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Fundamentals

2.1 b 2.19 a

2.2 a 2.20 A. c

2.3 c B. a

2.4 a C. b

2.5 b 2.21 a

2.6 c 2.22 a

2.7 a 2.23 b

2.8 c 2.24 a

2.9 a 2.25 a

2.10 c 2.26 b

2.11 a 2.27 a

2.12 b 2.28 b

2.13 b 2.29 a

2.14 c 2.30 (i) c

2.15 a (ii) b

2.16 b (iii) a

2.17 A. a (iv) d

B. b 2.31 a

C. a 2.32 a

2.18 c

1

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2.1 (a) A1 = 530 = 5 [ cos30 + j sin 30] = 4.33 + j 2.5

4

(b) A2 = 3 + j 4 = 9 + 16 tan 1 = 5 126.87 = 5e j126.87

3

(c) A3 = ( 4.33 + j 2.5 ) + ( 3 + j 4 ) = 1.33 + j 6.5 = 6.63578.44

(d) A4 = ( 530 )( 5 126.87 ) = 25 156.87 = 22.99 + j 9.821

(e) A5 = ( 530 ) / ( 5 126.87 ) = 1156.87 = 1 e j156.87

(b) i(t ) = 5sin ( t + 15 ) = 5cos ( t + 15 90 ) = 5cos ( t 75 )

I = 5

= 3.743 j 6.244 = 7.28 59.06

(b) V = 359.3 2 = 254.1V; I = 100 2 = 70.71A

(c) V = 254.115 V; I = 70.71 85 A

j6 6 90

2.4 (a) I1 = 100 = 10 = 7.5 90 A

8 + j6 j6 8

I 2 = I I1 = 100 7.3 90 = 10 + j 7.5 = 12.536.87 A

V = I 2 ( j 6 ) = (12.536.87 ) ( 6 90 ) = 75 53.13 V

(b)

(b) I = V / 20 = 13.8530 A

i(t ) = 19.58cos ( t + 30 ) A

2

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(c) Z = j L = j ( 2 60 ) (10 10 3 ) = 3.77190

I = V Z = ( 277 30 ) ( 3.771 90 ) = 73.46 60 A

i(t ) = 73.46 2 cos ( t 60 ) =103.9cos ( t 60 ) A

(d) Z = j 25

I = V Z = ( 27730 ) ( 25 90 ) = 11.08120 A

i(t ) = 11.08 2 cos ( t + 120 ) = 15.67cos ( t + 120 ) A

2 30= 70.7 30 ; does not appear in the answer.

(t ) = 141.4 cos ( 377t + 20 )

(c) A = A ; B = B ; C = A + B

c(t ) = a(t ) + b(t ) = 2 Re Ce jt

The resultant has the same frequency .

(b) Z = 3 + j8 j 4 = 3 + j 4 = 553.1

(c) I = (1000 ) ( 553.1 ) = 20 53.1 A

The current lags the source voltage by 53.1

Power Factor = cos53.1 = 0.6 Lagging

Z LL = j ( 377 ) ( 5 10 3 ) = j1.885

1

ZC = j = j 2.88

( 377 ) ( 921 106 )

120 2

V= 30 V

2

3

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The circuit transformed to phasor domain is shown below:

VLOAD = 1200 ( 600 )( 0.1 + j 0.5 )

= 114.1 j 30.0 = 117.9 14.7 V

1

= ( 359.3)(100 ) cos100 + cos ( 2 t 70)

2

= 3120 + 1.797 10 4 cos ( 2 t 70 ) W

(b) P = VI cos ( ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) cos (15 + 85 )

= 3120 W Absorbed

= +3120 W Delivered

(c) Q = VI sin ( ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) sin100

= 17.69 kVAR Absorbed

(d) The phasor current ( I ) = 70.71 85 + 180 = 70.71 95 A leaves the positive

terminal of the generator.

