000 g of
polyethylene to proguce a modulus of elasticity of 0.84 Gfa. The density
of clay is 2.4 Mg/m and that of polyethylene is 0.95 Mg/m. (See Figure
16-7. )

To obtain the desired modulus of elasticity, the volume fraction


clay must be f clay = 0.3

x Mg clay/2.4 Mg/m3
.. f clay
x Mg clay/2.4 Mg/m 3 + (1 x 10-3 )/0.95 Mg/m3

.. 0.3[(x/2.4 + (lxl0- 3 /O.95)] = x/2.4

0.3x/2.4 + 0.3 x 10- 3 /0.95 = x/2.4


2.4 x 10-3 /0.95 = 0.7 x
:.1. 083 X 10- 3 Mg = x
(ie) 1083 g = x

12. Round sand grains coated with 1.5 wt% phenolic resin are often used to
make molds and cores for metal castings. (a) If the sand grains are 0.5
mm in diameter, determine the average thickness of the resin coating.
The sand has a density of 2.2 Mg/m3 and the resin has a dens!ty of 1.28
Mg/m3 . (b) The apparent density of the sand is 1. 52 Mg/m. Estimate
the volume percent porosity in the sand.
3 3 -11 3
(a) Vsand = (41[/3) (0. 5/2) = 0.0654 mm = 6.54 x 10 m
weight of sand grain = (6.54 x 10-11 )(2.2 Mg/m 3 )
= 1. 44 X 10- 10 Mg

wt% resin 1.5=


x Mg resin x 100
x Mg resin + (1. 44 x 10- 10 ) Mg sand
x = 2.193 X 10- 12 Mg
vol resin (2.193 x 10-12 )(1.28 Mg/m 3 ) = 2.807 x 10-12 m3

Vtotal = (6.54 x 10- 11 ) + (2.807 x 10- 12 ) m3


= 6.8207 x 10- 11 m3
(41[/3)r 3 = 6.8207 x 10-11
.. r = 0.253 X 10- 3 m = 0.253 rom

.. Resin thickness = 0.253 - 0.250 0.003 mm

(b) The approximate density of the sand grains = 2.2 Mg/m3

:. %porosity 2.2 - 1. 52 x 100


2.2
30.9%

13. We wish to compocast a 2n-27% Al alloy introducing 30 vol% glass beads


during the processing. (a) From Figure 13-13, estimate the required
casting temperature and (b) determine the density of the final product.
The gensity of the glass is 2.2 Mg/m3 and that of the zinc alloy is 5.03
Mg/m.

195
(a) We would like to do the compocasting when about 40% solids are
present in the solidifying mixture. From the phase diagram we
can calculate the amount of solid at various temperatures for
an alloy containing 27% Al and 73% Zn:

500C: 0:: 43% Zn L: 74% Zn 0: (74-73)/(74-43) x 100 3%


480C: 0:: 55% Zn L: 80% Zn 0: (80-73)/(80-55) x 100 28%
470C: 0:: 58% Zn L: 81% Zn 0: (81-73)/(81-58) x 100 35%
460C: 0:: 62% Zn L: 82% Zn 0: = (82-73)/(82-62) x 100 45%

An appropriate temperature would be about 475C.

(b) P = (0.3)(2.2) + (0.7)(5.03) = 4.181 Mg/m 3

14. Using Figure 14-24, estimate the liquidus temperature of E glass.

The composition of E glass is 5i02 -18% CaO-15% A1 2 0 3


The liquidus temperature corresponding to this composition is
1400C.

15. A composite is produced by incorporating 30 vol% H5 carbon fibers in


polyester. (a) Determine the volume percent polyethylene fibers
required to produce the same modulus of elasticity and (b) compare the
specific modulus of the polyethylene-reinforced composite with that of
the carbon-reinforced composite. The density of polyester is 1.28 Mg/m3
and the modulus is 4.55 GPa.

(a) Ecarbon = (0.3 x 280) + (0.7)(4.55) = 87.185 GPa


~E = 87.185 = f pE (119) + (1 - f pE )(4.55)
:. 82.635 = 114.45 fPE
:. 0.722 = fPE
or 72.2 vol% polyethylene fibers

(b) Pcarbon = (0.3)(1.5) + (0.7)(1.28)


0.45 + 0.896
1. 346 Mg/m 3
specific moduluscarbon = 87.185/1.346 64.8 (m2 S-2 x 10 6 )
PPE = (0.722)(0.97) + (0.278)(1.28)
= 1. 056 Mg/m3
specific modulusPE = 87.185/1.056 = 82.6 (m2 S-2 x 106 )

16. There is some interest in producing magnesium reinforced with HM carbon


fibers. Determine the density and modulus of elasticity both parallel
and perpendicular to the fibers if 350 g of fibers are introduced into
300 g of magnesium. The density of the magnesium is 1.74 Mg/m3 and its
modulus is 45.5 GPa.
(350/1. 5)
vol% fibers = (350/1.5) + (300/1.74) = 0.575
P = (0.575)(1.5) + (0.425)(1.74) = 1.602 Mg/m3

196
E =(0.575)(539) + (0.425)(45.5)
parallel
= 329.3 GPa
1/E (0.575/539) + (0.425/45.5) 0.0010667 + 0.009341
perpendicular
0.01041
:. Eperpendi cu 1ar 96 GPa

17. An aluminum panel for an airplane measures 2 m x 2.65 m x 6.25 mm. (a)
Determine the weight of the aluminum panel. (b) Determine the weight
giving the same modulus of elasticity if the panel is made of
polyethylene fiber-reinforced epoxy of the same thickness. The density
of the epoxy is 1.3 Mg/m3 and its modulus is 3.156 GPa.

(a) weight = 2 x 2.65 x (6.25 x 10-3 )(2.7 Mg/m3 ) 0.08944 Mg

(b) The modulus of elasticity of Al = 70 GPa


70 = f pE (119) + (1 - f pE ) (4.55)
65.45 = 114.45 fPE
0.572 = fPE
P = (0.572)(0.97) + (0.428)(1.3) = 1.1111 Mg/m 3
weight = 2 x 2.65 x (6.25 x 10- 3 ) x (1.1111) = 0.03681 Mg

18. Calculate (a) the vol% fibers and (b) the specific modulus of a
unidirectionally aligned fiberglass boat hull having a dersity of 1.6
Mg/m. The matrix is polyester (density 1.28 Mg/m, modulus of
elasticity = 4.55 GPa) and S glass fibers are employed.
3
(a) P = ff(2.5) + (1 - ff)(1.28) = 1.6 Mg/m

.. ff = 0.262
(b) E = (0.262)(88.2) + (0.738)(4.55) = 26.47 GPa
. modulus = ~
speciflc 26.47 = 16.5 (2
m s -2 x 10 6)

19. Nickel-base superalloys can be reinforced with tungsten fibers. (a)


Determine the volume fraction of tungsten fibers needed to obtain a
modulus of elasticity of 280 GPa perpendicular to the fibers. (b)
Calculate the modulus of elasticity parallel to the fibers for this
composite. The density of the superalloy is about 8.5 Mg/m3 and the
modulus of elasticity is 196 GPa.

(a) liE = 1/280


perpendicular
f = 0.575
w
(b) E (0.575)(409.5) + (0.425)(196) = 318.8 GPa
parallel

20. A hybrid composite is produced in which polyester is reinforced with HS


carbon and kevlar fibers. The volume percent of the carbon fibers is
twic~ that of the Kevlar fibers. If the density of the composite is 1.4
Mg/m, estimate (a) the vol% of carbon, Kevlar, and polyester and (b) the
wt% of ca~bon, Kevlar, and polyester. The density of the polyester is
1. 28 Mg/m .

197
(a) Let fC be the volume fraction carbon, 0.5f C be the volume
fraction Kevlar, and (1 1.5 fC) be the volume fraction
polyester.
P = fcPC = (0.5f C )PK + (1 - 1.5 fC)Pp = 1. 4
f C(1.5) + (0.5f C)(1.44) + (1 - 1. SfC) (1. 28 ) 1.4

fC f carbon 0.40 or 40%

fKevlar 0.20 20%


f polyester 0.40 40%

(0.40)(1.5 Mg/m3 )
x 100 42.9
(b) wt% carbon (0.40) O. 5) + (0.2)(1.44) + (0.4)( 1. 28)
(0.20)(1.44 Mg/m3 ) x 100 20.6
wt% Kevlar (0.40)(1. 5) + (0.2) (1. 44) + (0.4) (1. 28)
(0.40)(1.28 Mg/m3 )
wt% polyester = (0.40)(1. 5) + (0.2)(1. 44) + (0.4)(1. 28)
x 100 = 36.6
21. A 25 mm diameter cable is constructed of a 3.125 mm diameter aluminum
core coated with steel. Determine the thermal conductivity of the
composite cable. The thermal conductivity of aluminum is 238.3 W(m K)-l and
that of steel is 100.3 W (m K)-l.

VAl (~/4)(3.125)2 = 30.:796 mm3 /mm = 7.6699 mm3 /mm


VFe (~/4)(25)2 - (n/4)(3.125)2
490.87385 - 7.6699 = 483.2039 mm 3 /mm
7.6699
0.0156
490.87385

.. K = (0.0156)(238.3) + (0.9844) (l00. 3) = 102.46 W/m K

22. Two composites are produced; one composite contains 30vol% SiC particles,
while a second contains an equal amount of SiC but in the form of fibers.
Which will have the higher heat capacity? Will heat capacity be
dependent on the orientation of the fibers?

The two composites will both have the same heat capacity; heat
capacity does not depend on the size, shape, or orientation of the
reinforcement.

23. Explain why bonding between carbon fibers and an aluminum matrix must be
excellent, while bonding between silicon nitride fibers and a silicon
carbide matrix should be poor.

In carbon-aluminum, we want to have good transfer of load from the


softer, more ductile aluminum matrix, permitting the carbon to
provide the good strength and stiffness.

In Si N -SiC, we want poor bonding so the fibers consume energy as


they ~utl out of the matrix and to make it more difficult for cracks
to propagate through the reinforcement.

198
24. Figure 16-47 shows the cross section of a Borsic fiber-reinforced
aluminum composite material. Estimate (a) the vol% of tungsten, boron
and aluminum in the composite and (b) the modulus of elasticity parallel
to the fibers. (c) If tungsten were not present in the boron fiber
core, by what percent would the modulus of elasticity of the composite
increase or decrease?

(a) From the photograph, the diameter of the tungsten core is about
2 mm, the diameter of the boron fiber is 30 mm, and the
distance between the centers of adjacent fibers is 33 mm.
2
Atotal = (33)2 1089 mm
('/[/4) (2)2 2
Atungsten 3. 14 mm
('/[/4) (30)2 - 3.14 2
703.72 mm
~oron 2
AAl 1089 - 3.14 - 703.72 382.14 mm

F = 3.14 / 1089 0.0029 or 0.29%


f~ = 703.72 / 1089 0.6464 or 64.62%
fAL= 382.14 / 1089 0.3509 or 35.09%

(b) E = (0.0029)(409.5) + (0.6462)(385) + (0.3509)(70) 274.54 GPa

(c) If tungsten was not present


A_
-Doron = 706.86 :. fB = 0.6491
E = (0.6491)(385) + (0.3509)(70) = 274.47 GPa

The tungsten makes virtually no difference in the stiffness of the


overall composite. It's function is to serve as the precursor for
the boron.

25. A composite of epoxy reinforced with 65 vol% carbon fibers is intended to


have a minimum modulus of elasticity of 245 GPa. (a) At what
temperature should the carbon fibers be produced? (b) What tensile
strength will these fibers possess?

(a) E 0.65 EC = 0.35 (3.15) 245


.. EC = 375.23 GPa
To obtain this modulus of elasticit in a carbon fiber, a
pyrolizing temperature of about 2400 C should be used, Figure
16-19.

(b) From Figure 16-19, the tensile strength obtained by


pyrolizing at 2400C is about 1900 MPa.

26. Aramid fibers can be produced by a condensation reaction involving the


two monomers shown below. Suppose 100 g of monomer A is reacted with
monomer B. (a) What by-product is formed as a result of the
polymerisation reaction? (b) How many grams of monomer B are required?
(c) How many grams of the by-product are formed? (d) What is the total
weight of the aramid fibers produced?

199
H,..C -C'H0 HCI .... Ii: H,C _C/H
/ \1""
CI-C-C C +CI
...ft.. ". .... " N-C/ \
C-N
~
"\, I .. H/ \ / 'H
o C--C c-c
H H
11 A" "B n

(a) HCI is created as a by-product.

(b) ~ = (8 C)(12) + (2 0)(16) + (4 H)(l) + (2 CI)(35.453) 202.906


~ = (6 C)(12) + (2 N)(14) + (8 H)(l) 108

100 g "A"_ x g "B"


202.906 - --ros- x = 53.23 g monomer "B"
100 g "A" _ x g "B"
(c)
202.91 - 36.453 x = 17.97 g HCI

(d) total weight = 100 "A" + 53.23 "B" - 17.97 "HCI" = 135.26 g

27. A capacitor much like the one shown in Figure 16-33 is produced by
stacking together 21 copper sheets 0.008 mm thick and 20 BaTiO sheets
0.5 mm thick. Determine the electrical conductivity both parallel and
perp~ndiCu}tr _\0
the sheets. The electrical ~~~duct!~~\y of copper is 6
x 10 ohm m, and that for BATi03 is 1 x 10 ohm m .

VCu = (21 sheets) (0. 0008 cm/sheet) 0.0168 cm3 /cm2


Vtitanate = (20 sheets) (0.05 cm/sheet) 1. 00 cm 3 /cm2

fCu = 0.0168 / (0.0168 + 1.00) = 0.0165


ftitanate = 0.9835

(0.0165)(6 107 ) + (0.9835)(1 x 10-1)


X
crparallel
9.9 x 10 5 ohm- 1 m- 1

1/cr (0.0165/6 X 107 ) + (0.9835/1 x 10-1)


perpendicular
2.75 x 10-10 + 0.9835 X 1010
9.835 X 109

cr
perpendicular
= 1.017 X 10-10ohm- 1 m- 1

200
28. Suppose a 6.25 mm thick iron sheet is coated with a 0.125 mm enamel of
glass. (a) Calculate the percent decrease in thermal conductivity
between the uncoated and coated iron. (b) Calculate the thickness of
the glass enamel required to reduce the thermal conductivity of the steel
by 50%. The thermal conductivity of iron is 79.6 W/mK and that of glass
is 1. 26 W/mK.

fenamel 0.125/ (6.25 + 0.125) 0.01961


:.f iron 0.98039

(a) 1/K = (0.01961/126) + (0.98039/79.6) 0.01556 + 0.01232


= 0.02788
.. Kcoated = 35.873 W/mK
Kuncoated 79.6 W/mK
.. %decrease (79.6 - 35.873)/79.6 x 100 = 55%
(b) If the composite conductivity is reduced by 50% then the
conductivity will be 79.6/2 = 39.8 W/mK.

1/39.8 = (fe /1.26) + (1 - f )/(79.6)


e
0.02513 0.7936f + 0.012563 - 0.012566f
e e
0.01257 0.7804f
e
:. 0.0161 = f
e
(ie) 0.0161 = t /(t + 6.25)
e e
:. t = 0.1023 mm
e
29. Suppose we sandwich a 1 mm thick layer of polycarbonate between two
sheets of 5 mm thick glass. Calculate the modulus of elasticity of the
composite perpendicular to the sheet. The modulus and density of
polycarbonate are 238 GPa and 1.2 Mg/m3 , while those of the glass are
84 GPa and 2.3 Mg/m .

f
pc
1/E
1/(10 + 1) = 0.090909
(0.090909)/(2.8) + (0.919191)/(84)Y~~ ~
= 0.04341
0.5
)OC
O'o~nC
0.03247 + 0.010943 '+- I

E 23.04 GPa 30
30. An aluminum honeycomb structure is produced. The honeycomb material is
in the form of hexagonal cells, with each face of the cell 5mm long. The
aluminum walls of the cell are 0.08 mm thick. Separated by 25 mm of
honeycomb are two aluminum sheets each 1.5 mm thick. (a) Estimate the
density of the structure. (b) How many kg would a 1.22 m x 2.44 m panel
of the honeycomb weigh? Compare with a 1.22 m x 2.44 m x 25 mm thick
solid aluminum plate.

(a) From the sketch of the hexagon, we can first find the area of a
hexagon:

x/5 cos30 .. x = 4.33


y/5 sin30 .. y 2.5

201
A = 4(triangles)
+ (rectangle)
= 4(4.33 x 2.5/2) +(5 x 2 x 3 4.33) = 64.95 mm2
V = (64.95 x 25) = 1623.76 mm

AAlin cell (half wall thickness)~wall length) (6 walls)


(0.04)(5)(6) = 1.2 mm
(1.2)(25) = 30 mm3
VAlin sheets (64.95)(2 sheets)(1.5) 194.85 mm3
3
Vtotal Al = 224.85 mm
weight Al = (224.85 x 10-9 ) x (2.7 Mg/m3 )
= 6.07 x 10-7 Mg
Vtotal cell = 1623.75 + 194.85 = 1818.6 mm3
-7
P = 6.07 x 10 = 0.3338 Mg/m3
1818.6 x 10- 9

(b) Total thickness of honeycomb is 25 + (2 x 1.5) = 28 Mm.

Volume = 1.22 x 2.44 x 28 x 10- 3 = 0.08335 m3


weight = (0.08335) x 0.3338 Mg m- 3
= 0.02782 Kg = 27.82 kg
Volume of Al plate = (1.22)(2.44)(25 x 10-3 ) = 0.07442 m3
weight of Al plate = (0.07442)(2.7 Mg/m3 ) = 0.2009 Kg
= 200.9 kg
31. For the honeycomb structure described in Problem 16-30, estimate the
thermal conductivity of the honeycomb parallel to the walls of the cells.
The thermal conductivity of aluminum is 239 W/m.K and that of air is
about 0.02095 W/m.K.

First treat only the honeycomb portion between the sheets. We can
treat this as a "fiber" composite. For each cell

AAI = 1.2 2
mm
2
and Acell = 64.95 mm
The fraction of Al = 1.2/64.95 = 0.0185
Kcells = KAlfAI + Kairfair
= (239)(0.0185) + (0.02095)(0.9815)
= 4.4421 W/m.K
Now we can treat the entire sandwich structure as a laminar
composite composed of the cellular region plus the two aluminum
sheets. We can find the volume fraction of the cellular region by

fcells = (25)mm3 /(28 3


mm ) = 0.8929
1/K_
--~oneycomb
= f cells/Kcells + f
sheets sheets
/k
= 0.8929/4.4421 + 0.1071/239
= 0.20099 + 0.000448 = 0.20144
~
-~oneycom
b = 4.9643 W/m.K

202
32. A completel dried 52.4 mm x 100 mm x 200 mm sample of wood has a density
of 0.3 Mg/m. (a) How many liters of water are absorbed by the sample
if it contains 125% water? (b) Calculate the density after the wood
absorbs this amount of water.

