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Carousel (musical)

Carousel is the second musical by the team of Richard cessful career as a playwright. Liliom was not presented
Rodgers (music) and Oscar Hammerstein II (book and again until after World War I. When it reappeared on the
lyrics). The 1945 work was adapted from Ferenc Mol- Budapest stage, it was a tremendous hit.[1]
nr's 1909 play Liliom, transplanting its Budapest set-
ting to the Maine coastline. The story revolves around
carousel barker Billy Bigelow, whose romance with mill-
worker Julie Jordan comes at the price of both their jobs.
He attempts a robbery to provide for Julie and their un-
born child; after it goes wrong, he is given a chance to
make things right. A secondary plot line deals with mill-
worker Carrie Pipperidge and her romance with ambi-
tious sherman Enoch Snow. The show includes the well-
known songs "If I Loved You", June Is Bustin' Out All
Over and "You'll Never Walk Alone". Richard Rodgers
later wrote that Carousel was his favorite of all his musi-
cals.
Following the spectacular success of the rst Rodgers
and Hammerstein musical, Oklahoma! (1943), the pair
sought to collaborate on another piece, knowing that any
resulting work would be compared with Oklahoma!, most
likely unfavorably. They were initially reluctant to seek
the rights to Liliom; Molnr had refused permission for
the work to be adapted in the past, and the original end-
ing was considered too depressing for the musical theatre. A starplease, my dearI must do something good. Liliom
After acquiring the rights, the team created a work with (Joseph Schildkraut) oers Louise (Evelyn Chard) the star he
lengthy sequences of music and made the ending more stole; 1921 Theatre Guild production
hopeful.
Except for the ending, the plots of Liliom and Carousel
The musical required considerable modication during are very similar.[2] Andreas Zavocky (nicknamed Liliom,
out-of-town tryouts, but once it opened on Broadway on the Hungarian word for lily, a slang term for tough
April 19, 1945, it was an immediate hit with both crit- guy),[3] a carnival barker, falls in love with Julie Zeller,
ics and audiences. Carousel initially ran for 890 perfor- a servant girl, and they begin living together. With both
mances and duplicated its success in the West End in discharged from their jobs, Liliom is discontented and
1950. Though it has never achieved as much commer- contemplates leaving Julie, but decides not to do so on
cial success as Oklahoma!, the piece has been repeatedly learning that she is pregnant. A subplot involves Julies
revived, and has been recorded several times. A produc- friend Marie, who has fallen in love with Wolf Biefeld, a
tion by Nicholas Hytner enjoyed success in 1992 in Lon- hotel porterafter the two marry, he becomes the owner
don, in 1994 in New York and on tour. In 1999, Time of the hotel. Desperate to make money so that he, Julie
magazine named Carousel the best musical of the 20th and their child can escape to America and a better life,
century. Liliom conspires with lowlife Ficsur to commit a robbery,
but it goes badly, and Liliom stabs himself. He dies, and
his spirit is taken to heavens police court. As Ficsur sug-
1 Background gested while the two waited to commit the crime, would-
be robbers like them do not come before God Himself.
Liliom is told by the magistrate that he may go back to
1.1 Liliom
Earth for one day to attempt to redeem the wrongs he has
Ferenc Molnr's Hungarian-language drama, Liliom, pre- done to his family, [4]
but must rst spend sixteen years in a
miered in Budapest in 1909. The audience was puzzled ery purgatory.
by the work, and it lasted only thirty-odd performances On his return to Earth, Liliom encounters his daughter,
before being withdrawn, the rst shadow on Molnrs suc- Louise, who like her mother is now a factory worker. Say-

1
2 1 BACKGROUND

ing that he knew her father, he tries to give her a star he Rodgers to approach Hammerstein to ask if he would
stole from the heavens. When Louise refuses to take it, he consider working with him.[11] Hammerstein was eager
strikes her. Not realizing who he is, Julie confronts him, to do so, and their rst collaboration was Oklahoma!
but nds herself unable to be angry with him. Liliom is (1943).[12] Thomas Hischak states, in his The Rodgers
ushered o to his fate, presumably Hell, and Louise asks and Hammerstein Encyclopedia, that Oklahoma! is the
her mother if it is possible to feel a hard slap as if it was a single most inuential work in the American musical the-
kiss. Julie reminiscently tells her daughter that it is very atre. In fact, the history of the Broadway musical can
possible for that to happen.[4] accurately be divided into what came before Oklahoma!
and what came after it.[13] An innovation for its time in
An English translation of Liliom was credited to
Benjamin Barney Glazer, though there is a story that integrating song, character, plot and dance, Oklahoma!
would serve, according to Hischak, as the model for
the actual translator, uncredited, was Rodgers rst ma-
jor partner Lorenz Hart.[5] The Theatre Guild presented Broadway shows for decades,[13] and proved a huge pop-
ular and nancial success. Once it was well-launched,
it in New York City in 1921, with Joseph Schildkraut
as Liliom,[5] and the play was a success, running 300 what to do as an encore was a daunting challenge for
the pair. Movie producer Sam Goldwyn saw Oklahoma!
performances.[6] A 1940 revival, with Burgess Meredith
and Ingrid Bergman was seen by both Hammerstein and and advised Rodgers to shoot himself, which according to
Rodgers.[5] Glazer, in introducing the English translation Rodgers was Sams blunt but funny way of telling me that
of Liliom, wrote of the plays appeal: I'd never create another show as good as Oklahoma!"[14]
As they considered new projects, Hammerstein wrote,
And where in modern dramatic literature We're such fools. No matter what we do, everyone is
can such pearls be matchedJulie incoher- bound to say, 'This is not another Oklahoma!' "[15]
ently confessing to her dead lover the love she Oklahoma! had been a struggle to nance and pro-
had always been ashamed to tell; Liliom cry- duce. Hammerstein and Rodgers met weekly in 1943
ing out to the distant carousel the glad news with Theresa Helburn and Lawrence Langner of the The-
that he is to be a father; the two thieves gam- atre Guild, producers of the blockbuster musical, who to-
bling for the spoils of their prospective rob- gether formed what they termed the Gloat Club. At
bery; Marie and Wolf posing for their portrait one such luncheon, Helburn and Langner proposed to
while the broken-hearted Julie stands looking Rodgers and Hammerstein that they turn Molnrs Lil-
after the vanishing Liliom, the thieves song iom into a musical. Both men refusedthey had no
ringing in her ears; the two policemen grous- feeling for the Budapest setting and thought that the un-
ing about pay and pensions while Liliom lies happy ending was unsuitable for musical theatre.[5] In ad-
bleeding to death; Liliom furtively proering dition, given the unstable wartime political situation, they
his daughter the star he has stolen for her in might need to change the setting from Hungary while in
heaven. ... The temptation to count the whole rehearsal.[16] At the next luncheon, Helburn and Langner
scintillating string is dicult to resist.[7] again proposed Liliom, suggesting that they move the set-
ting to Louisiana and make Liliom a Creole. Rodgers
and Hammerstein played with the idea over the next few
1.2 Inception weeks, but decided that Creole dialect, lled with zis
and zose would sound corny and would make it di-
In the 1920s and 1930s, Rodgers and Hammerstein both cult to write eective lyrics.[16]
became well known for creating Broadway hits with other
partners. Rodgers, with Lorenz Hart, had produced a A breakthrough came when Rodgers, who owned a house [17]
string of over two dozen musicals, including such pop- in Connecticut, proposed a New England setting.
ular successes as Babes in Arms (1937), The Boys from Hammerstein wrote of this suggestion in 1945,
Syracuse (1938) and Pal Joey (1940).[8] Some of Rodgers
work with Hart broke new ground in musical theatre: On I began to see an attractive ensemble
Your Toes was the rst use of ballet to sustain the plot sailors, whalers, girls who worked in the mills
(in the "Slaughter on Tenth Avenue" scene), while Pal up the river, clambakes on near-by islands,
Joey outed Broadway tradition by presenting a knave an amusement park on the seaboard, things
as its hero.[9] Hammerstein had written or co-written the people could do in crowds, people who were
words for such hits as Rose-Marie (1924), The Desert Song strong and alive and lusty, people who had al-
(1926), The New Moon (1927) and Show Boat (1927). ways been depicted on the stage as thin-lipped
Though less productive in the 1930s, he wrote material puritansa libel I was anxious to refute ... as
for musicals and lms, sharing an Academy Award for for the two leading characters, Julie with her
his song with Jerome Kern, "The Last Time I Saw Paris", courage and inner strength and outward sim-
which was included in the 1941 lm Lady Be Good.[10] plicity seemed more indigenous to Maine than
By the early 1940s, Hart had sunk into alcoholism and to Budapest. Liliom is, of course, an interna-
emotional turmoil, becoming unreliable and prompting tional character, indigenous to nowhere.[18]
1.2 Inception 3

