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Educational Enterprise Resource

Planning

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who


provided me the possibility to complete this report. A special gratitude I
give to our final year project guide, Dr. Aditya Gupta, whose contribution in
stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped me to coordinate my
project especially in writing this report.

Furthermore I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation


the crucial role of the staff of Computer science department, who gave the
permission to use all required equipment and the necessary material to
complete the task . A special thanks goes to my team mate, who help me
to assemble the parts and gave suggestion about the task My Parents &
Friends. Last but not least, many thanks go to the head of the project,
Manoj Rajora who have invested his full effort in guiding the team in
achieving the goal. I have to appreciate the guidance given by other
supervisor as well as the panels especially in our project presentation that has
improved our presentation skills thanks to their comment and advices.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.


ABSTRACT 3
1 INTRODUCTION 4
1.1 PURPOSE 4
1.2 SCOPE 5
1.3 OBJECTIVES 6
2 ANALYSIS 8
2.1 INTRODUCTION 8
2.2 PROJECT OVERVIEW 9
2.3 USE CASE DIAGRAM 9
2.4 E-R DIAGRAM 16
2.5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 19
2.6 EXTERNAL ENTITY 24
2.7 EXTERNAL INTERFACE 24
REQUIREMENT
2.8 DATABASE REQUIREMENTS 26
3 DESIGN 48
4 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 52
METHODOLOGY
5 SYSTEM TESTING 60
6 OUTPUT FORMS AND REPORTS 69
7 CONCLUSION 76
8 APPENDICES 80
9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 94

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ABSTRACT

The main value ERP systems provide is the opportunity to integrate an


entire organization. End to end business processes that were traditionally
disjointed, now share information through a common database. The
information flow is much more efficient in that there are clear lines of
business processes across the enterprise. For example, in a horizontally
integrated ERP system, a purchasing department would process a purchase
order in a central database with a common General Ledger (GL). Both
Accounts Payable and Receiving have access to the same GL so the data
would be immediately available to them. There is no time lag, re-entry of
information, or dependency on paper documents. By having a single point of
entry the risk of inaccuracy in the end-to-end transaction is reduced,
resulting in fewer reconciliation points. Additionally, the ERP systems of
today provide utilities for vertical integration with suppliers and distributors.
When properly implemented as part of a comprehensive transformation
effort, ERP solutions can yield the following results:

Integrated processes and information systems


Consolidation and/or elimination of current systems

Reduced complexity of application and technology


portfolios

Reduced reliance on programmers to make software


changes

Authoritative data source

Reduced data redundancy and duplicative data entry


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More effective and efficient business processes

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1. NTRODUCTION

1.1. PURPOSE

The main value ERP systems provide is the opportunity to integrate an

entire organization. End to end business processes that were traditionally

disjointed, now share information through a common database. The

information flow is much more efficient in that there are clear lines of

business processes across the enterprise. For example, in a horizontally

integrated ERP system, a purchasing department would process a purchase

order in a central database with a common General Ledger (GL). Both

Accounts Payable and Receiving have access to the same GL so the data

would be immediately available to them. There is no time lag, re-entry of

information, or dependency on paper documents. By having a single point of

entry the risk of inaccuracy in the end-to-end transaction is reduced,

resulting in fewer reconciliation points. Additionally, the ERP systems of

today provide utilities for vertical integration with suppliers and distributors.

When properly implemented as part of a comprehensive transformation

effort, ERP solutions can yield the following results:

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Integrated processes and information systems


Consolidation and/or elimination of current systems

Reduced complexity of application and technology


portfolios

Reduced reliance on programmers to make software


changes

Authoritative data source

Reduced data redundancy and duplicative data entry

More effective and efficient business processes

1.2. SCOPE

In modern era EDUCATION sector developed as an industry. It might be


public school, Engineering college, Management College, Medical College,
Dental college etc. Every educational institute has great potential in terms of
demands, Students, Activities. Every educational institute has lot of activities
to perform like FINANCE, HR, INVENTORY, PAY ROLL, PURCHASE,
SALES, EXAMS and LIBRARY etc. Their need can be cater through ERP,
but the problems with present ERP solution is COST as well as TIME for
implementation. So with this project eERP we are going to develop the
customized ERP to cater the need of educational institution that will cost
them very less, with less implementation time.

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1.3. OBJECTIVES

Our Objective is to create an ERP web portal for Educational Institute that
will provide all the required information by the single web sites and will
cater the need of Students, Teachers, Managements by providing integrated
system. Below is the list of functions:

To manage Students information, Teachers information, Employee


information, Payment Information, Class Schedules, Examination
process, Result data, Pay roll information effectively.
To help the employee in working easily and efficiently.
To manage finance data effectively
To evaluate employee ,students performance
To generate annual report
To generate employee pay slip
To provide better service to students & parents
To perform analysis on student data
Simplify marketing and admission processes
To help the marketing people in reducing errors that are encountered
frequently during sales
Manual operations by concurrently updating the data stored in many
places.
To provide security as only an authorized user can interact with the
system
To provide students information to the parents.
Provide a fast mechanism for correcting service deficiencies.

To provide mechanism to deal with parents complaints effectively.


To provide list of students whenever needed by salesman,
administrator or customer relationship executive.

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To do customer segmentation on basis of income, occupation and


territory.
To perform analysis of existing data on the basis of territory area and
region.
To provide facility of submitting feedback of the parents and teachers.
Provide better finance services.

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2. ANALYSIS

2.1. INTRODUCTION

The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is most commonly referenced


in the context of commercially available software systems. ERP systems
provide an integrated suite of information technology applications that
support the operations of an enterprise and are not, as the acronym ERP
implies, limited to planning functions. The activities supported by ERP
systems include all core functions of an enterprise, including financial
management, human resources management, and operations. Increasingly,
ERP vendors are offering bolt-on products that provide specialized
functionality to augment the core, such as Advanced Planning and
Scheduling (APS), and Customer Relationship Management (CRM).

Although the term ERP generally refers to a software system, it also


encompasses the business processes that drive system requirements and
capabilities. ERP systems support and enable the transformation of
enterprises through the deployment of best practices and integrated business
processes. Transformation of business processes can be achieved using a
Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) approach. CPI refers to both
incremental and larger, more radical process changes. Transformation
through the use of CPI frequently leverages the implementation of an ERP
solution as a key enabler. In CPI, business processes, work flows,
information, organizational design and position descriptions are changed.

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2.2 PROJECT OVERVIEW

This software product is developed for facilitating and automating the


business process of Public School. The System will be deployed in the Main
Branch. This chapter tries to address the known constraints, assumptions and
dependencies of the system. Some of the sections also show the technical
details of static parts of the system. This system provides Accounting and
Finance management, Library Management, Examination Department and
HR Department. The system enables the owner to control all activities done
by the marketing, human resource, finance etc.

2.3 USE CASE DIAGRAM

Fig: Elements of the use case diagram

In use case diagrams, as shown in Figure 4.8, we work with the


.following elements:

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ACTOR

You can picture an actor as a user of the IT system, for example Mr. Steel or
Mrs. Smith from check-in. Because individual persons are irrelevant for the
model, they are abstracted. So the actors are called check-in employee
or passenger:

Actors represent roles that users take on when they use the IT system, e.g.,
the role of a check-in employee. One person can act in more than one role
toward the IT system. It is important for the IT system in which role a person
is acting. Therefore, it is necessary to log on to many IT systems in a certain
role, for instance, as a normal user or as an administrator. In each case access
to the appropriate functionalities (use cases) is granted.