(a) The volume of the sample is V = (52.4)(100)(200) 1,048,000 mm3


dry weight (0.3 Mg/m~)(1,048,000)10-9
= 0.0003144 Mg
= 314.4 g
% water 125 = weight of water x 100
dry weight
weight of water = (1.25)(314.4) = 393 g

(b) The total weight is now 393 + 314.4 = 707.4 g. If we assume


that the volume does not change when the water is absorbed,
then the density is

p 707.4 x 10-6 (Mg)/1,048,000 X 10-9 (m3 )


0.675 Mg/m3

33. The measured density of a 100 cm3 sample of birch (see Table 16-6) is
0.98 Mg/m3 Calculate (a) the density of completely dry birch and (b)
the percent water in the original sample.

(a) Based on Table 16-6, the density of birch containing 12% water
is 0.62 Mg/m3 . Therefore 100 m sample would weigh 62 g.
12% - weight of water x 100 _ green weight - dry weight x 100
- dry weight - dry weight

12% 62 - dry weight x 100 dry weight = 55.36 g


dry weight

p = 55.36 g / 100 cm3 = 0.5536 Mg/m3


3
(b) If the actual density = 0.98 Mg/m3 , then the weight of 100 cm
is 98 g.

water

34. A contractor calls for a slump of 50 mm for the concrete basement floor
of a new house, while a slump of 125 mm is specified for the walls.
Explain the difference in the two specifications.

In the walls, the concrete must be more fluid so it can fill the
form without leaving any air pockets; however in a floor, the
concrete does not have to be so fluid.

35. The tar used in producing asphalt has a density of about 1.5 Mg/m3 .
Determine the typical weight of one meter (1 m3 ) of asphalt if the
asphalt is composed of 65 vol% sand (density 2.2 Mg/m3 ).

P (1.5)(0.35) + (2.2)(0.65) = 1.955 Mg/m3


.. 1 meter of asphalt weighs 1. 955 Mg

203
Chapter 17

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY

1. A current of 100 A is passed through a 3 mm diameter wire 1500 m long.


Calculate the power loss if the wire is made of (a) copper, (b) germanium
and (c) silicon. (See Tables 17-2 and 17-8. )

P~wer = VI = I~ = 12Vo-A
l. = 1500 m
d = 3 mm
A = (n/4) (3 mm)2 = 7.068 mm2 = 7.068 x 10-6 m2

Power = (100A)2(1500 m)/(7.068 x 10-6 m2)(0-) = 1.953 x 1012 / 0-

(a) Cu: 0- = 5.98 x 107 (0 ml -1


2
power = (1. 953 x 10 )/(5.98 x 107 ) = 3.27 X 104 W

(b) Ge: 0- = 2(0 m)-l


power (1. 953 x 1012 )/2 = 9.77 X 1011 W

(c) Si: 0- = 5 X 10-4(0 .. )-1


power (1.953 x 1012 )/(5 x 10-4 ) 3.91 X 1015 W

2. A current density of 2 x 109 A m-2 is applied to a 500 m long aluminum


wire. A resistance of lOis measured along the wire. Calculate (a) the
diameter of the wire and (b) the voltage imposed on the wire.

current density J = I/A = 2 x 109 A m- 2

(a) R = Vo-A or A = VRa-


= (500 m)/ (1_~) ~3. 77 x 107 0-1 m- 1 )
= 1. 326 x 10 m

d = v4A/n = 1c4) (0. 1326 x 10-5 )/n = 4.11 x 10-3 m


= 4.11 mm

(b) current density J = I/A = 2 x 109 A/m2


I = JA = (2 x 109 A/m2 ) (1.326 x 10-5 m- 2 ) "
= 26,520 A
V = IR = (26.520 A)(l ohm) = 26,520 volts

3. The power loss in a 1 mmdiameter gold wire is to be 100 W when a 4-A


current is flowing in the circuit. Calculate the required length of the
wire.

Powir = I~ = 12Vo-A = 100 W


(4) V(4.26 x 107 0-1 m-1 )(n/4)(1 x 10-3 m)2 = 100
l=209m

204
4. A 400 resistor is produced from a 2.5 mm diameter iron wire. Calculate
the required length of the wire.

R = l/a-A or l = RITA
= (400)(1 x 107 ) (n/4) (2.5 x 10-3 m)2
= 1963 m

5. An electric field of 1000 V.m-1 is applied to a 0.5 m length of magnesium


wire. Calculate (a) the voltage and (b) the current density in the wire.

(a) ~ = V/l or V = ~/l = (1000 V m-1 )(0.5 m) = 500 V

(b) J = a-~ = (2.25 x 107 0- 1 m- 1 )(1000 V m- 1 )


= 2.25 x 1010 A m- 2

6. A current density of 108 A.m- 2 is applied to a silver wire. If all of


the valence electrons serve as charge carriers, determine the average
drift velocity of the electrons.

Silver is FCC, with 4 atoms/cell, a valence of 1, and a lattice


parameter of 4.0862 A.
n = (4 atoms/cell) (1 carrier/atom) = 5.8263 x 1028 m- 3
(4.0862 x 10- 10 m)3
J = nqv
or v = J/nq = 108 (A m- 2)/(5.863 x 1028 m- 3 )(1.6 x 10-19 C s-1)
= 10.66 m/s

7. Suppose the mobility of an electron in nickel is 0.05 m2. V-1s -1.


Estimate the fraction of the valence electrons that are carrying an
electrical charge.

Nickel is FCC, with 4 atoms/cell, a valence of 2, and a lattice


parameter of 3.5167 A.

a- nqp or n = a-/qp (1.46 108 0-1 m-1)/(1.6 X 10-19C) (0.05 m2 V-1s- 1 )


X

= 1.825 x 1028 carriers/m3


total electrons = (4 atoms/cell) (2 carriers/atom)
(3.5167 x 10- 10 m)3
fraction = (1.825 x 1029 ) / (1.84 X 1029 ) = 0.099
-4 -1 -1
8. The electrical conduct~vi! o~1si1icon is 5 x 10 0 .m and the mobility
of electrons is 0.19 m.V .s . What fraction of the valence electrons
in silicon carry an electrical charge?

Silicon is DC, with 8 atoms/cell, a valence of 4, and a lattice


parameter of 5.4307 A.

n = a-/qp = (5x 10-4)/(1.6 x 101 19 )(0.19) = 1.64 x 1016/m3


total electrons = (8 atoms/cell) (4 electrons/atoms)= 1.9979 x 1029/m3
(5.4307 x 10- 10 m)3
fraction = 1.64 x 10 / 1.9979 X 1029 = 8.2 X 10-14
16

205
9. A voltage of 50 V is applied to a 0.1 m length of 1 mm diameter copper
wire. Determine the average drift velocity of the electrons if 50% of
the valence electrons are responsible for conducting the current.

Copper is FCC, with 4 atoms/cell, a valence of 1, and a lattice


parameter of 3.6151 A .
n = (4 atoms/cell) (1 electron/atom) = 8.466 x 1028/m3
(3.6151 x 10- 10 m)3
actual electrons = (0.5)(8.466 x 1028 ) = 4.233 x 1028/m3

V = J/nq = u~/nq = u(V/t)/nq


= (5.98 x 107 C- 1m-1 ) (50 V/0.1 m)/(4.233 x 10 28 m- 3 )(1.6 x 10-19C)
= 4.41 m s-l
10. A current of 200 A is passed through the arc in an arc-welding process.
The diameter of the arc is about 5 mm and the arc extends 2.5 mm from the
tip of the electrode to the metal being welded. A voltage of 40 V is
applied across the arc. Calculate (a) the current density in the arc,
(b) the electric field across the arc, and (c) the electrical
conductivity of the gases in the arc during welding.

(a) J I/A = 200 A/(x/4)(5 mm)2 = 1.0186 A/mm2 = 1.0186 x 107A m- 2

(b) ~ V/t = (40 V) / (2.5 mm) = 16 V/mm


(c) V = IR = It/uA or u = It/VA
= (200) (2. ?;/<"10) (x/4) (5~~ -1
= 0.6366 C mm = 636.6 C m

11. Calculate the number of energy levels present in the 3p level of 10 mm3
of solid HCP titanium.

There are 6 electrons per atom in the 3p energy level, or there are
3 energy levels per atom. Titanium is HCP and has 2 atoms per cell.
electrons/m3 = (6 electrons/atom) (2 Ti atoms/cell)
(2.9503 x 10-10 m)2(4.6831 x 10-10 m) cos30

= 3.40 x 1029
.. electrons/mm3 = 3.40 X 1020
6N 3.40 x 1020 electrons/mm3
3N = energy levels = 1.70 x 1023 levels/mm3

In 10 mm3 the number of energy levels = 10 x 1.70 X 10 23 = 1.7 X 1022

12. Calculate the electrical resistivity of pure aluminum at -100C and


+200C.

P = Pr (l
al1T)+
P- 100 2.65 x 10-8 [1 + (0.0043)(-100 - 25)] = 1.226 x 10-8 em
P+ 200 = 2.65 x 10-8 [1 + (0.0043)(200 - 25)] = 4.644 x 10-8 C m

206
13. Calculate the temperature of a pure nickel rod that has an electrical
resistivity of 10 x 10-8 O.m.

P = Pr (l + allT)

10 x 10-8 = 6.84 x 10-8 [1 + (0.0069)(T - 25)]


1.462 = 1 + (0.0069)(T - 25)
T = 91.96C

14. To what temperature must you raise pure magnesium to double it room
temperature electrical resistivity?

p/P r =1 + allT or 2 = 1 + (0.0165)(T - 25)


T = 85.61C
15. Based on Figure 17-12(b), determine the defect resistivity 'coefficient
for tin in copper.
(wt% Snl118.69)
x = atomic fraction Sn = (wt% Sn)/118.69) + (wt% Cul63.54)

wt% Sn (1" p x xU-x) IIp

0.0 5.98 X 107 0.167 X 10-7 0.0 0 0


0.1 5.92 x 107 0.169 X 10-7 0.00054 0.00054 0.002 x 10-7
0.2 5.50 x 107 0.182 X 10-7 0.00107 0.00107 0.018 x 10-7
0.3 4.96 x 107 0.202 X 10-7 0.00161 0.00161 0.035 x 10-7
0.4 4.66 x 107 0.215 X 10-7 0.00215 0.00215 0.048 x 10-7
0.5 4.37 x 107 0.229 X 10-7 0.00268 0.00267 0.062 x 10-7
0.6 4.08 x 107 0.245 X 10-7 0.00322 0.00321 0.078 x 10-7
0.8 3.70 x 107 0.270 X 10-7 0.00430 0.00428 0.103 x 10-7
1.0 3.29 X 107 0.304 X 10-7 0.00538 0.00535 0.137 x 10-7

b = slope (0.122 - 0.021) x 10-7 /(0.00505 - 0.00095)


2. 46 x 10-6 Q m

0.14

0.12

0.10

0.08
IIp
(x 10-7 )
0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
xU - x)

207
16. To what temperature must you raise pure copper to obtain the same
electrical resistivity as that you would get by alloying with 25 wt%
zinc? (See Example 17-7. )

First we can convert 25 wt% Zn to atomic fraction zinc "x";


(25/65.3S)
x = (25/65.3S) + (75/63.54) = 0.245
We can then combine Equations 17-6, 17-7 and 17-S, equating the
temperature and defect resistivities:

P = PT + Pd = PT = b(l - x)x = Pr (l + a6T)


P = P25 + b(l - x)x = Pr (l + a6T)
1.67x10- 8 + (1.Sx10-7 )(1-0.245)(0.245) = (1.67 x 10-8 )[1 + 0.006S(T-25)]
(0.167 x 10-7 + 0.333 x 10-7 )/0.167 x 10-7 = 1 + ().006S)(T - 25)

2.994 1 + 0.006S(T - 25)


T 31S.2C

17. Sup~ose the electrical conductivity of iron containing 3 at% impurity at


500 is 2 X 10 6 Q-l m-l. Determine the contribution to resistivity due to
temperature and impurities by calculating (a) the expected resistivity or
pure iron at 500C, (b) the resistivity due to impurities, and (c) the
defect resistivity coefficient.

(a) PT = (9.71 x 10
-8
)[1 + 0.0065(500 - 25)] 39.69 x 10- 8 Q m

(b) 1/u = P =Pd + PT


1/(2 x 10 )
6
= 50 x 10
-8
= Pd + 39.69 x 10
-8

Pd = 1. 03 x 10 -7 Q m
(c) Pd = b(1 - x)x
1.03 x 10-7 = b(l - 0.03)0.03
b = 3.54 X 10-6 Q m
lS. A nickel alloy filament 0.1 mm in diameter and 1 m long operating on a
120-V circuit consumes 335 W at 500C. Calculate (a) the current flowing
in the filament during use and (b) the current that initially flows in
the filament before it heats to the operating temperature, assuming_ that
the alloy has the same temperature resistivity coefficient as pure
nickel.

(a) power = VI or 335 = (120)! or I = 2.79 A

(b) We can find the room temperature resistivity by first


calculating the resistivity at 500C.

R = VII = P500liA
Thus P500 = VAIlt
(120 V)(O.l x 10-3 m)2(n/4)/(2.79 A)(l m)
3.37S x 10-7 Q m

20S
At 25C: Psoo = P25 (1 - a~T)
-7
3.378 X 10 = P25 [1 + (0.0069)(500 - 25)]
P25 = 0.7897 X 10-7 C m
R2S = P2slIA = (0.7897 x 10-7 )/(n/4)(1 x 10-4 )2

= 10.05477 C
I = V/R = 120 / 10.05477 11.93 A

19. Based on the data in Figure 17-11, estimate the defect resistivity
coefficient for nickel in copper.

From the data derived from Figure 17-11:

YJU P Pd = ~P x (1 - x)x

0% 1. 67 x 10-6 0 0 0
10% 16.00 x 10-6 14.33 X 10-8 O. 107 0.0955
20% 28.00 x 10-6 26.33 X 10-8 0.213 0.168
30% 37.00 x 10-6 35.33 X 10- 8 0.317 0.217
40% 43.00 x 10-6 41. 33 x 10- 8 0.419 0.243

where "x" was determined by the following (shown for 10% Nil:
(l0/58.71)
x = (10/58.71) + (90/63.54) = 0.107
The slope of the graph below is "b"
(42 x 10-8 - 15 X 10-8 ) = 1. 7 X 10-6 C m
b = (0.240 - 0.095)

0.1 0.2 0.3


(1 - x)x

20. The electrical resistivity of a Au-30 wt% Pt alloy is 2.2 x 107 C m at


room temperature. Calculate the defect resistivity coefficient for
platinum in gold.
_ (30/195.09)
at% Pt - (30/195.09) + (70/196.97) = 0.302

The resistivity at room temperature for gold is 2.35 x 10- 8 C m

209
P = PT + Pd and Pd = b(l - x)x
P = PT = b(l - x)x
22 x 10-7 = 2.35 X 10-8 + b(l - 0.302)(0.302)
1965 x 10-7 = b(0.211) or b = 9.31 X 10-7 g m

21. (a) Determine the equations that relate millivolt reading to temperature
for Pt:Pt-10Y. Rh and iron: constantan thermocouples. (b) Suppose that at
600C your accuracy in measuring voltage is 0.2 mY. What is the error
in degrees Celsius for each of the thermocouples? Which would you prefer
for best accuracy?

(a) For Pt:Pt-l0% Rh - -

n = ~T / ~V = (1600 - 0) / (16 - 0)
T(oC) = 100 V (mV)
For iron: constantan - -

n = ~ / ~V = (800 - 0) / (46 - 0)
T(oC) = 17.4 V (mV)
(b) For Pt:Pt=10% Rh - -
At 600C, V = T/n = 600 / 100 = 6 mV
(100)(6.2)

(100)(5.8)

For iron:constantan
At 600C, V = T/n = 600 / 17.4 = 34.5 mV
T34 . 7 mv (17.4)(34.7) 603.8 C
T34 . 3 mv (17.4)(34.3) 596. 8C

For best accuracy, we would prefer to us~ iron:constantan b


where the maximum temperature range is 7 C rather than 40 C.

22. Suppose you would like to use a B4 C:C thermocouple to monitor the
temperature in a jet engine. What millivolt reading would you expect if
the temperature were 2100C?

T = nV or n = ~ / ~V = 200 / 35 5. 714C/mV
T (oC) = 5.714 V (mV)
V 2100/ 5.714 = 367.5 mV
2100

23. Figure 17-40 shows the output from a chromel:alumel thermocouple immersed
in an aluminum-silicon alloy during freezing. Assuming that the alloy is
hypereutectic, estimate (a) the liquidus temperature, (b) the eutectic
temperature, and (c) the composition of the alloy. (See Figure 10-19. )

(a) Liquidus occurs at 42 mv: Tliquidus 1000C


(b) Eutectic occurs at 23 mv: Teutectic 570C
(c) The AI-Si alloy with a liquidus of 1000C contains 44% S1.

210
24. Will nobium (Nb) be superconductive at 5 K when a magnetic field of
5 x 10 4 A m- 1 is present? Explain.

H
c
= 5 X 10 4 A m- 1
Ho [l - T/Tc)2] 156800[1 - 5/9.8)2] 116000 A m- 1
= 11.6 X 10 4 A m- 1
As H < H [1 - (TIT )2] the combination of 5 K temperature and
c 0 c
5 X 10- 4 A m- 1 field lies within the envelope so the niobium is
superconductive under these conditions.
4 -1
25. Suppose an alumina (AI 20 3 ) rod 1 mm in diameter and 5 x 10 A m length
is used as an insulator in a 240-V circuit at room temperature.
Calculate (a) the current flowing in the circuit and (b) the number of
electrons passing through the alumina rod per second. Repeat for the
case in which the rod is made of aluminum instead.

A = (n/4) (1 x 10-3 )2 = 7.854 X 10-7 m2


For Al :
(1" = 10-
2 3
12 ohm- 1 m- 1

(a) R = V(1"A = (10 x 10-3 m- 1 ) I (10- 12 ) (7. 854 x 10-7 m2 )


= 1. 27 X 1016 Q
I = VIR (240) I (1.27 x 10 16 ) = 1.89 X 10- 14 A

(b) Since 1 A =1 Cis.,

number of electronsls = I/q (1.89 x 10-14 ) I (1.6 x 10-19 )


= 1. 18 X 10 5 Is

26. If the electrical conductivity of diamond is 10- 16 Q-1. m-1, determine (a)
the number of charge carriers per cubic meter, (b) the fraction of the
total electrons in the valence band that are excited into the conduction
band, and (c) the constant no at room temperature. Assume that the
atomic radius for carbon in diamonds is 0.77 A.

From Table 17-8,


2 -1 -1 -1
0.18 m V s ; '"b = O. 14 m V
2 -1
S

10- 16 /(1.6 x 10- 19 ) (0.18 + 0.14)


1953 m- 3
(8 atomslcell)(4 electronslatom)
(b) maximum electrons
3
a
o
a = 8r/iJ = 3.556 A = 3.556 X 10- 10 m
o
maximum electrons = (8)(4)/(3.556 x 10- 1)3 7.11 X 1029 m3

211
fraction = 1. 95 X 103 I 7. 11 X 1023 = 2.74 X 10-27

(c) n = n o exp(-Eg 12kT)


1.95 X 103 = n exp[-5.4/(2)(8.63 x 10-5 )(298)]
o
= noexp(-105) = 2.5 x 10-46n
0

no = 8 x 1048 1m3

27. For tin, determine (a) the number of charge carriers per cubic meter, (b)
the fraction of the total electrons in the valence band that are excited
into the conduction band, and (c) the constant no at room temperature.

