15 views

Original Title: Fff

Uploaded by Febry Roma Rio

Fff

bb

© All Rights Reserved

- Baek, 2017
- 3D Geological Modeling for Mineral Resource Assessment of the Tongshan Cu Deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China
- Handbook of Quality Assurance ForTthe Analytical Chemical Laboratory
- risks and security of internet
- Estimation variogram uncertainty
- Application of Geophysical and Geostatis
- Hydrology Bowla Nand Prayag
- 463B62E-CIS888614800303964
- 1145393012_ZvalueCalculation
- D 4007 â€“ 81 R95 ;RDQWMDCTODFSOTVFMQ__.pdf
- 2076
- 02-013
- 1) Seller Concentration.docx
- C3 Differentiation - Basic differentiation.pdf
- 102291-26675-1-PB
- Workshop_Mathematics_v2_1000009094.pdf
- GIS Anal Linterp
- 02_Casos_de_estudio_2.pdf
- statistics skittles part 2
- zoellick_596b_20160416

You are on page 1of 3

The

estimated variogram represents the arithmetic average of the

squared differences of variable pair values at a particular lag distance. Because it

uses the square of the difference, any large difference between a given pair is

magnified. If pairs exhibit a large difference, the squared difference may have a

significant impact on the arithmetically averaged variogram value. This effect

may change the variogram value disproportionately at a particular lag distance,

resulting in instability of the estimated variogram. This instability may prevent

capturing the underlying variogram structure that may be present and also

causes fluctuations in the estimated variogram as lag distance increases. The

instability must be minimized to model the variogram.

he two methods commonly used to minimize fluctuations are to increase the

possible number of pairs for a given lag distance or to remove certain pairs for a

given lag distance. The previous section discussed the first possibility: increasing

the possible number of pairs for a given lag distance by use of appropriate

tolerance values with respect to the distance and the direction. That discussion

showed that increasing the number of pairs for a given lag distance does

improve stability of the variogram.

An alternative for improving the stability of the estimated variogram is to

examine the possible pairs used for estimation of the variogram for a given lag

distance. The difference between the two point values in a pair is what affects

the variogram. If the difference is very large, the squared difference can have a

significant impact on the estimated variogram. If we can eliminate certain

extreme" pairs that have a significant impact on the variogram computations,

we may be able to obtain a better estimate of the variogram that is less affected

by these extreme pairs.

Scatter plots arc one way to examine these extreme pairs. 6 Plotting one data

point of a pair vs. the other data point from the same pair may reveal the

differences between the two data points. If the match between the two points is

exact, the point falls on a 45 line. On the basis of the scatter plots, certain pairs

can be removed, and the variogram can be recomputed for a given lag distance.

Alternatively, a certain percentage of the pairs showing the maximum deviation

can be removed to create more uniformity in the analysis and to eliminate sub-

jectivity in deciding which pairs should be removed. Forex- ample, for every lag

distance, 10% of all pairs in the order of showing the maximum deviations can

be removed. Under these circumstances, the variogram represents a truncated

mean of the differences squared for a particular lag distance. Such truncated

means are often used in statistics to reduce the adverse effects of erratic values

(e.g., in figure skating in the Olympic Games, the two extreme scores are

removed from the final tally). This procedure also has the advantage of being

objective.

Field Example 3.3. Analyze the Flow Unit 3 porosity data and re-estimate the variogram by removing the effect of ex -

treme pairs.

Solution. For this exercise, we assume that the average lag interval is still maintained at 1,400 ft, with a tolerance of 700

ft. Fig. 3.10 shows the scatter plots for two different lag intervals; the first and the sixth. For the first lag intervals, we

have 42 pairs (see Tabie 3.2). However, we show only 21 pairs here. The other 21 pairs are symmetrical with the first 21

pairs, and do not change the variogram estimation [i.c., a(i<i) vs.a(2) is symmetrical to*(H2) vs.x(ui) and use of both

pairs does not add any additional information because the difference squared would be the same for both the pairs]. In

the scatter plot in Fig. 3.10a, we can remove two pairs that can be considered as extreme. The points surrounded by

open boxes show these pairs. The choice of what data pairs to consider as extreme is arbitrary. In Fig. 3.10b, which

shows 216 pairs, the decision becomes more difficult. The figure shows five pairs that are considered extreme.