Actors themselves are not part of the IT system. However, as employees they
can be part of the business system.

USE CASE

Use cases describe the interactions that take place between actors and IT
systems during the execution of business processes:

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A use case represents a part of the functionality of the IT system and enables
the user (modeled as an actor) to access this functionality.

thing that users would like to do with the IT system has to be made available
as a use case (or part of a use case). Functionalities that exist in the IT
system, but that are not accessed by means of use cases, are not available
to users.

Even though the idea behind use cases is to describe interactions, flows of
batch processing, which generally do not include interactions, can also be
described as use cases. The actor of such a batch use case is then the one
who initiates batch processing. For instance, generating check-in statistics
would be a batch use case.

ASSOCIATION

An association is a connection between an actor and a use case. An


association indicates that an actor can carry out a use case. Several actors at
one use case mean that each actor can carry out the use case on his or her
own and not that the actors carry out the use case together:

According to UML, association only means that an actor is involved in a use


case. We use associations in a restricted manner.

INCLUDE RELATIONSHIPS

An include relationship is a relationship between two use cases:

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It indicates that the use case to which the arrow points is included in the use

case on the other side of the arrow. This makes it possible to reuse a use case

in another use case. Figure shows an example of this relationship. In the flow

of the use case, express check-in is a point at which the use case generating

boarding pass is included. This means that at this point the entire process

generating boarding pass is carried out. Include relationships can be viewed

as a type of call to a subprogram:

Fig: Include relationships between use cases

READING USE CASE DIAGRAMS

Figure shows a use case diagram with the actors (employee and passenger)
as well as the use cases check-in and express check-in:

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Fig: A simple use case diagram

According to your interest, you can start reading a use case diagram with the
actor or with the use case.

Starting with the actor check-in employee (1) you can find associations
between the two use cases check-in (2) and express check-in (3). This means
that persons who interact with the IT system as c.heck-in employees can
carry out the use cases check-in and express check-in.

For the readability of the diagram it makes sense that use cases are located
one below the other. However, this means nothing. A meaningful order in
which a worker carries out use cases cannot be documented in a use case
diagram.Unless the use case diagram has to be amended, the use cases
check-in (2) and express check-in (3) are everything that a check-in
employee can do with the IT system.

The actor passenger (5) has an association to the use case express check-in
(3), which means that people who interact with the IT system as passengers
can carry out the use case express check-in (3) directly with the IT system.
The actor check-in employee (1) also has an association to the use case
express check-in (3), which means that both passengers and check-in
employees can carry out this use case. It does not mean that these two work
together during express check-in.

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Of course, during the use case check-in (2) too, a passenger checks himself
or herself in and not an employee, but actor of the IT system is always the
one who directly interacts with the IT system. For the use case express
check-in (3) this can be either the passenger, who, with his or her plane
ticket, can obtain a boarding pass at a machine, or a check-in employee who
can do this in place of the passenger. However, for the business system the
passenger is always the actor, because he or she is located outside the
business. The employee, on the other hand, is not an actor from the
perspective of the business system, because he or she works inside the
business system.

Fig: Use case diagram with include relationships

Figure shows a use case diagram with the include relationships that both the
use cases check-in (1) and express check-in (2) have with the use case
generating boarding pass (3). This means that during both check-in and
express check-in, a boarding pass is generated. According to our practical
experience, this is the easiest way to reuse parts of use cases.

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2.4 ER DIAGRAM

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It is a different tool for the problem analysis which is generally called E-R
diagram. It is a detailed logical representation of data for the organization
there are three main components of E-R diagram data entry, their
relationship and their attributes.

The DFD is a process oriented but an E-R diagram is data oriented. The
E-R diagram does not provide any information about the functions of data.
The main emphasis of E-R diagram is to define the entities and the
relationship between the entities. The E-R diagram also does not represent
the flow of processing there are three main components of E-R diagram-

1) Entity:

An entity is a real world object for which data is maintained and


stored. Every entity have its identity. The entity can be represented by
rectangle. The name of the entity will be written in side the rectangle in
capital letters. The objects of entity can be identify uniquely for example
student -
STUDENT
2) Relationship:

Different entities are connected with each other by the


relationship. A relationship is the reason for which different entities are
connected with each other. The relationship is denoted by diamond
shape.

Types of relationships:-

1. One to One Relationship.

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2. One to Many Relationship.

3. Many to One Relationship.

4. Many to Many Relationship.

3) Attributes:

Every entity has multiple attributes. The properties or characterstics of an

object or entity are called attributes on the basis of the attributes we can

identify each object uniquely. The attributes can be shown by the help of

shape

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2.5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM(S)

Data flow diagrams can be used to provide a clear representation of any


business function. The technique starts with an overall picture of the
business and continues by analysing each of the functional areas of interest.
This analysis can be carried out to precisely the level of detail required. The
technique exploits a method called top-down expansion to conduct the
analysis in a targeted way.

Data flow diagrams are used to represent the flow of data in the system. This
gives the total representation of data flow from start to end. Data Flow
Diagram has certain symbols to represent the flow in diagrammatic form.
This representation can be done in several levels.

The symbols that we use are :

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Rules :

External Entities: It is normal for all the information represented within a


system to have been obtained from, and/or to be passed onto, an external
source or recipient. These external entities may be duplicated on a diagram,
to avoid crossing data flow lines. Where they are duplicated a stripe is drawn
across the left hand corner, like this. The addition of a lowercase letter to
each entity on the diagram Processes when naming processes, avoid
glossing over them, without really understanding their role. Indications that
this has been done are the use of vague terms in the descriptive title area -
like 'process' or 'update'. The most important thing to remember is that the
description must be meaningful to whoever will be using the diagram.
Data Flows: Double headed arrows can be used (to show two-way flows)
on all but bottom level diagrams. Furthermore, in common with most of the
other symbols used, a data flow at a particular level of a diagram may be
decomposed to multiple data flows at lower levels.
Data Stores: Each store should be given a reference letter, followed by an
arbitrary number. These reference letters are allocated as follows:
'D'- indicates a permanent computer file 'M'- indicates ab manual file
'T'- indicates a transient store, one that is deleted after processing.
In order to avoid complex flows, the same data store may be drawn several
times on a diagram. A double vertical bar on their left hand edge indicates
multiple instances of the same data store.

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CONTEXT LEVEL DFD

.e-ERP
Admin.
User Syste
m

Super
Admin.

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0-LEVEL DFD

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1-LEVEL DFD

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2.6 EXTERNAL INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS

HARDWARE INTERFACES

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
PROCESSOR Pentium Class PC (P4 - 3 GHz or greater; faster processor
or multiple processors recommended)
MEMORY 4 GB of RAM or more recommended

HARD DISK Approximately 10 GB of free space at local system


Approximately 200 GB of free space on the system
hosting the database
Services for security vulnerabilities

SOFTWARE INTERFACES
O/S : WINDOWS XP/WINDOWS 7/ANY OTHERS
WEB SERVER : WAMP/XAMP
IDE : NETBEANS 7.0 / 7.1 ,NPP++,DREAMVIEWER
SERVER SIDE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES :
PHP
SCRIPTING LANGUAGE : Java Script
MARKUP LANGUAGE : HTML / XHTML / XML
ADVANCE FEATURES: AJAX / MAGENTO
FRAMEWORK
DATABASE : MYSQL

2.5 SOFTWARE SYSTEM ATTRIBUTE

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Reliability and Fault Tolerance


Fault tolerance includes details about recovery from failure.
Security
Specify any requirements regarding security or privacy issues surrounding
use of the product or protection of the data used or created by the product.
Define any user identity authentication requirements. Refer to any external
policies or regulations containing security issues that affect the product.
Define any security or privacy certifications that must be satisfied.
Software Quality Attributes
Specify any additional quality characteristics for the product that will be
important to either the customers or the developers. Some to consider are:
adaptability, availability, correctness, flexibility, interoperability,
maintainability, portability, reliability, reusability, robustness, testability, and
usability. Write these to be specific, quantitative, and verifiable when
possible. At the least, clarify the relative preferences for various attributes,
such as ease of use over ease of learning.
Performance
If there are performance requirements for the product under various
circumstances, state them here and explain their rationale, to help the
developers understand the intent and make suitable design choices. Specify
the timing relationships for real time systems. Make such requirements as
specific as possible. You may need to state performance requirements for
individual functional requirements or features.