(a) = ng(lte + ~)
(J' or n = (J'/q(lt e + ~)
From Table 17-8, It = 0.25 mOl V- 1 S-l
e
2 -1 -1 5
~ = 0.24 m V sand (J' = 0.9 x 10 a-1 m
-1

n = 0.9 x 105 /(1.6 x 10-19 )(0.25 + 0.24)


= 1. 148 X 1024 m- 3

(b) maximum electrons = (8 atoms/cell)(4 electrons/atom)


3
a
o
ao = 6.4912 A= 6.4912 x 10-10m

maximum electrons (8)(4)/(6.4912 x 10-1)3 m


1. 17 x 1029 m- 3
Fraction = 1.148 x 1024 /1.17 x 1029 = 9.81 X 10-6

(c) n = n oexp(-Eg/2kT)
1.148 x 10 24 = n exp(-0.08/(2)(8.63 x 10-5 )(298)
o
= n oexp(-1.555) = 0.211 no

n
o

28. For pure silicon, estimate (a) the value of no at room temperature,. (b)
the electrical conductivity at 500C if the mobility remains constant.

From Table 17-8, "e = 0.19, ~ = 0.05, and (J' =5 X 10-4 a- 1m- 1 at 25C
(a) n = (J'/n("e - "h)
n = (5 x 10-4 ) I (1.6 x 10-19 )(0.19 + 0.05) = 1.3 x 10 16/m3
n = n exp(-E 12kT)
o 16 g -5
1.3 x 10 = n oexp[-1.107/(2)(8.63 x 10 )(298)]
= n oexp(-21.52) = n 0 (4.50 x 10-1)

212
(b) n = (2.89 x 1025 )exp[ (1. 107 / (2)(8.63 x 10-5 )(500 + 273)
500
(2.89 x 1025 )exp(-8.297) (2.89 x 1025 ) (2. 49 x 10- 4 )
= 7.196 x 1021/m3

(J" nq(I'e + ~) (7.196 x 10 21 )(1.6 X 10-19 )(0.19 + 0.05)


276 g-1 m-1

29. Estimate the temperature at which the electrical conductivity of silicon


will be twice its room temperature value.

Assuming that the mobility does not change significantly:

(J"298 / (J"T = 0.5

exp[-l. 107/(2)(8.63 x 10- 5 )(298) = (0.5)exp[-1.07/(2)(8.63 x 10-5 )(T)

exp(-21.52) 0.5exp(-6414/T)
-21. 52 In(0.5) - 6414/T

30. Suppose there are 2 x 1019 electrons/m3 serving as charge carriers in


germaniur4when an elec}ric fi:ld is appli~1' When the field is removed,
2 x 10 electrons/m rema1n after 10 s. Determine (a) the
recombination time and (b) the time required for 99% of the electrons and
holes to recombine.

(a) n = noexp(-t/T)
2 x 10 14 = (2 x 1019 )exp(-10- 6 /T)
In(10- 5 ) = -11.513 = -10- 6 /T
T = 8.686 X 10- 8 s

(b) n/n 0.01 exp(-t/8.686 x 10-8 )


o -8
In(O.Oll =4.605 = -t/8.686 x 10
t 4 X 10-7 S

31. Suppose silicon is doped with 0.0001 at% phosphorus. Estimate the
electrical conductivity of the semiconductor in the exhaustion range.

(8 Si atoms/cell) (10- 6 P atoms/Si atom) (1 electron/P atom)


n =

4.99 X 10 22 carriers/m3

32. Estimate the at% antimony required to produce an electrical conductivity


of 105 g-1 m- 1 in germanium in the exhaustion range.

n = (J"/ql'
5 e
n = 10 / (1.6 x 10-19 )(0.38)

213
(8 Ge atoms/cell) (x Sb atoms/Ge atom) (1 electronlSb atom)
1. 64 X 1024
(5.6575 x 10-10 m)3

x: 3.71 X 10-5 Sb atoms/Ge atom

at% Sb : (3.71 x 10- 5 )(100) : 0.00371%

33. Calculate the number of grams of gallium that must be added to 11 ~p of


silicon in order to produce an electrical conductivity of 3000 Q m in
the saturation range.

n : O'/ql'h
n: (3000) / (1.6 x 10-19 )(0.05) : 3.75 X 10 23 /m3
3.75 X 1023: (8 Si atoms/cell) (x Ga atoms/Si atom) (1 hole/Ga atom)
(5.4307 x 10- 10 mf
X : 7.5 X 10- 6 Ga atoms/Si atom

at% Ga atoms 7.5 X 10-4


":4
wt% Ga : _____(...,,7_._5_x_l_0__)_(_6_9_.7_2--Og"-/_m_o_I_)_ _ x 100 1. 862 x 10
-5

(7.5 x 10- 4 )(69.72) + (99.99925)(28.08)


wt% Ga (x g Ga) x 100 : 1.862 X 10- 5
x + 1000
x = 0.0001862 g Ga
34. Suppose 0.472 kg of gallium are combined with 0.528 kg of arsenic to
produce GaAs. (a) Will this produce a p-type or an n-type
semiconductor? (b) Calculate the number of extrinsic charge carriers
per cubic centimeter, using the lattice parameter from Figure 17-27.
GaAs has the zinc blende crystal structure.

(a)
(0.528/74.9216)
at% As : (0.528/74.9216) + (0.472/69.72) x 100 = 51.004

There are more As atoms than Ga atoms; the As atoms contribute


electrons, while the Ga atoms contribute holes. therefore we expect
this particular GaAs compound to act as a n-type semiconductor.

(b) a
o
: 5.63 A:
5.63 X 10-10 m and there are 4 Ga and 4 As atoms
in each unit cell.

Consider 106 unit cells. There are 4(0.51005)(10 6 ) : 0.08032 X 10 6


As atoms and 4(0.48996)(10 6 ) = 1.95984 x lOB Ga atoms in this
number of cells.

excess As atoms: 2.04016 X 10 6 - 1.95984 X 10 6 = 0.08032 X 10 6

This excess represent the number of charge carriers in 106 unit


cells.

carriers/m3 = 0.08032 x 10 6 / (10 6 cells)(5.63 x 10- 10 )3


: 4.5 X 1030

214
35. For which of the semiconducting compounds in Figure 17-27 would you
expect the broadest exhaustion of saturation plateau?

AlAs has the highest energy gap E ; therefore we would expect AlAs
g
to have the broadest exhaustion or saturation plateau.

36. A ZnO crystal is produced in which 1 interstitial Zn atom is introduced


for every 1000 Zn lattice sites. Estimate (a) the number of charge
carriers per cubic centimeter and (b) the electrical conductivity at
25C.

From example 17-12, a o = 4.758 x 10


-10
(a) m. 250 unit cells
contain 1000 Zn sites.
(2 carriers/interstitial site)
n
(250 unit cells)(4.758 x 10-10 m)3

7.43 X 1025 carriers/m3

37. Each Fe+ 3 ion in FeO can serve as an acceptor site for an electron. If
there is 1 vacancy per 500 unit cells of the FeO crystal (which has the
sodium chloride structure), determine the number of possible charge
carriers per cubic centimeter. The lattice parameter of FeO is 4.29 A.

For each vacancy, there are two Fe 3+ ions; therefore there are
two acceptors per 500 unit cells or

acceptors/cell = 2/500 = 0.004


-10 3 -29 3
Vunit cell = (4.29 x 10 ) = 7.8954 x 10 m
acceptors/m3 (0.004 / cell)(7.8954 x 10-29 m3cell)
5.1 x 1025

38. Determine the energy gap Eg for the Fe 30 4 .MgCr 20 4 thermistor in Figure
17-30.
p = 1/nMq = (1/~qn
o
)exp(E /2kT)
g
From Figure 17-30, we find

104 when 1000/T =6 or T 167 K


-1
10 when 1000/T = 2 or T 500 K
exp[E /2k(1670]
g
Thus
exp[E /2k(500)]
g

105 = exp[(E /2k) (0.006 - 0.002)


g
In(10 5 ) = 11.513 = 0.004 E /2k
g
E
g
= (11.513)(2)(8.63 x 10- 5 )/0.004 0.498 eV

215
39. Calculate the temperature when an Fe 30 4 .MgCr 20 4 thermistor operating in a
12 V circuit produces a current of 15 rnA. the thermistor is in the
form of a wire 1 mm in diameter and 0.12 m length.

R = V/I = 12 V/0.015 rnA = -38002 n


P = RA/t = 80~~1l/4) (1 x 10 ) /0.12
= 5.24 x 10 n m
From Figure 17-30 this resistivity corresponds to 1000/T 1

T = 1000
1
= 1000 K = 727C
40. A germanium crystal 10 mm in diameter and 0.3 m in length is doped with
indium. A current of 10 A is passed through the rod with a voltage of 12
V. A magnetic field of 500 V C A- 1 m- 1 is measured. Calculate the number
of indium atoms per 10 6 Ge atoms in the semiconductor.

VH = HJ~ = HJ/nq
where J = I/A = 10/(1l/4)(1 x 10-2 )2 = 127320 A/m2
n = HJ/VHq = (500)(127320)/(12)(1.6 x 10-19 ) = 3.315 x 10 25/m3
(8 Ge atoms/cell)(x In atoms/Ge)(1 carrier/In atom)
n =

x = 7.5 X 10- 4 In atoms/Ge atom

In atoms/10 6 Ge atoms = (7.5 x 10- 4 )(10 6 ) = 750


41. When a voltage of 10 mV is applied to the emitter of a transistor, a
current of 3 rnA is produced. if the voltage is increased to 15 mV, the
current through the collector increases to 8 mAo By what percent will
the collector current be increased when the emitter voltage is doubled
from 10 mV to 20 mY?

01.010 V, IC = 0.003 A
0.015 V, IC - 0.008 A

IC = Ioexp(VE!B)
I o exp(0.010/B)
0.003
0.008 I o exp(0.015/B)

0.375 exp[ (0. 010/B) (0. 015/B)] exp[(1/B)(0.010 - 0.005)]


0.375 exp(-0.005/B)

In(0.375) = -0.98 x 83 -0.005/B

B = 0.00509772

216
0.003 _ exp(0.010/B) _ exp(1.96166) _ 7.11111
---1--- - exp(0.020/B) - exp(3.92332) - 50.56818
c
(0.003)(50.56818)/(7.11111) = 0.02139 A = 21.3 rnA

%increase 21.3 - 3 x 100 = 610%


3

42. CaD has the sodium chloride crystal structure and a lattice parameter of
4.62 A. Suppose the conductivity of CaD at 977C is measured to be 2.408
x 10-10 0- 1 m- 1 and 1. 445 x 10-5 0- 1 m- 1 at 1810C. Calculate (a) the
activation energy for diffusion of Ca z+ in CaD and (b) the mobility of
Ca z+ at both temperatures.

(a) We can combined equations 17-26 and 17-27.

~ = ZqD/kT = (ZqDo/kT)exp(-QlRT) and ~ = nZq~ = nZq(Zq/kT)D


~1 nZq(Zq/kT1 )D oexp(-QIRT1 )
~z nZq(Zq/kTz )Do exp(-QIRT2 )

~1 (t/T 1 )exp( -QIRT 1 )


~Z (lITz ) exp (-QlRTz )
2.408 x 10-10 (1/1250)exp[-Ql(8.31)(1250)]
1.445 x 10-5 (1/2083)exp[-Ql(8.31)(2083)

1.664 x 10-5 = 1.6664exp(-0.000009627Q + 0.00005777Q)


1 x 10- 5= exp(-0.00003850Q)
In(l x 10-5 ) = -11.512925 = -0.00003850Q

Q = 299 kJ/mol
(4 Ca ions/cell)
(b) n = 4.056 x 10z8 /m 3
(4.62 x 10-10 m)3

at 977C

~ = ~/nZq = 2.408 x 10- 8 /(4.056 x 10 28 ) (2) (1. 6 x 10-19 )


~ = 1. 86 X 10- 18 mZ y-l s-l

At 1810C
~ = 1.445 X 10- 5 0- 1 cm- 1 = 1.445 x 10-3 0- 1 m- 1

~ = ~/nZq = (1.445 x 10-3 )/(4.056 x 10 Z8 )(2)(1.6 x 10- 19 )


= 1. 11 X 10-13 mZ y-l S-l

217
Chapter 18

DIELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

1. The_flect[onic polarization in a tungsten crystal is determined to be 4


xl0 C/m. Determine the average displacement of the electrons from the
nucleus.
Z (2 atoms/cell) (74 electrons/atom) = 4.67 x 10 30 /m3
(3.1652 x 10- 10 m)3
d P/Zq = (4 x 10-7 C/m2) / (4.67 x 1030 /m3 )(1.6 x 10-19 C)
d 0.535 X 10-18 m = 0.535 X 10- 8 A
2. The electronic polarization in a platinum crystal is determined to be 7 x
10- 8 C/m2. Determine the average displacement of the electrons from the
nucleus.
Z (4 atoms/cell) (78 electrons/atom) = 5.1673 X 10 30 /m3
(3.9231 x 10- 10 mj3
d P/Zq

d 0.0847 X 10- 18 m = 0.0847 X 10-8 A


3. Calculate the polarization when an electric field causes an average
dis~lacement of the electrons from the nucleus in a gold crystal of 5 x
10- A.
Z (4 atoms/cell) (79 electrons/atom) = 4.6575 x 1030/m3
(4.0786 x 10- 10 m)3
P Zqd = (4.6575 x 1030 / m3 ) (1. 6 x 10- 19 C) (5 x 10-18 m)

P 3.726 X 10-6 C/m2

4. Calculate the polarization when a electric field causes an average


displacement of the electrons from the nucleus in a silicon crystal of 3
x 10- 18 cm.
Z (8 atoms/cell) (14 electrons/atom) = 0.6693 x 10 30 /m3
(5.4307 x 10- 10 m)3
P Zqd = (0.6993 X 1030 / m3 ) (1. 6 x 10- 19 ) (3 x 10-18 m)

P 3.36 X 10-7 C/m2

5. Calculate the ionic polarization e~~ected for KCI if an electric field


causes a displacement of 6 x 10 A. KCI has the cesium chloride
structure.
Z = (1 Cs + ion/cell) (1 charge/ion)
0.020976 X 10 30 /m3
(3.626 x 10- 10 m)3

P Zqd = (0.020976 X 1030 /m3 ) (1. 6 x 10- 19 ) (6 x 10- 18 m)

218
6. Calculate the ionic polarization expected for CaO if an electric field
causes a displacement of 4 x 10-16 cm. CaO has the sodium chloride
structure.
~
Z (4 Ca ions/cell) (2 charge/ion) = 0.0811267 x 1030 /m3
(4.62 x 10-10 m)3
P = Zqd (0.081127 X 1030 / m3 )(1.6 x 10-19 C)(4 X 10-18 m)

7. Calculate the displacement between the ions in Zns if the ionic


polarization is 6 x 10-8 C/m2. ZnS has the zinc blende crystal
structure.
Z = (4 Zn
~
ions/cell)(2 charges/ion) = 0.03783 x 1030 /m3
(5.958 x 10-10 m)3

d P/Zq (6 x 10-8 C/m2 )/(0.03783 x 1030 /m3 )(1.6 x 10-19 )

d 9.91 X 10-18 m = 9.91 x 10-8 A.


8. A 1 mm thick alumina (A1 20 3 ) dielectric is used in a 60 Hz circuit.
Determine the voltage required to produce polarization of a 6 x 10-8
C/m2. Will this voltage cause the dielectric to break down?

K = 9.0 ~
~max
V/d =6 x 106 Vim

P (K - l)e V/d
o
V Pd/(K - l)e
o
(6 x 10-8 C/m2 )(0.001 m)/(9 - 1)(8.85 x 1012 F/m)
0.85 volts
~ V/d = 0.85/0.001 = 850 Vim < 6 x 106 Vim

The dielectric will not break down.

9. A diamond cube 2 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm is introduced as a dielectric into a


circuit. The total charge Q on one face of the crystal is 3 x 10- 5 C.
Calculate the voltage acting on the crystal. The dielectric constant of
diamond is 5.5.

Q CV = e o KAV/d A (0.002)(0.002) = 4 x 10-6 m2


V Qd/e KA
o
(3 X 10-5 C) (0. 002 m)/(8.85 x 10- 12 F/m)(5.5)(4 x
3.08 X 108 volts

219
10. Calcium fluoride has the fluorite crystal structure with a lattice
parameter of 5.43 A and a dielectric constant of 7.36. Calculate the
thickness of the crystal if 50 V causes a displacement of 2 x 10-8 A
between the calcium and fluoride ions.
Z = (4 Ca2+ ions/cell)2 charges/ion) 0.0.49968 X 1030 /m2
(5.43 x 10-10 m)3

P = Zqd (0.049968 X 1030 / m3 )(1. 6 x 10-19 C)(2 X 10-18 m)

P (K - l)o~ = (K - 1) V/d
o
d (K - 1) VIP
o
(7.36 - 1)(8.85 x

0.176 m = 176 mm

11. KCI has the cesium chloride structure. When 12 V are applied to a 0.1 cm
thick crystal, a displacement of 1.186 x 10-6 Ais observed between the
ions. Calculate the dielectric 'constant for KCI.
Z = (1
CI- ionlcell)(l charge/cell) = 0.020976 x 1030 /m3
(3.626 x 10-10 m)3
P = Zqd = (0.020976 x 1030 /m3 )(1.6 x 10-19 C)(1.186 X 10-16 m)
3.98 x 10-7 C/.;t
P (K - l)o~ = (K - l)oV/d
K = 1 + Pd/ V
o
1 + (3.98 x 10-7 C/m2) (0. 001 m) (8. 85 x 10-12 F/m) (12 V)
4.75

12. Suppose you would like to select a dielectric for use in a 60 Hz circuit.
Calculate the ratio of Teflon thickness to Al 20 3 thickness required to
obtain the same polarization and charge.
Kteflon = 2.1 Kalumina = 9.0 Pteflon = Palumina

tteflon / talumina (Kalumina - 1) / (Kteflon - 1)


(9.0 - 1) / (2.1 - 1) = 8/1.1 = 7.27

13. Calculate the ratio of polyethylene thickness to phenolic thickness if


each dielectric is to store the maximum charge in 12,000 V circuit
without breakdown.
6
~max 20 x 10 Vim = V/tpolyethylene
6
~max 12 x 10 Vim = V/tphenolic

V = ~polyethylene t polyethylene = ~phenolic t phenolic

tpolyethylene/ tphenolic = ~Phenolic / ~polyethylene


= 12 x 106 / 20 X 106 = 0.6

220
14. A BaTiO dielectric 4 mm thick is used. in a 24,000 V circuit. The
dielectfic breaks down and a current flows through the barium titanate.
(a) Is this breakdown expected? (b) If not, explain why breakdown may
have occurred.

(a) t; = V/t 24,000 volts / 0.004 m = 6 x 106 V/m < 12 x 106 V/m

Breakdown is unexpected, since the actual strength of the


electrical field is less than the dielectric strength.

(b) breakdown may have occurred due to various defects in the


crystal, such as adsorbed moisture, grain boundaries,
impurities, etc.

15. Suppose polyvinxl chloride is used as a dielectric in a 220 V circuit


operating at 10 Hz. The polymer is in the form of a sheet 20 mm x 20 mm
x 0.1 mm/ Calculate the power loss due to the dielectric.