Rodgers and Hammerstein were also concerned about Hammerstein and Rodgers returned to the Liliom project
what they termed the tunnel of Molnrs second acta in mid-1944. Hammerstein was uneasy as he worked,
series of gloomy scenes leading up to Lilioms suicide fearing that no matter what they did, Molnr would disap-
followed by a dark ending. They also felt it would prove of the results.[15] Green Grow the Lilacs had been a
be dicult to set Lilioms motivation for the robbery little-known work; Liliom was a theatrical standard. Mol-
to music.[16] Molnrs opposition to having his works nrs text also contained considerable commentary on the
adapted was also an issue; he had famously turned down Hungarian politics of 1909 and the rigidity of that society.
Giacomo Puccini when the great composer wished to A dismissed carnival barker who hits his wife, attempts a
transform Liliom into an opera, stating that he wanted the robbery and commits suicide seemed an unlikely central
piece to be remembered as his, not Puccinis.[5] In 1937, character for a musical comedy.[3] Hammerstein decided
Molnr, who had recently emigrated to the United States, to use the words and story to make the audience sympa-
had declined another oer from Kurt Weill to adapt the thize with the lovers. He also built up the secondary cou-
play into a musical.[3] ple, who are incidental to the plot in Liliom; they became
[25]
The pair continued to work on the preliminary ideas Enoch Snow and Carrie Pipperidge. This Was a Real
for a Liliom adaptation while pursuing other projects Nice Clambake was repurposed from a song, A [26] Real
in late 1943 and early 1944writing the lm musi- Nice Hayride, written for Oklahoma! but not used.
cal State Fair[19] and producing I Remember Mama on Molnrs ending was unsuitable, and after a couple of
Broadway.[20] Meanwhile, the Theatre Guild took Mol- false starts, Hammerstein conceived the graduation scene
nr to see Oklahoma! Molnr stated that if Rodgers and that ends the musical. According to Frederick Nolan in
Hammerstein could adapt Liliom as beautifully as they his book on the teams works: From that scene the song
had modied Green Grow the Lilacs into Oklahoma!, he "You'll Never Walk Alone" sprang almost naturally.[27]
would be pleased to have them do it.[21] The Guild ob- In spite of Hammersteins simple lyrics for You'll Never
tained the rights from Molnr in October 1943. The play- Walk Alone, Rodgers had great diculty in setting it to
wright received one percent of the gross and $2,500 for music.[28] Rodgers explained his rationale for the changed
personal services.[22] The duo insisted, as part of the ending,
contract, that Molnr permit them to make changes in
the plot. At rst, the playwright refused, but eventually Liliom was a tragedy about a man who can-
yielded. Hammerstein later stated that if this point had not learn to live with other people. The way
not been won, we could never have made Carousel.[23] Molnr wrote it, the man ends up hitting his
In seeking to establish through song Lilioms motivation daughter and then having to go back to purga-
for the robbery, Rodgers remembered that he and Hart tory, leaving his daughter helpless and hope-
had a similar problem in Pal Joey. Rodgers and Hart had less. We couldn't accept that. The way we
overcome the problem with a song that Joey sings to him- ended Carousel it may still be a tragedy but its a
self, I'm Talking to My Pal. This inspired "Soliloquy". hopeful one because in the nal scene it is clear
Both partners later told a story that Soliloquy was only that the child has at last learned how to express
intended to be a song about Lilioms dreams of a son, but herself and communicate with others.[29]
that Rodgers, who had two daughters, insisted that Liliom
consider that Julie might have a girl. However, the notes When the pair decided to make This Was a Real Nice
taken at their meeting of December 7, 1943 state: Mr. Clambake into an ensemble number, Hammerstein re-
Rodgers suggested a ne musical number for the end of alized he had no idea what a clambake was like, and
the scene where Liliom discovers he is to be a father, in researched the matter. Based on his initial ndings, he
which he sings rst with pride of the growth of a boy, wrote the line, First came codsh chowder. However,
and then suddenly realizes it might be a girl and changes further research convinced him the proper term was cod-
completely.[24] head chowder, a term unfamiliar to many playgoers. He
decided to keep it as codsh. When the song proceeded
to discuss the lobsters consumed at the feast, Hammer-
stein wrote the line We slit 'em down the back/And pep-
pered 'em good. He was grieved to hear from a friend
that lobsters are always slit down the front. The lyricist
sent a researcher to a seafood restaurant and heard back
that lobsters are always slit down the back. Hammerstein
concluded that there is disagreement about which side of
a lobster is the back. One error not caught involved the
song June Is Bustin' Out All Over, in which sheep are
depicted as seeking to mate in late springthey actually
do so in the winter. Whenever this was brought to Ham-
The opening carnival scene in Liliom inspired the pantomime that mersteins attention, he told his informant that 1873 was
begins Carousel; 1921 Theatre Guild production a special year, in which sheep mated in the spring.[30]
4 1 BACKGROUND