2.6 DATABASE REQUIREMENT(S)

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SQL is short for Structured Query Language and is a widely used


database language, providing means of data manipulation (store, retrieve,
update, delete) and database creation.

SQL was developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F.


Boyce in the early 1970s. This version, initially called SEQUEL (Structured
English Query Language), was designed to manipulate and retrieve data
stored in IBM's original quasi-relational database management system,
System R, which a group at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory had
developed during the 1970s. The acronym SEQUEL was later changed to
SQL because "SEQUEL" was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker
Siddeley aircraft company.

The first Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) was


RDMS, developed at MIT in the early 1970s, soon followed by Ingres,
developed in 1974 at U.C. Berkeley. Ingres implemented a query language
known as QUEL, which was later supplanted in the marketplace by SQL.

A database management, or DBMS, gives the user access to their data


and helps them transform the data into information. Such database
management systems include dBase, paradox, IMS and MY-SQL. These
systems allow users to create, update and extract information from their
database.

A database is a structured collection of data. Data refers to the


characteristics of people, things and events. MY-SQL stores each data item
in its own fields. In MY-SQL, the fields relating to a particular person, thing
or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of data, called a
record (it can also be referred to as raw or an occurrence). Each record is
made up of a number of fields. No two fields in a record can have the same
field name.

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During an MY-SQL Database design project, the analysis of your


business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest. If your
business needs change over time, you define any additional fields or change
the definition of existing fields.

MY-SQL TABLES

MY-SQL stores records relating to each other in a table. Different


tables are created for the various groups of information. Related tables are
grouped together to form a database.

PRIMARY KEY

Every table in MY-SQL has a field or a combination of fields that


uniquely identifies each record in the table. The Unique identifier is called
the Primary Key, or simply the Key. The primary key provides the means to
distinguish one record from all other in a table. It allows the user and the
database system to identify, locate and refer to one particular record in the
database.

RELATIONAL DATABASE

Sometimes all the information of interest to a business operation can


be stored in one table. MY-SQL makes it very easy to link the data in
multiple tables. Matching an employee to the department in which they work
is one example. This is what makes MY-SQL a relational database
management system, or RDBMS. It stores data in two or more tables and
enables you to define relationships between the table and enables you to
define relationships between the tables.

FOREIGN KEY

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When a field is one table matches the primary key of another field is
referred to as a foreign key. A foreign key is a field or a group of fields in
one table whose values match those of the primary key of another table.

REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY

Not only does MY-SQL allow you to link multiple tables, it also
maintains consistency between them. Ensuring that the data among related
tables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity.

.DATA ABSTRACTION

A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an


abstract view of the data. This system hides certain details of how the data is
stored and maintained. Data abstraction is divided into three levels.

Physical level: This is the lowest level of abstraction at which one describes
how the data are actually stored.

Conceptual Level: At this level of database abstraction all the attributed


and what data are actually stored is described and entries and relationship
among them.

View level: This is the highest level of abstraction at which one describes
only part of the database.

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ADVANTAGES OF RDBMS

Redundancy can be avoided


Inconsistency can be eliminated
Data can be Shared
Standards can be enforced
Security restrictions ca be applied
Integrity can be maintained
Conflicting requirements can be balanced
Data independence can be achieved.

DISADVANTAGES OF DBMS

A significant disadvantage of the DBMS system is cost. In addition to


the cost of purchasing of developing the software, the hardware has to be
upgraded to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required for
their execution and storage. While centralization reduces duplication, the
lack of duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up so that
in case of failure the data can be recovered.

FEATURES OF MY-SQL (RDBMS)

MY-SQL is one of the leading database management systems (DBMS)


because it is the only Database that meets the uncompromising requirements
of todays most demanding information systems. From complex decision
support systems (DSS) to the most rigorous online transaction processing
(OLTP) application, even application that require simultaneous DSS and

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OLTP access to the same critical data, MY-SQL leads the industry in both
performance and capability

MY-SQL is a truly portable, distributed, and open DBMS that delivers


unmatched performance, continuous operation and support for every
database.

MY-SQL RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which is


specially designed for online transactions processing and for handling large
database application.

MY-SQL with transactions processing option offers two features which


contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput, which are

The row level lock manager

ENTERPRISE WIDE DATA SHARING

The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the MY-SQL DBMS


enables all the systems in the organization to be linked into a singular,
integrated computing resource.

PORTABILITY

MY-SQL is fully portable to more than 80 distinct hardware and


operating systems platforms, including UNIX, MSDOS, OS/2, Macintosh
and dozens of proprietary platforms. This portability gives complete
freedom to choose the database sever platform that meets the system
requirements.

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OPEN SYSTEMS

MY-SQL offers a leading implementation of industry standard SQL.


MY-SQLs open architecture integrates MY-SQL and non MY-SQL DBMS
with industries most comprehensive collection of tools, application, and third
party software products MY-SQLs Open architecture provides transparent
access to data from other relational database and even non-relational
database.

DISTRIBUTED DATA SHARING

MY-SQLs networking and distributed database capabilities to access


data stored on remote server with the same ease as if the information was
stored on a single local computer. A single SQL statement can access data at
multiple sites. You can store data where system requirements such as
performance, security or availability dictate.

UNMATCHED PERFORMANCE

The most advanced architecture in the industry allows the MY-SQL


DBMS to deliver unmatched performance.

SOPHISTICATED CONCURRENCY CONTROL

Real World applications demand access to critical data. With most


database Systems application becomes contention bound which
performance is limited not by the CPU power or by disk I/O, but user
waiting on one another for data access . MY-SQL employs full, unrestricted
row-level locking and contention free queries to minimize and in many cases
entirely eliminates contention wait times.

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NO I/O BOTTLENECKS

MY-SQLs fast commit groups commit and deferred write

technologies dramatically reduce disk I/O bottlenecks. While some database

write whole data block to disk at commit time, MY-SQL commits

transactions with at most sequential log file on disk at commit time, On high

throughput systems, one sequential writes typically group commit multiple

transactions. Data read by the transaction remains as shared memory so that

other transactions may access that data without reading it again from disk.

Since fast commits write all data necessary to the recovery to the log file,

modified blocks are written back to the database independently of the

transaction commit, when written from memory to disk.