The generator power factor is then cos (15 95 ) = 0.1736 leading

1

= 0.7669 10 4 1 + cos ( 2 t + 60 )

2

= 3.834 103 + 3.834 103 cos ( 2 t + 60 ) W

P = VI cos ( ) = 277 13.85cos0 = 3.836 kW

Q = VI sin ( ) = 0 VAR

Source Power Factor = cos ( ) = cos ( 30 30 ) = 1.0

(b) p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 391.7 103.9cos ( t + 30 ) cos ( t 60 )

1

= 4.07 10 4 cos90 + cos ( 2 t 30 )

2

= 2.035 10 cos ( 2 t 30 ) W

4

4

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Q = VI sin ( ) = 277 73.46 sin 90 = 20.35 kVAR

pf = cos ( ) = 0 Lagging

(c) p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 391.7 15.67 cos ( t + 30 ) cos ( t + 120 )

1

= 6.138 103 cos ( 90 ) + cos ( 2 t + 150 ) = 3.069 103 cos ( 2 t + 150 ) W

2

P = VI cos ( ) = 277 11.08cos ( 30 120 ) = 0 W

Q = VI sin ( ) = 277 11.08sin ( 90 )

= 3.069 kVAR Absorbed = +3.069 kVAR Delivered

pf = cos ( ) = cos ( 90 ) = 0 Leading

= 6455 + 6455cos2 t W

(b) px (t ) = ( 359.3cos t ) 14.37cos ( t + 90 )

= 2582 cos ( 2cot + 90 )

= 2582sin 2 t W

( 2)

2

(c) P = V 2 R = 359.3 10 = 6455 W Absorbed

X = ( 359.3 2 )

2

(d) Q = V 2 25 = 2582 VAR S Delivered

Power factor = cos ( ) = cos ( 21.8 ) = 0.9285 Leading

i(t ) = ( 359.3 / 26.93 ) cos ( t + 68.2 )

= 13.34 cos ( t + 68.2 ) A

= 889.8 + 889.8cos 2 ( t + 68.2 ) W

= 2224sin 2 ( t + 68.2 ) W

( 2 ) 10 = 889.8 W

2

(c) P = I 2 R = 13.34

2

2

= 0.3714 Leading

5

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2.14 (a) I = 40 kA

V = Z I = ( 2 45 )( 40 ) = 8 45 kV

(t ) = 8 2 cos ( t 45 ) kV

p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 8 2 cos ( t 45 ) 4 2 cos t

1

= 64 cos ( 45 ) + cos ( 2 t 45 )

2

= 22.63 + 32 cos ( 2 t 45 ) MW

(b) P = VI cos ( ) = 8 4 cos ( 45 0 ) = 22.63MW Delivered

(c) Q = VI sin ( ) = 8 4sin ( 45 0 )

= 22.63 MVAR Delivered = + 22.63MVAR Absorbed

(d) pf = cos ( ) = cos ( 45 0 ) = 0.707 Leading

2.15 (a) I = 4

( )

2 60

( 230) = 2 30 A

p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 4 cos30 + cos ( 2 t + 90 )

= 3.46 + 4 cos ( 2 t + 90 ) W

(b) (t), i(t), and p(t) are plotted below: (See next page)

(c) The instantaneous power has an average value of 3.46 W, and the frequency is twice that

of the voltage or current.

6

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2.16 (a) Z = 10 + j 120 0.04 = 10 + j15.1 = 18.156.4

pf = cos56.4 = 0.553 Lagging

(b) V = 120 0 V

The current supplied by the source is

I = (120 0 ) (18.156.4 ) = 6.63 56.4 A

The real power absorbed by the load is given by

P = 120 6.63 cos56.4 = 440 W

which can be checked by I 2 R = ( 6.63 ) 10 = 440 W

2

Q = 120 6.63 sin 36.4 = 663VAR

(c) Peak Magnetic Energy = W = LI 2 = 0.04 ( 6.63 ) = 1.76 J

2

2

2.17 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Z I = j LI 2

Q = Im[ S ] = LI 2

di

(b) (t ) = L = 2 L I sin ( t + )

dt

p(t ) = (t ) i(t ) = 2 L I 2 sin ( t + ) cos ( t + )

= L I 2 sin 2 ( t + )

= Q sin 2 ( t + )

Average real power P supplied to the inductor = 0

Instantaneous power supplied (to sustain the changing energy in the magnetic field) has a

maximum value of Q.