However, with the large number of pairs in the figure, it is hard to decide what pairs to remove as extreme. It is easy to

come up with 8 or 15 pairs that could be considered extreme. This process can become extremely difficult and

cumbersome. As a result of the extremely subjective nature of removing individual pairs on the basis of the scatter plot

(unless it is so obvious that anyone would remove it), we have not attempted to estimate the variogram after subjective

removal of certain pairs for each lag interval.

Instead, we adopted the approach of removing a certain percentage of pairs from the total number of pairs. Fig. 3.11

shows an estimated variogram plot after removal of 5 and 10% of the extreme pairs. Note that extreme refers to the

pairs showing the largest differences: pairs lhat show the smallest differences are not considered to be extreme. This is

because the pairs that show a large difference affect the average much more than the pairs that show a small

difference.

In Fig. 3.11, the overall sill (maximum variogram value) decreases as the extreme pairs arc removed. This is to be

expected because the average of the squared differences is smaller after removal of pairs showing the largest

differences. The effect is more pronounced after removal of 10% of the extreme pairs than after removal of 5% of the

extreme pairs. Unfortunately, the overall structure of the variograms (including the fluctuations) is largely unaffected by

this removal. Because the goal is to capture the spatial structure and not necessarily the exact sill value, removal of

extreme pairs has not added any new information to our understanding of spatial relationships in this case.

Note that, although we did not achieve the desired smoothness in this case by removing a certain number of pairs,

this technique may be able to be applied to other data sets. It is im portant to remember that the overall objective is to

capture the most interpretable structure. Therefore, it is important to try different modifications and techniques to capture

that structure. The modification that gives the most interpretable structure should be used for further analysis.

3.4.3 Influence of Outliers. Outliers arc hard to define. In a conventional sense, outlier data are data points that fall

outside the norm. For a normal distribution, a data point falling outside the mean plus or minus three standard

deviations can be considered an outlier. However, for distributions that cannot be described by parametric distribution

functions, it is hard to define precisely what constitutes outlier data. Specifically, if data exhibit several-orders-of-

magnitude variations, it is difficult to define the value beyond which data can be considered as outliers. For example,

permeability data at well locations typically exhibit sevcral-ordcrs-of-magnitude variations. This becomes evident when

the coefficient of variation (the ratio of standard deviation to mean) is >2. For permeability data, a typical value of

coefficient of variation is in the range of two to five. Under such a large variation, it is very difficult (and subjective) to

define anomalous data that can be considered as outlier data.

Outlier data can significantly affect the variogram estimation. As previously explained, use of an extreme value in va-

riogram estimation can amplify the effect because the squared difference between a data pair is used. If the difference

between a given pair is several orders of magnitude, the squared difference is large enough to influence the estimated

variogram at a particular lag distance. Remember that the variogram is an arithmetic average of squared differences;

Fig. 3.10Scatter plot at (a) a first lag Interval and (b) a sixth lag

interval.

Fig. 3.9Rose diagram of lag distances in different

directions.

therefore, one large squared difference can significantly alter the variogram value. This may create instability in the

variogram estimation and also may prevent us from clearly identifying the spatial structure for a particular variable.

The simplest way to deal with the outlier information that causes this instability is to remove the data point from the

estimation process. If sufficient physical reason exists for removal, we can simply remove the data point or points and

re- estimate the variogram. In the absence of a satisfactory reason, it is hard to justify removal of a particular data point

or points for mere mathematical convenience. If a particular data point is eliminated, valuable information could be lost

that might be hard to find otherwise. Specifically, when the sample data set shows several-orders-of-magnitude varia-

tions, it is hard to eliminate only certain data points.

A better way to deal with these variations in the sample data is to use some type of nonlinear transformation to

minimize the variation. In this section, we discuss many of the commonly used transforms to minimize the effect of

outliers or extreme values. Note, however, that use of nonlinear transforms may create additional difficulties during the

estimation process. Chap. 4 discusses these difficulties.