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E-ERP DATABASE TABLES

TABLE TBLLOGIN

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTRAINTS


1 USERID VARCHAR 20 PRIMARY KEY
2 MAILID VARCHAR 20 UNIQUE
3 PASS VARCHAR 20 DEFAULT
NULL
4 VERIFICATION_CODE VARCHAR 5 DEFAULT
NULL
5 LSTATUS VARCHAR 1 DEFAULT
NULL
6 CLIENT_TYPE VARCHAR 15 DEFAULT
NULL
7 SRC_QUESTION VARCHAR 100 DEFAULT
NULL
8 SRC_ANSWER VARCHAR 100 DEFAULT
NULL
9 LASTLOGIN DATETIME DEFAULT
NULL

DEPARTMENT TABLE TBLDEPT

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S.NO NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTRAINTS


1 DEPTNO INT 5 PRIMARY KEY
2 DNAME VARCHAR 20
3 LOCATION VARCHAR 50

EMPLOYEE TABLE TBLEMP_PERSONAL_INFO

S.NO NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTRAINTS


1 EMPNO VARCHAR 20 PRIMARY KEY
2 EMP_NM VARCHAR 15
3 EMP_MAILID VARCHAR 40
4 NATIONALITY VARCHAR 20
5 RELIGION VARCHAR 20
6 CASTE VARCHAR 20
7 DOJ DATE
8 DOB DATE
9 JOB_TYPE VARCHAR 50
10 DEPT_NO INT 5 FOREIGN KEY
11 SPECIALIZATION VARCHAR 20
12 EXP_YEAR INT
13 LASTWORKEDE VARCHAR 50
14 LOCAL_ADD VARCHAR 100
15 PERMANENT_ADD VARCHAR 100
16 PHONE VARCHAR 14
17 MOBILE VARCHAR 10
18 PHOTO LONGBLOB
19 DEPT VARCHAR 20
20 SPOUSE VARCHAR 20
21 DEPT_NO INT 3
22 F_NAME VARCHAR 20
23 M_NAME VARCHAR 20

EMPLOYEE TABLE TBLEMP_QUALI_INFO

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S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTRAINTS


1 USER_ID VARCHAR 20 FOREIGN KEY
2 EMPQUALI VARCHAR 100
3 QUALI_UNV VARCHAR 100
4 INT 10
QUALI_PER
5 YOP INT 10

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EMPLOYEE TABLE TBLEMP_ATTENDENCE

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTRAINTS


1 EMP_CODE VARCHAR 10 FOREIGN KEY
2 ATT_DATE DATE
3 INTIME DATETIME
4 OUTTIME DATETIME
5 NOH INT 3
6 LWP INT 3
7 CL INT 3

EMPLOYEE TABLE TBL_LEV_REQ

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 EMPCODE VARCHAR 10 FOREIGN KEY
2 DT_REQ DATE
3 FROM_DATE DATE
4 TO_DATE DATE
5 LSTATUS VARCHAR 5
6 APVD VARCHAR 20

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TABLE TBLFEEDBACK

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 SNO INT 5 PRIMARY KEY
2 NM VARCHAR 20
3 EMAILID VARCHAR 40 UNIQUE
4 MOBILE INT 11
5 MESSAGE VARCHAR 500
6 DOF DATE

TABLE TBLCOMPLAINT

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 COMPLAINT_NO INT 20 PRIMARY KEY
2 USER_ID VARCHAR 20 FOREIGN KEY
3 MESSAGE VARCHAR 500
4 COMPLAINT_DATE DATE
5 COMPLAINT_STATUS VARCHAR 10
6 RESOLVE_DATE DATE

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TRANSPORT TABLE TBLTRANSPORT

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 BUS_NO INT 10 PRIMARY KEY
2 DRNM VARCHAR 50
3 DRADD VARCHAR 100
4 DRMOB INT 14
5 CRNM VARCHAR 50
6 CRMOBILE INT 14
7 CONTARCT VARCHAR 20
8 NUM_OF_SEATS INT 5

TRANSPORT TABLE TBLDAILY_TRANS

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 BUS_NO INT 10 FOREIGN KEY
2 ROUTE VARCHAR 20
3 R_FROM VARCHAR 20
4 R_TO VARCHAR 20
5 STOPAGE VARCHAR 20
6 REMARKS VARCHAR 10

PARENTS TABLE TBLPARENTS

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 PARENTID INT 4 PRIMARY KEY

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2 REGNO VARCHAR 10 FOREIGN KEY


3 USERID VARCHAR 20 FOREIGN KEY
4 FATHER_NM VARCHAR 30 NOT NULL
5 FATHER_OCCUPATION VARCHAR 20 NOT NULL
6 FATHER_CINTACT INT 20 NOT NULL
7 MOTHER_NM VARCHAR 30 NOT NULL
8 MOTHER_OCCUPATION VARCHAR 50 NOT NULL
9 MOTHER_CONTACT INT 50
10 EMAIL VARCHAR 40 NOT NULL
11 OFF_NM VARCHAR 50
12 OFFPHONE INT 30
13 OFFADDRESS VARCHAR 100
14 CONTACTPERSON VARCHAR 50
15 GUARDIAN_NAME VARCHAR 50
16 GUARDIAN_MOB INT 10
17 GUARDIAN_ADD VARCHAR 50
18 GUARDIAN_EMAIL VARCHAR 50

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LIBRARY TABLE TBL_LIB_BOOK_DETAILS

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 BOOKID VARCHAR 20 PRIMARY KEY
2 RACK_NO VARCHAR 50 NOT NULL
3 TITLE VARCHAR 50 NOT NULL
4 AUTHOR VARCHAR 100 NOT NULL
5 PUBLICATION VARCHAR 100 NOT NULL
6 NO_OF_COPIES INT 5 NOT NULL
7 DATE_PURCH DATE 30 DEFAULT NULL
8 PRICE DOUBLE 5,2 DEFAULT NULL
9 BK_STATUS VARCHAR 100 DEFAULT NULL

LIBRARY TABLE TBL_LIB_ISSU_DETAILS

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 REGNO VARCHAR 50 FOREIGN KEY
2 BOOKID VARCHAR 50 FOREIGN KEY
3 NOBISSUED INT 5
4 DATE_OF_ISSUE DATE NOT NULL
5 DATE_OF_DUE DATE NOT NULL
6 DATE_OF_RETURN DATE NOT NULL
7 FINE DOUBLE 5,2 NOT NULL

FINANCE TABLE TBLSTUDENTFEES

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 REGNO INT 10 FOREIGN KEY

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2 FEEMONTHS INT 5 NOT NULL


3 TOTALAMOUNT DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
4 PAYEDAMOUNT DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
5 DA DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
6 TUTIONFEES DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
7 BUSCHARGES DOUBLE 10,2 DEFAULT NULL
8 TECHNOLOGYFEE DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
9 LIBFEE DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
10 COMPUTERFEE DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
11 LATEFINE DOUBLE 5,2 DEFAULT NULL
12 CHEQUE_NUM VARCHAR 20 DEFAULT NULL
13 BANK VARCHAR 100 DEFAULT NULL
14 OTHERS DOUBLE 10,2 NOT NULL
15 FEESTATUS VARCHAR 10 NOT NULL

FINANCE TABLE TBLEMPFEES

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 DEPTNO INT 20 FOREIGN KEY
2 EMP_NM VARCHAR 50 NOT NULL
3 CONTACT_INFO VARCHAR 25 NOT NULL
4 E_ATTENDENCE VARCHAR 5 NOT NULL
5 E_QUALILFICATION VARCHAR 10 NOT NULL
6 E_SAL INT 20 NOT NULL
7 E_TA INT 10
8 E_DA INT 20
9 E_HRA INT 20
10 E_GROSS_SAL INT 20
11 SAL_INCRMNT INT 20
12 BUS_CHARGES DOUBLE 4,2
13 SAL_SLIP_DT DATE
14 LOAN DOUBLE 10,2
15 LOANDT DATE