2.18 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Re Z I 2 + j Im Z I 2

= P + jQ

P = Z I 2 cos Z ; Q = Z I 2 sin Z

(b) Choosing i(t ) = 2 I cos t ,

Then (t ) = 2 Z I cos ( t + Z )

p(t ) = (t ) i(t ) = Z I 2 cos ( t + Z ) cos t

= Z I 2 cos Z + cos ( 2 t + Z )

= Z I 2 [ cos Z + cos2 t cos Z sin 2 t sin Z ]

= P (1 + cos2 t ) Q sin 2 t

7

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1

(c) Z = R + j L +

jC

From part (a), P = RI 2 and Q = QL + QC

1 2

where QL = LI 2 and QC = I

C

which are the reactive powers into L and C, respectively.

Thus p(t ) = P (1 + cos2 t ) QL sin 2 t QC sin 2 t

If 2 LC = 1, QL + QC = Q = 0

Then p(t ) = P (1 + cos2 t )

*

150 5

2.19 (a) S = V I = 10

*

50 = 375 60

2 2

= 187.5 + j 324.8

P = Re S = 187.5 W Absorbed

Q = Im S = 324.8 VAR SAbsorbed

(b) pf = cos ( 60 ) = 0.5 Lagging

(c) QS = P tan QS = 187.5 tan cos 1 0.9 = 90.81VAR S

QC = QL QS = 324.8 90.81 = 234 VAR S

1 1

2.20 Y1 = = = 0.05 30 = ( 0.0433 j 0.025 ) S = G1 jB1

Z1 2030

1 1

Y2 = = = 0.04 60 = ( 0.02 j 0.03464 ) S = G2 + jB2

Z 2 2560

P1 = V 2 G1 = (100 ) 0.0433 = 433 W Absorbed

2

2

2

2

8

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2.21 (a)

QL = P tan L = 500 tan 53.13 = 666.7 kVAR

S = cos1 0.9 = 25.84

QS = P tan S = 500 tan 25.84 = 242.2 kVAR

QC = QL QS = 666.7 242.2 = 424.5 kVAR

SC = QC = 424.5 kVA

( 500 ) 0.746 = 414.4 kW and Q = 0 kVAR

m

0.9

1 1 1

2.22 (a) Y1 = = = = 0.2 53.13

Z1 ( 3 + j 4 ) 553.13

= ( 0.12 j 0.16 ) S

1 1

Y2 = = = 0.1S

Z 2 10

P 1100

P = V 2 ( G1 + G2 ) V = = = 70.71 V

G1 + G2 ( 0.12 + 0.1)

P1 = V 2 G1 = ( 70.71) 0.12 = 600 W

2

2

= 0.272 36.03 S

I S = V Yeq = 70.71( 0.272 ) = 19.23 A

9

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2.23 S = V I * = (1200 )(10 30 ) = 1200 30

= 1039.2 j 600

P = Re S = 1039.2 W Delivered

Q = Im S = 600 VAR S Delivered = +600 VAR SAbsorbed

10 0.746

S3 = cos1 0.95 = 9.238 18.19 = 8.776 j 2.885

0.85 0.95

SS = S1 + S2 + S3 = 27.78 + j1.474 = 27.82 3.04

PS = Re(SS ) = 27.78 kW

QS = Im(SS ) = 1.474 kVAR

SS = SS = 27.82 kVA

SL = VL I * = ( jX L I )I * = jX L I 2 = j8(20)2 = 0 + j 3200

SC = VC I * = ( jIXC )I * = jX C I 2 = j 4(20)2 = 0 j1600

Power Triangle:

SSOURCE = V I * = (100 0 )( 20 53.1 ) = 200053.1

*

The complex power delivered by the source is equal to the total complex power absorbed by

the load.