Log Transform. The most commonly used transform is to use the logarithm of the sample value. By taking either

natural (base e) or base 10 logs, the order-of-magnitude variations arc translated into variations in the integer part of the

log of the variable. This should minimize the effect of extreme and or- der-of-magnitude variations within the data points.

Field Example 3.4. This field example examines the effect of a log transform on the variogram estimation for two

variables. The porosity for Flow Unit 3 is not used in this example because the porosity data do not show significant

enough variations to necessitate use of a nonlinear transformation. Instead, we use initial-potential (IP) data, collected

from several wells within the field, as the variable. We also use net kh as another variable. Net-Wi value in each well is

determined by adding core permeabilities (collected at I -ft intervals) over the entire pay-zone interval. This value

reflects the contribution from all the flow units at a particular well location.

Fig. 3.12 shows the spatial locations for IP data and the associated IP values at each location. Fig. 3.13 shows net-

Wi values at the same locations. We have a total of 48 values of both IP and net-kh data. Fig. 3.14 shows the

histograms for the IP and net-kh data. Both variables show a significant number of values at a lower range and a long

tailing. The variation in the values is over several orders of magnitude. The IP data range from 10 B/D to as high as

2,800 B/D, and the net-A/i data range from 7.0 to 36,347.0 md-ft. The coefficient of variation for the IP data is 0.93, and

the coefficient of variation for the nct-A/i data is 1.33. If we had considered individual foot-by- foot permeability data

instead of nel-kli data, we would have observed a much higher coefficient of variation. However, "averaging over the

entire pay zone interval reduces the coefficient of variation substantially.

This field example illustrates the application of a log transform for both IP and net-A7i data, with attention to only iso-

tropic variograms. Similar results can be obtained for anisotropic variograms as well. An average lag interval of 1,400 ft

with a distance tolerance of 700 ft is assumed. These values are the same as those used in Field Examples 3.2 and 3.3.

Because the data are collected from the same field with approximately the same density, we can assume that the lag

interval and the lag tolerance do not change significantly.

Fig. 3.15 compares the conventional variogram and the va- riogram of the log-transformed data. The conventional

variogram, especially at large lag distances, shows significant variations. In contrast, the variations exhibited by the

transformed data are small. The only exception is at the largest lag distance. The changes in the variogram of the

transformed variable are much more gradual than in the conventional variogram. Clearly, the log transform has

minimized the fluctuations in the estimated variogram values.

This effect is even more pronounced for the net-A7i data, which exhibit a higher coefficient of variation than the IP

data. As Fig. 3.16 shows, the conventional variogram hardly shows any discernible spatial structure, fluctuations domi -

nate the variations, and it is hard to capture any gradual trend in the data. In contrast, the log-transformed variable

shows a nicely developing spatial structure. Starting with a very small value, the estimated variogram increases and

reaches a sill value at approximately 7,000 ft. Beyond that, the variogram is fairly constant. As before, the only

exception to this gradual trend is the estimated value at a lag distance of 14,000 ft. Otherwise, the log transform clearly

has helped to identify the variogram structure for the net-A/i data.

Overall, for both the IP and net-AVi data, the log transform has resulted in better identification of the spatial structure.

It is safe to state that the higher the variations are in the original data set, the greater the impact of the log transform on

the estimated variogram. As stated earlier, if the goal is to capture the spatial structure that is exhibited by the sample

data, the log transform may be a useful tool, especially for the data showing order-of-magnitude variations.