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STUDENT TABLE TBLCLASS_SCH

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 ID INT 10 PRIAMRY KEY
2 CLS_NM VARCHAR 10 DEFAULT NULL
3 SEC VARCHAR 10 DEFAULT NULL
4 DAYS VARCHAR 20 DEFAULT NULL
5 PERIOD VARCHAR 4 DEFAULT NULL
6 SUB VARCHAR 20 DEFAULT NULL
7 TEACHER VARCHAR 20 DEFAULT NULL

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STUDENT TABLE TBLSTUDENT

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 REGNO VARCHAR 10 PRIMARY KEY
2 DT_O_REG DATE NOT NULL
3 USERID VARCHAR 20 FOREIGN KEY
4 STU_NM VARCHAR 20 NOT NULL
5 DOB DATE NOT NULL
6 PHOTO LONGBLOB NOT NULL
7 NATIONALITY VARCHAR 20
8 RELIGION VARCHAR 20
9 CASTE VARCHAR 20
10 CLASS VARCHAR 10 NOT NULL
11 SECTION VARCHAR 10 NOT NULL
12 STREAM VARCHAR 20
13 YEAR_OF_ADM INT 4
14 SEX VARCHAR 5 NOT NULL
15 ROLL_NO INT 10
16 F_NM VARCHAR 20 NOT NULL
17 M_NM VARCHAR 20 NOT NULL
18 OCCU VARCHAR 50
19 PER_ADD VARCHAR 200 NOT NULL
20 RES_ADD VARCHAR 200 NOT NULL
21 CONTACT_NO VARCHAR 50 NOT NULL
22 PASS VARCHAR 50 NOT NULL
23 FAVQUES VARCHAR 100 NOT NULL
24 ANS VARCHAR 100 NOT NULL

TABLE TBLASSIGNMENT

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 ID INT 10 PRIMARY KEY
2 DT_ASS DATE NOT NULL
3 CLASS VARCHAR 10 NOT NULL
4 SEC VARCHAR 10 NOT NULL
5 SUB VARCHAR 25 NOT NULL
6 TEACHER VARCHAR 20 NOT NULL
7 SUBMITDATE DATE NOT NULL
8 ASSFILE LONGBLOB

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TABLE TBLEXAMSCHEDULE

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 ID VARCHAR 10 PRIMARY KEY
2 CLASS VARCHAR 10 NOT NULL
3 SUB_DATE DATE NOT NULL
4 SUB_NAME VARCHAR 20 NOT NULL

TABLE TBLHOLIDAY

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 ID INT 10 PRIMARY KEY
2 DATEFROM DATE
3 DATETO DATE
4 EVENT VARCHAR 100 NOT NULL
5 DESCRIPTION VARCHAR 200 NOT NULL

TABLE TBLEVENTS

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 EVENTID INT 10 PRIMARY KEY
2 EVENT_NM VARCHAR 50 DEFAULT NULL
3 DATEFROM DATE
4 DATETO DATE
5 CORDINATOR VARCHAR 50
6 EVENTSTATUS VARCHAR 10

TABLE TBLSTU_MARKS

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 ID INT 10 PRIMARY KEY
2 STU_ID VARCHAR 25 FOREIGN KEY
3 EXAM_CYCLE VARCHAR 20
4 SUB VARCHAR 20
5 MARKS INT 5

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TABLE TBLSTATE

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 STATE_NAME VARCHAR 50 PRIMARY KEY

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TABLE TBLCITY

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 CITY_NAME VARCHAR 50 PRIMARY KEY
2 STATE_NAME VARCHAR 50 FOREIGN KEY

TABLE TBLQUESTION

S.NO. NAME DATATYPE SIZE CONSTARAINTS


1 QUESTION VARCHAR 50 DEFAULT NULL

3. DESIGN

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DESIGN OBJECTIVES

The primary objective of design is to deliver the requirements as


specified in the feasibility report. Following objectives should be kept in
mind: -

PRACTICALITY

The system must be stable and can be operated by people with average
intelligence.

Efficiency
This involves accuracy, timeliness and comprehensiveness of the
system output.

Cost
It is desirable to aim for a system with a minimum cost subject to the
conidition that it must satisfy all the requirements.

Fexibility
The system should be modifiable depending on the changing needs of
the user. Such modifications should not entail extensive reconstruction or
recreation of software. It should also be portable to different computer
systems.

Security
This is very important aspect of the design and should cover areas of
hardware relaibility, fall back procedures, physical security of data and
provision for detection of fraud and abuse.

INTRODUCTION

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The aim of system design, which is sometimes also refferred to as top-level


design, is to identify the modules that should be in the system, the
specifications of these modules, and how they interact with each other to
produce the desired results. At the end of the system design all the major
data structures, file formats, output formats and the major modules

in the system and their specifications are needed.

SOFTWARE DESIGN
Software design is an iterative process through which
requirements are translated into a blueprint for
constructing the software. Characteristics that serve as a
guide for the evaluation of a good design: -

The design must implement all of the explicit requirements contained in the
analysis model, and it accommodates all of the implicit requirements desired
by the customer.

The design must be a readable, understandable guide for those who generate
code and for those who test and subsequently maintain the software.

The design should provide a complete picture of the software, addressing the
data, functional, and behavioral domains from an implementation
perspective.

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DESIGN QUALITY CRITERIA

A design should exhibit a hierarchical organization that makes


intelligent use of control among the elements of software. A design should be
modular i.e. the software should be logically partitioned into elements that
perform specific functions and sub functions. A design should contain both
data and procedural abstraction.

A design should lead to modules that exhibit independent functional


characteristics.

A design should lead to interfaces that reduce the complexity of


connections between modules and with the external environment.

A design should be derived using a repeatable method that is driven by


information obtained during software requirement analysis.

All these things are implemented in our project using options on the
main menu screen. Each option provides a different kind of information,
providing modular approach. Data is submitted to the database as server side
programming, which gives abstraction to the data using middle tier concepts
with fully Object-Oriented programming.

DESIGN CONCEPTS
A set of fundamental software design concepts has evolved: -

What criteria can be used to partition software into individual components?

How function or data is structure detail separated from a conceptual


representation of the software?

Are there uniform criteria that define the technical quality of a software
design?

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TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM UP STRATEGIES

A system consists of components, which have the components of their


own, indeed a system is a hierarchy of components. The highest level
component corresponds to the total system.

A top-down design approach starts with identifying the major


components of the system, decomposing them into their low-level
components and iterating until the desired level of detail is achieved. Top-
down design methods often result in some form of stepwise refinement.
Starting from an abstract design, in each step the design is refined to a more
concrete level, until we reach a level where no more refinement is needed
and the design can be implemented directly.

A bottom-up design approach starts with designing the most basic or


primitive components and proceeds to higher-level components that use
these lower-level components. Bottom-up methods works with layers of
abstraction. Starting from the very bottom, operations that provide a layer of
abstraction are implemented.

The operations of this layer are then used to implement more powerful
operations and a still higher layer of abstraction, until the stage is reached
where the operation supported by the layer are those desired by the system.

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4. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY

The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model

used in project management that describes the stages involved in

an information system development project from an initial feasibility study

through maintenance of the completed application. Various SDLC

methodologies have been developed to guide the processes involved

including the waterfall model (the original SDLC method), rapid application

development (RAD), joint application development (JAD), the fountain

model and the spiral model. Mostly, several models are combined into some

sort of hybrid methodology. Documentation is crucial regardless of the type

of model chosen or devised for any application, and is usually done in

parallel with the development process. Some methods work better for

specific types of projects, but in the final analysis, the most important factor

for the success of a project may be how closely particular plan was followed.