PL = 120 kW

pfL = 0.85Lagging

L = cos1 0.85 = 31.79

10

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Power triangle for the load:

QL = PL tan ( 31.79 )

SL = PL + jQL = 141.1831.79 kVA

I = SL / V = 141,180 / 480 = 294.13A = 74.364 kVAR

Reactive power loss in the line is QLINE = I 2 X LINE = ( 294.13 ) 1

2

= 86.512 kVAR

SS = PS + jQS = 120 + j ( 74.364 + 86.512 ) = 200.753.28 kVA

The input voltage is given by VS = SS / I = 682.4 V (rms)

The power factor at the input is cos53.28 = 0.6 Lagging

(b) Applying KVL, VS = 480 0 + j1.0 ( 294.13 31.79 )

= 635 + j 250 = 682.421.5 V (rms)

( pf )S = cos ( 21.5 + 31.79 ) = 0.6 Lagging

Pold = 50 kW; cos1 0.8 = 36.87 ; OLD = 36.87; Qold = Pold tan ( old )

= 37.5 kVAR

Sold = 50,000 + j 37,500

= 50,000 + j16, 430

Hence Scap = Snew Sold = j 21,070 VA

21,070

C = = 1155 F

( 377 )( 220 )

2

11

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2.28 S1 = 12 + j 6.667

S2 = 4 ( 0.96 ) j 4 sin ( cos1 0.96 ) = 3.84 j1.12

S3 = 15 + j 0

STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = ( 30.84 + j 5.547 ) kVA

(i) Let Z be the impedance of a series combination of R and X

*

V V2

Since S = V I * = V = * , it follows that

Z Z

( 240 )

2

V2

Z =*

= = (1.809 j 0.3254)

S ( 30.84 + j 5.547 )103

Z = (1.809 + j 0.3254 )

( 240 )

2

Then R= = 1.8677

( 30.84 )103

( 240 )

2

X= = 10.3838

( 5.547 )103

Z = (1.8677 j10.3838 )

2.29 Since complex powers satisfy KCL at each bus, it follows that

S13 = (1 + j1) (1 j1) ( 0.4 + j 0.2 ) = 0.4 + j1.8

S31 = S13* = 0.4 + j1.8

S1 = 12573.74 = 35 + j120

S2 = 10 j 40

S3 = 15 + j 0

STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = 60 + j80 = 10053.13 kVA = P + jQ

PTOTAL = 60 kW; QTOTAL = 80 kVAR; kVA TOTAL = STOTAL = 100 kVA.

Supply pf = cos ( 53.13 ) = 0.6 Lagging

12

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S * 100 103 53.13

(b) ITOTAL = = = 100 53.13 A

V* 10000

At the new pf of 0.8 lagging, PTOTAL of 60kW results in the new reactive power Q , such

that

= cos1 ( 0.8 ) = 36.87

The required capacitors kVAR is QC = 80 45 = 35 kVAR

V 2 (1000 )

2

SC j 35000

106

and C= = 92.85 F

2 ( 60 )( 28.57 )

S * 60,000 j 45,000

The new current is I = = = 60 j 45 = 75 36.87 A

V* 10000

The supply current, in magnitude, is reduced from 100A to 75A

V11 V2 2 V1 V

2.31 (a) I12 = = 1 90 2 2 90

X 90 X X

V V

Complex power S12 = V1 I12* = V11 1 90 1 2 90 2

X X

2

V1 V1V2

= 90 90 + 1 2

X X

The real and reactive power at the sending end are

V12 VV

P12 = cos90 1 2 cos ( 90 + 1 2 )

X X

V1V2

= sin (1 2 )

X

V12 VV

Q12 = sin 90 1 2 sin ( 90 + 1 2 )

X X

V

= 1 V1 V2 cos (1 2 )

X

Note: If V1 leads V2 , = 1 2 is positive and the real power flows from node 1 to

node 2. If V1 Lags V2 , is negative and power flows from node 2 to node 1.

(b) Maximum power transfer occurs when = 90 = 1 2

V1V2

PMAX =

X

13

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2.32 4 Mvar minimizes the real power line losses, while 4.5 Mvar minimizes the MVA power flow

into the feeder.

