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Case Report

Introduction: A few weeks ago a couple stumbled upon human remains


whilst running one morning. Shortly after stopping to get a drink, they
stumbled upon a human skull. The police arrived and unearthed two
skeletons laying side by side. The remains were brought back to the lab for
further testing and examination.
Summary of Findings: The sex of the skeleton was determined based off
the general shape and size of the individual bones. It was determined to be
female based off of the lab results. The pelvis showed signs that all pointed
to the remains being female. The sub-pubic angle was 110 degrees, the
pubis body width was 39 mm and the pelvic cavity was in a circular and wide
shape. These measurements coincide with the normal measurements of a
female. The skull was less direct in determining a gender. Some features
pointed to female while others pointed to male. The upper edge of the eye
orbit is sharp and the eye orbit is round in shape. The zygomatic process
differs from a normal female, it is expressed beyond external auditory
meatus, which points to a male. Other male features that the skull contains
are as follows: present external occipital protuberance, low/slanting frontal
bone, and a square mandible shape. The maximum epiphyseal breadth of
the proximal tibia was 70mm and the distal tibia was 45mm which both point
to a female. The traverse diameter of the humeral head was 37.5mm and the
vertical diameter was 40mm. The maximum length of the humerus was
295mm and the epicondylar width was 55mm which point to female.
Although there were a few features that were masculine the overall final sex
determination was female because the tibia, humerus, and pelvis all show
dominant female traits.
The race was determined by examining the bones and comparing them to
European, Asian, and African skeletons. The nasal index was .48mm and the
nasal spine was somewhat prominent. The shape of the orbital openings
were rounded and somewhat circular. These features all point to an Asian
female. The humerus and tibia helped in determining the height of the
person. Based off of measurements it was determined that based on the
humerus the minimum height was 51 ft and the maximum height was 54ft.
Based on the tibia the minimum height was 54ft and the maximum was 57ft
therefore concluding that the person was around 54. The age of the person
was determined by looking at the pelvis. The two lowest segments of the
sacral vertebrate had become joined together, therefore the person was
around 18 at the time of their death. The lower epiphysis joins the shaft of
the tibia again pointing to an 18 yo. The humerus internal condyle was also
united with the shaft. The final age determination was 18 years old.
Further analysis: To further conclude exactly who the skeleton was more
analysis would need to be done. With modern technology and advancements
a full facial recognition could be done to prove exactly who the deceased
was.
Conclusion: In closing, the final determination was that the skeleton was an
18 year old Asian female who was approximately 5 feet 4 inches. These
findings narrow the search but much more needs to be done in order to
conclude this investigation. A full facial reconstruction would benefit the
search so that they could run it through facial recognition programs. It would
also help to examine the surroundings of the site where the skeleton was
extracted from to see if there was any other evidence. After obtaining DNA
from the families of potential victims a gel electrophoresis was run to analyze
the data. It was confirmed that Sally Jones was the one found dead in the
park.

DNA Analysis: After further testing was done on the bones found in the
park it, the missing person whom of which the bones belonged to could be
determined. A gel electrophoresis was run with multiple restriction enzymes
to test the DNA of a potential victim and it was confirmed that the bones
belong to Sally Jones a 24 year old insurance agent. The DNA was a perfect
match and confirmed that it was her.