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# Wing

Airfoil selection

## Aerodynamic characteristics (Kmax, CLmax,

stall characteristics)
Structural reasons;

1
Airfoil geometry

Airfoil geometry
Camber line
edge thickness

Trailing
edge
Maximum
Maximum camber
thickness
position Maximum camber
position

2
Angle of attack definition

AoA
V

Stall
AoA=0
Separation point

AoA=10

AoA=15

AoA=20

3
Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics
Lift coefficient (Cz or CL) Drag coefficient (Cx or CD )
C L MAX Stall

dC l /d a
0

KR

## Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics

Design Cz

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Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics
Gliding ratio (Cz / Cx) Power factor
(Cz3 / Cx2 lub Cz1,5 /Cx)

## Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics

Pitching moment coefficient Cm

Derivative dCm/dCz
is an indicator of
stability.

It is negative for
stable aeroplanes
and positive for
unstable aeroplanes.

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Maximum thickness t/c

Maximum
thickness - t

Chord - c

## Effect of airfoil thickness on lift coefficient

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

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Effect of airfoil thickness on lift coefficient

## Effect of airfoil thickness on drag coefficient

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

7
Effect of airfoil thickness on gliding ratio

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

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Camber
Camber line

Maximum
camber

## Effect of airfoil camber on lift coefficient

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

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Effect of airfoil camber on drag coefficient

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

## Effect of airfoil camber on gliding ratio

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

10
Effect of airfoil camber on power factor

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

## Effect of airfoil camber on moment coefficient

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

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Position of maximum thickness

Maximum
thickness

Position of
maximum
thickness

## Boundary layer development

laminar turbulent

separated

transition

separation

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Effect of airfoil laminarity on drag coefficient
15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

## Effect of airfoil laminarity on lift coefficient

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

13
Effect of camber line shape on moment coefficient
0
35%

28%

22%

15%

35% 0%

2%

4%

6%

28%

22%

15%

14
Reynolds
number effect on
aerodynamic
coefficients

Effect of
Mach
number on
lift
coefficient

15
Effect of
Mach
number
on drag
coefficient

coefficient

16
Critical Mach
number

## Historical values of an aeroplane airfoil thickness

as a function of Mach number

17
Critical Mach
number

Critical Mach
number

18
Calculate Reynolds number for design airspeed
Airfoil selection
Re>3 000 000 3 000 000>Re>500 000 500 000>Re

## Calculate Mach number Wortmann catalogue Selig catalogue

for maximum airspeed Stuttgarter Summary of low speed
Profilkatalog Vol.1 i 2 airfoil data Vol.1-3
Airfoils at low speeds
Mmax>0,75

## Supercritical airfoil eg. NASA SC(2) 714

NASA TM X-1109
Mmax<0,75
NASA TM X-2977
NASA TP 2969

Abbot catalogue Theory of the wing section, raport NACA 824, NASA TN D-7428

## Calculate Reynolds number for design Airfoil

airspeed
selection
Find characteristics for Redes i Mdes

## Calculate CL for design airspeed

Compare CD for CLdes of available airfoils and select few best airfoils

## Select an airfoil with a combination of above features best suiting to the

aeroplane mission

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Remaining wing features
Wing incidence;
Mean aerodynamic chord mac, c
Wing area (reference area) S;
Wing span b;
Wing aspect ratio A;
Wing dihedral;
Wing sweep angle (leading edge LE,
quarter chord c/4);
Taper ratio ;
Geometrical and aerodynamic twist;
Winglets

## An angle between root chord and fuselage

longitudinal axis

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Taper ratio
b/2

cT
cR S
=
cT cR

W
S=
W/S
Straight wings:
b = AS =0.40.5
2S
cR = Swept wings:
[b (1 + )]
=0.20.3
cT = cR

## Mean aerodynamic chord mac, c

2
c = c ROOT
(1 + + 2);
3 (1 + )
cR
0,25mac
cR

b
Y = [(1 + 2 )(1 + )];
c
6
cT
cT

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Vortices generated by a wing

## Vortices generated by a wing and effect

of aspect ratio on drag coefficient

b2 CL2
A= CD = CD0 +
S Ae

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Effect of aspect ratio (A, AR) on lift
coefficient
A
CL = Cl
2
Cl Cl
+ + A 2

Helmbolt equation

b2
A=
S

Wing dihedral

b1 b2
b3<b1=b2<b4

b3

b4
Wing position
Wing dihedral angle low mid high
an angle between Unswept 57 24 02
chords plane and Subsonic swept 37 -2 2 -5-2
horizontal plane Supersonic swept 05 -5 0 -5 0

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Wing sweep LE , c / 4 , t / c

c/4 LE

## Line connecting quarter

chords along the wing span

Wing sweep
LE)
Meff=Mcos(

LE)
Mkryt~1/cosm(

## Wing sweep reduces

effective Mach number.
M

LE LE
Mcos

t/c
LE)
qeff=qcos2(

LE)
W~tan2(

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Wing sweep effect on dCL/d

dCL 2 A
=
d tan 2 ( t / c )
2 + 4 + (A ) 1 +

2

= 1 M eff
2

M eff = M cos LE

## Wing sweep effect on separation

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Wing sweep at supersonic speeds

Winglets

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Wing twist

Aerodynamic twist
Geometric twist

Wing twist

Aerodynamic twist

Geometric twist

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Delta wings

AoA