2.33

Qcap MW Losses Mvar Losses

0 0.42 0.84

0.5 0.4 0.8

1 0.383 0.766

1.5 0.369 0.738

2 0.357 0.714

2.5 0.348 0.696

3 0.341 0.682

3.5 0.337 0.675

4 0.336 0.672

4.5 0.337 0.675

5 0.341 0.682

5.5 0.348 0.696

6 0.357 0.714

6.5 0.369 0.738

7 0.383 0.766

7.5 0.4 0.801

8 0.42 0.84

8.5 0.442 0.885

9 0.467 0.934

9.5 0.495 0.99

10 0.525 1.05

2.35

14

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(.3846 + .4950 ) + j (10 1.923 4.950 ) (.4950 j 4.950 ) V10

(.4950 j 4.950 ) (.3846 + .4950 ) + j (10 1.923 4.95) V20

1.961 48.69

=

1.961 78.69

0.8796 + j 3.127 0.4950 + j 4.950 V10 1.961 48.69

=

0.4950 + j 4.950 0.8796 + j 3.127 V20 1.961 78.69

2.36 Note that there are two buses plus the reference bus and one line for this problem. After

converting the voltage sources in Fig. 2.23 to current sources, the equivalent source

impedances are:

( 0.1 + j 0.5 )( j 0.1)

0.1 + j 0.5 j 0.1

=

( 0.509978.69)( 0.1 90) = 0.1237 87.27

0.412375.96

= 0.005882 j 0.1235

The rest is left as an exercise to the student.

2.37 After converting impedance values in Figure 2.29 to admittance values, the bus admittance

matrix is:

1 1 0 0

1 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 j1

1

1

2 3 4 3 j1 4

Ybus = 1 1 1 1 1

0 j1 j1 + j + j j

3 3 4 2 4

1 1 1 1 1

0 j 4 + j 4 j 3

4 4

Writing nodal equations by inspection:

1 1 0 0 V10 10

1 ( 2.083 j1) ( 0.3333 + j1) 0.25 V20 = 0

0 ( 0.3333 + j1) ( 0.3333 j 0.25 ) j 0.25 V30 0

0 ( 0.25 ) j 0.25 ( 0.25 j 0.08333) V40 230

15

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2.38 The admittance diagram for the system is shown below:

2.5 8.75 5.0

Y Y22 Y23 Y24 0

YBUS = 21 = j S

Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 5.0 5.0 22.5 12.5

Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 0 0 12.5 12.5

where Y11 = y10 + y12 + y13 ; Y22 = y20 + y12 + y23 ; Y23 = y13 + y23 + y34

Y44 = y34 ; Y12 = Y21 = y12 ; Y13 = Y31 = y13 ; Y23 = Y32 = y23

2.39 (a)

Yc + Yd + Y f Yd Yc Y f V1 I1 = 0

Yd Yb + Yd + Ye Yb Ye V2 = I 2 = 0

Yc Yb Ya + Yb + Yc 0 V I

3 3

Y f Ye 0 Ye + Y f + Yg V4 I 4

14.5 8 4 2.5 V1 0

8 17 4

5 V2 0

(b) j =

4 4 8.8 0 V3 1 90

2.5 5 0 8.3 V4 0.62 135

YBUS V = I ; YBUS

1

YBUS V = YBUS

1

I

16

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0.7187 0.6688 0.6307 0.6194

0.6688 0.7045 0.6242 0.6258

where 1

YBUS = Z BUS = j

0.6307 0.7045 0.6840 0.5660

0.6194 0.6258 0.5660 0.6840

V = YBUS

1

I

V1 0

0

V2

where V= and I =

V3 1 90

V4 0.62 135

Then solve for V1 , V2 , V3 , and V4 .

208

2.40 (a) VAN = 0 = 120.10 V (Assumed as Reference)

3

VAB = 20830 V; VBC = 208 90 V; I A = 10 90 A

VAN 120.10

ZY = = = 12.01 90 = ( 0 + j12.01)

I A 10 90

IA 10

(b) I AB = 30 = 90 + 30 = 5.774 60A

3 3

VAB 20830

Z = = = 36.0290 = ( 0 + j 36.02 )

I AB 5.774 60

Note: ZY = Z / 3

= 3 ( 480 )( 20 ) cos1 0.8

= 16.627 103 36.87

= (13.3 103 ) + j (9.976 103 )