Rodgers early decided to dispense with an overture, feel- boy was that he be alive.[36] Rodgers and Hammerstein
ing that the music was hard to hear over the banging of reassembled much of the creative team that had made Ok-
seats as latecomers settled themselves.[31] In his autobi- lahoma! a success, including director Rouben Mamou-
ography, Rodgers complained that only the brass section lian and choreographer Agnes de Mille. Miles White
can be heard during an overture because there are never was the costume designer while Jo Mielziner (who had
enough strings in a musicals small orchestra. He deter- not worked on Oklahoma!) was the scenic and lighting
mined to force the audience to concentrate from the be- designer. Even though Oklahoma! orchestrator Russell
ginning by opening with a pantomime scene accompanied Bennett had informed Rodgers that he was unavailable
by what became known as The Carousel Waltz.[32] The to work on Carousel due to a radio contract, Rodgers
pantomime paralleled one in the Molnr play, which was insisted he do the work in his spare time. He orches-
also used to introduce the characters and situation to the trated The Carousel Waltz and "(When I Marry) Mister
audience.[33] Author Ethan Mordden described the eec- Snow before nally being replaced by Don Walker.[37] A
tiveness of this opening: new member of the creative team was Trude Rittmann,
who arranged the dance music. Rittmann initially felt that
Other characters catch our noticeMr. Rodgers mistrusted her because she was a woman, and
Bascombe, the pompous mill owner, Mrs. found him dicult to work with, but the two worked to-
Mullin, the widow who runs the carousel and, gether on Rodgers shows until the 1970s.[33]
apparently, Billy; a dancing bear; an acrobat.
But what draws us in is the intensity with which
Julie regards Billythe way she stands frozen,
staring at him, while everyone else at the fair
is swaying to the rhythm of Billys spiel. And
as Julie and Billy ride together on the swirling
carousel, and the stage picture surges with the
excitement of the crowd, and the orchestra
storms to a climax, and the curtain falls, we
realize that R & H have not only skipped the
overture and the opening number but the ex-
position as well. They have plunged into the
story, right into the middle of it, in the most
intense rst scene any musical ever had.[34]

1.3 Casting and out-of-town tryouts


The casting for Carousel began when Oklahoma!'s pro-
duction team, including Rodgers and Hammerstein, was
seeking a replacement for the part of Curly (the male lead
in Oklahoma!). Lawrence Langner had heard, through
a relative, of a California singer named John Raitt, who
might be suitable for the part. Langner went to hear Raitt,
then urged the others to bring Raitt to New York for
an audition. Raitt asked to sing Largo al factotum, Fi- Oscar Hammerstein II
garos aria from The Barber of Seville, to warm up. The Rehearsals began in January 1945;[3] either Rodgers or
warmup was sucient to convince the producers that not Hammerstein was always present.[38] Raitt was presented
only had they found a Curly, they had found a Liliom (or with the lyrics for Soliloquy on a ve-foot long sheet of
Billy Bigelow, as the part was renamed).[35] Theresa Hel- paperthe piece ran nearly eight minutes. Staging such
burn made another California discovery, Jan Clayton, a a long solo number presented problems, and Raitt later
singer/actress who had made a few minor lms for MGM. stated that he felt that they were never fully addressed.[39]
She was brought east and successfully auditioned for the At some point during rehearsals, Molnr came to see what
part of Julie.[27] they had done to his play. There are a number of varia-
The producers sought to cast unknowns. Though many tions on the story.[35][40] As Rodgers told it, while watch-
had played in previous Hammerstein or Rodgers works, ing rehearsals with Hammerstein, the composer spotted
only one, Jean Casto (cast as carousel owner Mrs. Mullin, Molnr in the rear of the theatre and whispered the news
and a veteran of Pal Joey), had ever played on Broadway to his partner. Both sweated through an afternoon of
before.[27] It proved harder to cast the ensemble than the rehearsal in which nothing seemed to go right. At the
leads, due to the warRodgers told his casting director, end, the two walked to the back of the theatre, expecting
John Fearnley, that the sole qualication for a dancing an angry reaction from Molnr. Instead, the playwright
5

said enthusiastically, What you have done is so beautiful. seek not reality but escape from reality, not truth but es-
And you know what I like best? The ending!"[41] Ham- cape from truth.[39]
merstein wrote that Molnr became a regular attendee at Hammerstein wrote that Molnrs advice, to combine two
rehearsals after that.[18] scenes into one, was key to pulling together the second act
Like most of the pairs works, Carousel contains a lengthy and represented a more radical departure from the orig-
ballet, Billy Makes a Journey,[42] in the second act, as inal than any change we had made.[18] A reprise of If I
Billy looks down to the Earth from Up There and ob- Loved You was added in the second act, which Rodgers
serves his daughter. In the original production the ballet felt needed more music.[50] Three weeks of tryouts in
was choreographed by de Mille.[43] It began with Billy Boston followed the brief New Haven run, and the au-
looking down from heaven at his wife in labor, with the dience there gave the musical a warm reception.[45] An
village women gathered for a birthing. The ballet in- even shorter version of the ballet was presented the -
volved every character in the play, some of whom spoke nal two weeks in Boston, but on the nal night there, de
lines of dialogue, and contained a number of subplots. Mille expanded it back to forty minutes, and it brought
The focus was on Louise, played by Bambi Linn, who the house down, causing both Rodgers and Hammerstein
at rst almost soars in her dance, expressing the inno- to embrace her.[44]
cence of childhood. She is teased and mocked by her
schoolmates, and Louise becomes attracted to the rough
carnival people, who symbolize Billys world. A youth 2 Plot
from the carnival attempts to seduce Louise, as she dis-
covers her own sexuality, but he decides she is more girl
than woman, and he leaves her. After Julie comforts her, 2.1 Act 1
Louise goes to a childrens party, where she is shunned.
The carnival people reappear and form a ring around the Two young female millworkers in 1873 Maine visit the
childrens party, with Louise lost between the two groups. towns carousel after work. One of them, Julie Jor-
At the end, the performers form a huge carousel with their dan, attracts the attention of the barker, Billy Bigelow
bodies.[44] (The Carousel Waltz). When Julie lets Billy put his
arm around her during the ride, Mrs. Mullin, the wid-
The play opened for tryouts in New Haven, Connecti- owed owner of the carousel, tells Julie never to return.
cut on March 22, 1945. The rst act was well-received; Julie and her friend, Carrie Pipperidge, argue with Mrs.
the second act was not.[45] Casto recalled that the second Mullin. Billy arrives and, seeing that Mrs. Mullin is jeal-
act nished about 1:30 a.m.[27] The sta immediately sat ous, mocks her; he is red from his job. Billy, uncon-
down for a two-hour conference. Five scenes, half the cerned, invites Julie to join him for a drink. As he goes to
ballet, and two songs were cut from the show as the re- get his belongings, Carrie presses Julie about her feelings
sult. John Fearnley commented, Now I see why these toward him, but Julie is evasive (You're a Queer One,
people have hits. I never witnessed anything so brisk and Julie Jordan). Carrie has a beau too, sherman Enoch
brave in my life.[45] De Mille said of this conference, Snow ("(When I Marry) Mister Snow), to whom she is
not three minutes had been wasted pleading for some- newly engaged. Billy returns for Julie as the departing
thing cherished. Nor was there any idle joking. ... We Carrie warns that staying out late means the loss of Julies
cut and cut and cut and then we went to bed.[46] By the job. Mr. Bascombe, owner of the mill, happens by along
time the company left New Haven, de Milles ballet was with a policeman, and oers to escort Julie to her home,
down to forty minutes.[44] but she refuses and is red. Left alone, she and Billy talk
A major concern with the second act was the eec- about what life might be like if they were in love, but nei-
tiveness of the characters He and She (later called by ther quite confesses to the growing attraction they feel for
Rodgers Mr. and Mrs. God),[47] before whom Billy each other ("If I Loved You").
appeared after his death. Mr. and Mrs. God were de-
picted as a New England minister and his wife, seen in
their parlor.[39][48] The couple was still part of the show
at the Boston opening.[39] Rodgers said to Hammerstein,
We've got to get God out of that parlor. When Ham-
merstein inquired where he should put the deity, Rodgers
replied, I don't care where you put Him. Put Him on
a ladder for all I care, only get Him out of that par-
lor!" Hammerstein duly put Mr. God (renamed the Star-
Enoch (Eric Mattson) arrives unexpectedly (reprise of "(When I
keeper) atop a ladder,[49] and Mrs. God was removed
Marry) Mister Snow). Iva Withers is Julie (standing), and Mar-
from the show.[39] Rodgers biographer Meryle Secrest got Moser is Carrie (bent over) (1947).
terms this change a mistake, leading to a more fantastic
afterlife, which was later criticized by The New Repub- Over a month passes, and preparations for the summer
lic as a Rotarian atmosphere congenial to audiences who clambake are under way (June Is Bustin' Out All Over).
6 2 PLOT