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There are several models of SDLC:-

Waterfall Model :

This is a sequential model for the software development in which the


development have to flow in the downward direction the sequencing of
different phases will be:

Feasibility

Analysis

Designing

Implementation

Testing

Maintenance

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The image below is the classic Waterfall model methodology, which is the
first SDLC method and it describes the various phases involved in
development.

Feasibilit
y
Analysis
Designin
g

Implementat
ion

Testin
g

Maintenanc
e

The main feature of this model is that the sequencing of the steps is
fixed we cant change or skip any step. The next step will be started after the
completion of the previous step it means two steps cant be done together.

Advantages:

All steps are completed.

No step can be skipped.

After each step we get the specified output.

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Disadvantages:

It is a documented based model.

It is a time consuming model.

The analysts have to collect all the requirements before resigning.

It cant analyze any type of risk.

Prototype Model:

The main idea of prototype model is that before the actual


development of complete software a working prototype of the system should
be developed a prototype means a sample.

In this model the developers have to create a sample version of the


complete software which are having reduced functionalities and functioning
ids prototype is provided for the client as soon as possible how the client
have to work on the developed prototype and the client as well as the
developer can get the actual requirements changes required improvements
which are to be done in the complete software.

The development of a prototype also involves the requirement


analysis, design, coding, testing & implementation but not in very much
details. The prototyping model is useful in the development of very large
software in which the requirement analysis is very much difficult we can
also analyze the technical issues in the repeated manner. This prototype is
provided for the user to work in a very short time period.

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Advantages:

The working module is developed rapidly, so it is very much time


reducing.

It is useful understand the needs of client in easy manner.

We can examine or check technical issues many times.

Disadvantages:

After the complete development of the software the prototype is useless.

In some cases the development will become very long process.

All the teams are busy in the development and working the
improvements.

Spiral Model:

Spiral model is a combination of prototype model & waterfall model.


The activities in this model can be organized like a spiral which has many
cycles.

The phases of spiral model are as follows:

Define alternatives, objectives & constraints.

Select best alternatives & risk analysis.

User analysis.

Developed next prototype & testing.

In this model these process is work simultaneously until the whole


development of software in a spiral way.

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If we are using the spiral model and we have to follow the following steps-

1. We have to analyze the requirements, alternatives, constraints, risk

analysis.

2. We can develop first prototype by selecting the best alternatives and after
testing we provide the prototype 1st to the user. And now a user has to
analyze the first prototype.

3. The 2nd prototype will be developed by following steps:-

A. Evaluating the 1st prototype in the terms of strength, weakness or risk.

B. We have to define the requirements of 2nd prototype.

C. Planning & designing the 2nd prototype.

D. Developed & test 2nd prototype.

The 2nd prototype will be handed over to the user for evaluate.

4. The same procedure will be repeated for the development of next

prototype.

5. The creation of prototype will be continue until the user will be satisfied

and the user provide the satisfaction this prototype is called the final
system.

6. This final system will be installed to the user and now the maintenance

work will Processed.

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Advantages:

Estimates (estimates regarding post & scheduling will be more real).

Risk factor will be analyzed many times so the chances of failure will be
very less.

The changes can be done easily in the next prototype.

Disadvantages:

It is providing very much flexibility which is not good for the developer.

The risk analysis is a big task in this model so the experts are needed for
the risk analysis which rarely available.

To perform this model is very much costly because after the installation
of next prototype the previous prototype will be useless.

Rapid Action Development Model:-

This is the latest model to the software development. In the RAD


(Rapid Application Development) model the development team will contain
very experienced developers, latest hardware & latest software development
tools & technologies. The complete development team will work on a
specific module at a time. Multiple module modules will not be developed
simultaneously. The benefit of this model will be approximately
100%.Whether the developed part will be 10%, 20%, 50% or 100%.

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Advantages:

The speed of development will be faster because we are using the best
developers, best hardwares & best softwares.

The efficiency of every developed module will be near about 100%.

Disadvantages:

It is very much costly.

It is a new concept and it is not affordable for the small and medium
organizations.

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5. SYSTEM TESTING

5.1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW

Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders

with information about the quality of the product or service under test.

Software testing also provides an objective, independent view of the

software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks at

implementation of the software. Test techniques include, but are not limited

to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of

finding software bugs.

Software testing can also be stated as the process of validating and

verifying that a software program/application/product:

1. meets the business and technical requirements that guided its design

and development;

2. works as expected; and

3. can be implemented with the same characteristics.

Software testing, depending on the testing method employed, can be

implemented at any time in the development process. However, most of the

test effort occurs after the requirements have been defined and the coding

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process has been completed. As such, the methodology of the test is

governed by the software development methodology adopted.

Different software development models will focus the test effort at

different points in the development process. Newer development models,

such as Agile, often employ test driven development and place an increased

portion of the testing in the hands of the developer, before it reaches a formal

team of testers. In a more traditional model, most of the test execution occurs

after the requirements have been defined and the coding process has been

completed.

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5.2 TESTING METHODS

White box testing:

White box testing is when the tester has access to the internal data
structures and algorithms including the code that implement these.

Types of white box testing

The following types of white box testing exist:

API testing (application programming interface) - testing of the


application using public and private APIs
Code coverage - creating tests to satisfy some criteria of code
coverage (e.g., the test designer can create tests to cause all
statements in the program to be executed at least once)

Fault injection methods - improving the coverage of a test by


introducing faults to test code paths

Mutation testing methods

Static testing - White box testing includes all static testing

Test coverage
White box testing methods can also be used to evaluate the
completeness of a test suite that was created with black box testing
methods. This allows the software team to examine parts of a system
that are rarely tested and ensures that the most important function
points have been tested.

Two common forms of code coverage are:

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Function coverage, which reports on functions executed


Statement coverage, which reports on the number of lines executed
to complete the test

They both return a code coverage metric, measured as a percentage.

Black box testing:

Black box testing treats the software as a "black box"without any


knowledge of internal implementation. Black box testing methods
include: equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, all-pairs
testing, fuzz testing, model-based testing, traceability matrix, exploratory
testing and specification-based testing.

Specification-based testing: Specification-based testing aims to test the


functionality of software according to the applicable requirements. Thus, the
tester inputs data into, and only sees the output from, the test object. This
level of testing usually requires thorough test cases to be provided to the
tester, who then can simply verify that for a given input, the output value (or
behavior), either "is" or "is not" the same as the expected value specified in
the test case.

Specification-based testing is necessary, but it is insufficient to guard against


certain risks.

Advantages and disadvantages: The black box tester has no "bonds" with
the code, and a tester's perception is very simple: a code must have bugs.
Using the principle, "Ask and you shall receive," black box testers find bugs
where programmers do not. But, on the other hand, black box testing has
been said to be "like a walk in a dark labyrinth without a flashlight," because
the tester doesn't know how the software being tested was actually
constructed. As a result, there are situations when (1) a tester writes many

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test cases to check something that could have been tested by only one test
case, and/or (2) some parts of the back-end are not tested at all.

Therefore, black box testing has the advantage of "an unaffiliated


opinion," on the one hand, and the disadvantage of "blind exploring," on the
other.

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5.3 TESTING TOOLS AND ENVIRONMENT


Tests are frequently grouped by where they are added in the software
development process, or by the level of specificity of the test.