P
L
= (5.556 x 10-11 )Ktanot;2fu
where t; V/d = 220 volts/0.0001 m = 2.2 x 106 V/m
u = (0.02)(0.02)(0.0001) = 4x 10- B m3

(5.556 x 10-11 )(3.2)(0.05)(2.2 x 106 )2(10 6 )(4 x 10-B ) 1.72 W

16. A nylon dielectric in the form of a J


cm diameter cylinder 0.001 mm thick
is used in a circuit operating at 10 Hz. Calculate the maximum voltage
in the circuit if the power loss is to be less than 0.15 W.
-11 2
P L = (5.556 x 10 )Ktanot; fu
where t; = V/t and u = (n/4)(0.01)2(10- 6 ) = 0.7854 x 10-10 m3

PL (5.556 x 10-11 )(3.6)(0.04)(V/lo-6 )2(10 6 ) (0.7854 x 10-10 ) = 0.15


v = 15.45 volts.

17. Calculate the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor containing 20


layers of Teflon, where each Teflon sheet has the dimensions 20 mm x 20
mm x 0.2 Mm.

If there are 20 layers of teflon, then there must be n 21 layers


of conductor material.

C C K(n - l)A/d
o
8.85 x 10- 12 F.m)(2.1)(21 - 1)(0.02 m)(0.02 m)/(0.0002 m)
734.4 x 10-12 F = 0.000743 ~F

18. A parallel plate capacitor having a capacitance of 0.034 ~ is to be


constructed of fused silica sheets each 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.01 Mm.
Determine the number of fused silica sheets and the number of conductor
sheets that are required.
C C K(n - l)A/d or n = 1 + Cd/c KA
o 0
n = 1 + (0.034 X 10-6 F)(10- 5 m)/(8.85 x 10-12 F/m)(3.8)(0.01 m)(O.Ol m)
n = 101 conductor layers (n - 1) = 100 fused silica sheets

221
19. Determine the surface area of a 0.025 ~F parallel plate capacitor
containing 3 layers of dielectric each 0.015 mm thick if the dielectric
is (a) polyvinyl chloride and (b) barium titanate. Assume that the
capacitor is operating in a 106 Hz circuit.

c ~
o
K(n - l)Ald or A ~ Cd/
o
K(n - 1)

(a) for polyvinyl chloride

A ~ (0.025 X 10-6 F/rn) (1.5 x 10-5 m)/(S.S5 x 10-12 F/m)(3.2)(4 - 1)


4.41 x 10-3 m2

(b) for barium titanate

A (0.25 X 10-6 F/m)(1. 5 x 10-5 m)/(S. S5 x 10-12 F/rn)(3000)(4 - 1)


4.7 X 10- 6 m2

20. What force must be applied to a 1 mm x Imm x 0.01 mm barium titanate


crystal if a voltage of 12 V is to be produced? How must strain is
required?

g = l/Ed; ~ = F/A; and~ V/t or F VEAd/t

where V 12 volts
A (1 mm)(l mm) = 1.0 mm2
t 0.01 mm = 1 x 10-5 m
E 69 GPa
d 100 x 10-12 mlV

(12 V)(6.9 x 1010 N/m2) (10- 6 m2 )(100 x 10-12 mlV)


F
10- 5
= S.274 N

strain = d~ = (100 X 10-12 mlV)(12 V I 10- 5 m)


1. 200 x 10- 4

21. A strain of 5 x 10- 4 mlm is produced in a barium titanate crystal having


an area of 1.5 x 10-5 rn2 , resulting in a voltage of 75 V. Calculate (a)
the thickness of the crystal and (b) the applied force.

(a) strain = d~ = d(V/t) where d = 100 X 10-12 mlV

t = dV/ (100 X 10-12 mlV) (75 V)/(5 x 10- 4 ) = 1. 500 X 10- 5 m


= 0.015 mm

(b) ~ = V/t = g~ (liEd) (F/A

F = VEAd/t

222
where V 75 volts
A 1. 5 X 10- 5 m2
t 0.015 mm=1.5x 10-5 m
E 6.9 x 10 10 N/m2
d 100 x 10- 12m1V

(75 V)(6.9 x 10 10 N/m2 )(1.5 x 10- 5 )(100 x 10- 12 mlV)


F
1. 5 x 10- 5 m
518 N

22. Determine the ratio of the forces required to produce a voltage of 125 V
in quartz versus barium titanate. The modulus of elasticity of quartz
is 71. 2 GPa.

E l/dE where E = 71.2 GPa


quartz
= 7.2 x 1010 N/m2
1/(2.3 x 10-12 m/V) (7. 2 x 10 10 N/m2) 6.06 V miN
qquartz
gtitanate 1/dEwhere E = 69 GPa
= 69 x 10 9 N/m2
22 10 2
gtitanate = 1/(100 x 10- mlV)(6.9 x 10 N/m ) = 0.145 V mIN

Fquartz = VAitg (125 V) (A/t)/6.06 = 20.63 (Alt)


Ftitanate VAitg (125 V) (Alt)/O. 145 = 862 (Alt)
Fquartz/Ftitanate = 20.63/862 = 0.0239

23. Determine the voltage required to eliminate polarization in a 0.15 mm


thick dielectric made from material A in Figure 18-28.

coercive field ~ = 3200 Vim

V= ~t = (3200 V/m) (0.00015 m) = 0.48 volts

24. If a voltage of 25 V is required to eliminate polarization in material B


in Figure 18-28, determine the thickness of the dielectric.

coercive field = ~ = 2800 Vim

t = V/~ = (25 V) (2800 Vim) = 0.0089 m = 8.9 mm

25. Material B in Figure 18-28, which originally is not polarized, is placed


in an electric field that caused polarization of 4 x 10-8 C/m2
Determine (a) the field required to do this and (b) the dielectric
constant of the material at this point.

(al ~ 800 Vim

(b) P
K = 1 + P/Eo~ = 1 + (4 x 10- 8 )/(8.85 x 10- 12 )(800) 6.65

223
26. An electric field of 4000 V/m is applied to material A in Figure 18-28.
Assuming that the material originally was not polarized, determine (a)
the polarization and (b) the dielectric constant at that point.

(a) P 6 x 10-8 C/m


(b) P

27. Plot a graph showing how the dielectric constant of originally


unpolarized material B in Figure 18-28 changes as the electric field
increases.
7
~ P K.

800 4 X 10-8 6.65 6


2000 9 X 10-8 6.08 1{
4000 11 X 10-8 4.1
5

4 Field

28. Calculate and compare the maximum magnetization we would expect in iron,
nickel, cobalt and gadolinium. There are seven electrons in the 4 f
level of gadolinium.
(2 atoms/cell) (4 magnetons) (9. 27 x 10-24 )
3. 15 X 106 A/m
~e (2.866 X 10- 10 m)3
(4 atoms/cell) (2 magnetons) (9.27 x 10- 24 )
1. 71 x 10 6 A/m
~i (3.5167 x 10-10 mt
(2 atoms/cell)(3 magnetons)(9.27 x 10-24 )
MCo 2.51 X 106 A/m
(2. 5071)2(4.0686) (10- 30)cos30

(2 atoms/cell(7 magnetons) (9.27 x 10-24 )


MGd 1. 96 x 10 6 A/m
(3.6336)2(5.7810)(10-30 )cos30

29. A Ni-25 wtX Co alloy, which has a lattice parameter of 3.52 A, is


prepared. Assuming no interactions between the cobalt and nickel atoms,
calculate (a) the atX Co in the alloy and (b) the maximum magnetization
of the alloy.
(25/58.93)
(a) atX Co (25/58.93) + (75/58.71) x 100 24.9

224
(b) magnetonstotal (0.249)(3 magnetons/Co) + (0.751)(2 magnetons/Ni)

= 2.249
M = (4 atoms/cell)(2.249 magnetons)(9.27 x 10,-:24A m2/magneton)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~
alloy (3.52 x 10- 10 m)3

1.912 x 106 Aim

30. A nickel-copper alloy is prepared which has a lattice parameter of 3.54 A


The maximum magnetization of the alloy is measured as 1.46 x 106 Aim.
Assuming no interactions between Ni and Cu atoms, estimate the wt% Cu in
the alloy.
M = (4 atoms/cell) (atomic fraction Ni)(2 magnetons) (9.27 x 10- 24 )
(3.54 X 10-10 m)3

1.46 x 106 = (1.6717 x 106 ) (atomic fraction Ni)

atomic fraction Ni = 1.46 I 1.6717 = 0.873 = 87.3 at% Ni


(87.3)(58.71)
wt% Nl (87.3)(58.71) _ (13.7)(63.54) x 100 = 85.48
wt% Cu = 14.52

31. 5upermalloy, a soft magnetic material, is surrounded by a 20 m long,


30-turn coil of a conductor through which a current of 5 A is passed.
Calculate (a) the magnetic field H, (b) the magnetization M, and (c) the
inductance B.

(al H = 0.4nllt = 0.4n(JO)(5)/(2) = 9.425 A m-1


(b) ~H=H+M
r

M = (~ - llH = (800,000 - 1)(9.425 A m-1 ) = 7.54 x 106 A m- 1


r
(c) B = ~ = ~ r ~ 0 H = (800,OOO)(4n x 10-7 henry/m) (9.425) = 9.47T

32. Using a core of 45 Permalloy, you would like to produce a 19 m long,


300-turn coil of a conductor, giving an inductance of 7.5 Tesla. What
current must you use in the coil?

B= ~r~oH or H = B/~r~o = (7.5)/(25,OOO)(4n x 10-7 ) = 238.7 A m- 1


H = 0.4nnIlt or I = HtI(0.4n)(n)
= (238.7)(19)/(0.4n)(300) = 12 A.
33. Calculate the strength of the magnetic field required to produce
saturation magnetization in 5upermalloy.

Msaturation 0.8 Tesla ~r = 800,000


H = M I (~r - 1) = 0.8 I (800,000 - 1) 1 X 10-6 Tesla
(1 x 10- 6 )/(4n x l(f7 )

= 0.796 A m- 1

225
34. Using Figure 18-29, (a) calculate and plot the BH product as a function
of magnetic field and (b) determine the Dower of the magnetic material.

HI(A m- 1 ) B/T BHI(T A m- 1 ) 600


,...
I
E
0 0.52 0
<t:
1250 0.4 500
1460 0.35 511 f- 300
1670 0.3 501 ---::r::
<0
2080 0.2 416
2300 0.1 230
2500 0 0 tOoO 2000
H/A m- 1
Power (BH) .
maxImum
= 511 TAm
-1

35. Using Figure 18-30, (a) calculate an plot the BH product as a function of
magnetic field and (b) determine the power of the magnetic material.

HI(A m- 1 ) B/T BHI(T A m- 1 ) 2


,...
I
0 1.1 0 E
1 X 105 1 1 X 105 <t:
1.6x 105 0.9 1. 44 X 105 f-
2.1 X 105 0.8 1.68 x 105 '"0
2.1 X 105 0.7 1. 47 x 105
2.2 X 105 0.6 1. 32 x 105 ---::r::
<0
2.2 X 105 0 0

Power (BH) .
maXImum = 1. 7 X 105 T A m-1

36. Using Figure 18-29, calculate (a) the initial permeability and (b) the
maximum permeability of the material.

(a) From the tangent at the beginning of the initial curve,

/!.
1
= L).B/L).H = 0.2/5000 4 x 10- 5 T m A-I

(b) From the slope of the line from the origin to where the line
just touches the initial curve,

/!max = L).B/L).H = 0.75/5000 = 1. 5 X 10- 4 T m A-I

37. Using Figure 18-30, calculate (a) the initial permeability and (b) the
maximum permeability of the material.

(a) From the tangent at the beginning of the initial curve,

/!i = L).B/L).H = 0.8/4 x 10


5
=2 x 10
-6-1
T mA

226
(b) From the slope of the line from the origin to where the line
just touches the initial curve,

"'max = f.Blf.H = 0.8 1 2 x 105 =4 X 10-6 T m A- l

38. Determine the power of the CosCe material shown. in Figure 18-25
H B BH
0 0.75 o <"""
I
0.1 x 10 6 0.75 75000 E
6
0.15 x 12 0.74 111000 ..::
0.2 x 10 0.6 120000 I-
0.24 x 10 6 0 o '"o

Power (BH)
max OU-____- L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~_

0.1
H/l0 6A m- 1
39. A magnetic field obtained from a 100-turn coil 12 m in length produces a
magnetization of 0.3 tesla in the material shown in Figurel
18-29.
Determine (a) the required magnetic field, (b) the relative permeabil i ty
of the material in the magnetic field, and (c) the current required to
produce the magnetization.

(a) From the Figure, H = 2500 Aim

(b) '" f.Blf.H = 0.3/2500 = 1.2 x 10-' T m A- l

(c) HU(0.41l)(n) = (2500)(12)/(0. 41l) (100) = 238 A

40. A magnetic field of 160,000 A m- l is obtained in a rod made from the


material shown in Figure 18-30. Determine (a) the magnetization produced
and (b) the relative permeability at that field.

(al From the Figure, B = M = 0.6 T

(b) '" = f.Blf.H 0.6/160,000 = 3.75 x 10-6 T m A-I


ur = ",/"'0 3.75 x 10- 6/(41l x 107 ) = 2.98

41. Suppose we replace 5% of the Fe 2 + ions in magnetite with Cu2+ ions.


Determine the total magnetic moment.

total magnetons (0.95 Fe 3+l(4 magnetons) + (0.05 Cu2 +l(1 magneton)

3.85 magnetons per subcell


(8 subcells) (3. 85 magnetons) (9. 27 x 10-2 ' )
total moment
(8.37 x 10- 10m)3
4.87 x 10 5 Aim

227
42. The tota! magnetic moment per cubic centimeter in a spinel structure in
which Mn + ions have replaced a portion of the Fe 2 + ions is 5.5 x 105
Aim. (a) Calculate the fraction of the Fe 2 + ions that have been
replaced and (b) determine the wt% Mn in the spinel.

(a) Let fHn be the ato~!c fraction manganese, then (1 - f Mn ) is the


atomic fraction Fe .

magnetons per Mn : 5; magnetons per Fe 2+ : 4


(8 subcells) [(1 - f Mn )(4) + f Mn (5)] (9.27 x 10-24 )
total moment
(8.37 X 10-10 m)3

5.5 x 105 : (1.265 x 105 )(4 - 4fHn + 5fHn )


fMn + 4 : 5.5/1.265 : 4.3478 or fMn : 0.3478

(b) The formula of the spinel is now

(0.654 Fe 2 +, 0.346 Mn2 +).2Fe 3+.40

at% Fe : (0.654 + 2)/7 37.92


at% Mn : 0.346/7 4.94
at% 0 : 4/7 57.14
wt% Hn : (4.94)(54.938) 100
(4.94)(54.938) + (37.92)(55.847) + (57.14)(16) x

: 8.22

228
Chapter 19

OPTICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

1. A tungsten filament emits a continuous spectrum having a minimum


wavelength of 1.02 A. Calculate the voltage on the filament.

(6.62 x 10- 34 Js) (3 x lOB mlS)


E = hc/A = 12,169 volts
(1.02 x 10-10 m) (1. 6 x 10- 19 C)

2. Determine the highest frequency radiation produced when a tungsten


filament is heated using a 10,500 V supply.
tJ = E/h = (10,500 V)( 1. 6 x 10-
19 C) = 2.538 X 101B S-l
6.62 X 10-34 Js

3. Calculate the minimum voltage required to produce the Ka peak in cobalt.

The wavelength of Ka radiation in cobalt is 1.79 A = 1.79 X 10-10 m


(6.62 x 10- 34 Js)(3 X lOB m/s)
E = he/A = = 6.934 volts
(1.790 x 10-10 m)(1.6 x 10- 19 C)

4. A voltage of 2017 V is required to produce the Ka characteristic peak in


potassium. Calculate the wavelength of the Ka peak.

A = hc/E =
(6.62 x 10- 34 Js)(3 X lOB mls)
..:.::..:....:..:::.....:..:c....::.=___-=-=-'-'-'~c....::.=--=-=..:.

(2017 V)(1.6 x 10- 19 C)

6.15 x 10-10 m = 6.15 A


5. Determine the difference in energy between electrons in (a) the K and L
shells, (b) the K and M shells, and (e) the Land M shells of tungsten.

(a) K-L shell = Ka = 0.211 A


(6.62 10- 34 Js) (3 x lOB mls)
10-15 J
X
E = 9.41 li
-10
0.211 x 10 m

(b) K-M shell = K/3 = 0.184 A


(6.62 X 10-34 Js) (3 x lOB mls) 10.79 ~Q-15 J
E = X
O. 184 x 10-10 m

(e) L-M shell = La = 1.476 A


(6.62 x 10-34 Js)(3 X lOB mls)
E = 1. 35 X 10-15 J
-10
1. 476 x 10 m

229
6. Figure 19-30 shows the results of an X-ray fluorescence analysis.
Determine (a) the accelerating voltage and (b) the identity of the
elements in the sample.

(a) The smallest wavelength of X-rays is 0.8 A. Therefore the


short wavelength limit ~SWL = 0.8 A = 0.8 X 10-10 m.

x 10-34 )(3
E = (6.62 X 10 8 )
= 15,516 volts
(0.8 x 10- 10 )(1.6 x 10- 19 )

(b) The wavelength of each of the peaks in Figure 19-30 can be


determined and matched with the characteristic peaks in Table
19-1.
1. 50 A ---- Ni K[3
1.65 A Ni K
2.07 A Cr K[3
2.30 A---- Cr K

The sample contains nickel and chromium.

7. Figure 19-31 shows the results of an X-ray fluorescence analysis.


Determine (a) the accelerating voltage and (b) the identity of the
elements in the sample.

(a) The smallest wavelength of X-rays is 0.25 A. Therefore the


short wavelength limit ~SWL = 0.25 A= 0.25 X 10-10 m.
-34 8
E = (6.62 x 10 )(3 x 10) = 49,650 volts
(0.25 x 10-10 )(1.6 x 10- 19 )
(b) The wavelength of each of the peaks in Figure 19-31 can be
determined and matched with the characteristic peaks in Table
19-1.
0.63 A ---- Mo K~
0.70 A ---- Mo K[3
1.80 A ---- Fe K[3
1.91 A ---- Fe k
5.00 A 5 K[3
5.35 A ---- 5 K
5.70 A ---- Ho La
The sample contains molybdenum, iron, and sulfur.

8. Figure 19-32 shows the energies of photons produced from an


energy-dispersive analysis of radiation emitted from a specimen in a
scanning electron microscope. Determine the identity of the elements in
the sample.

We can determine the energy associated with each of the


characteristic peaks, convert the energy to wavelength of the X
rays, and match these wavelengths with those of the characteristic
peaks in Table 19-1.
~ = (6.62 10- 34 Js)(3 X lOB mls)
X = 1.24125 x 10- 6/E m
(E)(1.6 x 10- 19 J/ev)

230
E 8650 eV i\ 7.09 x 10- 10 m = 7.09 A ---- 8i Ka
1900 eV 6.53 x 10-10 m = 6.53 A 8i ~
5400 eV 2.30 x 10- 10 m = 2.30 A Cr Ka
5900 eV 2.10 x 10-10 m = 2.10 A Cr ~
6900 eV 1.80 x 10-10 m = 1. 80 A Co Ka
7600 eV 1.63 x 10-10 m = 1.63 A Co ~
The sample contains silicon, chromium and cobalt.