Julie and Billy, now married, live at Julies cousin Netties (Whats the Use of Wond'rin'?"). Julie sees Billy trying
spa. Julie condes in Carrie that Billy, frustrated over to sneak away with Jigger and, trying to stop him, feels
being unemployed, hit her. Carrie has happier news the knife hidden in his shirt. She begs him to give it to
she is engaged to Enoch, who enters as she discusses him her, but he refuses and leaves to commit the robbery.
("(When I Marry) Mister Snow (reprise))". Billy arrives As they wait, Jigger and Billy gamble with cards. They
with his ne'er-do-well whaler friend, Jigger. The former stake their shares of the anticipated robbery spoils. Billy
barker is openly rude to Enoch and Julie, then leaves with loses: his participation is now pointless. Unknown to
Jigger, followed by a distraught Julie. Enoch tells Carrie Billy and Jigger, Mr. Bascombe, the intended victim, has
that he expects to become rich selling herring and to have
already deposited the mills money. The robbery fails:
a large family, larger perhaps than Carrie is comfortable Bascombe pulls a gun on Billy while Jigger escapes. Billy
having (When the Children Are Asleep).
stabs himself with his knife; Julie arrives just in time for
Jigger and his shipmates, joined by Billy, then sing about him to say his last words to her and die. Julie strokes
life on the sea (Blow High, Blow Low). The whaler tries his hair, nally able to tell him that she loved him. Car-
to recruit Billy to help with a robbery, but Billy declines, rie and Enoch, reunited by the crisis, attempt to console
as the victimJulies former boss, Mr. Bascombe Julie; Nettie arrives and gives Julie the resolve to keep
might have to be killed. Mrs. Mullin enters and tries to going despite her despair ("You'll Never Walk Alone").
tempt Billy back to the carousel (and to her). He would Billys deant spirit (The Highest Judge of All) is taken
have to abandon Julie; a married barker cannot evoke the Up There to see the Starkeeper, a heavenly ocial. The
same sexual tension as one who is single. Billy reluctantly Starkeeper tells Billy that the good he did in life was not
mulls it over as Julie arrives and the others leave. She enough to get into heaven, but so long as there is a person
tells him that she is pregnant, and Billy is overwhelmed alive who remembers him, he can return for a day to try to
with happiness, ending all thoughts of returning to the do good to redeem himself. He informs Billy that fteen
carousel. Once alone, Billy imagines the fun he will have years have passed on Earth since the former barkers sui-
with Bill Jr.until he realizes that his child might be a cide, and suggests that Billy can get himself into heaven if
girl, and reects soberly that you've got to be a father to he helps his daughter, Louise. He helps Billy look down
a girl ("Soliloquy"). Determined to provide nancially from heaven to see her (instrumental ballet: Billy Makes
for his future child, whatever the means, Billy decides to a Journey). Louise has grown up to be lonely and bitter.
be Jiggers accomplice. The local children ostracize her because her father was
The whole town leaves for the clambake. Billy, who had a thief and a wife-beater. In the dance, a young ruan,
earlier refused to go, agrees to join in, to Julies delight, much like her father at that age, irts with her and aban-
as he realizes that being seen at the clambake is integral dons her as too young. The dance concludes, and Billy
to his and Jiggers alibi (Act I Finale). is anxious to return to Earth and help his daughter. He
steals a star to take with him, as the Starkeeper pretends
not to notice.
2.2 Act 2 Outside Julies cottage, Carrie describes her visit to New
York with the now-wealthy Enoch. Carries husband and
their many children enter to fetch herthe family must
get ready for the high school graduation later that day.
Enoch Jr., the oldest son, remains behind to talk with
Louise, as Billy and the Heavenly Friend escorting him
enter, invisible to the other characters. Louise condes
in Enoch Jr. that she plans to run away from home with
an acting troupe. He says that he will stop her by mar-
rying her, but that his father will think her an unsuitable
match. Louise is outraged: each insults the others father,
and Louise orders Enoch Jr. to go away. Billy, able to
make himself visible at will, reveals himself to the sob-
bing Louise, pretending to be a friend of her father. He
Whats the Use of Wond'rin' "; Withers is Julie (1947) oers her a giftthe star he stole from heaven. She re-
fuses it and, frustrated, he slaps her hand. He makes him-
Everyone reminisces about the huge meal and much fun self invisible, and Louise tells Julie what happened, stat-
(This Was a Real Nice Clambake). Jigger tries to se- ing that the slap miraculously felt like a kiss, not a blow
duce Carrie; Enoch walks in at the wrong moment, and and Julie understands her perfectly. Louise retreats to
declares that he is nished with her (Geraniums In the the house, as Julie notices the star that Billy dropped; she
Winder), as Jigger jeers (Theres Nothin' So Bad for a picks it up and seems to feel Billys presence (If I Loved
Woman). The girls try to comfort Carrie, but for Julie You (Reprise)").
all that matters is that hes your feller and you love him
5.2 Subsequent productions 7

Billy invisibly attends Louises graduation, hoping for one was replaced by Iva Withers; Raitt was replaced by Henry
last chance to help his daughter and redeem himself. The Michel in January 1947; Darling was replaced by Margot
beloved town physician, Dr. Seldon (who resembles the Moser.[53][54]
Starkeeper) advises the graduating class not to rely on After closing on Broadway, the show went on a national
their parents success or be held back by their failure tour for two years. It played for ve months in Chicago
(words directed at Louise). Seldon prompts everyone to alone, visited twenty states and two Canadian cities, cov-
sing an old song, You'll Never Walk Alone. Billy, still ered 15,000 miles (24,000 km) and played to nearly two
invisible, whispers to Louise, telling her to believe Sel- million people. The touring company had a four-week
dons words, and when she tentatively reaches out to an-
run at New York City Center in January 1949.[55] Fol-
other girl, she learns she does not have to be an outcast. lowing the City Center run, the show was moved back to
Billy goes to Julie, telling her at last that he loved her. As
the Majestic Theatre in the hopes of lling the theatre
his widow and daughter join in the singing, Billy is taken until South Pacic opened in early April. However, ticket
to his heavenly reward.
sales were mediocre, and the show closed almost a month
early.[56]
The musical premiered in the West End, London, at the
3 Principal roles and notable per- Theatre Royal, Drury Lane on June 7, 1950. The pro-
formers duction was restaged by Jerome Whyte, with a cast that
included Stephen Douglass (Billy), Iva Withers (Julie)
and Margot Moser (Carrie). Carousel ran in London for
denotes original Broadway cast
566 performances, remaining there for over a year and a
half.[53]

