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Wing

Airfoil selection

Aerodynamic characteristics (Kmax, CLmax,


stall characteristics)
Structural reasons;

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Airfoil geometry

Airfoil geometry
Camber line
Leading Chord Maximum
edge thickness

Trailing
edge
Maximum
Maximum camber
thickness
position Maximum camber
position

2
Angle of attack definition

AoA
V

Stall
AoA=0
Separation point

AoA=10

AoA=15

AoA=20

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Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics
Lift coefficient (Cz or CL) Drag coefficient (Cx or CD )
C L MAX Stall

dC l /d a
0

KR

Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics

Design Cz

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Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics
Gliding ratio (Cz / Cx) Power factor
(Cz3 / Cx2 lub Cz1,5 /Cx)

Airfoil aerodynamic characteristics


Pitching moment coefficient Cm

Derivative dCm/dCz
is an indicator of
stability.

It is negative for
stable aeroplanes
and positive for
unstable aeroplanes.

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Maximum thickness t/c

Maximum
thickness - t

Chord - c

Effect of airfoil thickness on lift coefficient

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

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Effect of airfoil thickness on lift coefficient

Effect of airfoil thickness on drag coefficient

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

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Effect of airfoil thickness on gliding ratio

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

Effect of airfoil thickness on power factor

6%
8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

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Camber
Camber line

Maximum
camber

Effect of airfoil camber on lift coefficient

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

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Effect of airfoil camber on drag coefficient

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

Effect of airfoil camber on gliding ratio

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

10
Effect of airfoil camber on power factor

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

Effect of airfoil camber on moment coefficient

0%

0,5%

1%

1,5%

2%

2,5%

3%

3,5%

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Position of maximum thickness

Maximum
thickness

Position of
maximum
thickness

Boundary layer development

laminar turbulent

separated

transition

separation

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Effect of airfoil laminarity on drag coefficient
15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

Effect of airfoil laminarity on lift coefficient


15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

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Effect of camber line shape on moment coefficient
0
35%

28%

22%

15%

Effect of camber line shape on gliding ratio


35% 0%

2%

4%

6%

28%

22%

15%

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Reynolds
number effect on
aerodynamic
coefficients

Effect of
Mach
number on
lift
coefficient

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Effect of
Mach
number
on drag
coefficient

Effect of Mach number on moment


coefficient

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Critical Mach
number

Historical values of an aeroplane airfoil thickness


as a function of Mach number

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Critical Mach
number

Critical Mach
number

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Calculate Reynolds number for design airspeed
Airfoil selection
Re>3 000 000 3 000 000>Re>500 000 500 000>Re

Calculate Mach number Wortmann catalogue Selig catalogue


for maximum airspeed Stuttgarter Summary of low speed
Profilkatalog Vol.1 i 2 airfoil data Vol.1-3
Airfoils at low speeds
Mmax>0,75

Supercritical airfoil eg. NASA SC(2) 714


NASA TM X-1109
Mmax<0,75
NASA TM X-2977
NASA TP 2969

Abbot catalogue Theory of the wing section, raport NACA 824, NASA TN D-7428

Calculate Reynolds number for design Airfoil


airspeed
selection
Find characteristics for Redes i Mdes

Calculate CL for design airspeed

Compare CD for CLdes of available airfoils and select few best airfoils

Compare CLmax of selected airfoils

Compare stall character of selected airfoils

Compare CM of selected airfoils

Select an airfoil with a combination of above features best suiting to the


aeroplane mission

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Remaining wing features
Wing incidence;
Mean aerodynamic chord mac, c
Wing area (reference area) S;
Wing span b;
Wing aspect ratio A;
Wing dihedral;
Wing sweep angle (leading edge LE,
quarter chord c/4);
Taper ratio ;
Geometrical and aerodynamic twist;
Winglets
Leading edges extensions;

Wing incidence angle

An angle between root chord and fuselage


longitudinal axis

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Taper ratio
b/2

cT
cR S
=
cT cR

W
S=
W/S
Straight wings:
b = AS =0.40.5
2S
cR = Swept wings:
[b (1 + )]
=0.20.3
cT = cR

Mean aerodynamic chord mac, c

2
c = c ROOT
(1 + + 2);
3 (1 + )
cR
0,25mac
cR

b
Y = [(1 + 2 )(1 + )];
c
6
cT
cT

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Vortices generated by a wing

Vortices generated by a wing and effect


of aspect ratio on drag coefficient

b2 CL2
A= CD = CD0 +
S Ae

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Effect of aspect ratio (A, AR) on lift
coefficient
A
CL = Cl
2
Cl Cl
+ + A 2

Helmbolt equation

b2
A=
S

Wing dihedral

b1 b2
b3<b1=b2<b4

b3

b4
Wing position
Wing dihedral angle low mid high
an angle between Unswept 57 24 02
chords plane and Subsonic swept 37 -2 2 -5-2
horizontal plane Supersonic swept 05 -5 0 -5 0

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Wing sweep LE , c / 4 , t / c

tan LE = tan c / 4 + [(1 ) / A (1 + )]

c/4 LE

Line connecting quarter


chords along the wing span

Wing sweep
LE)
Meff=Mcos(

LE)
Mkryt~1/cosm(

Wing sweep reduces


effective Mach number.
M

LE LE
Mcos

t/c
LE)
qeff=qcos2(

LE)
W~tan2(

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Wing sweep effect on dCL/d

dCL 2 A
=
d tan 2 ( t / c )
2 + 4 + (A ) 1 +

2

= 1 M eff
2

M eff = M cos LE

Wing sweep effect on separation

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Wing sweep at supersonic speeds

Winglets

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Wing twist

Aerodynamic twist
Geometric twist

Wing twist

Aerodynamic twist

Geometric twist

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Delta wings

AoA

Leading
Edge
eXtensions

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LEX effect on lift coefficient

RAF Museum Hendon


Vortex generators

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