Unit testing:

Unit testing refers to tests that verify the functionality of a specific


section of code, usually at the function level. In an object-oriented
environment, this is usually at the class level, and the minimal unit tests
include the constructors and destructors.

These type of tests are usually written by developers as they work on


code (white-box style), to ensure that the specific function is working as
expected. One function might have multiple tests, to catch corner cases or
other branches in the code. Unit testing alone cannot verify the functionality
of a piece of software, but rather is used to assure that the building blocks the
software uses work independently of each other.

Unit testing is also called component testing.

Integration testing:

Integration testing is any type of software testing that seeks to verify


the interfaces between components against a software design. Software
components may be integrated in an iterative way or all together ("big
bang"). Normally the former is considered a better practice since it allows
interface issues to be localized more quickly and fixed.

Integration testing works to expose defects in the interfaces and interaction


between integrated components (modules). Progressively larger groups of

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tested software components corresponding to elements of the architectural


design are integrated and tested until the software works as a system.

System testing:

System testing tests a completely integrated system to verify that it


meets its requirements.

System integration testing


Main article: System integration testing

System integration testing verifies that a system is integrated to any


external or third party systems defined in the system requirements.

Regression testing:

Regression testing focuses on finding defects after a major code


change has occurred. Specifically, it seeks to uncover software regressions,
or old bugs that have come back. Such regressions occur whenever software
functionality that was previously working correctly stops working as
intended. Typically, regressions occur as an unintended consequence of
program changes, when the newly developed part of the software collides
with the previously existing code. Common methods of regression testing
include re-running previously run tests and checking whether previously
fixed faults have re-emerged. The depth of testing depends on the phase in
the release process and the risk of the added features. They can either be
complete, for changes added late in the release or deemed to be risky, to very
shallow, consisting of positive tests on each feature, if the changes are early
in the release or deemed to be of low risk.

Acceptance testing:

Acceptance testing can mean one of two things:

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1. A smoke test is used as an acceptance test prior to introducing a new

build to the main testing process, i.e. before integration or regression.

2. Acceptance testing performed by the customer, often in their lab

environment on their own hardware, is known as user acceptance

testing (UAT). Acceptance testing may be performed as part of the

hand-off process between any two phases of development.

Alpha testing:

Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential

users/customers or an independent test team at the developers' site. Alpha

testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal

acceptance testing, before the software goes to beta testing.

Beta testing:

Beta testing comes after alpha testing. Versions of the software, known

as beta versions, are released to a limited audience outside of the

programming team. The software is released to groups of people so that

further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. Sometimes,

beta versions are made available to the open public to increase

the feedback field to a maximal number of future users.

Validation Testing:

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At the end of Integration Testing, Software is completely assembled as

a package, interfacing errors have been uncovered and correction testing

begins.

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OUTPUT

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CONCLUSION

This site will be controlled and operated by Agile Softech private

limited and Enterprise esources are managed by respected School and

college. All material on this site, including images, llustrations, audio clips,

and video clips, will be protected by copyrights, trademarks, and other

ntellectual property rights. Material on Website will be solely for personal,

non-commercial use. No one can make copy, reproduce, republish, upload,

post, transmit or distribute such material in any way, including by e-mail or

other electronic means and whether directly or indirectly and you must not

assist any other person to do so. Without the prior written consent of the

owner, modification of the materials, use of the materials on any other web

site or networked computer environment or use of the materials for any

purpose other than personal, non-commercial use is a violation of the

copyrights, trademarks and other proprietary rights, and is prohibited. Any

use for which you receive any remuneration, whether in money or otherwise,

are a commercial use for the purposes of this clause.

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FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

This Web Portal will give the new dimension & new heights in the

educational sector. This will reduce the major issue of educational sector like

false commitments regarding Admissions, false fees information, false

payments information etc. This portal minimizes manual work in the

educational sector, so work load on organization will decrease and efficiency and

effectiveness of the organization will increase. This portal helps in reducing

redundancy of the data and provides security so that unauthorized person

cannot access the application. The database management in the organization

becomes more reliable. This application provides facility to analyze data

of students, employees, and teachers and complains. This can be highly

useful in Events planning, Students reports and attendance of students and

teachers and strategy of the organization. It attempts to integrate and

automate the various students, parents processes within a company. This portal is

a strategy used to track students activities and behaviors in order to develop

stronger relationships with them. Good relationships between students and

teachers are the heart of success of a good school/college. So this application

will help in building good relation between students and teachers. With the

help of this portal, the organization will be able to managing students,

employee and teachers data in effective way. Proper management of

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students activity data will provide facility of obtaining student details time

to time to make a good career of them.

Educational sector in India is a growing at a tremendous rate and hence, the

competition being witnessed by the schools/institutes is high. With so many

Colleges in the market, it can get difficult to choose the right college which

is most suitable for our children needs. When you compare school /college

via Educational-ERP, you get all information suitable for needs without

going anywhere. You can get all information about your child to be update

information to make a good future of their child.

Education sector in India is a dynamically growing market and is set to touch

USD 400bn by the year 2020. If we look at the varied choices being offered

by the sector, it is strongly suggested that you compare educational

institutions. Every time you see an analysis and compare institutions on the

basis of success, faculties, facilities, etc you get a better understanding of

what is being offered and which of the institute is in top ranking.

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8.1 FURTHER ENHANCEMENT OF THE PROJECT

There is always room for improving in any Web Portal, however good
efficient it may be. But the Important thing is that the system should be flexible
enough for future modification/alteration whenever and by Whomsoever it may
be. Keeping in consideration this important factor, the system is designed in such
a way. The Web Portal is developed in modules are efficient enough to introduce any
change in the Web Portal to get more information.

Similarly, the present system can be implemented on Internet and Web Portal
can be connected to the various branches of this home appliance company of
course with more security constraints added to it.

This project can be attached to website of the company which may provide
information related to products and also provide facility of registering
product etc. It may also help in finding new prospective customer.

The backend can be more improved in future & can be migrating on Oracle.
It will provide better database management and securities.

More modules can be added in the system such as it can provide facility of
direct email so that organization can generate offer letter and send it directly
to the customers.

9. APPENDICES

APPENDIX-A
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Backend remains on server side and has two components i.e.

1. Server side program


2. Data Base

Data base is the most important thing in this universe as data base gives

identity to a thing without data base existence of a thing is impossible while

working on a project first step is to design a database.

What is data base?

Data Base is a collection of tables and table is a collection of records in a

tabular form i.e. in row and columns.

Data Base can be divided into two parts:-

1. RDBMS.

2. DBMS.

We will be using RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) in our

project i.e. oracle 8i Enterprise edition.

Why we are using Oracle (RDBMS)?

Some of the merits of using Oracle (RDBMS) are as under:

1. Centralization of database.
2. Client Server Technology.
3. Security.

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4. Normalization of Data Base.


5. Relationship.
6. Transaction Processor.
7. It gives some internet related features.

Hence because of these features we are using Oracle as a back end

technology.

ABOUT ORACLE 10g

Oracle 10g contains all the features of previous version. It also

supports some new features & enhancement to some existing features.

Oracle servers provide deficient & effective solution for the major features.

1. Large Database & Space Management Control


2. Many Concurrent Database Performances
3. High Transaction Processing Performance
4. High Availability
5. Controlled Availability
6. Industry Accepted Standards
7. Manageable Security
8. Database Enforced Integrity
9. Distributed Database System
10. Portability
11. Compatibility
12. Connectivity

NEW FEATURES OF ORACLE 10g

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1. Improved Scalability

2. Improved Security

3. Improved Performance Via Partition

4. Enhanced Support for Database Replication

5. Capability To Handle a Much Larger Number Of Concurrent Users

6. New & Improved Data Types

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APPENDIX-B

What is Middle Ware?