9. Figure 19-33 shows the energies of photons produced from an


energy-dispersive analysis of radiation emitted from a specimen in a
scanning electron microscope. Determine the identity of the elements in
the sample.

We can determine the energy associated with each of the


characteristic peaks, convert the energy to wavelength of the X
rays, and match these wavelengths with those of the characteristic
peaks in Table 19-1.
(6.62 x 10- 34 Js)(3 10 8 m/s)
i\ = X
= 1. 24125 6
x 10- IE m
(E)(1.6 x 10- 19 J/eV)

E 2250 eV i\ 5.52 x 10- 10 m 5.52 A ---- 8 Ka


2450 eV 5.07 x 10-10 m = 5.07 A 8 ~
6400 eV 1. 94 x 10-10 m = 1. 94 A Fe Ka
7000 eV 1. 77 x 10- 10 m = 1. 77 A Fe ~
The sample contains iron and sulfur.

10. If the relaxation time is 3 x 10- 4 s, determine the time required for the
intensity of a phosphorescent material to decrease to 1% of the original
intensity.

In(I/I )
o
-tiT where III
o
= 0.01
In(O.Ol) -4.605 -t/(3 x 10- 4 )
t 1. 38 x 10-3 s

11. The intensity of a phosphorescent material is reduced to 90% of the


original intensity after 8.43 x 10-7 s. Calculate the relaxation time
for the material.
In(I/I )
o
-tiT where III
o
= 0.90
In(0.90) -8.43 x 10-7 I T
T = (-8.43 x 10-7 ) I (-0.10536) =8 x 10-6 S
12. The intensity of a phosphorescent material is reduced to 95% of its
original intenSity after 2.56 x 10-6 s. Determine the time required for
the intensity to decrease to 0.1% of the original intensity.

In(I/I ) -tiT where III = 0.95


o o
T = (-2.56 x 10-6 ) I In(0.95) = (-2.56 x 10- B ) I (-0.0513)
49.9 x 10- 6 s
t -Tln(I/I ) = (-49.9 x 10- 6 )ln(0.001)
o
(-49.9 x 10- 6 )(-6.9078) = 3.447 x 10-4 s

231
13. When europium is added to ZnS, donor bands are introduced which provide
for emission of photons in the red spectrum. What is the energy
difference between (a) the donor level and the conduction band and (b)
the donor level and the valence band? (See Table 17-10. )

The red spectrum has a wavelength of about 6800 A or 6800 x 10-10m.


The energy corresponding to this wavelength is:
-34 8
E = (6.62 x 10 Js)(3 x 10 mls) = 2.92 X 10-19 J = 1.83 eV
(6800 x 10- 10 m)
(a) Therefore the donor level should be located 1.83 eV below
the bottom of the conduction band.

(b) the energy gap E in znS is 3.54 eV. Therefore the donor level
g
is located 3.54 - 1.83 = 1.71 eVabove the top of the valence
band.

14. Will an incident beam of photons having a wavelength of 8000 A cause


luminescence in (a) Cds, (b) edSe, and (c) PbTe? What is the maximum
wavelength of incident photons .required for each material? (See Table
17-10. )

Photons having a wavelength of 8000 A= 8000 X 10-10 m have an


energy of:
-34 8
E = (6.62 x 10 Js)(3 x 10 mls) 1. 55 eV
(8000 x 10-10 m) (1.6 X 1619 J/eV)
Luminescence will occur if this energy is greater than the energy
gap in the material.

(a) CdS: Eg = 2.42 eV < 1.55 eV No luminescence


-34 8
~ = (6.62 x 10 )(3 x 10 ) = 5129 X 10- 10 m 5129 A
min (2.42)(1.6 x 10- 19 )
(b) CdSe: Eg = 1.74 eV < 1.55 eV No luminescence
-34 8
~ = (6.62 x 10 )(3 x 10 ) = 7134 X 10- 10 m 7134 A
min (1.74)(1.6 x 10- 19 )

(c) PbTe: Eg = 0.25 eV < 1.55 eV Luminescence


-34
~ = (6.62 x 10
8
)(3 x 10 ) = 49650 X 10-10 m 49650 A
min (0.25)(1.6 x 10- 19 )

15. Using the data in Table 17-10, determine (a) the wavelengths of photons
produced from pure GaAs, (b) whether the photons are in the infrared,
Visible, or ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, and (c) the location of
the electron trap with respect to the valence band if GaAs is to produce
photons in the yellow portion of the spectrum.

(a) In GaAs, the energy gap E = 1.35 eV, or the wavelength is


g
(6.62 x 10- 34 )(3
x 108 ) = 9194 X 10- 10 m = 9194 A
(1.35)(1.6 x 10- 19 )

232
(b) This wavelength of 9194 A is just into the infrared spectrum.

(c) If photons are produced in the yellow portion of the spectrum,


the photons have a wavelength of about 5800 A = 5800 x 10-10m.
The energy gap associated with the trap is:

(6.62 x 100- 34 )(3 x lOB)


E = = 2.14 eV
(5800 x 10- 10 )(1.6 x 10- 19 )

The energy trap is 2.14 eV below the conduction band.


However, the energy gap E is only 1. 35 eV. Therefore yellow
g
should not be produced by GaAs.

16. By appropriately doping yttrium aluminum garnet with neodymium, electrons


are excited within the 4f energy band of the Nd atoms. Determine the
approximate energy transition if the Nd:YAG serves as a laser, producing
a wavelength of 5320 A. What color would the laser beam possess?
(6.62 x 10-34 ) (3 X lOB)
E = = 2.33 eV
(5320 x 10- 10 )(1.6 x lQ-19)

The wavelength of 5320 A is in the green portion of the spectrum.

17. Which, if any of the semiconducting compounds listed in Table 17-10 could
produce a green laser beam with a wavelength of 5130 A?

To produce photons of 5130 A, the energy gap should be greater than:


(6.62 x 10- 34 (3 X lOB)
E = 2.42 eV
(5130 x 10- 10 )(1.6
x lOB)
Of the compounds in Table 17-10, CdS would potentially work.

18. Determine the wavelength of photons emitted from (a) pure silicon and (b)
silicon doped with indium. Are the photons in the infrared, visible or
ultraviolet portion of the spectrum? (See Tables 17-8 and 11-9. )

(a) The energy gap for pure silicon is 1.107 eV. The corresponding
wavelength of photons is:
-34 B
A = (6.62 x 10 )(3 x 10 ) = 11.213 X 10- 10 m 11,213 A
(1.107)(1.6 x 10- 19 )
This lies in the infrared portion of the spectrum.

(b) The energy gap for silicon doped with indium is 0.160 eV. The
corresponding wavelength of photons is:
A = (6.62 x 10- 34 )(3 x lOB) = 77,578 X 10- 10 m = 77,578 A
(0.160)(1.6 x 10- 19 )

This lies in the infrared portion of the spectrum.

233
19. Based on the data in Figure 17-27, determine how the wavelength of the
emitted photons changes as aluminum replaces gallium, producing AlAs
rather than GaAs.

For GaAs, E 1. 35 eV
g
(6.62 x 10- 34 )(3 x 108 )
9194 X 10-10 m 9194 A
(1.35)(1.6 x 10- 19 )

For AlAs, E 2.20 eV


g
(6.62 x 10- 34 )(3 x 108 )
5640 X 10- 10 m 5640 A
(2.20)(1.6 x 10- 19 )

The wavelength would gradually decrease from 9194 to 5640 A as the


amount of Al increased in the compound.

20. A beam of X-rays having a wavelength of 2.291 is passed through a A


platinum foil having a linear absorption coefficient of 6.54 x 105 m- 1 .
if only 2% of the original intensity of the beam is transmitted,
determine the thickness of the foil.

In(I/I
o
= -~ where III 0 = 0.02 and ~ = 6.54 X 105 m- 1
x = -In(III o ) I ~ = -In(0.02) I 6.54 x 10- 10 = 3.912/6.54 X 105
5.98 X 10-6 m

21. Only 32% of an X-ray beam passes through a 0.01 mm foil of ti tanium.
Determine (a) the linear absorption coefficient and (b) the thickness
required to filter out all but 1% of the X-ray beam.

(a) In(I/I o ) = -~x where 1/10 = 0.32 and x = 0.01 mm 1 X 10-5 m

~ = -In(III o ) I x = -In(0.32) I x = -(-1.1394) I 1 x 10- 5


= 113900 m- 1
(b) To filter out all but 1% of the beam, the thickness should be
x = -In(III o ) I~ = -In(O.Ol) I 113900 = (-4.6052) I 113900
404 x 10- 5 m = 0.04 mm

22. Using Figure 19-15, determine the exponent in the relationship between
the absorption coefficient and incident wavelength for nickel. (The
exponent should be a whole number.) Based on this relationship, estimate
the absorption coefficient of a nickel foil for X-rays having a
wavelength of 13 A.

We can determine the equation by replotting the ~ vs A data for


nickel on a In-In plot, as shown below. The data plots as a
straight line, indicating an equation of the form:
~ . = cAn

234
5
ltx10
II i\

40000 1. 50 -:;; 2x10 5


CD
90000 2.00 ."
<.>
180000
300000
2.50
3.00
E 1x105
CD
o
~ 6x10"
.::: 4
4x10
.
~
'-
o

-:;: 2x10 4
; !t -1
CD c = 1.1x10 II

:,j 1x10~ t - - - -........- - - - " - -


I 2 3 4
Wavelength I X
From this graph, we can measure the slope and calculate the
constant.
n = slope = 3
c = 11000 m-1
If the wavelength is 13 X, then the absorption coefficient is
II = 11000 i\3 = 11000(13)3 = 24,167,000 .-1
23. From Figure 17-27, determine whether any of the solid solutions between
GaAs and GaSb will transmit visible light.

GaAs: Eg = 1.35 eV
-34
i\ = (6.62 x 10 )(3 x 10 ) = 9194
8
X 10- 8 m = 9194 X
(1.35)(1.6 x 10- 19 )
minimum: Eg = 0.60 eV
-34 8
i\ = (6.62 x 10 )(3 x 10 )
(0.60)(1.6 x 10- 19 )
GaSb: Eg = 0.75 eV
x 10- 34 )(3 x 10 8 ) X
i\ = (6.62 16,550 X 10- 8 = 16,550
(0.75)(1.6 x 10-19 )

None will transmit visible light.

235
24. Which, if any, of the following semiconducting compounds are capable of
transmitting visible light - InSb, lnAs, GaAs, and GaP? (See Table
17-10. )
InSb: E
g
= O. 165 eV

A = (6.62 x 10
-34 B
)(3 x 10 ) 75,227 X 10-10 m 75,227 A
(0.165)(1.6 x 10- 19 )
lnAs: E
g
= 0.36 eV

(6.62 x 10- 27 )(3 x lOB)


A = .;..:..:..=:......:.:--=.;:.-..----'...:..:......:.:-.::..::..-'- 34,479 x 10
-10
m 34,379 A
(0.36)(1.6 x 10- 19 )

GaAs: E 1. 35 eV
g

(6.62 x 10- 34 )(3 x lOB)


= ,:";:":"":"::",,,,:,:--=,;:,-,,---=-,:,,,:,,,,,,:,:-.::...:..-'-
A 9194 X 10- 10 m 9194 A
(1.35)(1.6 x 10- 19 )
GaP: E 2.24 eV
g

(6.62 x 10- 34 )(3 x lOB)


A = = 5541 X 10- 10 m 5541 A
(2.24)(1.6 x 10- 19 )
Only GaP will transmit visible light.

25. Describe how the index of refraction will change when the wavelength of
frequency of the incident radiation changes for (a) polyvinyl chloride
and (b) polyethylene.

(a) From Table 18-1, we find that the dielectric constant I<
increases ad the frequency increases for polyvinyl chloride.
Based on the relationship between index of refraction and
dielectric constant, we would also expect the index of
refraction to increase as the frequency increases.

(b) However, when the frequency increases for polyethylene, the


dielectric constant remains constant; therefore we also would
expect a constant index of refraction. The difference between
these two polymer's behaviour is related to the polymer
structure - polyethylene has a simple symmetrical structure
while the chlorine atoms on PVC make that material more easily
polarized.

26. Suppose a laser beam strikes a 10 mm thick sheet of leaded glass at an


angle of 15 to the normal of the glass. Determine the angle between the
beam and the normal as the laser passes through the glass. By what
distance will the transmitted beam be displaced from its original path by
the glass?

236
Let material "1" be air and "2" be the glass. air glass
Then
n 2/n t sin oc / sin ~

2.5 / 1 : sin 15 / sin ~ or


sin ~ (1 / 2.5)sin 15 = (1 / 2.5)(0.2588) = 0.1035
~ = 5.94 = angle between beam and normal.

If the beam was not diffracted, it would emerge from the opposite
side of the glass at distance "y" from its entry point
y / 10 mm = tan(15) or y = 2.679 mm ~ 10mm ~

The beam actually emerges at a distance "y - x" from the point of
entry, or

(y - x) / 10 mm = tan(5.94) or y - x = 1.040 mm

The distance by which the beam is displaced is "x", or

X : 2.679 - 1.040 : 1.639 mm

27. Suppose a beam of light from an LED passes through air and impinges at an
angle of 30 to the normal of a composite sheet of Ti02 and polyethylene.
Determine the angle between the beam and the normal of the composite as
the beam of light passes (a) through the Ti02 and (b) through the
polyethylene.

(a) If we assume that the light first strikes the Ti0 2, then we
can let material "1" be air and material "2" by Ti0 2.
sin ~ n t sin oc / n 2 : (l)(sin 30)/(2.7) = 0.1852
sin ~ 10.67

(b) next the light passes from Ti02 to polyethylene. Letting


material "1" be Ti02 and material "2" be polyethylene

sin ~ = n t sin oc/ n 2 = (2.7)(sin 10.67)/(1.5) = 0.333


~ = 19.47

28. A ~eam of light passing through a glass sheet (n = 1.5) at an angle of


26 to the normal of the sheet then enters a second sheet of a transparent
dielectric. If the beam of light in the dielectric makes and angle of
18 to the normal, determine (a) the index of refraction and (b) the
dielectric constant of the dielectric.

237
(a) Let material "'1" be the glass and material "2" be the
dielectric.
n2 = n1 sin 1 sin ~ = (1.5)(sin 26) 1 (sin 18)
= (1.5)(0.4384)/(0.3090)
= 2.128
(b) From equation 19-6, we find that
K = n 2 = (2.128)2 = 4.529

29. Suppose we construct a composite glass fiber, with the inner portion of
the fiber having an index of refraction of 1.5 and the outer sheath of
the fiber having an index of refraction of 1.48. Calculate the maximum
angle that a beam of light can deviate from the axis of the fiber without
escaping from the inner portion of the fiber.
Let material "1" be the inner sheath and material "2" be the outer
sheath. Then
sin u = n 2 si~/nl =(1.48)(sin90)/(1.50)=0.986667
= 80.63
Therefore the maximum angle that the beam can deviate from the fiber
axis is 90 - 80.63 = 9.37.

30. Suppose that 25% of the intensity of a beam of photons entering a


material at a 90 angle to the surface is transmitted through a 10 mm
thick material with a dielectric constant of 1.44. Determine the
fraction of the beam that is (a) reflected, and (b) absorbed. (c)
Calculate the linear absorption coefficient of the photons in the
material.

First we can calculate the index of refraction of the material:

n = Vi. = "1. 44 = 1. 2
(a) R = [en - 1) 1 ~n + 1)]2 x 100 [(1.2 - 1) 1 (1.2 + 1)]2 x 100
= (0.2 1 2.2) x 100 = 8.26%

(b) Itotal = Ireflected + Iabsorbed + Itransmitted 100%

100 = 8.26 + Iabsorbed + 25

Iabsorbed = 66.74%

(c) In(I/I o ) = -~

~ -In(III o ) 1 x -In(0.6674) 1 10 (-0.4044)(1 x 1)-3)


= 40.44 m- 1

238
31. The linear absorption coefficient of a 2.5 mm thick material is 80 m- 1
The intensity of a transmitted beam is 10% of the original beam.
Determine (a) the reflectivity, (b) the index of refraction, and (c) the
dielectric constant of the material.

(a) First we need to find the percent of the beam that is absorbed.

In(I/I o ) = -~ = -(80)(2.5 x 10- 3 ) = -0.2


1/10 exp(-0.2) = 0.08187
I III x 100 = 81.87%
o
absorbed

Itotal =Itransmitted + labsorbed + Ireflected 100%

100 = 10 + 81.87 + Ireflected


Reflectivity Ireflected = 8.13%
(b) Reflectivity [en - 1) I (n + 1)]2 x 100 8.13

(n - 1) I (n + 1) = 0.285
n = 1.79
(c) K = n2 (1.79)2 = 3.2

32. What filter material would you use to isolate the Ka peak of the
following X-rays - iron, manganese, nickel?

Fe: Ka = 1.937 A ; KP = 1.757 A


Because its absorption edge is 1.896. A. Manganese would be an
effective filter.

Mn: Ka = 2.104 A; KP = 1.910 A


Because its absorption edge is 2.070 A, Chromium would be an
effective filter.

Ni: Ka = 1.660 A; KP = 1.500 A


Because its absorption edge is 1.608 A, Cobalt would be an
effective filter.

33. Figure 19-34 shows the intensity of the radiation obtained from a copper
X-ray generating tube as a function of wavelength. The accompanying
table shows the linear absorption coefficient for a manganese filter for
several wavelengths. if the Mn filter is 0.02 mm thick, calculate the
intensity of the transmitted X-ray beam for each wavelength.

239
First we can read the initial intensity 10 from Figure 19-34 for
each of the wavelengths. Then we can calculate the final intensity
If from the expression below, using the appropriate absorption
coefficient for each wavelength.

The table below includes both the initial intensity from the figure
and the final intensity as calculated from the above expression.

Wavelength Linear Absorption Coefficient


(A) (m- t ) I If
0

0.711 24900 72 43.8


1.436 173900 90 2.78
1.542 211000 120 1. 76
1.659 258600 88 0.50
1. 79 .320200 86 0.14
1.937 47300 81 31. 45
2.103 59100 74 22.7
2.291 73900 68 15.5

34. The results of an X-ray diffraction analysis using copper radiation (A =


1.5418 A)
are given as 20 values below. Determine (a) the crystal
structure of the metal, (b) the Miller indices of each of the peaks, and
(c) the lattice parameter of the material.

We start by finding sin 2 0 for each of the peaks. Then we divide


through the smallest of the sin2 a values to determine if this
division produces all whole numbers. Fortunately in this example,
all whole numbers are obtained. (If this were not the case, we
would have to find some other common denominator that does produce
all whole numbers.) In this case, these whole numbers will
correspond to h 2 + k + 12 values. Indices can then be assigned to
each peak.

Peak 20 sin20 sin2 O/O.053 h2 + k 2 + 12 indices

1 26.65 0.053 1 1 (100)


2 38.05 0.106 2 2 (110)
3 47.06 0.159 3 3 ( 111)
4 54.81 0.212 4 4 (200)
5 62.04 0.266 5 5 (210)
6 68.71 0.318 6 6 (211)
7 81. 33 0.425 8 8 (220)

(a) Because of the sequence of sin2 a values (ie no "7" is present),


the material must be simple cubic.