4 Musical numbers
5.2 Subsequent productions
5 Productions Carousel was revived in 1954 and 1957 at City Cen-
ter, presented by the New York City Center Light Opera
5.1 Early productions Company. Both times, the production featured Barbara
Cook, though she played Carrie in 1954 and Julie in 1957
The original Broadway production opened at the Majestic (playing alongside Howard Keel as Billy). The production
Theatre on April 19, 1945. The dress rehearsal the day was then taken to Belgium to be performed at the 1958
before had gone badly, and the pair feared the new work Brussels Worlds Fair, with David Atkinson as Billy, Ruth
would not be well received.[52] One successful last-minute Kobart as Nettie, and Clayton reprising the role of Julie,
change was to have de Mille choreograph the pantomime. which she had originated.[57]
The movement of the carnival crowd in the pantomime In August 1965, Rodgers and the Music Theater of
had been entrusted to Mamoulian, and his version was Lincoln Center produced Carousel for 47 performances.
not working.[44] Rodgers had injured his back the previ- John Raitt reprised the role of Billy, with Jerry Orbach
ous week, and he watched the opening from a stretcher as Jigger and Reid Shelton as Enoch Snow. The roles of
propped in a box behind the curtain. Sedated with mor- the Starkeeper and Dr. Seldon were played by Edward
phine, he could see only part of the stage. As he could not Everett Horton in his nal stage appearance.[58] The fol-
hear the audiences applause and laughter, he assumed the lowing year, New York City Center Light Opera Com-
show was a failure. It was not until friends congratulated pany brought Carousel back to City Center for 22 perfor-
him later that evening that he realized that the curtain had mances, with Bruce Yarnell as Billy and Constance Tow-
been met by wild applause.[52] Bambi Linn, who played ers as Julie.[57]
Louise, was so enthusiastically received by the audience Nicholas Hytner directed a new production of Carousel
during her ballet that she was forced to break character, in 1992, at Londons Royal National Theatre, with chore-
when she next appeared, and bow. Rodgers daughter ography by Sir Kenneth MacMillan and designs by Bob
Mary caught sight of her friend, Stephen Sondheim, both Crowley. In this staging, the story begins at the mill,
teenagers then, across several rows; both had eyes wet where Julie and Carrie work, with the music slowed
with tears.[45] down to emphasize the drudgery. After work ends, they
The original production ran for 890 performances, clos- move to the shipyards and then to the carnival.[57] As
ing on May 24, 1947. The original cast included John they proceed on a revolving stage, carnival characters ap-
Raitt (Billy), Jan Clayton (Julie), Jean Darling (Carrie), pear, and at last the carousel is assembled onstage for
Eric Mattson (Enoch Snow), Christine Johnson (Nettie the girls to ride.[59][60] Louise is seduced by the ruan
Fowler), Murvyn Vye (Jigger), Bambi Linn (Louise) and boy during her Act 2 ballet, set around the ruins of a
Russell Collins (Starkeeper). In December 1945, Clay- carousel.[59] Michael Hayden played Billy not as a large,
ton left to star in the Broadway revival of Show Boat and gru man, but as a frustrated smaller one, a time bomb
8 6 MUSIC AND RECORDINGS

waiting to explode.[57] Hayden, Joanna Riding (Julie)


and Janie Dee (Carrie) all won Olivier Awards for their
performances.[61] Patricia Routledge played Nettie.[62]
Enoch and Carrie were cast as an interracial couple whose
eight children, according to the review in The New York
Times, looked like a walking United Colors of Benet-
ton ad.[59] Clive Rowe, as Enoch, was nominated for an
Olivier Award.[63] The productions limited run from De-
cember 1992 through March 1993 was a sellout.[64] It re-
opened at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London in Septem-
ber 1993, presented by Cameron Mackintosh, where it
continued until May 1994.[65]
Boothbay Harbor, Maine, where the location shots for Carousel's
The Hytner production moved to New Yorks Vivian movie version were lmed
Beaumont Theater, where it opened on March 24, 1994
and ran for 322 performances.[57][59] This won ve Tony
Awards, including best musical revival, as well as awards
for Hytner, MacMillan, Crowley and Audra McDonald 5.3 Film, television and concert versions
(as Carrie).[66] The cast also included Sally Murphy as
Julie, Shirley Verrett as Nettie, Fisher Stevens as Jigger Main article: Carousel (lm)
and Eddie Korbich as Enoch.[67] One change made from
the London to the New York production was to have Billy
A lm version of the musical was made in 1956, starring
strike Louise across the face, rather than on the hand. Ac-
Gordon MacRae and Shirley Jones. It follows the musi-
cording to Hayden, He does the one unpardonable thing,
cals story fairly closely, although a prologue, set in the
the thing we can't forgive. Its a challenge for the audi-
Starkeepers heaven, was added. The lm was released
ence to like him after that.[68] The Hytner Carousel was
only a few months after the release of the lm version
presented in Japan in May 1995.[69] A U.S. national tour
of Oklahoma!. It garnered some good reviews,[80] and
with a scaled-down production began in February 1996
the soundtrack recording was a best seller. As the same
in Houston[70] and closed in May 1997 in Providence,
stars appeared in both pictures, however, the two lms
Rhode Island.[71] Producers sought to feature young tal-
were often compared, generally to the disadvantage of
ent on the tour,[70] with Patrick Wilson as Billy and Sarah
Carousel. Thomas Hischak, in The Rodgers and Hammer-
Uriarte Berry,[72] and later Jennifer Laura Thompson, as
stein Encyclopedia, later wondered if the smaller num-
Julie.[73]
ber of Carousel stage revivals is the product of this often-
A revival opened at Londons Savoy Theatre on Decem- lumbering [lm] musical.[81]
ber 2, 2008, after a week of previews, starring Jeremiah
There was also an abridged (100 minute) 1967 network
James (Billy), Alexandra Silber (Julie) and Lesley Gar-
television version that starred Robert Goulet, with chore-
rett (Nettie).[74] The production received warm to mixed
ography by Edward Villella.[81]
reviews.[75] It closed in June 2009, a month early.[76]
Michael Coveney, writing in The Independent, admired The New York Philharmonic presented a staged concert
Rodgers music but stated, Lindsay Posners ecient re- version of the musical from February 28 to March 2,
vival doesn't hold a candle to the National Theatre 1992 2013, at Avery Fisher Hall. Kelli O'Hara played Julie,
version.[74] with Nathan Gunn as Billy, Stephanie Blythe as Nettie,
Jessie Mueller as Carrie, Jason Danieley as Enoch, Shuler
A semi-staged revival by the English National Opera
Hensley as Jigger, John Cullum as the Starkeeper, and
opened at the London Coliseum on April 7, 2017 for
Kate Burton as Mrs. Mullin. Tiler Peck danced the role
a ve-week limited run until May 13. The production
of Louise to choreography by Warren Carlyle. The pro-
is directed by Lonny Price and stars Ale Boe as Billy,
duction was directed by John Rando. Charles Isherwood
Katherine Jenkins as Julie and Nicholas Lyndhurst as the
of The New York Times wrote, this is as gorgeously sung
Starkeeper. The production received mixed to positive
[77] a production of this sublime 1945 Broadway musical as
reviews.
you are ever likely to hear.[82] It was broadcast as part of
The third Broadway revival is set to open in the spring of the PBS Live from Lincoln Center series, premiering on
2018, starring Jessie Mueller, Joshua Henry, and Rene April 26, 2013.[83]
Fleming. The production will be directed by Jack O'Brien
and choreographed by Justin Peck.[78][79]