Middle Ware is a concept, Middle Ware provides centralization of business

logic i.e. instead of putting logic on each and every client machine we put

logic on a centralized server hence middle ware is nothing but a server side

program where all your business logic and business methods reside. It

remains on server side and it has all the logical building. Middle ware

provides:-

1. Multiple Client access.


2. Centralized business logic in case of distributed application.

Because we are working on Distributed Application Based Project we need


platform independent Language:-

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Technology Used

Introduction to PHP

PHP is an interpreted scripting language that is embedded


within an HTML web page in order to add dynamic
processing to that page.

PHP is supported by a wide range of commercial and open-


source web servers, including RedHat Linux, and can also
be installed as an Apache module. Its widespread
availability and its relative simplicity mean that it is an
excellent way to introduce dynamic features into your web
pages. As it is an open, non-proprietary standard, PHP
developers are not restricted by the limitations imposed by
some commercial suppliers of server-side scripting
software, neither do they have to purchase expensive
licenses in order to use it.

You may already be familiar with 'client-side' scripting


languages such as JavaScript. If you include JavaScript in
your page, then the JavaScript code is downloaded to the
client's browser and executed there. PHP is different in that
it is strictly a 'server-side' scripting language - this means
that the PHP is always processed by the web server before
the requested page is served to the browser. The PHP tags
in the page are replaced by generated HTML strings and

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the client's browser then displays the HTML without any


knowledge of the underlying PHP code at all.

History of PHP

PHP was conceived sometime in the fall of 1994 by Rasmus Lerdorf. Early
non-released versions were used on his home page to keep track of who was
looking at his online resume. The first version used by others was available
sometime in early 1995 and was known as the Personal Home Page Tools. It
consisted of a very simplistic parser engine that only understood a few
special macros and a number of utilities that were in common use on home
pages back then. A guestbook, a counter and some other stuff. The parser
was rewritten in mid-1995 and named PHP/FI Version 2. The FI came from
another package Rasmus had written which interpreted html form data. He
combined the Personal Home Page tools scripts with the Form Interpreter
and added mSQL support and PHP/FI was born. PHP/FI grew at an amazing
pace and people started contributing code to it.

PHP Features

Some of the important features of PHP are as follows:

HTTP authentication with PHP

Cookies

Sessions

Dealing with XForms

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Handling file uploads

POST method uploads

Error Messages Explained

Common Pitfalls

Uploading multiple files

PUT method support

Using remote files

Connection handling

Persistent Database Connections

Safe Mode

Security and Safe Mode

Functions restricted/disabled by safe mode

Command line usage Using PHP from the command line

Look up any other information about the request that is embedded in


the HTTP request.

This information includes details about browser capabilities, cookies, the


host name of the requesting client, and so forth.

Generate the results.

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This process may require talking to a database, executing an RMI or


CORBA call, invoking a legacy application, or computing the response
directly.

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Format the results inside a document.

In most cases, this involves embedding the information inside an HTML


page.

Set the appropriate HTTP response parameters.

This means telling the browser what type of document is being returned
(e.g., HTML), setting cookies and caching parameters, and other such tasks.

Send the document back to the client.

This document may be sent in text format (HTML), binary format (GIF
images), or even in a compressed format like gzip that is layered on top of
some other underlying format.

Java Server Pages: -

Java Server Pages (JSP) technology enables you to mix regular, static HTML
with dynamically generated content from servlets. Many Web pages that are
built by CGI programs are primarily static, with the parts that change limited
to a few small locations. For example, the initial page at most on-line stores
is the same for all visitors, except for a small welcome message giving the
visitors name if it is known. But most CGI variations, including servlets,
make you generate the entire page via your program, even though most of it
is always the same.

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APPENDIX-C

What is HTML?

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language): A markup language

used to structure text and multimedia documents and to set

up hypertext links between documents, used extensive-ely

on the World Wide Web. HTML is a display language, not a

programming language. HTML is a markup language (the ML

in HTML) that uses a fixed set of markup tags.

HTML itself is the set of customizable markup tags that are inserted into

HTML document govern its format, multimedia content, and hyperlinks.

The language HTML is really only a collection of predefined tags which ,

when inserted into regular text, tell a web browser how to:

1. Format the document and its text.

2. Incorporate i.e. insert a graphic image, video sequence, or sound clip

into the displayed document.

3. Link into other locations, in the same document, in another web page,

or even on another computer (Server), or

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4. Link to other programs written in Java, JavaScript or other languages

(called CGI applications).

Features of HTML:-

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.

1. An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags.

2. The markup tag tells the Web browser how to display the page.

3. An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension.

4. An HTML file can be created using a simple text editor.

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What is PHP?

PHP is probably the most popular scripting language on the web. It is used to
enhance web pages. With PHP, you can do things like create username and
password login pages, check details from a form, create forums, picture
galleries, surveys, and a whole lot more. If you've come across a web page
that ends in PHP, then the author has written some programming code to
liven up the plain, old HTML.

PHP is known as a server-sided language. That's because the PHP doesn't get
executed on your computer, but on the computer you requested the page
from. The results are then handed over to you, and displayed in your
browser. Other scripting languages you may have heard of are ASP, Python
and Perl. (You don't need to know any of these to make a start on PHP. In
fact, these tutorials assume that you have no programming experience at all.)

The most popular explanation of just what PHP stands for is "Hypertext Pre-
processor". But that would make it HPP, surely? An alternative explanation
is that the initials come from the earliest version of the program, which was
called Personal Home Page Tools. At least you get the letters "PHP" in the
right order!

But PHP is so popular that if you're looking for a career in the web
design/web scripting industry then you just have to know it! In these
tutorials, we'll get you up and running. And, hopefully, it will be a lot easier
than you think.

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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transi


tional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title>Example</title>
</head>
<body>

<?php
echo "Hi, I'm a PHP script!";
?>
</body>
</html>

Features of PHP:-

1. JavaScript was designed to add interactively to HTML pages.


2. JavaScript is a scripting language-a scripting language is a
lightweight programming language.
3. A JavaScript is usually embedded directly in HTML pages.
4. A JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that script
execute without preliminary compilation).
5. All major browsers, like Netscape and Internet Explorer,
support JavaScript.

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Functions of PHP:-

HTTP authentication with PHP

Cookies

Sessions

Dealing with XForms

Handling file uploads

POST method uploads

Error Messages Explained

Common Pitfalls

Uploading multiple files

PUT method support

Using remote files

Connection handling

Persistent Database Connections

Safe Mode

Security and Safe Mode

Functions restricted/disabled by safe mode

Command line usage

Using PHP from the command line

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Limatations Of Php:-

Security : Since it is open sourced, so all people can see the source
code, if there are bugs in the source code, it can be used by people to
explore the weakness of PHP

Not suitable for large applications: Hard to maintain since it is not


very modular.

Weak type: Implicit conversion may surprise unwary programmers


and lead to unexpected bugs. For example, the strings 1000 and
1e3 compare equal because they are implicitly cast to floating point
numbers.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sr. No. TITLE AUTHOR

1. Practical Database Programming Ying Bai

2. Software Engineering Rogger S. Pressman

3. PHP for Absolute beginners Complete Referance


4. SQL Queries Ivan Bayross

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