P3 = Re S3 = 13.3kW Delivered

Q3 = I m S3 = 9.976 kVAR Delivered

208 Z

Van = 30 = 4 + j 3 = 536.87

3 3

17

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Van 120.1 30

Ia = = = 24.02 66.87 A

( Z / 3) 536.87

S3 = 3Van I a* = 3 (120.1 30 )( 24.02 + 66.87 )

= 865436.87 = 6923 + j 5192

P3 = 6923W; Q3 = 5192 VAR; both absorbed by the load

pf = cos ( 36.87 ) = 0.8 Lagging; S3 = S3 = 8654 VA

(b)

2.43 (a) Transforming the -connected load into an equivalent Y, the impedance per phase of the

equivalent Y is

60 j 45

Z2 = = ( 20 j15 )

3

With the phase voltage V1 = 1203 3 = 120 V taken as a reference, the per-phase equivalent

circuit is shown below:

( 30 + j 40 )( 20 j15)

Z = 2 + j4 + = 2 + j 4 + 22 j 4 = 24

( 30 + j 40 ) + ( 20 j15)

V1 1200

I= = = 50 A

Z 24

The three-phase complex power supplied = S = 3V1 I * = 1800 W

P = 1800 W and Q = 0 VAR delivered by the sending-end source

18

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(b) Phase voltage at load terminals V2 = 1200 ( 2 + j 4 )( 5 0 )

= 110 j 20 = 111.8 10.3 V

The line voltage magnitude at the load terminal is

(c) The current per phase in the Y-connected load and in the equiv.Y of the -load:

V2

I1 = = 1 j 2 = 2.236 63.4 A

Z1

V2

I2 = = 4 + j 2 = 4.472 26.56 A

Z2

(I )ph =

I2

3

=

4.472

3

= 2.582 A

S1 = 3V2 I1* = 430 W + j 600 VAR

S2 = 3V2 I 2* = 1200 W j 900 VAR

The three-phase complex power absorbed by the line is

SL = 3 ( RL + jX L ) I 2 = 3 ( 2 + j 4 ) (5)2 = 150 W + j300 VAR

The sum of load powers and line losses is equal to the power delivered from the supply:

S1 + S2 + SL = ( 450 + j600 ) + (1200 j 900 ) + (150 + j 300 )

= 1800 W + j 0 VAR

2.44 (a) The per-phase equivalent circuit for the problem is shown below:

2200 3

Phase voltage at the load terminals is V2 = = 2200 V taken as Ref.

3

Total complex power at the load end or receiving end is

SR( 3 ) = 560.1( 0.707 + j 0.707 ) + 132 = 528 + j 396 = 66036.87 kVA

19

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With phase voltage V2 as reference,

I = = = 100 36.87 A

3V2* 3 ( 22000 )

V1 = 22000 + ( 0.4 + j 2.7 )(100 36.87 ) = 2401.74.58 V

The magnitude of the line to line voltage at the sending end of the line is

2

= 12 kW + j81kVAR

(c) The three-phase sending power is

SS (3 ) = 3V1 I * = 3 ( 2401.74.58 )(10036.87 )

= 540 kW + j 477 kVAR

2.45 (a)

SS 25.001 103

IS = = = 30.07 A

3VLL 3 ( 480 )

(b) The ammeter reads zero, because in a balanced three-phase system, there is no neutral

current.

2.46 (a)

20

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Z / 3

Using voltage division: VAN = Van

( Z / 3) + Z LINE

208 1030

= 0

3 1030 + ( 0.8 + j 0.6 )

=

(120.09 )(1030) = 1200.930

9.46 + j 5.6 10.9930.62

= 109.3 0.62 V

(b)

Z eq = 10 30 || ( j 20)

= 11.547 0

Z eq

VAN = Van

Z eq + Z LINE

(

= 208 3 ) (11.54711.547

+ 0.8 + j 0.6 )

1386.7

= = 112.2 2.78 V

12.3622.78

Load voltage Line-to-Line VAB = 3 (112.2 ) = 194.3 V

2.47

15 103

(a) I G1 = cos1 0.8 = 23.53 36.87 A

8 ( 460 )( 0.8 )

460

VL = VG1 Z LINE1 I G1 = 0 (1.4 + j1.6 )( 23.53 36.87 )