(b) The Miller indices are given in the table.

240
(cl We can pick one of the peaks (say peak 7), use Bragg's Law to
find the interplanar distance d 20' and use the interplanar
spacing equation to calculate t~e lattice parameter. (Other
more sophisticated analytical methods may be used to give more
accurate results.)

i\. = 2d22O sina or 120 = i\./2sina = 1. 5418/2sin(81. 33/2)


= (1.5418)(2)(0.6516) 1. 831 X

a
o
= d 220vb2 +k 2 + 12
= 3.346 X
35. Figure 19-35 shows the results from an X-ray diffraction experiment as
the intensity of the diffracted peak versus the 2a angle. Determine (a)
the crystal structure of the metal, (bl the indices of the planes that
produce each of the peaks, (cl the lattice parameter of the metal, and
(d) the probable identity of the metal. Copper radiation (i\. = 1.5418 X)
is used.

We start by finding sin2 a for each of the peaks. Then we divide


through by the smallest of the sin2 a values to determine if this
division produces all whole numbers. In this case, we do no~ obtain
whole numbers. Therefore we might try to multiply the sin a/0.l06
values by 3. When we do this, we obtain a series of h 2 + k 2 + 12
values that are approximately whole numbers with a series that
corresponds to a FCC crystal structure. Indices can then be
assigned to each peak.
peak 2a sin2a sin2 9/0.106 h2 + k 2 + 12 indices

1 38 0.106 1 x 3 3 (111)
2 44.5 0.143 1. 34 x 3 4.02 (200)
3 65 0.289 2.73 x 3 8.2 (220)
4 78.5 0.400 3.77 x 3 11. 3 (311 )
5 82.5 0.435 4. 10 x 3 12.3 (222)
6 99 0.578 5.45 x 3 16.35 (400)

(a) The crystal structure must be face-centered cubic.

(b) The indices are given in the table.

(c) We can pick one of the peaks (say peak 2), determine the
interplanar spacing d 200 using Bragg's Law, and then find
the lattice parameter from the interplanar spacing equation.

i\. = 2d sina or d = i\.l2sina = 1. 5418/2sin(44. 512)


200 200
= (1.5418)/(2)(0.3786) = 2.036 X

a
o

(d) From Appendix A, this lattice parameter might correspond to


that of gold.

241
36. An X-ray film with a 180 mm diameter is used in an X-ray camera. A
diffracted line 40 mm from the exit port of the beam is produced.
Determine the interplanar spacing of the plane that produced the
diffracted line if copper radiation (~ = 1.5418 is A) used.

The 29 angle can be determined from the location of the diffracted


line and the size of the camera.

29 18Ox/nR where x = 40 mm and R = 180/2 90 mm


(180)(40)/(n)(90) = 25.46
9 12.73

From Bragg's law,

d = ~2sin9 = 1.5418/2sin(12.73) (1.5418)/(2)(0.2204) 3.498 A

37. In a Debye-Scherrer X-ray film obtained from a powdered chromium specimen


with copper radiation (~ = 1.5418 A), the first three diffraction lines
are located at 29 = 44.4, 64.6, and 81.8. Determine the Miller
indices correspondi~ to each line if the lattice parameter of BCC
chromium is 2.8845 A.

Using Bragg's Law, we can determine the interplanar spacing for each
line.

d = ~/2sin9 = 1. 5418/2sin9 = 0.7709/sin9


From the interplanar spacing equation, we can calculate h 2 + k 2 + 12
and then determine the indices of the diffracting planes.

h2 + k 2 + 12 = (aol d)
2
= (2. 8845/d) 2
line 1: 29 44.4; 9 22.2; d 2.0403 A; h2 + k 2 + 12 2
line 2: 29 64.6; 9 32.3; d 1.443 1; h 2 + k 2 + 12 4
line 3: 29 81. 8; 9 40. gO; d 1.1774 A; h2 + k 2 + 12 =6
Therefore line 1 must be from (110) planes; line 2 from (200)
planes; and line 3 from (211) planes.

242
38. Calculate the temperature of a 1 kg sample of nickel originally at 25C
after 4000 calories are introduced.

liT = Q/cw where Q is the heat introduced, c is the specific


heat, and 101 is the mass of the sample.

liT = (16 kJ)/(0.46 kJ/kg K) = 34.8 K 34. 8C


t f = To + liT = 25 + 348 = 59. 8C

39. Calculate the heat in joules required to raise the temperature of 50 g of


silica by 50C.

liT = cwllT where Q is the heat introduced, c is the specific


heat and 101 is the weight of the sample.

Q = (1.110 kJ/kg K)(50 x 10-3 kg) (50 K) = 2.775 kJ = 2775 J

40. Suppose a 50 mm x 50 mm block of magnesium 20 mm thick is used as a heat


sink; determine the thickness of a 50 mm x 50 mm block of copper required
to remove the same amount of heat with only a 5C temperature increase.

(50 X 10- 3 m) (50 x 10- 3 m) (20 x 10-3 m) = 50 x 10- 6 m3


(50 x 10- 6 m3 )(1.74 Mg/m 3 ) = 87 g

If the thickness of copper is t mm

VCu (50 x 10- 3 m) (50 x 10-3 m) (t x 10- 3 m) = 2.5t X 10-6 m- 3


wCu 22.325 t g

101 = CMgwMg
Cu CCu
22. 325t = (1017 J kg-1 J(1 ) (87 g)
(385 kg -1 K- 1 )
(1017) (87)
t
(385) (22. 325) mm = 10.29 mm

41. Liquid copper is poured into a mold 1 m in length and allowed to


solidify. Calculate the length of the copper casting after cooling to
room temperature.

IX = llVlllT
lit = to:llT = (1 m)(16.6 x 10-6 C- 1 )(1084.9 - 25C)
= 0.01759 m

t
o
- lit =1 - 0.01759 0.98241 m

243
42. A gray iron mold is produced by machining a cavity 350 mm long at room
temperature. the mold is then heated to 315C and liquid aluminum is
poured into it. Assuming that the temperature of the mold does not
change, calculate the final length of the aluminum casting after it cools
to room temperature (25C).

l=350mm
T = 660 CO T 25 CO
mp room

The mold will initially expand from the original 350 mm length.

6l = l"i
o ron
6T = (350)(12 x 10-6 )(315 - 25) = 1.218 mm

lmold = 350 + 1.218 = 351.22 mm


The casting will initially have this same length - 351.22 mm - but
will then contract. the amount of contraction of the aluminum is

6l = lAI6T = (351.22)(25 x 10-6 )(660 - 25) 5.576 mm

If = 351. 22 - 5.58 = 345.64 mm

43. A 50 mm aluminum conductor wire is coated with a protective layer of


epoxy. If the coated wire is heated from 25C to 100C, determine the
final length of both the aluminum and the epoxy. What is likely to
happen to the epoxy coating as a result of the expansion?

AI: If = lo + lO"AI6T = 500 + (500)(25 x 10-6 )(75) = 500.9375 mm

epoxy: if = l o + l 0 " epoxy6T = 500 + (500)(55 x 10-6 )(75) = 502.0625 mm

The epoxy expands a greater amount than the aluminum; consequently


if the epoxy is tightly bonded to the aluminum, the epoxy tries to
occupy too large of a volume and may spall or flake off of the
aluminum.

44. A 100 mm x 100 mm plate of magnesium is coated with a thin layer of fused
quartz; the composite is then heated from 25C to 350C. Calculate the
expected dimensions of both the magnesium and the quartz after heating.
What is likely to happen to the quartz layer?

Hg: If = lo + i o"Mg6T = 100 + (100)(25 x 10-6 )(325) = 100.8125 ~


quartz: If = l + l " t 6T = 100 + (100) (0. 55 x 10-6 ) (325)
o 0 quar z
= 100.0179 mm
The quartz expands less than the magnesium; if the quartz is tightly
bonded to the magnesium, then the quartz layer will crack and expose
the magnesium below.

45. A casting is to be made from a 1020 steel. A sand core having a diameter
of 100 mm is placed into the mold, the steel is poured around the sand"
core, and solidification occurs. After freezing, the sand core is
knocked out of the casting, leaving behind a hole in the casting.
Calculate the diameter of the hole. The melting temperature for the
steel is about 1500C.

244
df = do - d aAT
0
= 100 - (100)(12 x. 10-6 ) (1500 - 25) = 98.23 mm

46. Suppose an aluminum plate 100 mm x 100 mm x 10 mm thick separates a heat


source at 300C from a bath containing 1 liter of water at 25C.
Calculate (a) the heat Q transferred to the water each second and (b) the
time required to warm the water to 26C.

(a) Q KAAT/~x = (238 W/m K)(0.01 m2 )(215C)/(0.01 m)


65450 W

(b) The heat required to raise the temperature of the water 1C is

Q = cw~T = (4.189 kJ/kg K)(1 kg)(lC) = 4.181 kJ = 4181 J

This heat is supplied by the flux of heat through the aluminum


plate.

time = (65450 W)/(4181 J) = 15.63 s

41. We would like to heat 100 ml of water from 10C to 11C in 60 s. We will
do this by immersing a 10 mm long cylinder of copper in the water while
the other end of the copper cylinder is in contact with a heat source
operating at 800C. Calculate the required diameter of the cylinder if
half of the heat is lost from the cylinder during transfer.

The heat required to warm the water is

Q = cw~T = (4181 J/kg K)(0.1 kg)(1C) = 418.1 J

But half of the heat from the heat source is lost. Therefore a
total of 831.4 J must be provided by the heat source.

Q = 831.4 J = KAAT/~x where A = (n/4)d 2 and ~T = 800 - 10 190C

831.4 J = (400 W/mK) (n/4) (d2 ) (190C/l x 10-2 m)

(831.4 x 102 )/(400) (n/4) (190) = 3.3165 x 10- 5 m2


5.811 x 10-3 m = 5.81 mm

48. A window glass (soda-lime) 5 mm thick and 1 m square separates a room at


25C from the outside, at OC. (a) Calculate the amount of heat lost
from the room through the window each day. (b) Suppose we produce a
window composed of two layers of glass each 2 mm thick separated by a 1
mm thick layer of 6.6 nylon. Recalculate the amount of heat lost from
the room each day.

(a) Q = KAAT/~x = (0.96 W/mK) (1 m)2(25)/(5 x 10-3 m)


4800 W = 4~00 J/s = 4800(3600 s/h) (24 h/day)
414.1 x 10 J/day
0.415 GJ/day

(b) K
composite
f K
glass glass
+ f
nylon nylon
K
(4 mml5 mm)(0.96) + (1 mml5 mm)(121)
24.91 W m- 1 K- 1

245
Q (24.97 W m- 1 K- 1 ) (1 m2 ) (25C)/(5 x 10-3 m)
124850 W = 124850 J/s
124850 (J/s)(3600 s/h) (24 h/day)
1. 079 GJ/day

49. From the data in Table 19-6, use the thermal conductivity to calculate
the electrical conductivity of aluminum and compare your answer with the
value given in Table 17-2.

From the Lorentz constant,

u = KILT = (238 W/(m K)/(2.3 x 10-8 W 0 K- 2 ) (298 K)


= 3.472 X 107 0- 1 m- 1

The value for electrical conductivity given in Table 17-2 is


3.77 x 107 0- 1 m- 1

246
Chapter 20.

CORROSION AND VEAR

1. A brass plumbing fitting produced from a Cu-30% Zn alloy operates in the


hot water system of a building. After some period of use, cracking and
leaking occur, although on visual examination not metal appears to have
been corroded. Offer an explanation for why the fitting failed.

The high zinc brasses are susceptible to dezinclfication,


particularly when the temperature is increased. One of the
characteristics of dezincification is that copper is redeposited in
the regions that are attacked, obscuring the damage. However, the
redeposited copper is spongy, brittle, and weak, permitting the
fitting to fail and leak. Therefore dezincification appears to bea
possible explanation.

2. A gray cast iron pipe is used in the water distribution system for a
city. the pipe fails and leaks, even though it is well below the
freezing line of the soil and no corrosion noticeable to the naked eye
has occurred. Offer an explanation for why the fitting failed.

A cast iron is susceptible to graphitic corrosion, where the iron is


selectively corroded, leaving behind a spongy, porous, weak, and
brittle network of interconnected graphite flakes. Because of the
presence of the graphite and corrosion products in the at tacked
regions, this corroded region may not be detectable with the naked
eye, although a pocket knife could easily scrape away this corroded
material. Based on the observations, graphitic corrosion appears
to be a likely culprit.

3. The slag covering liquid steel in a furnace is composed of 4 parts by


weight 5iOz to 1 part FeO. Because the melting point of the slag is less
than the temperature of the liquid steel (1600C), the slag is also a
liquid and begins to attack the furnace refractory. Determine how much
(al MgO or (b) Al z0 3 would have to be added to make the liquidus
temperature of the slag equal to or greater than the steel temperature so
that slag-refractory problems are reduced.

The initial slag contains 20% FeO and 80% 5iO . This point can be
located on each of the ternary phase diagrams. z A line can then be
constructed in the ternary, running from the initial slag
composi tion (20% FeO-80% 51Oz ) to pure MgO or pure Al z0 3 . By
following these constructed lines to where the line intersects the
1600C liquidus temperature, the amount of the third oxide can be
determined.

(a) MgO: 35% (b) Al 0: 21%


z 3

241
4. Which of the following coatings would be expected to protect iron even if
the coating is scratched to expose the iron - polyethylene, glass enamel,
zinc, nickel, tin, lead?

To provide protection of the underlying iron, the coating must be


more anodic than the iron and must be an electrical conductor so
that an electrochemical cell can be created. Polyethylene and glass
are both non-conductors; they are not expected to serve as
sacrificial anodes because no protective cell will be established.
Nickel, tin, and lead are all more cathodic than iron; consequently
none of these three metals will serve as sacrificial anodes.
Instead they will tend to accelerate the corrosion of the iron.
However, zinc is a conductor and is more anodic than iron; therefore
zinc will protect the iron even if the coating is scratched.

5. Suppose 5 g of Ni 2 + are dissolved in 1000 ml of water to produce an


electrolyte. Calculate the electrode potential of the nickel half-cell.
2+
Cion = 5 g Ni / 58.71 g/mol = 0.0852

E = EO + 0.0~92 log (Cion) = -0.25 + 0.0~92 10g(0.0852)

E = -0.25 + (0.0296)(-1.06956) = -0.282 V


6. A half cell produced by dissolving lead in water produces an electrode
potential of -0.15 V. Calculate the amount of lead that must be added to
1000 ml of water to produce this potential.
E = EO + 0.0592 10g(C.
n Ion
)

-0.15 -0.13 + 0.0592 10g(C )


n ion

10g(C ion ) -0.675675 or Cion = 0.211


2+
Cion =g Pb2 + / MWPb or g Pb = (Cion) (MWpb )
= (0.211)(207.19) = 43.72 g

7. An electrode potential in a .silver half cell is found to be 0.78 V.


Determine the concentration of Ag+ ions in the electrolyte.
E = EO n
+ 0.0592 10 (C
g ion
)
0.0592
0.78 0.80 + --1- log (Cion)
10g(C10n ) = -0.33784 or Cion = 0.4594 mol/dm
3

8. A current density of 0.03 A/cm2 Is applied to a 125 cm2 cathode. What


period of time is required to plate out a 0.05 cm coating of gold onto a
cathode?

i I/A or I = iA = (0.03 A/cm2 ) (125 cm2 ) = 3.75 A

w Vp = Atp (125 x 10-4 m2 )(5 x 10-4 m)(19.302 Mg/m3 ) 120.64 g

248
w ItWnF

t wnF/IM (120.64 g) (3) (96,5000 C)/(3.75 A)(196.97 g/mole)

= 47,283 s = 13.13 h

9. Determine the plating current density required to deposit 50 g of tin per


1000 cm2 onto a cathode in 1.5 h.

w ItWnF iAM/nF
i wnF/AtM
(50 g)(2)(~6,500 C)/(1000 cm2 )(1.5 h) (3600 s/h)(118.69 g/mole)
0.015 A/cm

10. Suppose a copper water pipe having an inside diameter of 2 cm is


accidentally connected to the power system of a building, causing a
current of 0.2 A to flow through the pipe. Determine the rate of
corrosion of the pipe. If the wall thickness of the pipe is 0.1 cm,
estimate the time required before the pipe begins to leak.

Rate of Corrosion

w = ItWnF = (~52A)(1 s) (63. 54 g/mole)/(2) (96,500 C)


= 6.584 x 10 g/s

Area per cm length = (circumference) = nd = (n)(2) = 6.28 cm2


w per cm = (6.584 x 10-5 g/s)/(6.28 cm2 ) = 1.0484 x 10-5 g/s cm2

Time to leak

The pipe will begin to leak when 0.1 cm of material has been
corroded.

Volume per cm = (n/4)d 2 _ (n/4)d. 2


o 1
(n/4)(2.2)2 = (n/4)(2.0)2 = 0.65973 cm3 per cm
weight per cm = (0.65973 cm3 per cm)(8.93 g/cm3) = 5.891 g per cm

time (5.891 g per cm) / (6.584 x 10-5 g/s per cm)


89.474 s = 24.85 h

11. An aluminum probe 25 mm in diameter is submerged to a depth of 250 mm in


an electrolyte. After one year, the diameter of the probe is reduced to
21.8 mm. Calculate the current density at the aluminum surface that
caused the corrosion.

~V [(n/4)(0.025)2 - (n/4) (0.0218)2] (250) = 2.9405 x lO-5m3


29405 mm3

weight p~V = (2.7 Mg/m3 ) (2. 9405 x 10-5 m3 ) = 79.394 g/year


(79.394 g/year)/(365 d/year) (24 h/day) (3600 s/h)
= 2.518 x 10-6 g/s
A ndi = (n)(0.025 m)(0.250 m) = 19.635 x 10-3 m2

249
nFw/AtH = (3)(96,500 C)(2.518 x 10- 6 gls) 1. 376 Alm2
i --~~~~~~~~~~~~~----
(19.635 X 10- 3 m2 )(1 s)(26.981 g/mole)

12. In a corrosion cell composed of copper and iron, a current density of


0.008 ~cm2is applied to the cathode. the area ~f the copper cathode is
100 cm and the area of the iron anode is 200 cm . Calculate the amount
of iron that is lost from the anode each hour.

I = ieuAeu = iFe~e
(0.008 Alcm2 )(100 cm2 ) = i Fe (200 cm2 )
i Fe = (0.008)(100)/(200) = 0.004 Alcm2
w = iAtHlnF = (0.004)(200)(3600)(63.54)/(2)(96,500) = 0.948 g/h

13. Would corrosion of iron be higher in lake water of sea water? Explain in
terms of polarization.

In terms of resistance, we might expect that sea water would have a


higher conductivity than lake water and therefore would produce a
more rapid rate of corrosion. However, lake water is likely to be
more stagnant, permitting either build-up of impurities at the iron
surface which might retard the corrosion rate or creating oxygen
starvation cells which might increase the corrosion rate.

14. An Alclad composite material is produced in which one layer of 2024


aluminum alloy is sandwiched between two layers of 1100 aluminum alloy.
(a) Would you expect the corrosion resistance of the composite to be
good or poor? Explain. (b) Suppose that one of the 1100 alloy sheets
were deeply scratched. Would the corrosion resistance change? Explain.