- Baek, 2017Uploaded byArlindo Madeira
- 3D Geological Modeling for Mineral Resource Assessment of the Tongshan Cu Deposit, Heilongjiang Province, ChinaUploaded byAndry Ferdian
- Handbook of Quality Assurance ForTthe Analytical Chemical LaboratoryUploaded byBerenice Loredo
- risks and security of internetUploaded byDani DD
- Estimation variogram uncertaintyUploaded bydamebrolis
- Application of Geophysical and GeostatisUploaded byAndzani Ndhukwani
- Hydrology Bowla Nand PrayagUploaded byAnamika Singh
- 463B62E-CIS888614800303964Uploaded byPPLLMMNNBB
- 1145393012_ZvalueCalculationUploaded byatul110045
- D 4007 â€“ 81 R95 ;RDQWMDCTODFSOTVFMQ__.pdfUploaded bymaopacific
- 2076Uploaded byMohit Bauskar
- 02-013Uploaded byAbhijit Pathak
- 1) Seller Concentration.docxUploaded by92_883755689
- C3 Differentiation - Basic differentiation.pdfUploaded byShammah
- 102291-26675-1-PBUploaded byUntung Mirza
- Workshop_Mathematics_v2_1000009094.pdfUploaded byRené Wester
- GIS Anal LinterpUploaded byAndenet Ashagrie
- 02_Casos_de_estudio_2.pdfUploaded byRodrigo Gonzales Castro
- statistics skittles part 2Uploaded byapi-242428721
- zoellick_596b_20160416Uploaded byluli_kbrera
- theUploaded byLuca
- rutgers-lib-30368_PDF-1.pdfUploaded bySanjeev Shukla
- Hypothesis Testing CorrelationUploaded byBea Abella
- AdhikariUploaded byTauseef
- MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF VARIATION.docxUploaded byManue Blanco
- Generic Evaluation GuidelinesUploaded byandronegeorgeta
- -FM-Lecture 3.pptUploaded byNadia Nazir Awan
- 00012 ZingUploaded bysfofoby
- Mid Term Biostat 1Uploaded byيوميات عبدالله
- Add Math FolioUploaded byAfiq Wafiy

- Z score pptUploaded byfeva55
- quest 2 syllabus flinter copyUploaded byapi-199376749
- wiat-ii reportUploaded byapi-290668891
- Survey Lab 5 FormUploaded byFikrilAzimAbdulSani
- Calibration eBookUploaded byedwardsilva
- CIM Guide - AIESEC in Navi MumbaiUploaded bynomaan793
- Multiple RegressionUploaded byruthpalupi
- Sme6034 Assignments Sem 2 201718Uploaded bySaranya Kaliappan
- CCRPI Changes Explanation and RationaleUploaded byNHEGrizzly
- Innovation - Growth Engine for Nation - Nice Buzzword but Often MisunderstoodUploaded byRajiv Dharaskar
- MATHEMATICALECONOMICS.pdfUploaded bySayyid Jifri
- 185138Uploaded bySaleem Azhar
- The Role of Communication in an Organisation Performance (a Case Study of Nigerian Bottling Company, 9th Mile Corner, Enugu)Uploaded byEbenezer O Wilikie
- Ucb ProjectUploaded byDanishmohd.
- To Audit or Not to Audit?Uploaded bymivasa
- IFS Standards Product FraudUploaded byLong Beautéophile
- Lakens Stel - 2011 - If They Move in Sync They Must Feel in Sync - Social CognitionUploaded byLakens
- mil-std_414Uploaded byAlia Marouf
- Control and AisUploaded byDavidea Rahma
- Swertia chirayta , a Threatened High-Value Medicinal Herb: Microhabitats and Conservation Challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, IndiaUploaded byBharat Pradhan
- Integrated Algebra Chapter 16-6Uploaded byRedmondWA
- Bindu PuriUploaded byParan Goswami
- 7 Steps to a Good Trade Paul LangeUploaded byscandaloso
- 59331243-Adorno.pdfUploaded bypet mix
- EduPsy_Sept13Uploaded byGiorgio Scaloni
- GEODETIC ENGINEERING LAW.PDFUploaded bymarting69
- AF Getting Work in Music Ass1 2011-12-2Uploaded byAlex Forryan
- Benefits of 3D Depth Migration (Nemeth B)Uploaded byFrancisca Joe Magno
- Price is the Only Element of Marketing Mix That Produces RevenueUploaded byVinney Zephaniah Vincent
- Research ProposalUploaded byJanine Clark