3

= 216.9 2.73 V Line to Neutral

Load Voltage VL = 3 216.9 = 375.7 V Line to line

21

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

30 103

(b) I L = 2.73 cos1 0.8 = 57.63 39.6 A

3 ( 375.7 )( 0.8 )

I G 2 = I L I G1 = 57.63 39.6 23.53 36.87

= 34.14 41.49 A

VG 2 = VL + Z LINE 2 I G 2 = 216.9 2.73 + ( 0.8 + j1)( 34.14 41.49 )

= 259.7 0.63 V

Generator 2 line-to-line voltage VG 2 = 3 ( 259.7 )

= 449.8 V

(c) SG 2 = 3VG 2 I G2* = 3 ( 259.7 0.63 )( 34.1441.49 )

= 20.12 103 + j17.4 103

PG 2 = 20.12 kW; QG 2 = 17.4 kVAR; Both delivered

2.48 (a)

SL 26.93 103

(c) I L = = = 32.39 A

3VLL 3 ( 480 )

2

3 ( 480 )

2

X = = 49.37

14 103

(e) I C = VLL / X = 480 / 49.37 = 9.72 A

PL 23 103

I LINE = = = 27.66 A

3 VLL 3 480

22

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2.49 (a) Let ZY = Z A = Z B = ZC for a balanced Y-load

Z = Z AB = Z BC = Z CA

Using equations in Fig. 2.27

ZY2 + ZY2 + ZY2

Z = = 3 ZY

ZY

and

Z 2 Z

ZY = =

Z + Z + Z 3

(b) Z A =

( j10 )( j 25)

= j 50

j10 + j 20 j 25

ZB =

( j10 )( j 20 ) = j 40 ; Z =

( j 20 )( j 25) = j 100

C

j5 j5

2

2.50 Replace delta by the equivalent WYE: ZY = j

3

Per-phase equivalent circuit is shown below:

2

Noting that j 1.0 j = j 2 , by voltage-divider law,

3

j2

V1 = (1000) = 1050

j 2 + j 0.1

173.230

Then I AB = = 86.6120

j2

i2 (t ) = 86.6 2 cos ( t + 120 )

= 122.5cos ( t + 120 ) A

23

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

1

2.51 On a per-phase basis S1 = (150 + j120 ) = ( 50 + j 40 ) kVA

3

( 50 j 40 )103 =

I1 = ( 25 j 20 ) A

2000

Note: PF Lagging

Load 2: Convert into an equivalent Y

1

Z 2Y = (150 j 48 ) = ( 50 j16 )

3

20000

I2 = = 38.117.74

50 j16

= ( 36.29 + j 11.61) A

Note: PF Leading

1

S3 per phase = (120 0.6 ) j 120 sin( cos1 0.6 ) = ( 24 j 32 ) kVA

3

( 24 + j32 )103 =

I3 = (12 + j 16 ) A

2000

Note:PF Leading

Note:PF Leading

Voltage at the sending end: VAN = 20000 + ( 73.29 + j 7.61)( 0.2 + j 1.0 )

2160

2.52 (a) Let VAN be the reference: VAN = 0 24000 V

3

Total impedance per phase Z = ( 4.7 + j 9 ) + ( 0.3 + j1) = ( 5 + j10 )

24000

Line Current = = 214.7 63.4 A = I A

5 + j10

With positive A-B-C phase sequence,

I B = 214.7 183.4 A; I C = 214.7 303.4 = 214.756.6 A

24

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

(b) (VAN ) LOAD = 24000 ( 214.7 63.4 )( 0.3 + j1)

= 24000 224.159.9 = 2179.2 j 38.54

= 2179.5 1.01 V

(V )

BN LOAD

= 2179.5 121.01 V ; (VC N ) LOAD = 2179.5 241.01 V

Total apparent power dissipated in all three phases in the load

S3 = 3 ( 467.94 ) = 1403.82 kVA

LOAD

LOAD

P3 = 3 ( 216.87 ) = 650.61kW

LOAD

LOAD

Q3 = 3 ( 414.65 ) = 1243.95 kVAR

LOAD

2

LOSS

LOSS

25

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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