6 Music and recordings


6.1 Musical treatment 9

6.1 Musical treatment sical themes to become a part of him and never inter-
rupts her music.[88] Block suggests that, as reprehensible
Rodgers designed Carousel to be an almost continuous as Billy may be for his actions, Enoch requiring Carrie
stream of music, especially in Act 1. In later years, to act as the little woman, and his having nine children
Rodgers was asked if he had considered writing an opera. with her (more than she had found acceptable in When
He stated that he had been sorely tempted to, but saw the Children are Asleep) can be considered to be even
Carousel in operatic terms. He remembered, We came more abusive.[89]
very close to opera in the Majestic Theatre. ... Theres The twelve-minute bench scene,[90] in which Billy and
much that is operatic in the music.[84] Julie get to know each other and which culminates with
"If I Loved You", according to Hischak, is considered
the most completely integrated piece of music-drama in
the American musical theatre.[6] The scene is almost
entirely drawn from Molnr and is one extended musi-
cal piece; Stephen Sondheim described it as probably
the single most important moment in the revolution of
contemporary musicals.[91] If I Loved You has been
recorded many times, by such diverse artists as Frank
Sinatra, Barbra Streisand, Sammy Davis Jr., Mario Lanza
and Chad and Jeremy.[90] The D-at major theme that
dominates the music for the second act ballet seems like
a new melody to many audience members. It is, however,
a greatly expanded development of a theme heard during
Soliloquy at the line I guess he'll call me 'The old man'
".[92]
When the pair discussed the song that would become So-
liloquy, Rodgers improvised at the piano to give Ham-
merstein an idea of how he envisioned the song. When
Hammerstein presented his collaborator with the lyrics
after two weeks of work (Hammerstein always wrote
the words rst, then Rodgers would write the melodies),
Rodgers wrote the music for the eight-minute song in two
hours.[93] Whats the Use of Wond'rin' ", one of Julies
songs, worked well in the show but was never as popular
on the radio or for recording, and Hammerstein believed
Richard Rodgers
that the lack of popularity was because he had concluded
the nal line, And all the rest is talk with a hard conso-
Rodgers uses music in Carousel in subtle ways to dier- nant, which does not allow the singer a vocal climax.[93]
entiate characters and tell the audience of their emotional
state.[85] In You're a Queer One, Julie Jordan, the music
for the placid Carrie is characterized by even eighth-note
rhythms, whereas the emotionally restless Julies music is
marked by dotted eighths and sixteenths; this rhythm will
characterize her throughout the show. When Billy whis-
tles a snatch of the song, he selects Julies dotted notes
rather than Carries.[86] Reecting the close association
in the music between Julie and the as-yet unborn Louise,
when Billy sings in Soliloquy of his daughter, who gets
hungry every night, he uses Julies dotted rhythms. Such
rhythms also characterize Julies Act 2 song, Whats the
Use of Wond'rin'".[87] The stable love between Enoch and
Carrie is strengthened by her willingness to let Enoch not
only plan his entire life, but hers as well. This is re-
ected in When the Children Are Asleep, where the
two sing in close harmony, but Enoch musically interrupts Shankly Gates at Aneld, Liverpool F.C.'s stadium
his intendeds turn at the chorus with the words Dreams
that won't be interrupted. Rodgers biographer Georey Irving Berlin later stated that You'll Never Walk Alone
Block, in his book on the Broadway musical, points out had the same sort of eect on him as the 23rd Psalm.[94]
that though Billy may strike his wife, he allows her mu- When singer Mel Torm told Rodgers that You'll Never
10 7 CRITICAL RECEPTION AND LEGACY

Walk Alone had made him cry, Rodgers nodded impa-


tiently. You're supposed to.[95] The frequently recorded
song has become a universally accepted hymn.[96][97] The
cast recording of Carousel proved popular in Liverpool,
like many Broadway albums, and in 1963, the Brian Ep-
stein-managed band, Gerry and the Pacemakers had a
number-one hit with the song. At the time, the top ten
hits were played before Liverpool F.C. home matches;
even after You'll Never Walk Alone dropped out of
the top ten, fans continued to sing it, and it has become
closely associated with the soccer team and the city of
Liverpool.[98] A BBC program, Soul Music, ranked it
alongside "Silent Night" and "Abide With Me" in terms
of its emotional impact and iconic status.[96]