(a) Corrosion resistance would be good. The 1100 alloy is


commercially pure aluminum and is expected to have good
resistance to corrosion compared to the 2024 alloy. As long as
the 2024 layer is surrounded by the 100 alloy, the overall
composite should have good corrosion resistance.

(b) Corrosion resistance will now be relatively poor. the 1100


alloy will act as the cathode, while the exposed 2024 alloy
will act as the anode. Because the exposed anode area is
small, we would expect rapid corrosion rates.

15. A 1080 steel rod 6.25 mm in diameter is to be formed into a coiled


spring. For best corrosion resistance, should the rod be formed hot or
cold? Explain.

For best corrosion resistance, we should form the steel by a hot


working process. If we used a cold working process, residual
stresses may be stored in the spring; this in turn would permit the
development of stress cells that might encourage corrosion.

16. A steel nut is very securely tightened onto a bolt used in a marine
environment. After several months, the nut contains numerous cracks.
Explain why cracking might have occurred.

250
When the nut is tightly secured onto the bolt residual stresses are
likely to be introduced into the assembly. The presence of numerous
cracks suggests that stress corrosion cracking may have occurred as
a result of these stresses.

17. An austenitic stainless steel is found to corrode in the heat-affected


zone a short distance from the fusion zone. (a) Why does corrosion
occur at this location? (What does this tell you about the carbon
content of the steel? (c) What does this tell you about the type of
welding process that must have been done? (d) What could you do to
prevent the occurrence of this corrosion?

(a) During the welding process, some of the material in the heat
affected area is exposed to temperatures in the sensitization
temperature range (425 to 870C). Chromium carbides are then
formed at the grain boundaries, depleting the austenite of the
protective chromium solid solution. Intergranular corrosion
can then occur.

(b) Intergranular corrosion is only likely to occur if the carbon


content is above at least 0.03%.

(c) The welding process must have been relatively slow, permitting
extended holding times in the sensitization temperature range
in that portion of the heat affected zone. However, the
process was not exceptionally slow or all of the material in
the heat affected zone, even that adjacent to the fusion zone,
would have become sensitized.

(d) Prevention could be done by: using a lower carbon steel; using
a steel that had been stabilized with titanium or niobium;
using a faster welding process; making sure that the steel was
not preheated prior to welding; using a quench anneal after
welding to dissolve the precipitated chromium carbides.

18. An aircraft wing composed of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy is connected


to a titanium forging on the fuselage. Will corrosion occur in the
carbon (graphite) fibers, the epoxy, or the titanium? Explain.

Titanium is expected to corrode first. The epoxy is a polymer


material and is not expected to participate in an electrochemical
cell; the graphite, which is a "ceramic" material, does have some
electrical conductivity but is rather cathodic compared to titanium,
which is generally an anodic material. -

19. The inside surface of a cast iron pipe is coated with tar,which provides
a protective coating. Acetone in a chemical laboratory is routinely
drained through the pipe. Explain why, after some period of time, the
pipe begins to corrode.

During use, the acetone serves as a solvent for the tar; the
protective tar coating is eventually dissolved and the cast iron
pipe is then exposed to any corrosive material that is drained
through the pipe.

251
20. A frequent coating for a low carbon steel is cadmium. Does cadmium
provide corrosion protection to the steel even if the coating is
scratched?

From Table 20-2, we find that cadmium is more anodic than a low
carbon steel. The cadmium serves as a sacrificial anode, much like
zinc.

21. Almost pure tin is sometimes used to solder copper for electrical uses
Will the tin solder or the copper corrode in a corrosive environment?

From the galvanic series, we find that tin is anodic to copper.


Therefore the tin is expected to corrode.

22. The axle of an automobile is normally sealed in a housing and,


consequently, the axle should survive the lifetime of the automobile.
However, if the housing leaks, the axle may fail. Explain why a leaky
housing may greatly reduce the life of the axle.

The axle is continually exposed to a cyclical load during rotation.


Normally the axle is loaded so that the applied stress is well below
the endurance limit and fatigue is not likely to occur. However,
when the axle is exposed to the environment, corrosion may occur.
The corrosion may reduce the diameter of the axle, thereby
increasing the applied stress, and may also introduce locations for
easier nucleation of fatigue cracks. Finally corrosion may help to
accelerate the growth of any fatigue cracks that do form.
Consequently failure may occur as a result of corrosion fatigue.

23. A sheet of annealed 1040 steel is exposed to the weather. Although steel
is not in contact with any other material that could act as a cathode,
corrosion gradually occurs. Explain why the steel will corrode.

The microstructure of the annealed 1040 steel contains a mixture of


approximately 50% ferrite and 50% pearlite. As a result we have
microcells produced throughout the steel sheet, with the ferrite
acting as the anode and the pearlite acting as the cathode. In
addition, even within the pearlite, we have a mixture of ferrite and
cementite, with the cementite serving as the cathode.

24. A steel column partly submerged in lake water is found to corrode


severely just beneath the water surface. How would the corrosion pattern
change if the steel column were submerged in a small pond instead of a
large lake?

We expect the water in a small pond to be much more stagnant than in


a large lake; consequently, the oxygen content in the water would be
relatively low. This is turn would produce a more effective
concentration cell, or oxygen starvation is more likely in the small
pond.

252
25. An annealed copper sheet, a cold-worked copper sheet, and a
recrystallized copper sheet are submerged in an electrolyte. Which would
be expected to be most resistant to corrosion? Which would be the least
resistant to corrosion? Explain.

The annealed copper should would be most resistant to corrosion; the


grain size is expected to be particularly large and no residual
stresses are expected. Consequently a stress cell is unlikely. In
addition, the annealed sheet is expected to have the most uniform
composition, ie the least segregation, so a composition cell is also
unlikely.

The cold worked copper sheet is expected to have the poorest


corrosion resistance due to the residual stresses introduced during
the cold working process.

The recrystallized sheet should have intermediate corrosion


resistance; residual stresses should have been eliminated as a
result of the heat treatment but the grain size may be smaller than
in the annealed sheet.

26. A steel pipe used to transport crude oil is buried in various types of
soil. Different rates of corrosion of the pipe are noted, depending on
the nature of the soil. Explain why the soil might affect the corrosion
rate of the pipe.

One explanation might be that the composition of the soil will


affect the soil conductivity. Moist cells containing mobile ions may
permi t rapid conductivity, leading to a higher current and more
rapid corrosion rates.

27. In which case would you expect less severe corrosion problems - joining
two steel sheets with aluminum rivets or joining two aluminum sheets with
steel rivets? Explain.

The aluminum is expected to be the anode while the iron is the


cathode. To minimize the rate of corrosion of the aluminum, we
would like to have the anode area be as large as possible compared
to the cathode area. When we use aluminum rivets in steel, the
anode area is very small and the aluminum will corrode rapidly.
When aluminum is joined with steel rivets, the aluminum anode area
is large and corrosion will occur at a slower rate.

This situation may be reversed if the aluminum is passivated with a


thick protective aluminum coating. The aluminum oxide may then
cause the aluminum to be the cathode; now we would have rapid
corrosion of the steel rivets.

28. A steel plate can be protected by a coating of paint. Will the type of
protection provided by the paint resemble the type of protection provided
by tin or that provided by zinc? Explain.

Paint will provide protection more like that of tin than of zinc.
The paint, which is an organic material, will not be conductive and
cannot serve as a sacrificial anode. When the paint is disturbed,
the underlying steel is exposed and will begin to corrode.

253
29. Two sheets of 1020 steel are joined together with an aluminum rivet
(Figure 2-23). During the JOInIng process, the aluminum rivet is
severely deformed. Discuss the possible corrosion cells that might be
created as a result of this process.

Composi tion cells - aluminum may act as the anode in conjunction


with the steel; in addition ferrite may serve as the anode to
cementite within the steel.

Stress cells - the aluminum rivet is deformed when the joint is


produced, causing the most highly cold worked portion of the rivet
to act as the anode. In addition grain boundaries in both the steel
and the aluminum may act as the anodes for a stress cell.

Concentration cells - crevice corrosion may occur between the two


steel sheets and also between the aluminum rivet and the steel
sheets.

30. A corrosion cell is set up between iron and zinc. The current density at
the iron sheet is 0.02 Alcm 2 . Calculate the weight loss of zinc per week
(a) if the zinc has a surface area of 10 cm2 and the iron has a surface
area of 100 cm2 and (b) if the zinc has a surface area of 100 cm2 and the
iron has a surface area of 10 cm2 .

(a) I iFe~e = (0.02Alcm2 ) (100 cm2 ) = 2A


t (1 wk)(7 days/wk) (24 hlday) (3600 s/h) = 604,800 s

WZn = ItWnF (2 A) (604,800 s)(65.38 g/mol) = 409.8 g


(2) (96,500 C)

(b) I

t = 604,800 s
(0.2 a)(604,800 s)(6538 g/mol)
WZn = ItWnF = (2)(96;500 C)

31. A cadmium coating is used to protect a 1 m x 1 m steel sheet. A scratch


0.1 cm wide and 10 cm long is made in the cadmium coating. If 2 g of
cadmium are lost uniformly from the coating per week, determine the
corrosion current produced in the sheet.

ACd ~e = (0.1 cm)(10 cm) =1 cm


2

t (1 wk)(7 days/wk) (24 hlday) (3600 s/h) = 604,800 s


wnF/tM =( 2 g Cd)(2)(96,500 C)/(604,800) s)(112.4 g/moll
5.68 x 10- 3 A = 5.68 rnA

32. Anodized aluminum sheet is joined by steel rivets. Would you expect the
steel or the anodized aluminum to act as the anode? Explain.

In the anodized condition, the aluminum is coated with a thick layer


of non-conductive aluminum oxide. Consequently the aluminum is
protected and the steel will serve as the anode.

254
33. Figure 20-24 shows a cross section through a plastic-encapsulated
integrated circuit, including a small microgap between the lead frame
and the polymer. If chloride ions from the manufacturing environment are
able to penetrate the package, determine what types of corrosion cells
might develop and what portions of the integrated circuit might corrode.

Composition cells can develop between gold and aluminum (with the
aluminum serving as the anode and corroding); gold and copper (with
the copper serving as the anode and corroding); and aluminum and
silicon (with aluminum serving as the anode and corroding).

34. Liquid pig iron contains 4% C, 0.5% Ni, 1.2% Si and 0.8% Mn is held at
1625C. If oxygen is blown into the liquid pig iron, describe the order
in which the different elements in the liquid bath will be oxidized.

In order of oxidation:

First carbon will oxidize to form CO


Silicon will oxidize to form SiD
Manganese will oxidize to form MAD
Carbon will oxidize to form CO
Iron will oxidize to form FeD 2
Nickel will oxidize to form NiO

35. Determine the Pilling-Bedworth ratio for the following metals and predict
the behaviour of the oxide that forms on the surface.

The Pilling Bedworth relation is:

P-B = MWoxidePmetal
nMWmetalPoxide

The appropriate values for the equation and the final


Pilling-Bedworth ratio are shown in the Table below:

Metal Metal Oxide Oxide MWmetal n P-B


Density DenSi}y
(mg/m3 ) (Mg/m )

Ag 10.49 Ag 0 7.143 107.868 231. 736 2 1.578


Ba 3.5 Ba8 5.72 137.3 153.3 1 0.683
Ca 1. 55 CaD 3.30 40.08 56.08 1 0.657
Ce 6.689 Ce 0 6.86 140.12 328.24 2 1. 142
Co 8.832 Co8 3 6.45 58.93 74.93 1 1. 741
Mo 10.22 MoO 6.47 95.94 127.94 1 2.106
Na 0.967 Na 8 2.27 22.99 61. 98 2 0.574
Nb 8.57 Nb2 0 4.47 92.91 265.82 2 2.743
Sn 5.765 sn8 5 6.446 118 69 134.69 1 1.015
Zr 6.505 ZrO2 5.6 91.22 123.22 1 1. 569

For metal oxide systems that have a P-B ratio less than one, a
flakey non-adherent oxide is expected. This is the case for Ba, Ca
and Na.

255
For metal oxide systems that have a P-B ratio greater than two, a
porous, non-protective oxide is expected. This is the case for Mo
and Nb.

For metal oxide systems that have a P-B ratio between one and two, a
relatively protective oxide is expected, as for Ag, Ce, Co, Sn and
Zr.

36. When palladium is oxidized at 1480C, 0.1 mg of Pd metal is lost per


square centimeter per hour. At 604C, only 0.0001 mg is lost per square
centimeter per hour. (a) Assuming that oxidation is controlled by the
diffusion of Pd ions through the oxide, calculate the activation energy
for the diffusion of Pd in PdO. (b)Suppose a 10 cm x 10 cm foil of Pd is
placed into an oxidizing atmosphere at 1000C for 10 days. Calculate the
amount of Pd that is oxidized. Remember that oxidation occurs from both
sides of the foil.

(a) To determine the activation energy, we assume an


Arrhenius relationship: rate = exp(-QlRT)
0.0001 mg/cm2 .h _ exp[-Q/(8.31) (604 +273)]
0.1 mg/cm2.h - exp[-Q(8.31) (1480 + 273)1
exp(-0.00013721Q)
exp(-0.00006865Q)

0.001 = exp[-(0.00013721 - 0.00006865)Q] exp(-0.00006856Q)

In(O.OOl) = -6.9077553 -0.00006856 Q

Q = 100.8 kJ/mol

(b) Since oxidation occurs from both sides of the foil, !he area
that is exposed is (2 sides)(10 cm x 10 cm) = 200 cm

rate
(f.""1 = exp[-100800/(8.31) (1000
exp( 100800/(8.31)(1480
+ 273)]
+ 273) 1
exp(-9.528)
exp(-6.980)
7.274 x 10-5
= 0.0736 mg/cm2.h
9.878 x 10-4

rate = 0.007356 mg/cm2.h


amount = (0.00736)(200 cm2 ) (10 d)(24 hid) = 353.46 mg

37. Suppose a 100 cm2 surface area of copper is exposed to an oxidizing


atmosphere at an elevated temperature. After 1 h, 1 X 10-7 cm of copper
has oxidized; after 1000 h, 3. 164 X 10- 8 cm has oxidized; and after
100,000 h, 3.164 X 10-5 cm has oxidized. (a) Determine from the data
whether oxidation follows a linear, parabolic, or logarithmic pattern.
(b) Calculate the total weight loss of copper after 1 year.

(a) If we assume a parabolic relationship, then the calculated "k"


in the equation y = kt should be the same for each time.

1 hr: k = y2/t = (1 x 10-6 mm)2/(3600 s) 2.78 X 10-16 mm2/s

103 hr: k = y2/t = (3.164 x 10-5 )2/(10 3 )(3600) 2.78 x 10-16 mm 2/s

256
The relationship is parabolic.

(b) t = (1 year)9365 days/year) (24 h/day) (3600 s/h) = 3.1535 x 107s

Y= I (2.78 x 10
-18 7
cm/s) (3.1536 x 10 s) = 9.36 x 10
-6
cm

w = (9.36 X 10-6 cm)(100 cm2 ) (8.93 g/cm3) = 0.00836 g


o
38. A newly developed stainless steel was tested at 500C in an oxygen
atmosphere. Aftel 10,000 s, a weight gain ~f 0.62 g/m2 was measured;
after 40,000 s, the weight gain was 1.24 g/m; and after 90,000 s, the
gain was 1. 86 g/m2 (a) Determine from the data whether oxidation
follows a linear, parabolic or logarithmic pattern. (b) Explain why
there is a weight gain.

(a) If we assume a parabolic relationship, then the calculated "k"


in the equation y = ill should be the same for each time.
Although we do not have the values for thickness, the thickness
will be directly related to the weight change.

10,000 s: k = w2 /t (0.62 g/m2 )/(10,OOO s) 3.844 x 10-5 g/(m2 s)

40,000 s: k = w2 /t (1.24 g/m2 )/(40, 000 s) 3.844 x 10-5 g/(m2 s)

90,000 s: k = w2 /t (1.86 g/m2 )/(90,OOO s) 3.844 x 10-5 g/(m2 s)

The relationship is parabolic.

(b) When the metal reacts with oxygen to produce the oxide film
more material is deposited onto the sample. Therefore the
sample weight includes the metal plus the oxide, leading to a
net gain in weight.

39. Fiber-reinforced polymers have better resistance to sliding wear than


unreinforced polymers. Would you expect the orientation of the fibers to
have an effect on wear resistance? (See Figure 20-25.) Which would be
most effective - normal, longitudinal, or transverse fibers? Explain.
Would the aspect ratio of the fibers be important? Explain.

The orientation of the fibers will have an effect on wear


resistance. The longitudinally aligned fibers will provide the best
wear resistance. In addition, the aspect ratio will be important,
with a larger aspect ratio providing better resistance to wear.

40. A nylon cylinder 250 mm in diameter slides continuously against a steel


housing under a load of 110 N. The cylinder rotates at 250 rpm. (a)
Calculate the length of time before 0.25 mm of 6,6 nylon is worn from the
surface of the cylinder. (b) Calculate the time if 18% PTFE is added to
the nylon.

(a) The change in volume that occurs when 0.25 mm is worn from the
surface is:

257
d
o
= 250 mm df = 250 - 2(0.25) = 249.5 mm

V10S S per m = [(n/4)(0.25 m)2 - (n/4) (0.2495)2] (1 m)


1.962 x 10-4 m3 = 1.962 x 105 mm3
velocity v (circumference)(rpm) = n(0.25)(250)
196.3 mlmin = 1.963 x 105 mmlmin
kny 1on = 414 X 10-8 mm3 INm
t = Vloss lkFv
. = 1.962 X 105 mm3 /(414 x 10-8 mm3 /Nm)(110 N)(196.3 mlmin)

= 2.19 X 106 min = 36,600 hours

(b) k ny 1onIPTFE = 12 x 10-8 mm3 INm


t = Vloss kFv
1.962 x 105 mm3 /(12 x 10-8 /Nm) (110 N)(196.3 mlmin)
1,263,000 hours

258
Chapter 21

FAILURE - ORIGIN, DETECTION, AND PREVENTION

1. Figure 21-32 is a photograph of a 31.75 mm diameter axle from an


automobile; after an accident, the axle was found to be broken. From the
photograph, determine the mechanism by which the axle fractured and the
location at which fracture began (express by the angle measured clockwise
from the top of the photograph). What is the probable cause for the
accident?

There are chevron patterns on either side of the axle, pointing


directly towards the bottom of the photograph, which is where the
fracture initiated. The presence of the chevron pattern suggests
that fracture occurred in a brittle manner. The axle most certainly
broke as a result of the impact when the automobile crashed.

2. Figure 21-33 shows the fracture surface of a coil spring made from a 6.35
mm diameter steel rod. From the photograph, determine the mechanism by
which the axle fractured and the location at which fracture began
(express by the angle measured clockwise from the top of the photograph).

A smooth fracture appearance that has initiated at about 10


counterclockwise from the top of the photograph is apparent. This
appearance suggests that the fracture is a result of fatigue.
During use of the spring, cyclical stresses are applied. The spring
was either overloaded or some type of defect was present that
concentrated the applied stresses. In this particular case, a
longitudinal seam was introduced during manufacture that served as a
stress raiser.