Rodgers (left) and Hammerstein

6.2 Recordings 7 Critical reception and legacy


The musical received almost unanimous rave reviews af-
The cast album of the 1945 Broadway production was ter its opening in 1945. According to Hischak, reviews
issued on 78s, and the score was signicantly cutas were not as exuberant as for Oklahoma! as the critics
was the 1950 London cast recording.[99] Theatre historian were not taken by surprise this time. John Chapman of
John Kenrick notes of the 1945 recording that a num- the Daily News termed it one of the nest musical plays
ber of songs had to be abridged to t the 78 format, but I have ever seen and I shall remember it always.[103] The
that there is a small part of Soliloquy found on no other New York Times's reviewer, Lewis Nichols, stated that
recording, as Rodgers cut it from the score immediately Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein 2d, who can
after the studio recording was made.[100][101] do no wrong, have continued doing no wrong in adapting
Liliom into a musical play. Their Carousel is on the whole
A number of songs were cut for the 1956 lm, but two
delightful.[104] Wilella Waldorf of the New York Post,
of the deleted numbers had been recorded and were ulti-
however, complained, "Carousel seemed to us a rather
mately retained on the soundtrack album. The expanded
long evening. The Oklahoma! formula is becoming a bit
CD version of the soundtrack, issued in 2001, contains
monotonous and so are Miss de Milles ballets. All right,
all of the singing recorded for the lm, including the cut
go ahead and shoot!"[103][105] Dance Magazine gave Linn
portions, and nearly all of the dance music. The recording
plaudits for her role as Louise, stating, Bambi doesn't
of the 1965 Lincoln Center revival featured Raitt repris-
come on until twenty minutes before eleven, and for the
ing the role of Billy. Studio recordings of Carousel's
next forty minutes, she practically holds the audience in
songs were released in 1956 (with Robert Merrill as Billy,
her hand.[44] Howard Barnes in the New York Herald Tri-
Patrice Munsel as Julie, and Florence Henderson as Car-
bune also applauded the dancing: It has waited for Miss
rie), 1962 and 1987. The 1987 version featured a mix
de Mille to come through with peculiarly American dance
of opera and musical stars, including Samuel Ramey,
patterns for a musical show to become as much a dance
Barbara Cook and Sarah Brightman.[99][101] Kenrick rec-
as a song show.[44]
ommends the 1962 studio recording for its outstanding
cast, including Alfred Drake, Roberta Peters, Claramae When the musical returned to New York in 1949, The
Turner, Lee Venora, and Norman Treigle.[100] New York Times reviewer Brooks Atkinson described
Carousel as a conspicuously superior musical play ...
Both the London (1993) and New York (1994) cast al-
Carousel, which was warmly appreciated when it opened,
bums of the Hytner production contain portions of dia-
seems like nothing less than a masterpiece now.[106] In
logue that, according to Hischak, speak to the power of
1954, when Carousel was revived at City Center, Atkin-
Michael Haydens portrayal of Billy.[99] Kenrick judges
son discussed the musical in his review:
the 1994 recording the best all-around performance of
Carousel on disc, despite uneven singing by Hayden,
due to Sally Murphys Julie and the strong supporting Carousel has no comment to make on any-
cast (calling Audra McDonald the best Carrie he has thing of topical importance. The theme is
heard).[100][101] The Stratford Festival issued a recording timeless and universal: the devotion of two
in 2015.[102] people who love each other through thick and
11

thin, complicated in this case by the wayward gument for sending American boys overseas,
personality of the man, who cannot fulll the Carousel oered consolation to those wives
responsibilities he has assumed. ... Billy is and mothers whose boys would only return in
a bum, but Carousel recognizes the decency spirit. The meaning lay not in the tragedy of
of his motives and admires his independence. the present, but in the hope for a future where
There are no slick solutions in Carousel.[107] no one walks alone.[116]

Stephen Sondheim noted the duos ability to take the in-


novations of Oklahoma! and apply them to a serious set- 8 Awards and nominations
ting: "Oklahoma! is about a picnic, Carousel is about life
and death.[108] Critic Eric Bentley, on the other hand,
wrote that the last scene of Carousel is an impertinence: 9 References
I refuse to be lectured to by a musical comedy scriptwriter
on the education of children, the nature of the good life, [1] Molnr, pp. ixx
and the contribution of the American small town to the
[2] Fordin, p. 226
salvation of souls.[109]
New York Times critic Frank Rich said of the 1992 Lon- [3] Hyland, p. 158
don production: What is remarkable about Mr. Hytners [4] Molnr, pp. 1185
direction, aside from its unorthodox faith in the virtues
of simplicity and stillness, is its ability to make a 1992 [5] Nolan, p. 153
audience believe in Hammersteins vision of redemp-
[6] Hischak, p. 38
tion, which has it that a dead sinner can return to Earth
to do godly good.[110] The Hytner production in New [7] Molnr, p. xiii
York was hailed by many critics as a grittier Carousel,
which they deemed more appropriate for the 1990s.[111] [8] Secrest, pp. 40304
Clive Barnes of the New York Post called it a dening [9] Block (ed.), pp. 19495
Carouselhard-nosed, imaginative, and exciting.[111]
[10] Oscar Hammerstein II. Songwriters Hall of Fame. Re-
Critic Michael Billington has commented that lyri- trieved on December 22, 2010
cally [Carousel] comes perilously close to acceptance of
the inevitability of domestic violence.[112] Broadway- [11] Layne, Joslyn. Lorenz Hart Biography at Allmusic. Re-
World.com stated in 2013 that Carousel is now con- trieved on December 22, 2010
sidered somewhat controversial in terms of its attitudes
[12] Nolan, pp. 125.
on domestic violence because Julie chooses to stay with
Billy despite the abuse; actress Kelli O'Hara noted that [13] Hischak, pp. 20102
the domestic violence that Julie chooses to deal with is
a real, existing and very complicated thing. And explor- [14] Rodgers, p. 234
ing it is an important part of healing it.[113] [15] Fordin, p. 224
Rodgers considered Carousel his favorite of all his mu-
[16] Fordin, p. 220
sicals and wrote, it aects me deeply every time I see
it performed.[52] In 1999, Time magazine, in its Best of [17] Hyland, p. 157
the Century list, named Carousel the Best Musical of the
20th century, writing that Rodgers and Hammerstein set [18] Hammerstein, Oscar II. Turns on a Carousel; an account
of adventures in setting the play 'Liliom' to music. The
the standards for the 20th century musical, and this show
New York Times, April 15, 1945, Arts and Leisure, p. X1.
features their most beautiful score and the most skillful Retrieved on December 20, 2010. Fee for article.
and aecting example of their musical storytelling.[114]
Hammersteins grandson, Oscar Andrew Hammerstein, [19] Nolan, pp. 14445
in his book about his family, suggested that the wartime
[20] Fordin, pp. 22324
situation made Carousel's ending especially poignant to
its original viewers, Every American grieved the loss [21] Fordin, pp. 22122
of a brother, son, father, or friend ... the audience em-
pathized with [Billys] all-too-human eorts to oer ad- [22] Hyland, pp. 15758
vice, to seek forgiveness, to complete an unnished life, [23] Secrest, p. 273
and to bid a proper good-bye from beyond the grave.[115]
Author and composer Ethan Mordden agreed with that [24] Fordin, pp. 15657
perspective:
[25] Hyland, pp. 15859

If Oklahoma! developed the moral ar- [26] Block, p. 162


12 9 REFERENCES

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[31] Fordin, p. 222
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[32] Rodgers, p. 239
[61] Ocial London Theatre listing. 1993 Olivier Awards,
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[35] Block (ed.), p. 122
[63] Butler, Robert. Show People: A star waiting to happen:
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[103] Hischak, p. 39 978-0-19-516730-6.
14 10 EXTERNAL LINKS

Block, Georey (ed.) The Richard Rodgers Reader.


New York: Oxford University Press US, 2006.
ISBN 978-0-19-531343-7.
Bradley, Ian. You've Got to Have a Dream: The
Message of the Broadway Musical. Louisville, Ky.,
Westminster John Knox Press, 2005. 978-0-664-
22854-5.
Easton, Carol. No Intermission: The Life of Agnes
DeMille. Jeerson, N.C.: Da Capo Press, 2000 (1st
DaCapo Press edition). ISBN 978-0-306-80975-0.
Fordin, Hugh. Getting to Know Him: A Biography
of Oscar Hammerstein II. Jeerson, N.C.: Da Capo
Press, 1995 reprint of 1986 edition. ISBN 978-0-
306-80668-1.
Hammerstein, Oscar Andrew. The Hammersteins:
A Musical Theatre Family. New York: Black Dog
& Leventhal Publishers, 2010. ISBN 978-1-57912-
846-3.
Hischak, Thomas S. The Rodgers and Hammerstein
Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pub-
lishing Group, 2007. ISBN 978-0-313-34140-3.
Hyland, William G. Richard Rodgers. New Haven,
Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-
300-07115-3.
Molnr, Ferenc. Liliom: A Legend in Seven Scenes
and a Prologue. New York: Boni and Liveright,
1921.
Mordden, Ethan. Rodgers & Hammerstein. New
York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1992. ISBN 978-0-
8109-1567-1.
Nolan, Frederick. The Sound of Their Music: The
Story of Rodgers and Hammerstein. Cambridge,
Mass.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2002.
ISBN 978-1-55783-473-7.
Rodgers, Richard. Musical Stages: An Autobiogra-
phy. Jeerson, N.C. Da Capo Press, 2002 reprint
of 1975 edition. ISBN 978-0-306-81134-0.
Secrest, Meryle. Somewhere for Me: A Biography
of Richard Rodgers. Cambridge, Mass.: Applause
Theatre and Cinema Books, 2001. ISBN 978-1-
55783-581-9.

10 External links
Carousel at the Internet Broadway Database
Carousel at guidetomusicaltheatre.com
Carousel info page on StageAgent.com Carousel
plot summary & character descriptions
15

11 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


11.1 Text
Carousel (musical) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carousel_(musical)?oldid=781283991 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Vicki Rosen-
zweig, Mav, Bryan Derksen, Eclecticology, Lane Wright, Deb, Nate Silva, Tordj~enwiki, Frecklefoot, Ixfd64, Paul A, BRG, WhisperToMe,
JohnRogers, Nightsky, Dale Arnett, E0N, Rfc1394, WesternActor, RayBirks, Grstain, Atrian, Rich Farmbrough, Autiger, Daydream be-
liever2, Bender235, Martinman11, Dafyd, Rjstern, Ianblair23, Makimoto, Woohookitty, SDC, Emerson7, BD2412, Drbogdan, Rjwilmsi,
Jake Wartenberg, Wikibofh, TBHecht, RobertG, No Swan So Fine, Mukkakukaku, Lincolnite, UDScott, BirgitteSB, Figaro, Omtay38, J.
Van Meter, Nikkimaria, Paul Erik, Victor falk, robot, SmackBot, Prodego, FlashSheridan, Wehwalt, Chris the speller, Kurykh, Afas-
mit, Colonies Chris, Chcknwnm, Tim riley, MusicMaker5376, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Zaqqq, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Michael
Bednarek, Stageagent, SandyGeorgia, Interlingua, Beve, Courcelles, CmdrObot, Rovno, AlbertSM, Cydebot, Mato, DumbBOT, Ssilvers,
Thijs!bot, Wikid77, TonyTheTiger, Dugwiki, AntiVandalBot, RobotG, Andrzejbanas, Barek, Epeeeche, Ernieontv, Kaiserkarl13, Guavas,
MetsBot, William James Croft, Joseph Hewes, Bwj8, Flami72, Brian Joseph Morgan, Uncle Dick, Tushyk, Teelaofbrisingr, Sysm0921,
Pdcook, GrahamHardy, Valery.vv, VasilievVV, Bovineboy2008, TXiKiBoT, GimmeBot, ^demonBot2, SergioGeorgini, MearsMan, David
Couch, Softlavender, CVActor1, Ohmegeeitskellyx, Oda Mari, Jack1956, Mizshely, Lightmouse, Fratrep, Omccreary, Bridgetw25, GaryK-
ibble, Dabomb87, Denisarona, Escape Orbit, ClueBot, Timeineurope, Saul Tillich, Niceguyedc, Trivialist, Liliom (Carousel), Jeayman,
Arjayay, TheRedPenOfDoom, DumZiBoT, RexxS, XLinkBot, Laser brain, Dthomsen8, Kbdankbot, Blethering Scot, This is Paul, Ka Faraq
Gatri, Ccacsmss, Legobot, Cougarthespian92, Yobot, AnomieBOT, Kkqd1284, Cgersten, FrescoBot, Discographer, CobraBot, Cassianto,
Haynes.cli, RjwilmsiBot, Beyond My Ken, EmausBot, GA bot, GoingBatty, 4meter4, Musicaldudepeter, Helenek228, Erianna, Gothic-
sea, Helpsome, ClueBot NG, IJVin, Loopy48, EnglishTea4me, Widr, Zlm5012, Majesty of the Commons, Upstatepiano, Gossipguy215,
Alarbus, DXterminator017, Br'er Rabbit, YiFeiBot, JonathanBaz, NicholasDGHikes, Musicallymusical, LorraineEC, Jamescrispy94, In-
ternetArchiveBot, GreenC bot, Hamiltonhamilton, Luluplatz, Lovejoy8318, Bender the Bot and Anonymous: 185

11.2 Images
File:Boothbay_Harbor_in_Summer.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Boothbay_Harbor_in_
Summer.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia Original artist: 3l3phant at en.wikipedia
File:Flag_of_Maine.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/Flag_of_Maine.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Hammerstein.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Hammerstein.jpg License: Public domain Con-
tributors:
Rodgers_and_Hammerstein_and_Berlin_and_Tamiris_NYWTS.jpg Original artist: Rodgers_and_Hammerstein_and_Berlin_and_Tamiris_NYWTS.jpg:
Al Aumuller, World Telegram sta photographer
File:Liliom_offers_Louise_a_star.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Liliom_offers_Louise_a_star.
jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Everybodys magazine (New York, NY), October 21, here Original artist: Un-
known<a href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
/></a>
File:Liliom_prologue.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Liliom_prologue.jpg License: Pub-
lic domain Contributors: The Drama, June 1921, Chicago. http://books.google.com/books?id=Vs8UAAAAYAAJ&dq=
liliom&pg=PA308#v=onepage&q=liliom&f=false Original artist: Unknown<a href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Mister_Snow.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Mister_Snow.jpg License: Public do-
main Contributors: Souvenir Program for Carousel Original artist: Unknown<a href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Musical1945-Carousel-OriginalPoster.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/88/
Musical1945-Carousel-OriginalPoster.jpg License: Fair use Contributors: http://images.moviepostershop.com/
carousel-broadway-movie-poster-1945-1020409235.jpg Original artist: Majestic Theatre
File:P_culture.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/P_culture.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
? Original artist: ?
File:R_and_H.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/R_and_H.jpg License: Public domain Contrib-
utors: Souvenir program for The King and I, 1977 Original artist: Unknown<a href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Rodgers.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Rodgers.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Rodgers_and_Hammerstein_and_Berlin_and_Tamiris_NYWTS.jpg Original artist: Rodgers_and_Hammerstein_and_Berlin_and_Tamiris_NYWTS.jpg:
Al Aumuller, World Telegram sta photographer
16 11 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Shankly_Gates.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Shankly_Gates.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.5


Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. Original artist: Andynugent at English Wikipedia a.k.a. Andynugent at Flickr
a.k.a. Andy Nugent.
File:Use_of_Wondering.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Use_of_Wondering.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: Souvenir Program for Carousel Original artist: Unknown<a href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rei-artur

11.3 Content license


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0