3. Figure 21-34 shows the end of a steel wire used to reinforce an


automobile tyre. From the appearance of the wire, determine the
mechanism by which the wire fractured.

The wire shows some degree of necking. This suggests that the wire
has some degree of ductility and that the wire failed as a result of
a tensile overload, possibly when the tire operated in a deflated
condition.

4. Figure 21-35 shows a diagram of a pin and hanger strap assembly used on a
bridge. The bridge connection is designed in such a manner that as the
ambient temperature changes, the resulting expansion or contraction of
the bridge can occur by rotation of the pin. The pin failed, as
indicated, and a cross section of the pin is also shown. Discuss the
probable mechanism for fracture and how this fracture came about.

The pin was unable to rotate, which caused a cyclical torsional


overload to be placed on the pin during movement of the bridge in
response to temperature changes. Eventually the pin failed as a
result of this overload, perhaps by simple overload or perhaps by
fatigue.

259
The real reason for the failure was corrosion, which eventually
froze the pin and prevented its movement. The corrosion eventually
caused a groove to be eroded from the pin, reducing the section size
of the pin and therefore increasing the stresses acting on the pin,
permitting easier fracture. The corrosion was a result of exposure
of the pin assembly to the environment and was accelerated due to
use of salts on the bridge to prevent icing during the winter.

5. A steel shaft in an automotive water pump rotates on steel ball bearings.


The shaft fractured, causing the fan blade that was attached to the shaft
to injure a mechanic adjusting the engine of the automobile. On
inspection, the shaft was found to have fractured at a groove in which
the balls rotated (Figure 21-36). Severe deformation of the metal had
occurred in this groove. Discuss some of the possible causes for this
fracture.

From the appearance of the shaft, it is apparent that the shaft was
overheated, losing its strength. The ball was then forced into the
softened shaft, the bearing seized and the high forces that resulted
caused the water pump to disintegrate. One of the possible causes
for the overheating and fracture might be lack of lubrication in the
bearing; other causes might be use of the incorrect water pump or
misassembly of the water pump in the automobile.

6. Determine (a) the mass absorption coefficient and (b) the linear
absorption coefficient for a Cu-30% Ni alloy. Be sure to use atomic
fraction.
(30/58.71 g/mol)
atY. Nl (30/58.71 g/mol) + (70/63.54 g/mol)
x 100 31.686

P fNiP Nl + fCuPCu
(0.31686)(8.902 Mg/m 3 ) + (0.68314)(8.93 Mg/m3 ) 8.921 Mg/m3

(a) Mass absorption coefficient:

~ = fNi~i + fcu~Cu

= (0.31686)(31.0 m2 /Mg) + (0.68314)(32.5 m21Mg)

(b) Linear absorption coefficient:


~ - P~m = (8.921 Mg/m3 ) (32.0 m2 1Mg)

7. A gas bubble 2 mm in diameter is located in a 2 cm thick aluminum


casting. Compare the intensity of an X-ray beam transmitted through the
section containing the bubble with the intensity of a beam transmitted
through the section containing no defect.

The absorption coefficient is so small in air compared to aluminum


that we can ignore the effect of air. Therefore x = 1.8 mm at the
bubble and x = 20 mm where the bubble is not present:

I bubb Ie I oexp[-(15.6)(2. 7)(18 x 10-3 ]

Isolid I oexp[-(15.60(2.7) (20 x 10- 3 ]

260
loexp(-0.75816) 0.4685
I exp(-0.8424) - 0.4307
o

Ibubble/lsolid = 1.088
8. A 1 mm diameter tungsten inclusion is located in a 10 mm thick aluminum
weld. Compare the intensity of the X-ray beam transmitted through the
section containing the inclusion with the intensity of a beam transmitted
through the section containing no defect.

I exp[-(15.6)(2.7)(9 x 10- 3 ) + (288)(19.3)(1 x 10-3 )


I inclusion o

Isolid

linclusion exp(-5.93748) 0.002639 = 0 004


Isolid exp(-0.4212) 0.6563 .

9. The sensitivity when radiographing a 18.75 mm thick iron plate is 2.5%.


Calculate (a) the smallest flaw that can be detected and (b) the ratio
formed by the intensity of the beam transmitted through the smallest flaw
divided by the intensity of the beam passing through the solid plate.

(a) sensitivity = (~x/x) x 100 = 2.5


~x = (2.5x)/l00 2.5 x 18.75 x 10-3 /100
0.4688 x 10- 3 m

Idiscontinuity exp[-(26.5)(7.87)(18.75 - 0.4688)(10- 3 )]


liron exp[-(26.5)(7.87)(18.75 x 10-3 )
exp(-3.8126) 0.02209 =1 1030
exp( 3.9104) 0.02003 .

10. Based on Table 21-1, determine the relationship between mass absorption
coefficient and atomic number Z for X-rays with A 0.098 A. Is a
similar relationship obtained for the absorption of neutrons?

261
The sketch shows how the 500
mass absorption coefficient
varies with the atomic number
for the elements given in the
table for X rays with a
wavelength of 0.098 A. For 100
elements with a low atomic e
number, the mass absorption ~

coefficient is nearly a 50
constant (approximately
15 mZIMg). For higher

~
atomic number elements,
the mass absorption ,.1
coefficient increases with 10 1
about the square of the 10 100
atomic number. Z

There is not a similar relationship for neutrons.

11. What percentage of the incident X-ray beam is transmitted through (a) a 3
cm thick magnesium plate, (b) a 3 cm magnesium plate containing a 2 cm
long, 0.01 cm thick crack perpendicular to the beam. and (c) a 3 cm
magnesium plate containing a 2 cm long, 0.01 cm thick crack parallel to
the beam.

(a) I/i exp[- 15.2)(1.74)(3 x 10-z) exp(-0.79344)


o
= 0.4523 or 45.23%

(b) I/i
o
= exp[-(15.2)(1.74)(2.99 x 10-z) = exp(-0.790755)
= 0.4535 or 45.35%
(c) 1/10 = exp[-(15.2)(1.74)(1 x 10-z) = exp(-0.26448)
= 0.7676 or 76.76%

12. Aluminum is reinforced with 50 vol% boron fibers each 0.005 cm in


diameter. if the fiber-reinforced composite is 0.5 cm thick. determine
the ratio of the intensities of an X-ray beam transmitted through a
cracked fiber and through the remainder of the composite. Would you
expect that a broken fiber could be easily detected by X-ray radiography?

Isolid/Io exp[-(15.6)(2.7)(0.25 x 10-z ) - (13.8)(2.3)(0.25 x 10-z)]

exp(-0.18465) = 0.8314 or 83.14%

Icrack/Io exp[-(15.6)(2.7)(0.25 x 10-z ) - (13.8)(2.3)(0.25-0.005)(10-z )

= exp(-0.18306) = 0.8327 or 83.27%

It is unlikely that the broken fiber could easily be detected by X-ray


radiography.

262
13. A laminar composite material composed of a 3 cm thick copper plate bonded
to a 0.5 cm thick lead sheet is then rolled to a final thickness of 0.25
cm. Calculate (a) the intensity of a transmitted X-ray beam before
rolling and (b) the intensity after rolling. Describe how a radiographic
technique could be used to control the thickness of a rolled material.

(a) Before rolling

III exp[-(350)(11.34)(0.5 x 10- 2 ) - (32.5)(8.96)(3 x 10- 2 )


o
exp(-28.581) = 3.87 x 10-13

(b) After rolling

III exp[-(350)(11.34)(0.5/3.5)(0.25 x 10- 2 )


o
- (0.325)(8.96)(3/3.5)(0.25 x 10- 2 )
exp(-2.0415) = 0.1298
By monitoring the intensity of the radiation passing through
the material, some indication of the thickness could be
obtained. The intensity could then be used as a control to
open or close the rolls to alter the thickness if desired.

14. Often the intensity of a radiation source and the absorption capability
of a material are related by the half value layer (HVL). This is the
thickness of the material that will reduce the intensity of a radiation
beam by half. Calculate the HVL for aluminum and iron using (a) tungsten
X-rays, (b) cobalt 60 gamma rays, and (c) neutrons.

III exp(-~px) or
o
x = HVL = -(1/~p)ln(0.5) = 0.693147/~p
Aluminum: HVL = 0.0693147/(~)(2.7)
HVLX-rays 0.693147/(15.6)(2.7) 0.016456 m
Hn
gamma rays 0.693147/(5.5)(2.7) 0.046677 m

HVLneutrons
0.693147/(3.0)(2.7) 0.085574 m

Iron: Hn = 0.693147/(~)(7.87)
HVL 0.693147/(26.5)(7.87) 0.003324 m
X-rays
HVL
gamma rays 0.693147/(5.5)(7.87) 0.16014 m

Hnneutrons 0.693147/(1.5)(7.87) 0.58716 m

15. Radium has a half life of 1620 years. Calculate (a) the decay constant
for radium and (b) the percentage of the radium source intensity
remaining after 25 years.

In(I/I ) -At
o

263
(a) A = -(l/t)ln(I/I o ) = -(1/1620)ln(0.5) = 4.2787 x 10
-4
y
-1

(b) 1/1
o
exp[-(4.2787 x 10-4 )(25)] = 0.989 or 98.9%

16. The intensity of a thulium 170 source is 76% of its original value after
50 days. Calculate (a) the decay constant and (b) the half-life of
thulium.

1/10 exp(-At) or In(I/I o ) = -At


(~) A -(l/t)ln(I/I o ) -(1/50)ln(0.76) = 0.005489 day-1
(b) t -(l/A)ln(I/I o ) -(1/0.005489)ln(0.5) = 126.28 days

17. Calculate the thin-rod ultrasonic velocity in aluminum, copper and lead
and compare with the velocity in bulk materials given in Table 21-3.
Note: Equation 21-4 is incorrect. The correct equation is:
tI = iETp

3720 m S-1

The thin rod values are all lower than those in the bulk material.

18. An ultrasonic pulse introduced into a 125 mm thick lead block returns to
the transducer in 1.0 x 10-4 s. Is there a flaw in the lead block? if
so at what depth beneath the surface is the flaw located?

The distance that the pulse travelled is:

tI = x/t or x = tit = (1.96 x 103 )(1 x 10-4 ) = 0.196 m = 196 mm

However, if no flaw was present, the pulse should have travelled 2


x 125 = 250 mm. There must be a flaw located 196 + 2 = 98 mm
beneath the surface.

19. An ultrasonic pulse introduced into a 100 mm thick polymer material


returns to the transducer in 9.4 x 10-5 s. Calculate the ultrasonic
velocity in the material.

tI = x/t = (200 x 10-3 m)/(9.4 x 10-5 ) s) = 2128 m/s

20. An ultrasonic pulse is introduced into a thin rod of a material 250 mm


long. A pulse returns in 3.3 x 10- 4 s. if the density of the material
is measured to be 1.33 Mg/m3 , estimate the modulus of elasticity of the
material.

264
v = x/t = VE7P
E (p)(X/t)2 = (1.33 x 103 )(500 X 10- 3 )/(3.3 X 10- 4 )2 = 3.05 GPa

21. Figure 21-37 shows the oscilloscope trace of an ultrasonic inspection of


t.he 125 mm wall of a stainless steel pressure vessel. (a) Calculate the
ultrasonic velocity in the stainless steel. (b) Is a flaw present? if
so, at what depth beneath the surface of the steel is the flaw located?

(a) The final return peak at 4.4 X 10- 5 s represents the reflection
off of the opposite side of the stainless steel wall. The
pulse must therefore have travelled a total of 250 mm.

v = (250 x 10- 3 m) I (4.4 x 10- 5 s) = 5682 mls

(b) There is another peak that occurs after 2.2 x 10-5 s. This must
represent a flaw. The distance below the surface is:

x = vt = (5.682 x 103 )(2.2 x 10-5 s) = 0.125 m = 125 mm


depth below the surface = 62.5 mm

22. Two sheets of nickel are sandwiched about a core of copper, giving a
laminar composite that is 37.5 mm thick. An ultrasonic pulse is
introduced into the composite plate; return pulses are observed at 0.844
x 10- 5 s, 0.981 X 10-5 s, and 1.297 x 10-5 s. Estimate the thicknesses
of the copper core and each of the nickel sheets.

vt = (6.02
x 103 )(0.844 x 10-5 ) = 50.8 mm
(4.63 x - 0.844) x (1 x 10-5 ) = 6.34 mm
103 )(0.981
vt = (6.02 x 103 )(1.297 - 0.981) x (1 x 10-5 ) = 19.0 mm

Thicknesses are therefore: Ni-1 25.4 mm


Cu 3.17 mm
Ni-2 9.50 mm

23. A laminar composite is produced from 50 mm thick stainless steel and 5 mm


thick polymer. In a thro~~h-transmission ultrasonic test, a pulse is
received after 1.135 x 10 s. Calculate the ultrasonic velocity in the
polymer.

t = (xlv) stainless + (xlv)


polymer

1.135 x 10- 5 = (50 x 10-3 /5.74 x 103 ) + (5 x 10-3 /v)


v = 1890 m s-1

24. We would like to monitor the thickness of 0.02 mm of silver foil using a
resonance ultrasonic test. What frequency must we select if we want to
produce 9 half-wavelengths in the foil?

9(;\/2) (9)v/2v = (9)(3.63 x 103 )/2v = 0.02 x 10-3 m

Thus v (9)(3.63 ~ 103 )/(2)(0.02 x 10-3 )


8.17 x 10 Hz

265
25. A resonance ultrasonic test is used to determi~e the thickness of a glass
enamel on cast iron. A frequency of 22.2 x 10 Hz is required to produce
3 half-wavelengths in the enamel. What is the enamel thickness?

~= v/v = (5.64 x 103 )(22.2 x 106 ) = 2.54 X 10-4 m


~2 = 2.54 x 10-4 /2 = 1.27 x 10-4 m
x = 3(~2) = 3(1.27 x 10-4 m = 0.381 mm
26. Figure 21-38 shows the results of ultrasonic inspection of ductile cast
iron (See Chapter 12) for different heat treatments and for different
degrees of nodularity, or roundness, of the graphite. Explain why the
heat treatment and nodularity might affect the ultrasonic velocity.

As the nodularity increases, the velocity also increases because the


rounder graphite does not scatter the pulse as easily as would flake
graphite.

27. Describe how the shape of the graphite in a cast iron treated with
different amounts of magnesium might affect the attenuation in a
through-transmission ultrasonic test.

As the magnesium increases, the attenuation decreases because of the


change in graphite shape from flake to spheroidal.

28. Describe how thermography might detect lack of bonding between the cover
sheets and the cells in a honeycomb structure.

At locations of poor bonding, conduction of the heat is interrupted


and these areas become hotter, thereby becoming visible to
thermography.

29. Which of the following non-destructive tests would not be suitable for
inspecting ~lumina (A~ 0 ) for surface cracks oriented perpendicular to
the surface - X-ray raaiography, ultrasonic inspection, eddy current
inspection, magnetic particle inspection, dye penetrant inspection?
Explain.

X-ray diffraction and dye penetrant inspection would be possible


techniques.

Ultrasonic inspection would not be suitable because the crack is


parallel to the pulse and therefore no return pulse would be
generated; eddy current inspection is not possible because alumina
is not conductive; magnetic particle inspection is not suitable
because alumina is not magnetic.

30. Describe a test that might be used to count the number of wires in a wire
rope that will break when a given load is applied.

Acoustic emission would be a possible choice. Each time a wire


breaks, the fracture would be detected by the receiver and could be
counted.

31. The center of an aluminum casting 50 mm thick contains shrinkage in the


form of many small, disconnected pores. Would the following inspection
techniques locate the porosity? Explain for each case.

266
Through-transmission ultrasonic inspection: A greater attenuation
of the pulse would be observed as the pulse travels through the
shrinkage region; therefore the porosity could be detected.

Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection: Some reflected pulse signal may


return to the transducer to allow for the detection of the
shrinkage.

Eddy current inspection: This is not suitable since the shrinkage


is in the center of the casting, while eddy current inspection is
best suited for surface inperfections.

Magnetic particle inspection: This is not suitable because aluminum


is not magnetic.

X-ray radiography: This would be suitable due to the difference in


absorption coefficient between the metal and the shrinkage voids.

Rockwell hardness testing: This is not suitable, since the hardness


is measured only at the surface.

32. Which of the following inspection techniques might locate quench cracks
produced when a high-carbon steel plate is rapidly quenched? Explain for
each case.

Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection: It would be difficult to detect


the cracks, since the quench cracks are often quite small and are
perpendicular to the surface (or parallel to the ultrasonic pulse).

Eddy current inspection: This is good technique for detecting small


cracks at or near the surface.

Magnetic particle inspection with the probe method: This is a good


technique for detecting small cracks at or near the surface in
steels.

X-ray radiography: This method is suitable, provided that the plate


is not too thick and the cracks are not too small.

Acoustic emission: The presence of the cracks should be detectable


by this method.

33. Which of the following inspection techniques might be effective as a


means to assure that a 0.002 cm thick nickel plating is present on a zinc
casting? Explain for each case ..

Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection: Although a return signal from the


zinc-nickel interface might occur, it would be very difficult to
detect it and separate it from the initial pulse.

X-ray radiography: This is not suitable; although there may be some


difference in exposure with and without the nickel coating, the
difference is probably too small to normally detect or use as a
control method.

267
Acoustic emission: Unless the interface between the nickel and zinc
is very poor, there should be no indications when a test stress is
applied that nickel is or is not present.

Eddy current inspection: This might be acceptable. The nickel


plating may influence the electromagnetic field set up by the eddy
current probe and allow a difference to be detected.

Electromagnetic testing: Nickel is ferromagnetic while zinc is not.


Therefore electromagnetic testing should be able to tell us if any
nickel coating is or is not present.

34. Which of the following inspection techniques might be effective in


detecting whether an austenitic stainless steel contains between 5% and
10% ferrite? Explain for each case.

Through-transmission ultrasonic inspection: Unless the amount of


ferrite causes a significant attenuation in the ultrasonic pulse,
this should not be a useful test.

Acoustic emission: This. should not be a useful test; the


application of the test stress should not affect the microstructure.

Electromagnetic testing: The ferrite is ferromagnetic while the


austenite matrix is not ferromagnetic; therefore if the steel is
magnetic, some ferrite is present. By measuring the strength of the
magnetic field, the amount of ferrite can be determined.

Magnetic particle testing: This is used to detect imperfections in


the material, not microstructure.

Eddy current inspection: It might be possible to set up test


conditions to estimate the presence and even the amount of ferrite,
since the microstructure will influence the type of electromagnetic
response of the material to the eddy current probe.

35. Safety glass might be produced by Joining two sheets of glass with a thin
layer of thermoplastic polymer. Which of the following inspection
techniques might be effective in determining if bonding between the glass
sheets is complete? Explain for each case.

Electromagnetic testing; Neither glass nor polymer are


ferromagnetic therefore this test will not be useful.

Eddy current inspection: neither glass not polymer are electrically


conductive: again this test will not be useful.

Thermography: This test should work; concentration of heat will


occur at locations of incomplete bonding between glass and polymer.

Magnetic particle inspection: neither the glass nor the polymer are
magnetic; therefore this test will not be useful.

X-ray radiography: Generally we would expect, due to the geometry,


to find the X-ray beam perpendicular to the glass-polymer interface.
Therefore the thickness of any lack of bonding would be extremely
small and probably would not be detectable.

268